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Sample records for quantitative saponin contents

  1. Quantitative determination of the saponin content and GC-MS study of the medicinal plant Cassytha filiformis (linn.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa; Adeola Opeyemi Ologan; FranklinAkinfemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemicals, total saponin content and types of saponin present in leaf extracts of Cassytha filiformis. Methods: The leaves were extracted with n-hexane and methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated. The total saponin content of the butanol fraction was determined by colorimetry via a UV spectrophotometer and ginsenoside was used as the standard. Measurements were carried out at 550 nm. The butanol fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results: All screened phytochemicals were absent in the n-hexane extract while saponins, steroids, tannins and glycosides were present in the methanol extract. Flavonoids and alkaloids were absent. The total saponin content of the methanol extract is 73.47 μg ginsenoside Rb1 equivalent/g extract. The chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis gave eicosanoic acid, methyl ester as the most abundant compound and the steroidal saponin, cholestan-7-one and cyclic 1,2-ethanedienyl acetal as the most abundant saponin in the butanol fraction. Conclusions: The leaves of Cassytha filiformis are rich in steroidal saponins.

  2. Identification of environmentally stable QTLs controlling Saponin content in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Masayoshi; Tojo, Yuka; Yamada, Naohiro; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content. Major QTLs in the hypocotyl were identified on chromosome 5 near the SSR marker, Satt 384, while those in the cotyledon were on chromosome 6 near Sat_312, which is linked to the T and E1 loci. Our results suggest that saponin contents in the hypocotyl and cotyledon are controlled by different genes and that it is difficult to increase the beneficial group B saponin and to decrease the undesirable group A saponin at the same time.

  3. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

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    Piotr M. Górski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was found. The saponin content was additionally analysed in 300 breeding and 11 botanical lines of M. lupulina. Great differences in that material were found but no saponin-free line was present. The saponin content in the particular plant parts as well as in the whole tops of M. lupulina throughout the vegetation season was also measured. The possibility and necessity of the selection for a low saponin population of M. lupulina is discussed.

  4. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  5. Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Agnieszka; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2012-12-19

    Triterpene saponins in the roots of Beta vulgaris cultivars Red Sphere, Rocket, and Wodan were profiled and quantitated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Results obtained indicated that the roots of all three cultivars contained 11 saponins consisting of oleanolic acid or hederagenin aglycone and varying numbers of sugars, with the dominant triglycoside derivative of oleanolic acid. The relative proportions of derivatives of these two aglycones were similar in the three subspecies: cv. Red Sphere contained 99.1 and 0.9%; cv. Rocket, 98.2 and 1.8%; and Wodan 98.8 and 1.2% of oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence, structure, and content of triterpenoid saponins in red beet.

  6. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  7. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach.

  8. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extract and bark powder of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2011-08-10

    Steroidal saponins in commercial stem syrup and in extract of a bark of Yucca schidigera were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry and quantitated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Fragmentation patterns of yucca saponins were generated using collision-induced dissociation and compared with fragmentation of authentic standards as well as with published spectrometric information. In addition to detection of twelve saponins known to occur in Y. schidigera, collected fragmentation data led to tentative identifications of seven new saponins. A quantitation method for all 19 detected compounds was developed and validated. Samples derived from the syrup and the bark of yucca were quantitatively measured and compared. Obtained results indicate that yucca bark accumulates polar, bidesmosidic saponins, while in the stem steroidal glycosides with middle- and short-length saccharide chains are predominant. The newly developed method provides an opportunity to evaluate the composition of yucca products available on the market.

  10. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  11. Determination of antibacterial activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents in leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibacterial property and quantify the contents of the total phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the method described by Harborne in 1999. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used for assaying the antibacterial activity. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were employed for the estimation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Vanillin-acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture was employed in the determination of the total saponin content. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and steroids in the methanolic extract while alkaloids were absent. Only steroids were identified in then-hexane extract. The methanolic leaf extract was active againstPseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris while then-hexane was inactive. The total phenolic content obtained was (47.75 ± 0.12) mg gallic acid equivalent/mg extract, the total flavonoid content was (121.50 ± 0.11) mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, while the total saponin content was (63.42 ± 0.15) mg ginsenoside Rb 1 equivalent/mg extract. Conclusions:The leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus have high contents of saponins and flavonoids.

  12. Preliminary Identification of Red Pigment and Positive Correlation between the Contents of Red Pigment and Total Saponins of Panax notoginseng Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changling ZHAO; Zhongjian CHEN; Wenlong CHEN; Weite ZHI; Fugang WEI; Degong SONG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to identify red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits and explore the correlation between pigment content and total saponins of the fruits. [Method] The red pigment of Panax notoginseng fruits was preliminarily identi- fied with specific color reactions and UV-vis spectra, and the contents of the pigment and total saponins were determined via spectrophotometry. [Result] The red hues of the fruits were contributed by anthocyanins and/or the anthocyanidins. The contents of anthocyanins and total saponins of the fruits both decreased along with thinning of the red hues. The content difference of the anthocyanins in fruits with different red hues reached extremely significant level, but that of total saponins just reached significant level. [Conclusion] The red pigment of P. notoginseng fruits is anthocyanins which are of extremely significant positive correlation with total saponins in contents.

  13. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

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    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on β-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed.

  14. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

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    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

  15. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic studies of total saponin, alkaloid and sterols contents of decoction of Joshanda: identification of components through thin layer chromatography.

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    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The current study was aimed to assess antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of total saponin, alkaloid and sterol contents of Joshanda decoction followed by its constituent's analysis via thin layer chromatography (TLC). Saponins and alkaloids showed prominent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae whereas sterols only against S. aureus. Saponin and alkaloid contents of 97 and 108 µg/ml, respectively, showed prominent free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl, with mild cytotoxicity in brine shrimp cytotoxic test. Under ultraviolet light at 254 nm, TLC of total saponins showed eight different compounds, total sterols comprising three while total alkaloids two compounds of various polarities. It is concluded that the various contents of Joshanda decoction possess outstanding susceptibility against bacteria implicating primarily upper respiratory tract infections augmented by strong antioxidant activity. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains.

  17. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jawad; Ullah,Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Methods Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)...

  18. Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture bacoside A in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, M; Sangli, G K; Arun, P C; Amit, A

    2005-01-01

    Bacoside A, the putative bioactive component of the Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri, was found to be a mixture of saponins with bacoside A3 (1), bacopaside II (2), jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (3) and bacopasaponin C (4) as major constituents. An HPLC method together with an optimised extraction procedure was developed for the estimation of 1-4 in B. monnieri to enable standardisation of the latter. Concentration ranges of the analytes in samples of B. monnieri collected from different regions of India were 0.14-0.85% (w/w) (1), 0.12-0.69% (2), 0.05-0.72% (3) and 0.05-0.44% (4). The importance of using bacoside A, with known concentrations of 1-4, as a reference standard for the routine analysis of B. monnieri is highlighted. Two common flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin, were present in all samples of B. monnieri.

  19. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  20. Screening of Soybean Germplasm with High Saponins Content in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省高皂甙大豆种质资源筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 孙岩; 胡国华; 陆芳; 曹迪

    2009-01-01

    为了筛选黑龙江省高皂甙种质资源,采用酶标仪比色法分别检测了黑龙江省15份野生大豆(Glycine soja)、55份栽培大豆(Glycine.max)的皂甙含量.结果表明:不同类型大豆皂甙含量有明显遗传差异,变幅为1156.97~3977.84 μg·g~(-1).栽培大豆的皂甙含量高于野生大豆,筛选出高皂甙含量的野生大豆种质资源1份、栽培大豆种质资源3份.%To screen the high saponins content soybean germplasms, 15 accessions of GLydne soja and 55 accessions of lycine from Heilongjiang province were determined. The results showed that there was obvious genetic variation of saponins content in different type of soybean germplasm. The mean content of saponins in cultivated soybean was higher than that in wild soybean , with the range of 1156. 97-3977. 84 μg·g~(-1) One accession of G. soja and three accessions of G. max with high content of saponins were detected.

  1. Seniors' Online Communities: A Quantitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contents and characteristics of seniors' online communities and to explore their potential benefits to older adults. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis of a full year's data from 14 leading online communities using a novel computerized system. The overall database included 686,283 messages. Results: There was…

  2. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  3. Triterpenoid saponin content and the expression level of some related genes in calli of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, Susana; Moyano, Elisabeth; Osuna, Lidia; Cusido, Rosa M; Bonfill, Mercedes; Palazón, Javier

    2008-10-01

    Centella asiatica has been extensively studied but there has been no report to date that relates gene expression and centelloside production in non-differentiated tissues. We have determined the content of the four principal triterpenoid bioactive compounds of C. asiatica (asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid) in calli grown in different media and checked the expression level of some of the genes in the centelloside biosynthetic pathway. The results when compared with data from in vitro plant cultures showed a significantly lower expression of the gene encoding beta-amyrin synthase in calli, which is consistent with the observed lower production of centellosides (less than 900 microg/g DW), while in the plants the production was around 1.5-2 mg/g DW. Moreover, we find an efficient housekeeping gene for this plant. The biosynthesis of phytosterols is also discussed.

  4. Effect of sucrose and potassium nitrate on biomass and saponin content of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. hairy root in balloon-type bubble bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara; Alfinda Novi Kristanti; Edy Setiti Wida Utami; Arif Yachya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To increase biomass and saponin production in hairy root culture of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. (T. paniculatum) in balloon-type bubble bioreactor (BTBB). Methods: Hairy roots which were collected from leaf explants of T. paniculatum were infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain LB510. The hairy roots were cultivated at 400 mL Murashige and Skoog liquid medium without growth regulator (MS0) in 1 000 mL BTBB. Each BTBB had 2 g hairy roots as initial inoculum and these cultures were treated with various concentrations of sucrose (3%, 4%, 5%, 6%w/v) and potassium nitrate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 strength of MS medium). Cultures were maintained for 14 days. Fresh and dry weights of hairy roots at the end of culture were investigated. Results: Various concentrations of sucrose influenced the biomass accumulation of hairy roots. Maximum biomass was reached by MS medium supplemented with 6% sucrose and it was approximately threefold higher than control. Culture supplemented with po-tassium nitrate at 2.0 strength of MS0 could increase biomass accumulation of hairy roots until 0.14 g dry weight and it was almost threefold higher than control. However, the maximum saponin content was obtained by MS medium supplemented with 5%sucrose and 2.0 strength potassium nitrate of MS. Conclusions: Based on this research, those conditions can be used to produce biomass and saponin of hairy root of T. paniculatum in the large scale.

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  6. Effect of sucrose and potassium nitrate on biomass and saponin content of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. hairy root in balloon-type bubble bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yosephine; Sri; Wulan; Manuhara; Alfinda; Novi; Kristanti; Edy; Setiti; Wida; Utami; Arif; Yachya

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To increase biomass and saponin production in hairy root culture of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn.(T.paniculatum)in balloon-type bubble bioreactor(BTBB).Methods:Hairy roots which were collected from leaf explants of T.paniculatum were infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain LB510.The hairy roots were cultivated at400 m L Murashige and Skoog liquid medium without growth regulator(MS0)in1 000 m L BTBB.Each BTBB had 2 g hairy roots as initial inoculum and these cultures were treated with various concentrations of sucrose(3%,4%,5%,6%w/v)and potassium nitrate(0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2.0 strength of MS medium).Cultures were maintained for 14days.Fresh and dry weights of hairy roots at the end of culture were investigated.Results:Various concentrations of sucrose influenced the biomass accumulation of hairy roots.Maximum biomass was reached by MS medium supplemented with 6%sucrose and it was approximately threefold higher than control.Culture supplemented with potassium nitrate at 2.0 strength of MS0 could increase biomass accumulation of hairy roots until 0.14 g dry weight and it was almost threefold higher than control.However,the maximum saponin content was obtained by MS medium supplemented with 5%sucrose and 2.0 strength potassium nitrate of MS.Conclusions:Based on this research,those conditions can be used to produce biomass and saponin of hairy root of T.paniculatum in the large scale.

  7. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  8. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  9. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing.

  10. Identification of Case Content with Quantitative Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Lolle; Olsen, Henrik Palmer; Tarissan, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    the relevant articles. In order to enhance information retrieval about case content, without relying on manual labor and subjective judgment, we propose in this paper a quantitative method that gives a better indication of case content in terms of which articles a given case is more closely associated with...... of important cases and comparing manual investigation of real content of those cases with the MAININ and MAINOUT articles. Results show that MAININ in particular is able to infer correctly the real content in most of the cases....

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  12. Triterpenoid saponins from Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Wieruszeski, J M; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Leroy, Y; Charrouf, M; Fournet, B

    1992-06-01

    Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. Method: A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Conclusion: Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  14. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  15. Ruminal metabolism in sheep of saponins from Yucca schidigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flåøyen, A; Wilkins, A L; Sandvik, M

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-five mg per kg live weight of crystallized Yucca schidigera saponins, corresponding to 26 mg/kg live weight of sapogenins, was given daily intraruminally to two lambs for 11 consecutive days. Neither of the lambs showed any sign of toxicity throughout the experimental period. One lamb was killed 5 h after the last dose and GC-MS analysis of the free and conjugated sapogenin content samples of liver, and of the contents of the rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and rectum, of faecal samples collected before dosing started, and of parts of the administered Yucca saponin were performed. The Yucca material contained mainly sarsasapogenin and smilagenin saponins. Ingested saponins were quickly hydrolysed in the rumen to free sapogenins and, in part, epimerized at C-3 to afford episapogenins. The absorption of free sapogenins appeared to occur in the jejunum. The metabolism of Yucca saponins was identical to that of Narthecium ossifragum saponins, and it is suggested that Yucca saponins could replace N. ossifragum saponins for toxicity studies on the latter plant.

  16. 荨麻总皂苷的提取纯化和含量测定%Extraction Purification and Content Determination of Total Saponin in Nettle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明伟; 江培; 郑莹; 高尚

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The paper establishs the abstract and determination methods of total saponins from nettle. The carrot sapo-nins was selected as comparison product and 5%vanillinacetic acid-HCLO solution was selected as color-producing reagent. I deter-mine absorbability in the point of 542nm by spectrophotometry method and calculate the total saponins in nettle. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.0018-0.0072mg/ml with the correlation of 0. 9988, Y=11.528X+0.117 , the average recoveries of di-oscin was 98.69%( n=6) ,RSD=1.11%. The context of the carrot saponins in nettle is 21.3mg/g. The method of nettle of ultrasonic extraction of total saponin is simple accurate. The mehod is good stability. It can be used for quality control of medicinal nettle.%目的:本文是论述测定广西荨麻中总皂苷的含量的方法。方法:以胡萝卜苷为标准对照品,5%香草醛-冰醋酸、高氯酸为显色剂,采用紫外分光光度法,在542nm处测定吸光度,计算荨麻中总皂苷的含量。结果:荨麻的总皂苷浓度在0.0018-0.0072mg/ml与吸光度呈良好的线性关系Y=11.528X+0.117(r=0.9988),平均回收率为98.69%(n=6),RSD=1.11%;荨麻中总皂苷的含量为21.3mg/g。并建立了荨麻中总皂苷超声提取的提取方法和紫外-可见分光光度法对其含量测定方法。结论:此方法方便,准确性高,稳定性好,可用于荨麻药材的总皂苷的含量测定。

  17. 不同轮作年限三七总皂苷含量分析%Content Determination of Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) Total Saponins Planted with Different Rotation Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天卫; 张文斌; 孙玉琴; 韦美丽; 杨建忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the content of Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) total saponins from Wenshan region planted with different rotation years and analyze the influence of soil with different rotation years on Sanqi total saponins. Methods Ultrasonic extracted with methanol for 60 min, using vanilla aldehyde-high chlorine acid method to determine content with UV2450 ultraviolet spectrophotometer photometry and wavelength was set at 560 nm. Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.33~3.3 μg/tL, and the average recovery rate was 97.8% with RSD=l.3%.Conclusion Content of Sanqi total saponins planted in new land was higher, as the increase of rotation year, content shows a rising trend, indicating that it's unsuitable for rotation plant in old land in 5 years.%目的 通过对文山三七产区不同轮作年限三七总皂苷的含量测定,分析不同轮作年限土壤对三七皂苷的影响.方法 甲醇超声提取60 min,香草醛-高氯酸法测定总皂苷的含量,采用UV2450紫外分光光度计光度法测定,检测波长为560 nm.结果 三七总皂苷在0.33~3.3 ug/uL范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 8,n=5),平均回收率:97.8%,RSD:1.3%,结论新地三七总皂苷含量较高,随着轮作年限的增加,三七总皂苷含量呈上升趋势,说明三七生长地在5年以内不宜轮作.

  18. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  19. Effect of endophytic fungi on expression amount of key enzyme genes in saponins biosynthesis and Eleutherococcus senticosus saponins content%内生真菌对刺五加皂苷合成关键酶基因表达及皂苷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢朝斌; 龙月红; 劳凤云; 何闪; 梁能松; 李宝财

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析刺五加内生真菌菌株P116-1a,P116-1b,P109-4,P312-1对刺五加中皂苷合成关键酶基因SS( squalene synthase),SE( squalene epoxidase),bAS(β-amyrin synthase)表达量和皂苷含量的影响.方法:伤口法回接内生真菌.以GAPDH为内参照基因,Real time PCR法检测关键酶基因表达量的变化.分光光度法测定刺五加的总皂苷含量.结果:回接P116-1a和P116-1b 30 d,刺五加SS基因的表达量显著提高(P<0.05),P109-4和P312-1无显著变化,之后出现降低-相等-降低的变化趋势.回接菌株P312-1 30 d,刺五加SE的表达量显著提升(P<0.05),回接菌株P116-1b和P312-1 90 d,SE的表达量分别显著提升至对照的130%,161% (P <0.05).回接120 d,4个菌株处理的SE表达量均显著高于对照(P<0.05).各处理bAS的表达量在回接60 ~ 120 d时均显著高于对照(P<0.05).4个菌株均显著提高了刺五加的皂苷含量(P<0.05).结论:菌株P116-1a,P116-1b,P109-4,P312-1可显著影响刺五加SS,SE,bAS的表达量,进而影响刺五加的皂苷含量,其中bAS为主要靶点基因.%Objective: To analyze the effect of endophytic fungi on expression amount of key enzyme genes SS ( squalene syn-thase gene) , SE ( squalene epoxidase gene) and bAS (β-amyrin synthase gene) in saponin biosynthesis and saponins content in Eleuiherococcus senticosus. Method: Wound method was used for back meeting the endophytic fungi to E. senticosus. With GAPDH as internal control gene, the expression of key enzyme genes was detected by real time PCR method. E. senticosus saponins content was measured by spectrophotometry method. Result: When wound method back meeting PI 16-1 a and PI 16-1 b after 30 d, the expression content of SS improved significantly (P<0. 05) , however the back meeting of P109-4 and P312-1 didnt change the expression of SS. After that SS expression showed reduction-equality-reduction varying trend. Thirty days after back meeting P312-1 , the expression content of SE

  20. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  1. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  2. Quantitative determination and evaluation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis with different harvesting times using UPLC-UV-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A rapid method was developed and validated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV-MS) for simultaneous determination of paris saponin I, paris saponin II, paris saponin VI and paris saponin VII. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on UPLC and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to evaluate Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY) at different harvesting times. Quantitative determination implied that the various contents of bioactive compounds with different harvesting times may lead to different pharmacological effects; the average content of total saponins for PPY harvested at 8 years was higher than that from other samples. The PLS-DA of FT-IR spectra had a better performance than that of UPLC for discrimination of PPY from different harvesting times. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fen Chen; Ming-Shiang Chang; Yong-Ping Ciou; Yu-Chun Huang; Chao-Hsun Yang

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5% c...

  4. Determination of steroidal saponins in different organs of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2008-06-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are perennial trailing rhizome plants. Steroidal saponins, furostanol and spirostanol glycosides are the marked functional compounds in yams. In this investigation, a C18 solid phase extraction method was developed for yam saponins purification. The contents of saponins in various organs of yam (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto) were also determined. Results showed that the recoveries of yam saponins extracted by the developed method were about 99.48-100.08% when the saponins (each saponin weighed 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00mg) passing through the C18 cartridge. The extractive method could efficiently reduce the interferences from impurities in yam saponin extracts prior to HPLC analysis. The recoveries of added saponins in different yam organs were 98.34-99.92% for tuber flesh, 95.98-98.89% for tuber cortex, 97.89-99.44% for rhizophor, 93.82-98.01% for leaf and 93.87-97.65% for vine, respectively. The yam tuber cortex had the highest amount of saponins (582.53μg/gdw), which was higher than that existed in the tuber flesh (227.86μg/gdw) about 2.55 times. The contents of saponins in the rhizophor, leaf and vine of yam were 29.39, 24.41 and 23.96μg/gdw, respectively. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and reversed-phase HPLC-ELSD chromatography for structural and quantitative studies of major steroid saponins in commercial extracts of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, F; Ferreira, F; Pedreschi, F

    2016-02-20

    This paper describes a new, improved systematic qualitative analysis of yucca saponins in commercial products by combined use of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Three groups with four saponins in each were completely resolved by HPLC-ELSD under C18 reversed-phase conditions using a linear gradient composed of methanol and water. The selectivity of the described HPLC-ELSD method is given by the sapogenin differences at C12 (carbonyl group) and at C2 (hydroxyl group), followed by the presence or absence of an exomethylene group at C25, and the composition and length of the oligosaccharidic chain at C3 in the sapogenins. The saponins were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods including MALDI-TOF MS(1) and MS(2), high resolution MS, and one and bi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Among the twelve saponins identified, eleven were previously reported, and one is reported for the first time in Yucca schidigera. An identification flowchart procedure based on the analysis of the sodium adducts of intact saponins [M+Na](+) and the oligosaccharidic chain ions obtained in the MALDI-TOF MS(1) and the MS(2) spectrums, was developed for the analysis of Y. schidigera saponins. Two intact isomeric saponins were differentiated by this method, which could also be applied to the structural assignment of other steroid and triterpenic saponins. Using the four-major saponins as reference standards, a C18 reversed-phase HPLC-ELSD method was validated for their specific analysis in commercial extracts of Y. schidigera. Finally, the applicability of the HPLC-ELSD method for the relative quantification of yucca saponins is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  7. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    1991-01-01

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  8. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  9. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34% and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w. The foaming power of the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1% of 0.5% SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  10. Foam properties and detergent abilities of the saponins from Camellia oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-11-04

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared.

  11. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  12. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  13. Localization and Dynamic Change of Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Polygala tenuifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Teng; Min-Feng Fang; Xia Cai; Zheng-Hai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical methods were used to investigate the structure, localization and dynamic changes of total saponin and senegenin of vegetative organs in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Histochemical localization results showed that saponin accumulated mainly in parenchyma cells of vegetative organs. The phytochemical results also showed that the saponin accumulated in the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia, with higher content in roots and lower content in the aerial parts that included stems and leaves. The saponin content and dry weight of the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia had dynamic variance at the developmental stages and all reached the highest level in the post-fruit period. Hence, the roots and aerial parts should be gathered in August to make full use of the plant. As the root is the main medicinal organ of P. tenuifolia, the content of total saponin and senegenin of different aged and different parts of the root were determined. The content of total saponin and senegenin exhibited a sustained decreasing trend with increasing root age; therefore, theannual roots had high quality. The content of total saponin and senegenin in different parts of the root showed obvious variation. The content in the "skin areas" was much higher than that of xylem. The results offer a theoretical basis for determining the appropriate harvesting stage and a reasonable harvest of P. tenuifolia.

  14. Effect of Quillaja saponaria saponins and Yucca schidigera plant extract on growth of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Makkar, H P; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    1998-07-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was exposed to Quillaja saponaria saponins from various commercial firms (Sigma, Roth and Nor-feed) and to an extract of Yucca schidigera plant powder (DK Sarsaponin 30) at different concentrations (0.05-1.0% w/v). A concentration-dependent response was observed. Quillaja saponaria saponins from Sigma increased growth up to 0.1% (w/v) level, whereas Nor-feed and Roth saponins produced maximum growth at a much higher level (0.5 and 0.75%, w/v, respectively). These results suggest that quillaja saponins from various sources differ in their biological activity, although all three saponins had the same content of vanillin-sulphuric acid reactive moieties. The lyophilized water extract from the DK Sarsaponin powder showed maximum growth at 0.1% (w/v) level. The levels at which maximum growth was observed did not change on subjecting the quillaja or yucca saponins to heat treatment in an autoclave (121 degrees C for 30 min). All the saponins and the plant extract increased growth of Escherichia coli up to a certain concentration and thereafter decreased growth. In spite of the decreased growth at higher levels of saponins, it was higher compared to the control (without saponin) up to levels of 1% (w/v) for all saponins except Quillaja saponins from Sigma, for which the growth was lower at levels of 0.25% (w/v) and higher. Saponins have the potential to modulate microbial growth in natural and artificial fermenters.

  15. A modified spectrophotometric assay to estimate deglycosylation of steroidal saponin to sapogenin by mixed ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-08-30

    The lack of a method for measuring deglycosylation of saponins in ruminal fluid has limited the ability to investigate the impact of these compounds on rumen microorganisms. A simple spectrophotometric assay was adapted and a protocol developed to enable measurement of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. The procedure was used for in vitro determination of deglycosylation activity of rumen bacteria obtained from cattle fed or not fed Yucca schidigera saponin, and to determine the relative deglycosylase activities of extracellular and cell-associated enzymes from ruminal content. Modifications to the spectrophotometric assay (i.e. heating time shortened to 10 min and 0.5 mL dH(2)O added to the reaction mixture) improved the stability of the optical density (425 nm) of the chromophore for up to 24 h post-reaction. Centrifugation (12 000 x g, 20 min) enabled differential estimations of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. Steroidal saponin added to defaunated ruminal fluid (dRF) or clarified ruminal fluid (cRF) was recovered completely from the mixture as saponin + sapogenin (99.1% and 100.6%, respectively), whereas saponin recovery from the supernatant of dRF was greatly reduced (P Yucca schidigera saponin (59.2 vs. 57.3% and 98.4 vs. 99.3%, respectively). The majority (89-90%) of saponin added to a ruminal extracellular enzyme preparation was recoverable in supernatant after 24 h, compared with only 26-32% remaining in supernatant from incubation with a cell-associated enzymes fraction. Mixed rumen bacteria deglycosylate steroidal saponin to sapogenin, at activity levels unaffected by prior exposure to saponin, but they were unable to degrade the sapogenin core structure. Deglycosylation activity occurred primarily in the cell-associated enzyme fraction of ruminal content. Copyright (c) 2008 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongmei; Ip, Fanny C F; Fu, Guangmiao; Pang, Haihong; Ye, Wencai; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-07-01

    Dammarane-type saponins (1-7), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 induced the phosphorylation of ERK protein in primary rat cortical neurons, which indicates their potential neuroactivity. On the other hand, no induction of ERK phosphorylation was observed for HEK293 cells following treatment with saponins 1, 3, 4 and 7. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of a method for the profiling and quantification of saponins in different green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this study was the optimization of a HPLC-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagus saponins. The method includes extraction with aqueous ethanol, cleanup by solid phase extraction, separation by reverse phase chromatography, electrospray ionization, and detection in a single quadrupole mass analyzer. The method was used for the comparison of selected genotypes of Huétor-Tájar asparagus landrace and selected varieties of commercial diploid hybrids of green asparagus. The results showed that while protodioscin was almost the only saponin detected in the commercial hybrids, eight different saponins were detected in the Huétor-Tájar asparagus genotypes. The mass spectra indicated that HT saponins are derived from a furostan type steroidal genin having a single bond between carbons 5 and 6 of the B ring. The total concentration of saponins was found to be higher in triguero asparagus than in commercial hybrids.

  18. Saponins from Chinese Medicines as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Huang Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are glycosides with triterpenoid or spirostane aglycones that demonstrate various pharmacological effects against mammalian diseases. To promote the research and development of anticancer agents from saponins, this review focuses on the anticancer properties of several typical naturally derived triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides and saikosaponins and steroid saponins (dioscin, polyphyllin, and timosaponin isolated from Chinese medicines. These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects, such as anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-multidrug resistance, and autophagy regulation actions. In addition, related signaling pathways and target proteins involved in the anticancer effects of saponins are also summarized in this work.

  19. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found.

  20. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  1. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  2. Teaching Note--"By Any Means Necessary!" Infusing Socioeconomic Justice Content into Quantitative Research Course Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Existing research suggests a majority of faculty include social justice content in research courses but not through the use of existing quantitative data for in-class activities that foster mastery of data analysis and interpretation and curiosity about social justice-related topics. By modeling data-driven dialogue and the deconstruction of…

  3. Research on the Relationship among the Leaf Number, Tuber Yield, Flavonoids Content and Saponins Content in Erect Type Ophiopogon jaonicus(Thunb.) Ker-Gawl.%直立型川麦冬叶片数·块根产量及黄酮·皂苷含量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁辉; 张兴国; 程方叙; 文便便; 曹原湘

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 测定高产直立型川麦冬植株叶片数量、块根产量以及块根黄酮、皂苷含量,探讨性状-产量-品质的相关性及其变化规律.[方法] 在川麦冬主产区采集具有代表性的直立型麦冬植株,测定叶片数和块根产量,并以橙皮苷和麦冬皂苷D为对照品,用紫外分光光度法测定麦冬块根中总黄酮和总皂苷含量,采用t检验和相关回归法,用SPSS软件分析了麦冬植株叶片数、块根重量及黄酮、皂苷含量之间的关系.[结果] 直立型川麦冬的植株平均叶片数X为(69.70±15.30)张/窝,块根生物学产量Y为(29.59±11.24)g/窝,黄酮含量Z_1为(2.74±0.18)mg/g,皂苷含量Z_2为(93.34±1.33)mg/g,其性状-产量-品质的回归方程为:Y=0.468X+10.272Z_1+0.983Z_2-122.995,Z_1=0.002X+0.018Y+0.016Z_2-0.619,Z_2=0.246Y-0.103X+2.232Z_1+87.094,表明它们之间具有极显著相关性(P<0.001~(***)).[结论] 直立型川麦冬为优质高产的麦冬资源类型,植株叶片数对麦冬光合产物积累和次生代谢产物的形成具有显著的影响,培育植株良好的叶片光合生态构型是麦冬优质高产的关键.%[Objective] The research aimed to measure the the leaf number, the tuber yield, the flavonoids and saponins contents of the erect type Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl. and discuss the relationship among the traits, yield and quality and its change laws. [Method] In the main producing area of Ophiopogon jaonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., the representative plants of erect type Ophiopogon jaonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl. were collected and the leaf number and the tuber yield were measured. With hesperidin and Ophiopogon jaonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl saponin D as the reference substance, the contents of total flavonoid and saponins in the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl. were measured by UV spectrophotometry. Using t test and regression method, the correlation among the leaf number, the tuber yield, the flavonoids content and the

  4. Quantitative analysis of organic additive content in a polymer by ToF-SIMS with PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Kono, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of organic materials by ToF-SIMS is intrinsically difficult because of their tendency to decompose under ion irradiation. In this study, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) as a means of compensation for the spectral degradation caused by this decomposition and thus improve the accuracy of the quantitative analysis, using as models two organic additives of quite different composition and vulnerability to decomposition under ion irradiation, in polystyrene. This enables the extraction of a principal component related to their content that is independent of the decomposition. The effectiveness of this approach in quantitative analysis of organic additives content in polymers without loss in accuracy due to spectral degradation will be discussed.

  5. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Quampah; Liu, Hai Ying; Xu, Hai Ming; Li, Jin Rong; Wu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Shui Jin; Shi, Chun Hai

    2012-01-01

    Oil content in cottonseed is a major quality trait which when improved through breeding could enhance the competitiveness of cottonseed oil among other vegetable oils. Cottonseed oil content is a quantitative trait controlled by genes in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes, and the knowledge of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the genetic effects related to oil content in both genomes could facilitate the improvement in its quality and quantity. However, till date, QTL mapping and genetic analysis related to this trait in cotton have only been conducted in the tetraploid embryo genome. In the current experiment, an IF(2) population of cottonseed kernels from the random crossing of 188 intraspecific recombinant inbred lines which were derived from the hybrid of two parents, HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88, were used to simultaneously locate QTLs for oil content in the embryo and maternal plant genomes. The four QTLs found to be associated with oil content in cottonseed were: qOC-18-1 on chromosome 18; qOC-LG-11 on linkage group 11; qOC-18-2 on chromosome 18; and qOC-22 on chromosome 22. At a high selection threshold of 0.05, there was strong evidence linking the QTLs above the oil content in cottonseed. Embryo additive and dominant effects from the tetraploid embryo genome, as well as maternal additive effects from the tetraploid maternal plant genome were found to be significant contributors to genetic variation in cottonseed oil content.

  6. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quampah Alfred; Hai Ying Liu; Hai Ming Xu; Jin Rong Li; Jian Guo Wu; Shui Jin Zhu; Chun Hai Shi

    2012-12-01

    Oil content in cottonseed is a major quality trait which when improved through breeding could enhance the competitiveness of cottonseed oil among other vegetable oils. Cottonseed oil content is a quantitative trait controlled by genes in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes, and the knowledge of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the genetic effects related to oil content in both genomes could facilitate the improvement in its quality and quantity. However, till date, QTL mapping and genetic analysis related to this trait in cotton have only been conducted in the tetraploid embryo genome. In the current experiment, an IF2 population of cottonseed kernels from the random crossing of 188 intraspecific recombinant inbred lines which were derived from the hybrid of two parents, HS46 and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88, were used to simultaneously locate QTLs for oil content in the embryo and maternal plant genomes. The four QTLs found to be associated with oil content in cottonseed were: qOC-18-1 on chromosome 18; qOC-LG-11 on linkage group 11; qOC-18-2 on chromosome 18; and qOC-22 on chromosome 22. At a high selection threshold of 0.05, there was strong evidence linking the QTLs above the oil content in cottonseed. Embryo additive and dominant effects from the tetraploid embryo genome, as well as maternal additive effects from the tetraploid maternal plant genome were found to be significant contributors to genetic variation in cottonseed oil content.

  7. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Cao, Jia-Qing; Shi, Sheng-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, 1-4, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. Compounds 1-4 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines HL-60, Colon205, and Du145 in vitro.

  8. Diastereoisomeric saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kun; Tong, Wen-yong; Liang, Hong; Cui, Jing-rong; Tu, Guang-zhong; Zhao, Yu-ying; Zhang, Ru-yi

    2005-05-23

    The structures of four new diastereoisomeric triterpenoidal saponins Julibroside J5, J8, J12 and J13 (1-4) isolated from Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae) have been determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. Julibroside, J8 and J13 showed marked cytotoxic activities against Bel-7402 cancer cell line at 100 microg/mL.

  9. Antidiabetic activity of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Raju Balwanth; Samaddar, Suman; Ramaiah, Channakeshava Thimmasandra

    2014-01-01

    Glucose uptake by isolated diaphragms of both diabetic, following streptozotocin administration, and non-diabetic animals increased in presence of an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of M. cymbalaria. Insulin release was augmented by the presence of the saponin of M. cymbalaria (1 mg/mL) in rat insulinoma cell line (RIN-5F) preexposed to adrenaline (5 microM) and nifedipine (50 microM). Pancreatic histology also indicated considerable quantitative increase in beta-cells (75%) when treated with the saponin. The results suggest that the saponin of M. cymbalaria possesses potential antidiabetic activity with respect to insulin secretion, which may be attributed to modulation of calcium channel, and beta-cell rejuvenation.

  10. Statistical, ecosystems and competitiveness analysis of the media and content industries : a quantitative overview

    OpenAIRE

    Leurdijk, Andra; DE MUNCK Silvain; VAN DEN BROEK Tijs; VAN DER PLAS Arjanna; Manshanden, Walter; RIETVELD Elmer

    2012-01-01

    This report offers a quantitative statistical approach to the Media and Content Industries (MCI). It is based on official data sources and complemented with data from non-official data sources. The current OECD definition of the MCI sector is discussed, as regards the limitations of the definition itself and of its operationalization. The approach taken in the collection of data, and also problems with data availability, are dealt with. The official data sources consulted include Eurostat...

  11. Antisweet saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Liu, X; Zhang, Q; Che, C T; Zhao, S

    2001-02-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides (1-3), along with the sodium salt of alternoside II (4), were isolated from an ethanol extract of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The structures of these new saponins were identified as 21 beta-O-benzoylsitakisogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), the potassium salt of longispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and the potassium salt of 29-hydroxylongispinogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (3). The aglycon of 3, gymnemagenol (3a), was characterized as 3 beta,16 beta,28, 29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene. Structure elucidation was accomplished by interpretation of NMR (DQF-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) results, FABMS, and hydrolysis. Saponin 1 and the sodium salt of alternoside II (4) exhibited antisweet activity.

  12. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Graphene Sheet Content in Wood Char Powders during Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jia Liou; Wu-Jang Huang

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of the graphene sheet content in carbon-containing materials is arguable and has not yet been developed.The authors report on a feasible method to characterize graphene sheet content quantitatively in pyrolized carbon materials using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer.A direct carbonation at 300 ℃ followed by catalytic pyrolysis (heat-treatment temperature was set at 700-1400 ℃)under a vacuum condition was used for turning wood waste into pyrolized wood char powders.The graphene content in the samples was calculated through an analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the carbon (100) crystal plane at around 42°-43° in XRD.Results showed that the FWHM and the calculated graphene sheet content of pyrolized wood char powders depended on the heat-treatment temperature,and the FWHM of wood char powder with well-developed graphene sheets (100%) was determined to be 5.0.In addition,the trend to 100% graphene sheet-contained pyrolized carbon powder was obtained at a heattreatment temperature of 2700 ℃.The resistivity of the wood char powder with 100% graphene sheets was predicted to be 0.01 Ω cm,close to our experimental data of 0.012 and 0.006 Ω cm for commercial graphite and graphene products,respectively.

  14. Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachie; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Ito, Satoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Triterpene saponins, pachanosides C1, E1, F1 and G1 (1-4), and bridgesides A1, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1 and E2 (5-11) were isolated from Echinopsis macrogona. Compounds 1-4 were saponins with pachanane type triterpene saponins, while the others (5-11) were oleanane type triterpene saponins. While the aglycones of 2-4 and 8-11 were hitherto unknown, the structure of pachanol C was revised in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  15. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  16. [Quantitative estimation of CaO content in surface rocks using hyperspectral thermal infrared emissivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fu; Zhang, Xue-Wen; Huang, Zhao-Qiang; Yang, Hang; Zhang, Fei-Zhou

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study the quantitative relationship between the CaO content and the thermal infrared emissivity spectra. The surface spectral emissivity of 23 solid rocks samples were measured in the field and the first derivative of the spectral emissivity was also calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were modeled and the regression results were compared. The results show that there is a good relationship between CaO content and thermal emissivity spectra features; emissivities become lower when CaO content increases in the 10.3-13 mm region; the first derivative spectra have a better predictive ability compared to the original emissivity spectra.

  17. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  18. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Liang, Liheng; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300~2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil.

  19. [Quantitative inversion of rock SiO2 content based on thermal infrared emissivity spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Li-Fu; Huang, Zhao-Qiang; Zhang, Xue-Wen; Tong, Qing-Xi

    2012-06-01

    The present paper used the emissivity of non-processed rocks measured by M304, a hyperspectral Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer, and SiO2 content by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After continuum removal and normalization, stepwise regress method was employed to select the feature bands of rocks emissivity. And then quantitative relationship between SiO2 content and continuum removal emissivity of feature bands was analysed. Based on that, by comparing twelve SiO2 indices models, the optimal model for predicting SiO2 content was built. The result showed that the SiO2 indices can predict SiO2 content efficiently, and especially the normalization silicon dioxide index (NSDI) about 11.18 and 12.36 microm is the best; compared with regression models, NSDI is simpler and has higher practicality; the result has an important application value in rock classification and SiO2 content extraction with high precision.

  20. Quantitative Prediction of Coalbed Gas Content Based on Seismic Multiple-Attribute Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfang Pan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of gas planar distribution is crucial to selection and development of new CBM exploration areas. Based on seismic attributes, well logging and testing data we found that seismic absorption attenuation, after eliminating the effects of burial depth, shows an evident correlation with CBM gas content; (positive structure curvature has a negative correlation with gas content; and density has a negative correlation with gas content. It is feasible to use the hydrocarbon index (P*G and pseudo-Poisson ratio attributes for detection of gas enrichment zones. Based on seismic multiple-attribute analyses, a multiple linear regression equation was established between the seismic attributes and gas content at the drilling wells. Application of this equation to the seismic attributes at locations other than the drilling wells yielded a quantitative prediction of planar gas distribution. Prediction calculations were performed for two different models, one using pre-stack inversion and the other one disregarding pre-stack inversion. A comparison of the results indicates that both models predicted a similar trend for gas content distribution, except that the model using pre-stack inversion yielded a prediction result with considerably higher precision than the other model.

  1. [Determination by high performance chromatography, steroid saponins in a biologically active food supplements containing the extract of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O I; Perederiaev, O I; Ramenskaia, G V

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are bioactive substances of Tribulus terrestris and can be used to assess the quality of raw materials and processed products from them. For this purpose has been developed the method of qualitative and quantitative determination of steroidal saponins by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass-selective detection and optimal conditions of sample preparation (70% methanol extraction with sonication and heating); also has been studied steroidal saponins composition of Tribulus terrestris (protodioscin, tribulosaponin B, metilprotodiostsin, terrestrozin H, prototribestin, gracillin and others were found).

  2. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Jun-Song; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Seven new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named dianversicosides A-G (1-7), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) group in 1-4 was ascertained by chemical analysis combined with a chiral HPLC method. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against a small panel of cancer and other cell lines.

  4. Quantitative characterization of mitosis-blocked tetraploid cells using high content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Linnette E; Ghosh, Richik N

    2006-08-01

    A range of cellular evidence supporting a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint was obtained from different assay methods including flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and microscopy. Cancer research would benefit if these cellular properties could instead be measured by a single, quantitative, automated assay method, such as high content analysis (HCA). Thus, nocodazole-treated cells were fluorescently labeled for different cell cycle-associated properties, including DNA content, retinoblastoma (Rb) and histone H3 phosphorylation, p53 and p21(WAF1) expression, nuclear and cell sizes, and cell morphology, and automatically imaged, analyzed, and correlated using HCA. HCA verified that nocodazole-induced mitosis block resulted in tetraploid cells. Rb and histone H3 were maximally hyperphosphorylated by 24 h of nocodazole treatment, accompanied by cell and nuclear size decreases and cellular rounding. Cells remained tetraploid and mononucleated with longer treatments, but other targets reverted to G1 levels, including Rb and histone H3 dephosphorylation accompanied by cellular respreading. This was accompanied by increased p53 and p21(WAF1) expression levels. The range of effects accompanying nocodazole-induced block of mitosis and the resulting tetraploid cells' reversal to a pseudo-G1 state can be quantitatively measured by HCA in an automated manner, recommending this assay method for the large-scale biology challenges of modern cancer drug discovery.

  5. Determination by UPLC-MS of four dammarane-type saponins from heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Jang, Moonhee; Piao, Xiang-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its main dammaran-type saponins, gypenoside L, gypenoside LI, damulin B, and damulin A, possess non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell inhibitory activity. We established in this study a method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of the saponins and also investigated their content change in heat-processed G. pentaphyllum. The main saponins increased with increasing heating temperature and time. Further investigation showed that they were produced from gypenoside XLVI and gypenoside LVI by undergoing hydrolysis during the heat treatment.

  6. Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R L; Wolf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Soybeans are high in protein but also contain a number of minor constituents traditionally considered to be antinutritional factors. These include trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones. These compounds are now thought to have beneficial biological effects in the diet, such as lowering blood cholesterol or preventing cancer. Soybean processing changes the content of these minor constituents in various ways. This review discusses the changes in content of trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones as soybeans are processed into the conventional protein ingredients, flours, concentrates and isolates, as well as some of the traditional Oriental soybean foods.

  7. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  8. Purification of saponins from leaves of Panax notoginseng using preparative two-dimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiujie; Zhang, Xiuli; Feng, Jiatao; Guo, Zhimou; Xiao, Yuansheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-04-01

    Saponins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and have been shown to be active components of many medicinal herbs. In this study, a two-dimensional purification method based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was successfully applied to purify saponins from leaves of Panax notoginseng. Nine saponin reference standards were used to test the separation modes and columns. The standards could not be resolved using C18 columns owing to their limited polar selectivity. However, they were completely separated on a XAmide column in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode, including two pairs of standards that were coeluted on a C18 column. The elution order of the standards on the two columns was sufficiently different, with a correlation coefficient between retention times on the C18 and XAmide columns of 0.0126, indicating good column orthogonality. Therefore, the first-dimension preparation was performed on a C18 column, followed by a XAmide column that was used to separate the fractions in the second dimension. Fifty-four fractions were prepared in the first dimension, with 25 fractions rich in saponins. Eight saponins, including two pairs of isomeric saponins and one new saponin, were isolated and identified from three representative fractions. This procedure was shown to be an effective approach for the preparative isolation and purification of saponins from leaves of P. notoginseng. Moreover, this method could possibly be employed in the purification of low-content and novel active saponins from natural products.

  9. A Content and Sample Analysis of Quantitative Articles Published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Love, Keisha M.; Taylor, Kathryn J.; Slusher, Anita L.

    2007-01-01

    This study reviewed the content of articles and characteristics of samples in all quantitative articles published in the "Journal of Counseling & Development" between 1991 and 2000. The content analysis revealed that the areas that received the most attention were academic/career, multicultural issues, symptoms/disorders, and counseling process.…

  10. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  11. Development of an analytical method for yam saponins using HPLC with pulsed amperometric detection at different column temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Hee; Yoo, Chang-Seon; Choi, Hwa-Young; Lee, Soo-Eon; Park, Yong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Yam saponins (dioscin, gracillin, protodioscin, and protogracillin) were analyzed with three different C18 columns at incremental column temperatures from 15 to 45°C to investigate the effect of temperature on the retention and resolution of yam saponins. At low temperature, yam saponins showed decreased retention times and improved resolutions in the C18 columns. In the Kinetex C18 column at 15°C, the four saponins achieved baseline separation (Rs > 1.5) within 30 min. Pulsed amperometric detection was used to identify saponins with high sensitivity. The limits of detection and quantification of saponins were 0.11-0.31 and 0.33-0.95 ng, respectively. The correlation coefficients ranged 0.9986-1.0000. Intra- and inter-day precisions were yam foods were determined without sample purification or concentration. Among the ten commercial yam foods investigated, only three showed significant saponin contents. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Liang SONG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Zhi-Guo HAN; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G.barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content,were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD ≥.3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.

  13. Quantitative analysis of cyclic dimer fatty acid content in the dimerization product by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Minyoung; Seok, Seunghwan; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, (1)H NMR is utilized for the quantitative analysis of a specific cyclic dimer fatty acid in a dimer acid mixture using the pseudo-standard material of mesitylene on the basis of its structural similarity. Mesitylene and cyclic dimer acid levels were determined using the signal of the proton on the cyclic ring (δ=6.8) referenced to the signal of maleic acid (δ=6.2). The content of the cyclic dimer fatty acid was successfully determined through the standard curve of mesitylene and the reported equation. Using the linearity of the mesitylene curve, the cyclic dimer fatty acid in the oil mixture was quantified. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to quantify cyclic compounds in mixtures to optimize the dimerization process.

  14. 土壤改良对平地栽参人参茎叶总皂苷含量的影响%Effects of Different Soil Improvement Treatment on Total Saponins Content in Stem and Leaf of Panax ginseng Cultivated in Farmland Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹敏晶; 赵岩; 张连学

    2012-01-01

    Total saponin of ginseng {Panax ginseng C.A.Mey) stem and leaf was taken as an index to appraise and atudy the best proposal of soil improvement treatment. Effects of different combination of maize straw, stool of pig, stool of deer, antagonistic bacteria and spent mushroom substrate on total saponin content of ginseng stem and leaf were studied by using quadratic regression and orthogonal rotation as fundamental mathematic model. The Model Analysis showed that under the same cultivation conditions, the contribution of five substrates to ginseng saponin content ranking from the largest to the smallest was pig manure, deer dung, corn stalks, waste materials from fungal and antagonistic bacteria. Computer similated selection showed that when the application dosage of maize straw was 6.64 kg/m2, stool of pig was 3.24 kg/m2, stool of deer was 3.48 kg/m2, antagonistic bacteria was 6.87 g/m2, spent mushroom substrate was 7.02 kg/m2, the predictive value of total saponin of ginseng stem and leaf was 17.81%. In. Conclusion the assemblage of these cultivation factors could be recommended as a program of planting ginseng on farmland soil.%以人参(Panax ginseng C.A.Mey)茎叶总皂苷为评价指标,研究平地栽参不同土壤改良的最优方案.试验以二次回归正交旋转设计为基本数学模型,研究玉米秸秆、猪粪、鹿粪、拮抗菌、菌糠5种基质的不同组合对人参茎叶总皂苷含量的影响.模型解析发现,在相同的栽培条件下,5种基质对人参茎叶总皂苷含量的贡献从大到小为猪粪、鹿粪、玉米秸秆、菌糠、拮抗菌.计算机模拟寻优表明,玉米秸秆施用量6.64kg/m2,猪粪施用量3.24 kg/m2,鹿粪施用量3.48 kg/m2,拮抗菌施用量6.87 g/m2,菌糠施用量7.02 kg/m2条件下,人参茎叶总皂苷含量预测值为17.81%.综上这些栽培因素的组合可以作为平地栽培人参的推荐方案.

  15. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia davurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Kui TIAN; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Guang Hong TU; Hong Wu ZHANG; Shi Lin YANG; Dong Ge AN

    2005-01-01

    Two new saponins named davuricoside I (1) and davuricoside E (2) were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia davurica. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR,FAB-MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  16. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone contents in soybean seeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hai Jun Zhang; Jing Wen Li; Ya Jing Liu; Wen Zhu Jiang; Xing Lin Du; Lin Li; Xiao Wei Li; Lian Tai Su; Qing Yu Wang; Ying Wang

    2014-08-01

    Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in soybean seeds. A population of 184 F2:10 recombinant inbred lines derived from a ‘Xiaoheidou’ × ‘GR8836’ cross was planted in pot and field conditions to evaluate soybean isoflavones. Twenty-one QTL were detected by composite interval mapping. Several QTL were associated with the traits for DC, GeC, GlC and TIC only. QDGeGlTIC4_1 and QDGlTIC12_1 are reported first in this study and were associated with the DC, GeC, GlC and TIC traits simultaneously. The QTL identified have potential value for marker-assisted selection to develop soybean varieties with desirable isoflavone content.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence: quantitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaque chemical content in human aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erbin; Wishart, David; Khoury, Samir; Kay, Cyril M.; Jugdutt, Bodh I.; Tulip, John; Lucas, Alexandra

    1996-05-01

    We have been studying laser-induced fluorescence as a technique for identification of selected changes in the chemical composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Formulae for quantification of chemical changes have been developed based upon analysis of fluorescence emission spectra using multiple regression analysis and the principal of least squares. The intima of human aortic necropsy specimens was injected with chemical compounds present in atherosclerotic plaque. Spectra recorded after injection of selected chemical components found in plaque (collagen I, III, IV, elastin and cholesterol) at varying concentrations (0.01 - 1.0 mg) were compared with saline injection. A single fiber system was used for both fluorescence excitation (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/ pulse, 5 Hz) and fluorescence emission detection. Average spectra for each chemical have been developed and the wavelengths of peak emission intensity identified. Curve fitting analysis as well as multiple regression analysis were used to develop formulae for assessment of chemical content. Distinctive identifying average curves were established for each chemical. Excellent correlations were identified for collagen I, III, and IV, elastin, and cholesterol (R2 equals 0.92 6- 0.997). Conclusions: (1) Fluorescence spectra of human aortas were significantly altered by collagen I, collagen III, elastin and cholesterol. (2) Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis may allow quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaque chemical content in situ.

  18. The portrayal of infant feeding in British women's magazines: a qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C

    2017-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health.

  19. Genetic Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Contents of Mineral Nutrients in Rice Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luisa Garcia-Oliveira; Lubin Tan; Yongcai Fu; Chuanqing Sun

    2009-01-01

    In present study, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, P and K contents of 85 Introgression linee (ILs) derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were measured by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. Substantial variation was observed for all traits and most of the mineral elements were significantly positive correlated or independent except for Fe with Cu. A total of 31 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for these eight mineral elements by single point analysis. Wild rice (O. rufipogon) contributed favorable alleles for most of the QTLs (26 QTLs), and chromosomes 1, 9 and 12 exhibited 14 QTLs (45%) for these traits. One major effect of QTL for zinc content accounted for the largest proportion of phenotypic variation (11%-19%) was detected near the simple sequence repeats marker RM152 on chromosome 8. The co-locations of QTLs for some mineral elements observed in this mapping population suggested the relationship was at a molecular level among these traits and could be helpful for simultaneous improvement of these traits in rice grain by marker assisted selection.

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals distinct differences in the protein content of outer membrane vesicle vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Mommen, Geert P M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Eppink, Michel H; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; de Jong, Ad P J M

    2013-04-05

    At present, only vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV) have successfully stopped Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemics. These vaccines however require detergent-extraction to remove endotoxin, which changes immunogenicity and causes production difficulties. To investigate this in more detail, the protein content of detergent-extracted OMV is compared with two detergent-free alternatives. A novel proteomics strategy has been developed that allows quantitative analysis of many biological replicates despite inherent multiplex restrictions of dimethyl labeling. This enables robust statistical analysis of relative protein abundance. The comparison with detergent-extracted OMV reveales that detergent-free OMV are enriched with membrane (lipo)proteins and contain less cytoplasmic proteins due to a milder purification process. These distinct protein profiles are substantiated with serum blot proteomics, confirming enrichment with immunogenic proteins in both detergent-free alternatives. Therefore, the immunogenic protein content of OMV vaccines depends at least partially on the purification process. This study demonstrates that detergent-free OMV have a preferred composition.

  1. Quantitative analysis of sulphated glycosaminoglycans content of Malaysian sea cucumber Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus vastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masre, Siti Fathiah; Yip, George W; Sirajudeen, K N S; Ghazali, Farid Che

    2012-01-01

    Stichopus hermanni and Stichopus vastus are sea cucumber species from the Stichopodidae family within the coastal waters of Malaysia. The integument of these invertebrates is hypothesised to contain abundant glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are divided into non-sulphated and sulphated GAGs. Sulphated GAGs have various chemico-biological functions that are beneficial to humans. This study quantitatively analysed N-, O-sulphated and total sulphated GAG content from three different anatomical regions (integument, internal organs and coelomic fluid) of S. hermanni and S. vastus. The integument revealed the highest content of total, O- and N-sulphated GAGs, followed by the internal organs and the coelomic fluid for both species of sea cucumbers. The percentage division of O- and N-sulphated GAGs suggested that anatomical parts of both species showed higher levels of O-sulphated GAGs compared to N-sulphated GAGs. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the integument body wall of S. hermanni and S. vastus is a rich source of sulphated GAGs.

  2. [Leaching Remediation of Copper and Lead Contaminated Lou Soil by Saponin Under Different Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-xia; Yang, Ya-li; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Li, Rong-hua; Meng, Zhao-fu; Yang, Ya-ti

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the leaching remediation effect of the eco-friendly biosurfactant saponin for Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil, batch tests method was used to study the leaching effect of saponin solution on single Cu, Pb contaminated Lou soil and mixed Cu and Pb contaminated Lou soil under different conditions such as reaction time, mass concentration of saponin, pH, concentration of background electrolyte and leaching times. The results showed that the maximum leaching removal effect of Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil was achieved by complexation of the heavy metals with saponin micelle, when the mass concentration of saponin solution was 50 g x L(-1), pH was 5.0, the reaction time was 240 min, and there was no background electrolyte. In single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, the leaching percentages of Cu were 29.02% and 25.09% after a single leaching with 50 g x L(-1) saponin under optimal condition, while the single leaching percentages of Pb were 31.56% and 28.03%, respectively. The result indicated the removal efficiency of Pb was more significant than that of Cu. After 4 times of leaching, the cumulative leaching percentages of Cu reached 58.92% and 53.11%, while the cumulative leaching percentages of Pb reached 77.69% and 65.32% for single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, respectively. The fractionation results of heavy metals in soil before and after a single leaching showed that the contents of adsorbed and exchangeable Cu and Pb increased in the contaminated soil, while the carbonate-bound, organic bound and sulfide residual Cu and Pb in the contaminated Lou soil could be effectively removed by saponin.

  3. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs.

  4. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  5. Antioxidative effect of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Chen, Y; Zhai, L; Zhang, L; Xu, Y; Wang, S; Hu, S

    2015-05-01

    Previous investigation demonstrated that oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins in chickens could enhance the immune response. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng stem-leaf saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. One hundred and twenty chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 to 4 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide to induce oxidative stress while group 5 was injected with saline solution and served as control. Following administration of cyclophosphamide, groups 1 to 3 were orally administered ginseng stem-leaf saponins at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg BW in drinking water for 7 d, respectively. After that, the spleen, thymus, bursa, and serum were collected to measure the indices of the organs and oxidative parameters. The results showed that ginseng stem-leaf saponins significantly inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress by increasing the organ indices, total antioxidant capacity, and the levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, while elevating the activity of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as decreasing the protein carbonyl content and malondialdehyde. Therefore, ginseng stem-leaf saponins could be a promising agent against oxidative stress in the poultry industry.

  6. Quantitative and stoichiometric analysis of the microRNA content of exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, John R; Kang, Qing; Ruf, Ingrid K; Briggs, Hilary A; Vojtech, Lucia N; Hughes, Sean M; Cheng, Heather H; Arroyo, Jason D; Meredith, Emily K; Gallichotte, Emily N; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Morrissey, Colm; Stirewalt, Derek L; Hladik, Florian; Yu, Evan Y; Higano, Celestia S; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-10-14

    Exosomes have been proposed as vehicles for microRNA (miRNA) -based intercellular communication and a source of miRNA biomarkers in bodily fluids. Although exosome preparations contain miRNAs, a quantitative analysis of their abundance and stoichiometry is lacking. In the course of studying cancer-associated extracellular miRNAs in patient blood samples, we found that exosome fractions contained a small minority of the miRNA content of plasma. This low yield prompted us to perform a more quantitative assessment of the relationship between miRNAs and exosomes using a stoichiometric approach. We quantified both the number of exosomes and the number of miRNA molecules in replicate samples that were isolated from five diverse sources (i.e., plasma, seminal fluid, dendritic cells, mast cells, and ovarian cancer cells). Regardless of the source, on average, there was far less than one molecule of a given miRNA per exosome, even for the most abundant miRNAs in exosome preparations (mean ± SD across six exosome sources: 0.00825 ± 0.02 miRNA molecules/exosome). Thus, if miRNAs were distributed homogenously across the exosome population, on average, over 100 exosomes would need to be examined to observe one copy of a given abundant miRNA. This stoichiometry of miRNAs and exosomes suggests that most individual exosomes in standard preparations do not carry biologically significant numbers of miRNAs and are, therefore, individually unlikely to be functional as vehicles for miRNA-based communication. We propose revised models to reconcile the exosome-mediated, miRNA-based intercellular communication hypothesis with the observed stoichiometry of miRNAs associated with exosomes.

  7. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  8. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  9. Content Determination of Ginseng Saponins of Wild American Ginseng Powder in Different Crushing Degree by HPLC Fingerprint%HPLC指纹图谱法测定不同粉碎度野山花旗参粉末中人参皂苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓丹如; 钱丽萍; 章宁; 林绥; 阙慧卿; 林善财

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)指纹图谱法,测定野山花旗参100目、200目、1000目粉三种粉末中人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量,通过指纹图谱相似度比较,考察粉碎对野山花旗参中人参皂苷的影响。方法:采用梯度洗脱、HPLC测定三种粒径粉末的HPLC指纹图谱,计算主要药效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的含量,并进行比较,通过“中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统”评价三个样品的相似度。结果:野山花旗参100目、200目、1000目粉的主要有效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量均大于3.96%,三种粉末的指纹图谱重叠率高,共有峰的相对保留时间吻合,与生成的对照指纹图谱相似度分别为0.946,0.979,0.970。结论:野山花旗参100目、200目与1000目粉的HPLC指纹图谱相似度大于0.946,化学成分的种类没有变化,主要有效成分人参皂苷Re、Rb1、Rg1的总含量基本相等,野山花旗参超微粉碎成1000目粉,化学成分保持不变。%Objective:To establish a HPLC fingerprint method for the determination of the total content of Re,Rb1 and Rg1 in ginseng saponins of the wild American ginseng powder(100,200 and 1 000 mesh powder). To investigate the crushing effect on ginseng saponins of wild American ginseng by comparing the similarity of HPLC fingerprints.Methods:Using HPLC and gradient elution,the fingerprints of three kinds of particle size of powders were determined,and the contents of the main effective components of Re,Rb1,Rg1 in ginseng saponin were calculated and compared. Through the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM,the similarity of the three samples was evaluated. Results:As the main active ingredients of wild American ginseng,the contents of Re,Rb1,Rg1 of ginseng saponin were all greater than 3.96% in the powder of 100,200 and 1 000 mesh,the fingerprint overlap rate of three kinds of powders was high

  10. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r(2) = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  11. Quantitative determination of sulfur content in concrete with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weritz, F.; Ryahi, S.; Schaurich, D.; Taffe, A.; Wilsch, G.

    2005-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been employed for the investigation of the sulfur content of concrete. Sulfur compounds are a natural but minor component in building materials. The ingress of sulfates or sulfuric acid constitutes a major risk of chemical aggression for concrete. There is a need for a fast method, which can be used on-site and is able to investigate a wide range of different measuring points, so that damages can be characterized. For quantitative determination the sulfur spectral line at 921.3 nm is used. The optimum ambient atmosphere has been determined by comparison of measurements accomplished under air, argon and helium atmosphere. Reference samples have been produced and calibration curves have been determined, the results of LIBS measurements are compared with results from chemical analysis. Defining a limit for the intensity ratio of a calcium and a oxygen spectral line can reduce the influence of the heterogeneity of the material, so that only spectra with a high amount of cementitious material are evaluated. Depth profiles and spatial resolved sulfur distributions are presented measured on concrete cores originating from a highly sulfate contaminated clarifier.

  12. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  13. Antifungal and molluscicidal saponins from Serjania salzmanniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekabo, O A; Farnsworth, N R; Henderson, T O; Mao, G; Mukherjee, R

    1996-04-01

    An investigation of Serjania salzmanniana for biologically active substances has led to the isolation of two novel saponins, salzmannianoside A (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] gypsogenin) [3] and salzmannianoside B (3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)] -alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (4). Two known saponins, pulsatilla saponin D (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (1) and 3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-a lpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] oleanolic acid (2) were also isolated from this plant. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by FABMS and 2D NMR techniques. All these four saponins were mollusicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile Valley. The saponins also showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans at minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 and 16 micrograms/mL, respectively.

  14. A new steroidal saponin from the leaves of Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    2000-05-01

    A new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins, were isolated from Agave americana (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as (25R)-3 beta,6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-spirostan-12-one 3,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Among the isolated saponins, hecogenin tetraglycoside showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 4.3 micrograms/mL.

  15. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  16. [Effect of algorithms for calibration set selection on quantitatively determining asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xue-yan; Zhao, Na; Lin, Zhao-zhou; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Yuan, Rui-juan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate algorithm for calibration set selection was one of the key technologies for a good NIR quantitative model. There are different algorithms for calibration set selection, such as Random Sampling (RS) algorithm, Conventional Selection (CS) algorithm, Kennard-Stone(KS) algorithm and Sample set Portioning based on joint x-y distance (SPXY) algorithm, et al. However, there lack systematic comparisons between two algorithms of the above algorithms. The NIR quantitative models to determine the asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides were established in the present paper, of which 7 indexes were classified and selected, and the effects of CS algorithm, KS algorithm and SPXY algorithm for calibration set selection on the accuracy and robustness of NIR quantitative models were investigated. The accuracy indexes of NIR quantitative models with calibration set selected by SPXY algorithm were significantly different from that with calibration set selected by CS algorithm or KS algorithm, while the robustness indexes, such as RMSECV and |RMSEP-RMSEC|, were not significantly different. Therefore, SPXY algorithm for calibration set selection could improve the predicative accuracy of NIR quantitative models to determine asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides, and have no significant effect on the robustness of the models, which provides a reference to determine the appropriate algorithm for calibration set selection when NIR quantitative models are established for the solid system of traditional Chinese medcine.

  17. Screening for triterpenoid saponins in plants using hyphenated analytical platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Tseng, Li Hong; Godejohann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using...

  18. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyejusa Kizito, Elizabeth; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Fregene, Martin; Westerbergh, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop grown in the tropics mainly by small-scale farmers even though agro-industrial processing is rapidly increasing. For this processing market improved varieties with high dry matter root content (DMC) is required. Potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the leaves and translocated to the roots. Selection for varieties with low cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and high DMC is among the principal objectives in cassava breeding programs. However, these traits are highly influenced by the environmental conditions and the genetic control of these traits is not well understood. An S(1) population derived from a cross between two bred cassava varieties (MCOL 1684 and Rayong 1) that differ in CNP and DMC was used to study the heritability and genetic basis of these traits. A broad-sense heritability of 0.43 and 0.42 was found for CNP and DMC, respectively. The moderate heritabilities for DMC and CNP indicate that the phenotypic variation of these traits is explained by a genetic component. We found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy and/or linkage of QTL. The two QTL for CNP showed additive effects while the six QTL for DMC showed additive effect, dominance or overdominance. This study is a first step towards developing molecular marker tools for efficient breeding of CNP and DMC in cassava.

  19. Saponins of Agave: Chemistry and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Jasmeen; Singh, Bikram; Sharma, Om P

    2016-10-01

    The genus Agave comprises more than 400 species with geographical presence in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These plants have a rich history of folkloric use and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Secondary metabolites of diverse chemical classes have been reported from Agave species. Owing to their pharmacological significance, the steroidal saponins of Agave have caught the attention of phytochemists, biologists and drug discovery scientists. The present review describes 141 steroidal saponins and sapogenins and covers the literature published from 1970 to 2015. It is a comprehensive and coherent presentation of the structures, methods of chemical profiling, structure elucidation and biological activities of the saponins and sapogenins reported from Agave. The article provides a perspective of the research on steroidal compounds of Agave.

  20. Triterpene saponins from Silphium radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Lalita M; Piacente, Sonia; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F; Segarra, Frances M; Pessiki, Peter J; Mabry, Tom J

    2008-02-01

    Nine triterpene saponins (1-9) were isolated from leaves and stems of Silphium radula Nutt. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D ((13)C, (1)H, DEPT, TOCSY) and 2D NMR (NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) and ESI-MS studies. The compounds were identified as 3beta,6beta,16beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-23-al-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), urs-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta-triol-3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (2), 3beta,6beta,16beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), urs-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (5), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta,23-pentaol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta-triol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (7), olean-12-ene-3beta,6beta,16beta,23-tetraol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-16-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 3beta,6beta,16beta,21beta-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-23-al-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9). The presence of a 6beta-hydroxyl function was not common in the oleanene or ursene class and the aglycones of these compounds were not found previously in the literature. Moreover, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Results showed that compound 2 decreased cell proliferation in a statistically significant manner at 25 microg/ml.

  1. Triterpene saponins from Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanabhagavad, Tiwatt; Thongphasuk, Piyanut; Chamulitrat, Walee; Wink, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Twenty triterpene saponins (1-20) have been isolated from different parts of Chenopodium quinoa (flowers, fruits, seed coats, and seeds) and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four compounds (1-4) were identified: 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The following known compounds have not previously been reported as saponin constituents from the flowers and the fruits of this plant: two bidesmosides of serjanic acid (5,6), four bidesmosides of oleanolic acid (7-10), five bidesmosides of phytolaccagenic acid (11-15), four bidesmosides of hederagenin (16-19), and one bidesmoside of 3beta,23,30-trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid (20). The cytotoxicity of these saponins and their aglycones was tested in HeLa cells. Induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by bidesmosidic saponins 1-4 and their aglycones I-III was determined by flow cytometric DNA analysis. The saponins with an aldehyde group were most active. The relationships between structure and cytotoxic activity of saponins and their aglycones are discussed.

  2. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  3. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man-Qi; Liu, Yue; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Xu, Tun-Hai; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Besides four known compounds, a new triterpenoid saponin was isolated from the stems of Gymnema sylvestre. The structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was established as 3β,16β,22α-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, HMQC, and NOESY correlations. Four known compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  4. Three new steroidal saponins from Helleborus thibetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Su, Yan-Fang; Yang, Feng-Ying

    2016-08-01

    Three new steroidal saponins including two spirostanol glycosides (1-2) and one furostanol glycoside 1-sulphate (3) were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Helleborus thibetanus. Structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of extensive use of 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments, together with HR-ESI-MS and IR measurements, as well as the results of acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1-2 represented steroidal saponins with an unusual substitution pattern, which possessed a double bond at C-25 and were glycosylated at 1-OH.

  5. Cloning of pleiotropic drug resistance transporter gene from Eleutherococcus senticosus and effect of its expression on saponins content%刺五加多向耐药性转运蛋白基因的克隆及其表达对皂苷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢朝斌; 孟春燕; 修乐山; 劳凤云; 庄鹏宇; 柴丽花

    2014-01-01

    利用简并引物进行聚合酶链式反应( PCR)扩增获得长度为693 bp 的刺五加( Eleutherococcus senticosus)多向耐药性(pleiotropic drug resistance,PDR)转运蛋白基因,GenBank登录号为KC473536,其编码的231个氨基酸的蛋白属于PDR转运蛋白的核苷酸结合结构域。氨基酸序列与毛果杨(Populus trichocarpa)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)和水稻(Oryza sativa)的PDR氨基酸序列一致性分别为88.74%,90.04%和88.31%。RT-PCR法检测PDR在刺五加不同生长发育时期和不同器官中表达情况和分光光度法测定刺五加总皂苷含量的结果显示:刺五加PDR基因在整个生长期中均有表达,与皂苷在整个生长期中均有合成的特点相符,但两者的相关性未达显著水平。 PDR基因在叶片和叶柄中高表达的特点与刺五加皂苷仅存在于叶中的特点相符,两者间存在显著的正相关关系(P<0.05)。%cDNA encoding pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene, whose length was 693 bp, was amplified from Eleutherococcus senticosus,by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate oligo nucleotide primers , the gene has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KC 473536.It encoded a protein of 231 amino acids belonging to PDR's nucleotide binding domain.In comparison with E.senticosus PDR with those of Populus trichocarpa, Ricinus communis and Oryza sativa on the amino acid sequence, the amino acid homology was 88.74%, 90.04% and 88.31%.The expression of PDR in different organs of E.senticosus in various growing periods was detected by RT-PCR, and E.senticosus saponins content was measured by spectrophotometry method , the results showed that PDR gene expressed in the whole growing periods of E.senticosus, which was consistent with the characteristic of saponins formation in the whole growing periods , and the correlation of the two was not significant . The characteristic of high expression of PDR

  6. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  7. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin-phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, for 30 days. Results: Our data showed that saponin–phospholipid complex had stronger anticancer effect compared to saponin extract. The IC50 values of saponin–phospholipid complex and saponin extract for NCI-H460 cell lines were 28.47μg/mL and 47.97μg/mL, respectively and these values for BT474 cells were 53.18μg/mL and 86.24μg/mL, respectively. In vivo experiments, administration of saponin, saponin–phospholipid complex and paclitaxel (positive control) effectively suppressed 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced breast cancer evidenced by a decrease in tumor volume, the reduction of lipid peroxidation level and increase in the body weight, and elevated the enzymatic antioxidant activities of su-peroxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in rat breast tissue. Conclusions: Our study suggests that saponin extract from Panax notoginseng and saponin–phospholipid complex have potential to prevent cancer, especially breast cancer.

  8. Two Novel Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Kui TIAN; Chen XIE; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2005-01-01

    Two new saponins named capilliposide C1 and capilliposide D 2 were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes, their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, ESIMS techniques, and chemical methods. Capilliposide C showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  9. Semi-synthesis of Several Stigmasterol Saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Chun-Xia; GUO, Tian-Tian; WANG, Peng; GUAN, Hua-Shi; LI, Ying-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Several stigamasterol saponins were concisely synthesized. Namely, four monosaccharide (glucopyranose, galactopyranose, xylopyranose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-a-D-glucopyranose), lactopyranose and chacotriose were coupled with 3-OH of stigmasterol. All the compounds were identified by NMR, IR and high resolusion MS.

  10. A new triterpenoid saponin from Clematis ganpiniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Qing He; Pei Gen Xiao; Yi Yu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, named clematiganoside A (1), was isolated from the whole plant of Clematis ganpiniana. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, TOF-MS and ESI-MS techniques, and physicochemical properties.

  11. Surface Shear Rheology of Saponin Adsorption Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial

  12. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Meng, Xian-Jun; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS and NMR. Its cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using MTT assay.

  13. A cytotoxic saponin from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kun; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Ru-Yi

    2006-08-01

    A new triterpenoidal saponin (1: Julibroside J(21)) with a xylopyranosyl moiety located at its C-21 side chain was isolated from Albizia julibrissin DURAZZ. (Leguminosae), and its structure was determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 showed marked inhibitory action against Bel-7402 cancer cell line at 10 microg/ml.

  14. New oleanene triterpenoid saponins from Madhuca longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Arihara, S; Pal, B C; Roy, S K; Matsumura, E; Katayama, S

    2000-12-01

    Four new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, madlongisides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments and chemical methods. Also obtained in this investigation were the known compounds mimusopside A, Mi-saponins A, B, and C, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl protobassic acid.

  15. A new triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; De Yun Kong; Ling Peng; Wei Dong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin,bacopaside Ⅸ,was isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst.and its structure was elucidated as 3-0-{β-d-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)[α-1-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-glucop-yranosyl}-20-O-α-1-axabinopyranosyljujubogenin by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations.

  16. Sexual fantasies and gender/sex: a multimethod approach with quantitative content analysis and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M

    2014-01-01

    Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex.

  17. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  18. Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cruz, Lourdes J; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette

    2013-01-01

    Holothurians are sedentary marine organisms known to produce saponins (triterpene glycosides), secondary metabolites exhibiting a wide range of biological activities. In this paper, we investigated the saponin contents of semi-purified and membranolytic HPLC fractionated extracts from the body wall of three species of Holothuriidae as an attempt to examine its chemical diversity in relation to phylogenetic data. MALDI-FTICR MS and nano-HPLC-chip Q-TOF MS were used for mass profiling and isomer separation, respectively giving a unique chemical saponin fingerprint. Moreover, the methods used yield the highest number of congeners. However, saponin concentration, bioactivity and chemical diversity had no apparent relationship. MS fingerprint showed the presence of holothurinosides, which was observed for the first time in other Holothuria genera besides the basally positioned Holothuria forskali. This congener is proposed to be a primitive character that could be used for taxonomic purposes. The phylogenetic mapping also showed that the glycone part of the compound evolved from non-sulfated hexaosides to sulfated tetraosides, which have higher membranolytic activity and hydrophilicity, the two factors affecting the total ecological activity (i.e. chemical defense) of these compounds. This might be an adaptation to increase the fitness of the organism.

  19. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  20. Hypocholesterolemic effect of karaya saponin in Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2011-12-01

    The effect of karaya saponin supplementation on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in egg yolk were investigated in Japanese quails. A total of 80 Japanese quails aged 5 weeks were equally divided into four groups of 20. Four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg feed) of karaya saponin were included in the basal diet and experiment was lasted for 6 weeks. The cholesterol fractions in the egg yolk and serum were measured by enzymatic assay, and the fatty acid composition in egg yolk was determined by gas chromatography. The results revealed that the supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin significantly reduced (p diet. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in egg yolk was increased (p diet than the control diet. The ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p diet. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin may be a feasible means of producing quail eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA content for health conscious consumers.

  1. Combination of HPLC-MS and QAMS as a new analytical approach for determination of saponins in ginseng containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianidi, Andrey; Stekolshchikova, Elena; Porotova, Anna; Rodin, Igor; Shpigun, Oleg

    2017-01-05

    Conventional liquid chromatographic methods coupled with ultraviolet detection with low-wavelength range are lacking selectivity and sensitivity to determine both polar and less polar ginsenosides. Also the lack of standard substances for such quality control methods is leading to development of the approaches using single standard for quantitative analysis of multi-component system (QAMS). The objective of present study was to establish and compare for the first time liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry QAMS methods for the simultaneous determination of protopanaxatriol-type and protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in a variety of ginseng products. Sixteen polar and less polar ginsenosides were separated on a reversed-phase C18-column (150mm×2.0mm, 2.2μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Components were then detected by means of ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. Characteristic sapogenin fragmentation signals with m/z 423 and 425 for two major groups of ginseng saponins allowed their simultaneous determination in a single chromatographic run, while the use of ultraviolet detection tends to give overvalued results. Structural correlation between the relative response factors and saponin structure was demonstrated. The method was linear (R(2) >0.999) and sensitive (LODs, 0.01-0.03mg/mL) within the concentration range tested. Concentrations of individual ginsenosides and several quality control parameters were determined in ginseng root extracts and commercial ginseng products of different types (root slices, tablets and tea samples), and results showed that ginsenoside content can be successfully measured by means of QAMS approach.

  2. Analysis of quantitative trait loci affecting chlorophyll content of rice leaves in a double haploid population and two backcross populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gonghao; Zeng, Jing; He, Yuqing

    2014-02-25

    Chlorophyll content, one of the most important physiological parameters related to plant photosynthesis, is usually used to predict yield potential. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the chlorophyll content of rice leaves, a double haploid (DH) population was developed from an indica/japonica (Zhenshan 97/Wuyujing 2) crossing and two backcross populations were established subsequently by backcrossing DH lines with each of their parents. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were determined by using a spectrophotometer to directly measure the leaf chlorophyll extracts. To determine the leaf chlorophyll retention along with maturation, all measurements were performed on the day of heading and were repeated 30 days later. A total of 60 QTLs were resolved for all the traits using these three populations. These QTLs were distributed on 10 rice chromosomes, except chromosomes 5 and 10; the closer the traits, the more clustering of the QTLs residing on common rice chromosomal regions. In general, the majority of QTLs that specify chlorophyll a content also play a role in determining chlorophyll b content. Strangely, chlorophyll content in this study was found mostly to be lacking or to have a negative correlation with yield. In both backcross F1 populations, overdominant (or underdominant) loci were more important than complete or partially dominant loci for main-effect QTLs and epistatic QTLs, thereby supporting previous findings that overdominant effects are the primary genetic basis for depression in inbreeding and heterosis in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative trait loci analysis of chlorophyll content for flag leaf in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chlorophyll contents are one of important physiological traits, which affect photosynthesis in plants. There were significant differences in chlorophyll contents between Zhaiyeqing 8(ZYQ 8), an indica variety and Jingxi 17(JX 17), a japonica variety (Table 1). In 117 DH lines of the cross of ZYQ 8/ JX 17, these parameters distributed conTwo neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice LU Chuangen and ZOU Jiangshi, Jiangsu Acad of Agri Sci, Nanjing 210014, China

  4. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  5. Quantitative inverse modeling of nitrogen content from hyperion data under stress of exhausted coal mining sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xia; HU Zhen-qi; GUO Li

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating the nutritional status of vegetation under stress from exhausted coal mining sites by hy-per-spectral remote sensing is important in future ecological restoration engineering. The Wangpingcun coal mine, located in the Mentougou district of Beijing, was chosen as a ease study. The ecological damage was analyzed by 3S technology, field investiga-tion and from chemical data. The derivative spectra of the diagnostic absorption bands are derived from the spectra measured in the field and used as characteristic spectral variables. A correlation analysis was conducted for the nitrogen content of the vegetation samples and the first derivative spectrum and the estimation model of nitrogen content established by a multiple stepwise linear regression method. The spatial distribution of nitrogen content was extracted by a parameter mapping method from the Hyperion data which revealed the distribution of the nitrogen content. In addition, the estimation model was evaluated for two evaluation indicators which are important for the precision of the model. Experimental results indicate that by linear regression and parameter mapping, the estimation model precision was very high. The coefficient of determination, R2, was 0.795 and the standard deviation of residual (SDR) 0.19. The nitrogen content of most samples was about 1.03% and the nitrogen content in the study site seems inversely proportional to the distance from the piles of coal waste. Therefore, we can conclude that inversely modeling nitrogen content by hyper-speetral remote sensing in exhausted coal mining sites is feasible and our study can be taken as reference in spe-cies selection and in subsequent management and maintenance in ecological restoration.

  6. [Quantitative assessment of intrahepatic fat content in children and adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xi; Fu, Jun-Fen; Huang, Ke; Lai, Can; Liang, Li; Jiang, Ke-Wen

    2012-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate clinical significance of intrahepatic fat (IHF) content in children and adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ninety-three obese children were enrolled in this study. Physical parameters, liver function, serum lipids, glycemic and insulin related parameters were measured. Liver B-mode ultrasound (US) examination was performed. IHF content was quantified by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Three subgroups were classified according to the conditional diagnostic criteria for obese children: simple obesity (n=31), NAFLD-1 (US fatty liver and normal alanine aminotransterase, n=33) and NAFLD-2 (US fatty liver and elevated alanine aminotransterase, n=29). Twenty healthy age- and sex-matched children served as a control group. IHF content among the four groups was compared. The relationship of IHF content with other common clinical laboratory parameters and independent factors influencing increased IHF content were investigated. IHF content measured by 1H MRS was 0.80% (0.4%-1.0%), 2.9% (1.7%-4.30%), 14.0% (7.2%-17.5%) and 18.8% (14.0%-29.1%) respectively in the control, simple obese, NAFLD-1 and NAFLD-2 groups. There were significant differences in IHF content between the groups. Univariate correlation analysis demonstrated that IHF content was positively correlated with waist circumference, hip circumference, waisttohip ratio, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminoreansferase, γ-glutamic acid transtetase, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, OGTT 2-hour plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour insulin and insulin resisfence, and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated three independent risk factors for increased IHF content: increased waist circumference, increased 2-hour plasma glucose and decreased high-density lipoprotein levels. IHF content determined by 1H MRS can

  7. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins.

  8. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  9. New Cytotoxic Saponins from Lysimachia davurica Ledeb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia davurica Ledeb., two new saponins named davuricoside I (compound 1) and E (compound 2) were isolated. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 3β,16α, 28, 29-tetrihydroxy-olean-12-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1)and 3β,16α, 29-trihydroxy-13, 28-epoxy-oleanane-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 2) on the basis of their one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  10. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Kui TIAN; Zhong-Mei ZOU; Li-Zhen XU; Shi-Lin YANG

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., two new saponins, named capilliposide E (1) and capilliposide F (2), were isolated. The structures of the new sa ponins were elucidated as 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13 -lactone-oleanane-3 -O- [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinpyranoyl]-22-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13-1actone-oleanane-3-O- { [β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-arabinpyranoyl }-22-O-βD-glucopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  11. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  12. Quantitative analysis of Internet television and video (WebTV: A study of formats, content, and source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.

  13. Analysis of quantitative trait loci underlying the traits related to chlorophyll content of the flag leaf in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua YANG; Sansi TU; Shaoqing LI; Lingling FENG; Jin KONG; Hui LI; Yangsheng LI

    2008-01-01

    A population of 117 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross of Zhaiyeqing 8 (indica) x Jingxi 17 (japonica) was employed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying four physiological traits related to chlorophyll contents of the flag leaf. There were significantly positive correlations among chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+ b content. Chlorophyll a/b ratio was significantly negatively correlated with chlorophyll b content. These four traits were normally distributed with transgressive segregation, suggesting that they were controlled by multiple minor genes. A total of 11 QTLs were detected for the four traits and they lay on six chromosomes. Each of them explained 9.2%-19.6% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Of these, two QTLs controlling chlorophyll a content were mapped on chromosomes 2 and 5; four QTLs underlying chlorophyll b content were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 5 and 9; three QTLs underlying chlorophyll a+b amount were mapped on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9; two QTLs under-lying chlorophyll a/b ratio were mapped on chromosomes 6 and 1 1. The intrinsic relationship among the four traits and the practical implication in rice breeding are discussed.

  14. Haemolytic micromethod for rapid estimation of toxic alfalfa saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On a plate covered with a thin layer of blood suspension with gelatine 10 microliters of alfalfa juice or alfalfa meal extract is spotted. As a result of saponin diffusion and their reaction with blood a haemolytic ring appears, the diameter of which is proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. Selected by this method low-saponin individual alfalfa plants proved non toxic for fishes and did not inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride.

  15. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byong-kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins re...

  16. ECLALBATIN, A TRITERPENE SAPONIN FROM ECLIPTA ALBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. K. UPADHYAY; M. B. PANDEY; R. N. JHA; V. B. PANDEY

    2001-01-01

    From the whole plant of Eclipta alba, a new triterpene saponin, named eclalbatin, together with α-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated. The structure of eclalbatin has been established as 3-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-β-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-0-β-D-arabino-pyranoside (1) on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  17. Two new triterpene saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Lu, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, gypenbiosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Their structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.

  18. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  19. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-07-10

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  20. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong-Kyu Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax of the Araliaceae family, is well known for its medicinal properties that help alleviate pathological symptoms, promote health, and prevent potential diseases. Among the active ingredients of ginseng are saponins, most of which are glycosides of triterpenoid aglycones. So far, numerous saponins have been reported as components of Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng. Herein, we summarize available information about 112 saponins related to P. ginseng; >80 of them are isolated from raw or processed ginseng, and the others are acid/base hydrolysates, semisynthetic saponins, or metabolites.

  1. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  2. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 6. Some chemical characteristics and biological activity of root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The saponin fraction of black medic trefoil (Medicago lupulina roots was isolated and purified. Its hydrolysis afforded several aglycones that have been identified by spectral and chemical properties as medicagenic acid, hederagenine and soyasapogenols: B, C, D, E and F. They made up, respectively. 46.9 and 45% of total sapogenins isolated. Two-dimensional TLC of M. lupulina root saponins revealed fourteen compounds, two of which were medicagenic acid glycosides. The haemolytic, antifungal and allelopathic activities of M. lupulina and M. media roots are compared and discussed.

  3. STUDY ON QUANTITATIVE SPECIATION, BY BCR METHOD, OF ZINC CONTENT FROM RIVER SEDIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Vasile

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents the results obtained during investigation of the zinc content of the water and river sediments in an area polluted by mining activities, to provide information on the mobility and availability of this element. Sediment and water samples have been collected from significant sites in a former mining area in which with some sterile pits, which represent a major environmental hazard.

  4. Diffusion interaction and quantitative analysis of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate content in lube base oils in terahertz regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Tian; Kun Zhao; Qingli Zhou; Yulei Shi; Dongmei Zhao; Cunlin Zhang; Songqing Zhao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the diffusion interaction and quantitative analysis of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) mixed with lube base oil (LBO) at different concentrations using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). When the concentration exceeds 6.78%, the characteristic absorption peaks exhibit significantly shift, and the absorption coefficient peak value is nonlinear against concentration. Moreover, the absorption coefficients of mixed samples follow the Beer's law at a concentration below 6.78%. The quantitative analysis enables a strategy for monitoring the formulation of lubricating oil in real time.%Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP),as a multifunctional additive and inhibitor in petroleum industry,works mainly as antiwear,antioxidant,and anticorrosion agent[1,2].ZDDP mixed with lube base oils (LBOs)has been used to study the effect of concentration on lubrication boundary and tribological properties[3].The concentration of ZDDP in LBOs plays a crucial role in formulation,which is a balance of many different aspects of performance.Lubricating formulation generally results from a molecular diffusion mechanism due to the relative motion of molecules.Molecular diffusion in a steady-state and nonequilibrium system is divided into molecular motion and interaction.Molecular motion,containing the electronic motion,molecular vibration,and molecular rotation,is complicated and multibody.

  5. A study of quantitative content analysis of health messages in U.S. media from 1985 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer; Blake, Nancy

    2010-07-01

    Content analysis is a research method that was traditionally utilized by communication scholars, but as the study of media messages has grown, scholars in other fields have increasingly relied on the methodology. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies using quantitative content analysis methods to examine health messages in the mass media, excluding the Internet, from 1985 to 2005. We searched for health-related content analysis studies published in peer-reviewed journals, identifying 441 articles meeting inclusion criteria. We examined article attributes including theories used, topics, media type, and intercoder reliability measures, and looked at differences over time. Our findings show that studies focusing on health-related messages increased from 1985 to 2005. During this time, studies primarily examined magazines, television, and newspapers, with an emphasis on topics related to substance use, violence, sex, and obesity and body image. Results suggest that studies published in communication journals are significantly more likely to include intercoder reliability data and theory discussion. We recommend that all publications, regardless of discipline or impact factor, request the inclusion of intercoder reliability data reported for individual variables, and suggest that authors address theoretical concepts when appropriate. We also encourage authors to include the term "content analysis," as well as media type and health topic studied, as keywords to make it easier to locate articles of interest when conducting literature searches.

  6. Dynamic Relationships Between Structure and Saponins Accumulation in Vegetative Organs of Alternanthera philaxeroid Criseb%空心莲子草营养器官结构与三萜皂苷动态积累的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芹; 徐如松; 王锐

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between anatomical structure and the content of saponins in vegetative organs of Al-ternanthera philaxeroid were studied by means of histochemical localization, light microscope and quantitative a-nalysis. The results showed that triterpenoid saponins are accumulated in the perennial roots, stems, rhizomes and leaves of A. Philoxeroides, especially rich in leaves and rhizomes. The contents of triterpenoid saponins accumulated in vegetative organs are in the order of leaves > rhizomes > perennial root > stem under the same conditions , with leaf palisade tissue as main stored place. There were tertiary vascular bundles of concentric circular arrangement in transverse section of the perennial roots and rhizomes, which belongs to abnormal structure. Triterpenoid saponins were accumulated in secondary phloem, phelloderm, tertiary phloem and conjunctive tissue in perennial roots and rhizomes. The tertiary structure was not only the main parts in the perennial root and rhizome , but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponins. Accumulating trend of triterpenoid saponins at different collecting periods in leaves, rhizomes and perennial roots are similar, which increased with vegetative organs growing. The stem of A. Philoxeroides was composed of epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle and pith cavity in transverse section, and only a few cells of cortex and primary phloem deposited triterpenoid saponins.%采用组织化学定位、显微制片技术和三萜皂苷定量分析方法对空心莲子草营养器官结构与三萜皂苷类物质积累关系进行了研究.结果表明:空心莲子草宿根、根状茎、茎和叶中均有三萜皂苷物质的积累,叶和根状茎内含量十分丰富.在相同采收期内含量依次为:叶>根状茎>根>茎,叶中主要积累于栅栏组织细胞内.空心莲子草的根和根状茎横切面均属于异常结构,具有成同心环状排列的三生维管束.在宿根和根状茎的次生韧皮

  7. Quantitative Content Analysis of Communication Patterns on Facebook: A Case Study of the Croatian Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Brautović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of involving citizens more deeply in the democratic process, Facebook is becoming an increasingly important tool for governments in policy making. Facebook has the potential to increase political participation, but many governments fail to use it in the right way, because they just share information online and do not engage with their followers/citizens. This paper shows how the Croatian government is using Facebook and the communication patterns resulting from their work. The quantitative analysis of 20,546 posts and 52,311 comments show that communication is one way, rather than interactive. Government users do not follow the 90-9-1- rule of thumb for social networks.

  8. False Positives and Referral Bias: Content for a Quantitative Literacy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Boersma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An extended study of accuracy in medical screening is presented as a useful application to increase students’ quantitative reasoning skills. Two detailed examples are presented. The first explores the frequency of obtaining false positive results from a medical screening tool while the second examines the issue of referral bias and its effect on the apparent sensitivity and specificity of the screening tool. Results from student assessments indicate that the activity increases one’s ability to define terms such as “false positive” and “false negative” and increases one’s ability to read and compute with information obtained from a two-way table. Teacher assessment results indicate that the activity is challenging and could be used in existing high school or college classrooms. Additionally, links to a student activity, instructor notes, and Excel calculation tool are provided.

  9. Increase in the selenium content of extra virgin olive oil: quantitative and qualitative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amato, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of food crops for human consumption is a direct strategy increasing dietary intake of selenium (Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the Se content of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO by spraying the olive tree canopy with sodium selenate and the effect of the increase in Se on the chemical properties and sensory characteristics of the EVOO. Se treatments were up to 50 times more effective in enhancing Se content in the EVOO compared with the untreated controls. Se concentration in all the EVOO samples can be considered adequate and useful for providing the human diet with the correct dose of Se. Se-enriched EVOO showed a significant increase in pigment and phenol content. Also, Se treatment does not produce negative effects on fruit characteristics or the sensory quality of EVOO.La biofortificación de cultivos alimenticios para el consumo humano es una estrategia directa para aumentar la ingesta de selenio (Se en la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el contenido de Se en aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE pulverizando la copa de los olivos con selenato de sodio y el efecto del aumento en el contenido de Se en las propiedades químicas y características sensoriales del AOVE. Los tratamientos con Se fueron muy eficaces consiguiendo aumentar el contenido de Se en el AOVE hasta 50 veces más en comparación con los controles no tratados. La concentración de Se en todas las muestras EVOO puede considerarse adecuada y útil para proporcionar a la dieta humana con la dosis correcta de Se. EVOO-Se enriquecido mostró un aumento significativo en pigmentos y contenido de fenoles. Además, el tratamiento de Se no implica efectos negativos sobre caracteristicas frutales ni sobre la calidad sensorial de AOVE.

  10. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  11. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  12. Quantitative high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress response pathways in toxicity for chemical safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Steven; Hiemstra, Steven; Huppelschoten, Suzanna; Danen, Erik; Niemeijer, Marije; Hendriks, Giel; Vrieling, Harry; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob

    2014-03-17

    Over the past decade, major leaps forward have been made on the mechanistic understanding and identification of adaptive stress response landscapes underlying toxic insult using transcriptomics approaches. However, for predictive purposes of adverse outcome several major limitations in these approaches exist. First, the limited number of samples that can be analyzed reduces the in depth analysis of concentration-time course relationships for toxic stress responses. Second these transcriptomics analysis have been based on the whole cell population, thereby inevitably preventing single cell analysis. Third, transcriptomics is based on the transcript level, totally ignoring (post)translational regulation. We believe these limitations are circumvented with the application of high content analysis of relevant toxicant-induced adaptive stress signaling pathways using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter cell-based assays. The goal is to establish a platform that incorporates all adaptive stress pathways that are relevant for toxicity, with a focus on drug-induced liver injury. In addition, cellular stress responses typically follow cell perturbations at the subcellular organelle level. Therefore, we complement our reporter line panel with reporters for specific organelle morphometry and function. Here, we review the approaches of high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress responses to chemicals and the application in the mechanistic understanding and prediction of chemical toxicity at a systems toxicology level.

  13. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction: another tool to evaluate viable virus content in live attenuated orf vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Prasad Bora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay based on the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene of orf virus (ORFV for the quality control of attenuated orf vaccine is reported. Primary lamb testis (PLT cells were infected with orf vaccine virus and harvested at a critical time point to obtain maximum viable virus content as determined by real-time PCR. DNA extracted from these harvests was subjected to real-time PCR. A critical time point for the harvesting of PLT cells infected with various log10 dilutions of vaccine virus was found to be 42 h (highest slope of 3.335, which was obtained by comparing the slopes of standard curves of different time intervals. The assay was employed to evaluate viable virus content in different batches of orf vaccine. The titres estimated by real-time PCR and conventional TCID50 were comparable with a correlation of 0.8169. Thus, the real-time PCR assay could provide an alternative method or supplementary tool to estimate live ORFV particles in attenuated orf vaccine.

  14. Quantitative determination of hydrate content of theophylline powder by chemometric X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hajime

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a calibration model to predict the hydrate content in powder materials consisting of anhydrate (theophylline anhydrate (THA)) and theophylline monohydrate (THM) by using various kinds of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analytical methods. XRPD profiles were measured five times each for 11 standard samples containing of THA and THM. THM content in the standard samples was evaluated based on XRPD profiles by the diffraction peak height and area methods, and the Wakelin's and principal component regression (PCR) methods, respectively. Since THA and THM were cube- and rod-shaped particles, the standard samples consisted of THA and THM showed crystal orientation due to THM crystal shape. THA showed reproducible XRPD profiles, but THM showed fluctuating intensities in some specific peaks in the profiles. The linear calibration models were evaluated based on calibration XRPD datasets of the standard materials by various methods. In the result based on validation XRPD datasets, the order of the mean bias and the mean accuracy were peak height > peak area > Wakelin's > PCR, indicating that PCR was the best method to correct sample crystal orientation. The effectiveness of the PCR method in construction of calibration models was discussed by a scientific approach based on regression vectors.

  15. Smashing Tissue Extraction and HPLC Determination of Active Saponins from Different Parts of Panax notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Sheng-ming; LIU Yan-ze; TAI Wen; CHEN Chang-qing; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology used for extracting active saponins from the roots,fibrous roots,basal part of stems,root verrucae,fruits,flowers,stems,and leaves of Panax notoginseng based on the contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 as evaluation indexes.Methods Different parts of P.notoginseng were extracted by smashing tissue extraction(STE),ultrasound extraction,and reflux extraction.The contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 in 24 kinds of extracts were determined by HPLC-UV.Hypersil C18 column(200 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm)and acetonitrile-warter(20:80 for 30 min→45:55 for 18 min→70:30 for 2 min→80:20 for 10 min→100:0)were used;UV detector was set at 203 nm;The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min.Results STE was the most efficient technology with the highest yield of active saponins among the three tested extraction technologies.Conclusion STE is a fast,effective,and economical method to extract the active saponins from different parts of P.notoginseng.It could significantly shorten the extraction time and simplify the determination of the pre-processing work on identifying P.notoginseng.Such quick and effective extraction provides a powerful tool for analyzing P.notoginseng in the future.

  16. Quantitative changes in phenolic content during physiological development of the olive (Olea europaea) cultivar Hardy's Mammoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Danielle; Prenzler, Paul D; Lavee, Shimon; Antolovich, Michael; Robards, Kevin

    2003-04-23

    This investigation was designed to characterize phenolic metabolism of the olive cultivar, Hardy's Mammoth, by examining its constitutive tissues. The phenolic profiles of pulp, seed, stone, and new and old season leaves were monitored over two fruiting seasons, to investigate possible relationships between tissues and phenol content and to determine the impact of alternate fruit bearing. No major qualitative differences in phenolic composition were found between the various tissues; however, distinct differences between the tissues with respect to quantifiable phenols were established. Relationships between 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3E,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate ester, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol in pulp and leaf were identified and found to be related to alternate bearing. Concentrations of 5-caffeoylquinic acid in old season leaves differed dramatically between seasons, confirming earlier studies.

  17. Keanekarragamann Beberapa Varietas Sansevieria trifasciata berdasarkan Karakter Anatomi, Isozim, dan Kandungan Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHIKA FEBRI DEWATISARI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation on leaves color and shape. The aim of this research was to investigate anatomical structure (leaves, stem and root of five cultivars of Sansevieria trifasciata namely Green tiger, Hahnii medio picta, Green arrow, Golden hahni, and Hahnii cream, as well as isozymic banding pattern and saponin constituent. The results indicated that those five cultivars have genetic variation. Hahnii medio picta has unique morphological shape than the others, while Green arrow has different stalk cells than the others. The dendogram resulting from peroxidase data, S. trifasciata was clustered in two groups where Hahnii medio picta has its own group. The esterase data is also showing two groups, where Golden Hahnii has its own group. The saponin constituent was found in the all five cultivars, which Golden Hahnii had the highest content, i.e. 1.77783 mg/g and 1.5810 mg/gag respectively for leaves and roots.

  18. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis and quantitative trait locus identification for grain mineral concentration, content, and yield in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Riliang; Chen, Fanjun; Liu, Bingran; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Pengcheng; Pan, Qingchun; Pace, Jordon; Soomro, Ayaz-Ali; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the correlations of seven minerals for concentration, content and yield in maize grain, and exploring their genetic basis will help breeders to develop high grain quality maize. Biofortification by enhanced mineral accumulation in grain through genetic improvement is an efficient way to solve global nutrient malnutrition, in which one key step is to detect the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). Herein, a maize recombinant inbred population (RIL) was field grown to maturity across four environments (two locations × two years). Phenotypic data for grain mineral concentration, content and yield were determined for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Significant effects of genotype, location and year were observed for all investigated traits. The strongest location effects were found for Zn accumulation traits probably due to distinct soil Zn availabilities across locations. Heritability (H (2)) of different traits varied with higher H (2) (72-85 %) for mineral concentration and content, and lower (48-63 %) for mineral yield. Significant positive correlations for grain concentration were revealed between several minerals. QTL analysis revealed 28, 25, and 12 QTL for mineral concentration, content and yield, respectively; and identified 8 stable QTL across at least two environments. All these QTL were assigned into 12 distinct QTL clusters. A cluster at chromosome Bin 6.07/6.08 contained 6 QTL for kernel weight, mineral concentration (Mg) and content (Zn, K, Mg, P). Another cluster at Bin 4.05/4.06 contained a stable QTL for Mn concentration, which were previously identified in other maize and rice RIL populations. These results highlighted the phenotypic and genetic performance of grain mineral accumulation, and revealed two promising chromosomal regions for genetic improvement of grain biofortification in maize.

  19. Some quantitative relationships between leaf area index and canopy nitrogen content and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Lantinga, Egvert A; Schapendonk, Ad H C M; Zhong, Xuhua

    2003-06-01

    In a previous study (Yin et al. 2000. Annals of Botany 85: 579-585), a generic logarithmic equation for leaf area index (L) in relation to canopy nitrogen content (N) was developed: L=(1/ktn)1n(1+ktnN/nb). The equation has two parameters: the minimum leaf nitrogen required to support photosynthesis (nb), and the leaf nitrogen extinction coefficient (ktn). Relative to nb, there is less information in the literature regarding the variation of ktn. We therefore derived an equation to theoretically estimate the value of ktn. The predicted profile of leaf nitrogen in a canopy using this theoretically estimated value of ktn is slightly more uniform than the profile predicted by the optimum nitrogen distribution that maximizes canopy photosynthesis. Relative to the optimum profile, the predicted profile is somewhat closer to the observed one. Based on the L-N logarithmic equation and the theoretical ktn value, we further quantified early leaf area development of a canopy in relation to nitrogen using simulation analysis. In general, there are two types of relations between L and N, which hold for canopies at different developmental phases. For a fully developed canopy where the lowest leaves are senescing due to nitrogen shortage, the relationship between L and N is described well by the logarithmic model above. For a young, unclosed canopy (i.e. L < 1.0), the relation between L and N is nearly linear. This linearity is virtually the special case of the logarithmic model when applied to a young canopy where its total nitrogen content approaches zero and the amount of nitrogen in its lowest leaves is well above nb. The expected patterns of the L-N relationship are discussed for the phase of transition from young to fully developed canopies.

  20. Structure and content of radiology reports, a quantitative and qualitative study in eight medical centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, Jan M.L. [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.bosmans@uza.be; Weyler, Joost J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium); Parizel, Paul M. [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Rationale and objectives: In order to determine how the quality of the radiology report can be improved, the variation in content, form and length of the report needs to be examined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare the length and structure of radiology reports (reports of abdominal CT examinations) in eight hospitals in the Netherlands and Flanders, the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. Materials and methods: Eight hundred reports - 100 from each collaborating center - were collected. After exclusion of the reports that did not fulfill the criteria for a standard CT examination of the abdomen, 525 were retained for further study. The structure of each report was analyzed and the constituting parts (technical information, description of the findings, conclusion, advice, remark, note) were determined. The character and word count of the report and its constituting parts were measured and the results were grouped according to the country (Netherlands vs. Belgium/Flanders), the qualification of the radiologist (staff members vs. residents.) and the nature of the hospital (university medical centers vs. community hospitals). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the Netherlands and Flanders, and between staff members and residents. The authors also found a wide variety in the lay-out and the overall content of the radiology report. Conclusion: While most of the differences we found are probably rooted in local tradition, a standard model for the radiology report in centers sharing the same language may be a means to avoid interpretation mistakes by referring physicians, and to promote better care.

  1. The structural elucidation of two new artificial steroidal saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Zhi Yu Liu; Ming Song Fan; Zhao Lin Sun; Wei Xin Jiang; Cheng Gang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Two novel steroidal saponins (timosaponin BⅢ-a,timosaponin BⅢ-b) together with a known steroidal saponin (timosaponin BⅡ-b) were prepared by the dilute acid hydrolysis of timosaponin BⅢ Their structures were elucidated by means of 1D,2D NMR and TOF-MS spectral analysis.

  2. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  3. Quantitative Targeted Proteomics and Electrochromic Shift for Measuring Photosystem Content of Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.; Bailleul, B.; Melanson, J. R.; Campbell, D. A.; Cockshutt, A. M.; Cardol, P.

    2016-02-01

    Abundance and stoichiometry data for the photosystems, the intersystem electron transport complexes and the Calvin cycle enzymes are rich in information about light and nutrient acclimation. Quantifying these complexes is essential for understanding limitations on and capacities for photosynthesis. Targeted quantitative immunodetections of conserved subunits (eg. PsbA for PSII; PsaC for PSI) are becoming an established method for absolute measurement of these complexes. An advantage of protein measurements is that they can be done with non-living flash-frozen samples and processed post-field. A pitfall of physical versus functional measures is that in some scenarios, such as during photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII), physical and functional measures give different values, but such disparities are often meaningful, informing targeted studies of regulation, repair and enzyme kinetics. Electrochromic Shift (ECS) is an alternative, fast and noninvasive method which can be exploited to determine functional PSI:PSII ratios in living cells. The basis for ECS is that pigments in the photosynthetic membrane exhibit a shift in their absorption spectra when the electric component of the proton motive force is generated across the membrane in the light. Cross-validation of methods by independent measures builds confidence in results from both approaches and can be useful for ground truthing of underway or high-throughput optical measurements or functional measurements from bioassays. We present comparative data from immunoquantitation and ECS for an array of diatom taxa. The physical data fall within established ranges. The basis for similarities and disparities in the photosystem stoichiometries between the methods are discussed.

  4. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  5. Mineral content removal after Papacarie application in primary teeth: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, S T; Pereira, J R; Rosa, A W; Oliveira, K S; Ghizoni, J S; Oliveira, M T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the mineral content removed from primary teeth after using a chemomechanical system, called Papacarie. Twenty human primary extracted molars were divided into two groups of 10 specimens each. Group A presented sound molars and Group B decayed molars on the occlusal or occlusal-proximal surface. In Group A, cavities in enamel and dentin with high speed drills were made before treatment. All teeth were treated with Papacárie following the manufacturer's instructions. Each cavity was filled in with the product, allowing curing for 45 seconds, and then removed with the non-cutting edge of the curette. The collected material was sent for laboratory analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Medians for each group were calculated through the application of Mann-Whitney and a statistically significant difference (p removed from sound tissue, the median of calcium in group A (0.08% Ca) was compared with that of the gold standard (0.04% Ca), which showed a close correlation of values between them. Indicate that the amount of calcium removed with Papacárie affects only the carious component of teeth. This goes in accordance with the principles of cavity preparation and follows the current philosophy of preventive dentistry.

  6. Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendorff, Christopher J; Murphy, Catherine J

    2006-03-09

    The seed-mediated approach to making gold nanorods in aqueous surfactant solutions has become tremendously popular in recent years. Unlike the use of strong chemical reductants to make spherical gold nanoparticles, the growth of gold nanorods requires weak reducing conditions, leading to an unknown degree of gold reduction. The metal content of gold nanorods, made in high yield in the presence of silver ion, is determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Through the use of the known gold concentration in nanorods, molar extinction coefficients are calculated for nanorods of varying aspect ratios from 2.0 to 4.5. The extinction coefficients at the longitudinal plasmon band peak maxima for these nanorods vary from 2.5x10(9) to 5.5x10(9) M-1 cm-1, respectively, on a per-particle basis. Many of the gold ions present in the growth solution remain unreacted; insights into the growth mechanism of gold nanorods are discussed.

  7. Personal information of adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W

    2008-02-01

    Many youth have recently embraced online social networking sites such as MySpace (myspace.com) to meet their social and relational needs. While manifold benefits stem from participating in such web-based environments, the popular media has been quick to demonize MySpace even though an exponentially small proportion of its users have been victimized due to irresponsible or naive usage of the technology it affords. Major concerns revolve around the possibility of sexual predators and pedophiles finding and then assaulting adolescents who carelessly or unwittingly reveal identifiable information on their personal profile pages. The current study sought to empirically ascertain the type of information youth are publicly posting through an extensive content analysis of randomly sampled MySpace profile pages. Among other findings, 8.8% revealed their full name, 57% included a picture, 27.8% listed their school, and 0.3% provided their telephone number. When considered in its proper context, these results indicate that the problem of personal information disclosure on MySpace may not be as widespread as many assume, and that the overwhelming majority of adolescents are responsibly using the web site. Implications for Internet safety among adolescents and future research regarding adolescent Internet use are discussed.

  8. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  9. Two New Triterpenoid Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Min Zhu; Ping Xie; Ying-Tong Di; Shu-Lin Peng; Li-Sheng Ding; Ming-Kui Wang

    2008-01-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 β-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)-β.D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 β,21 β,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOHIH2O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  10. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xu-Min; Xie, Ping; Di, Ying-Tong; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2008-05-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 beta-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 beta,21 beta,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOH/H(2)O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  11. Two new saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Peng; Yu Jing Zhang; Zhi Qiang Ma; Wei San Pan; Yu Qing Sun; Shao Jiang Song

    2007-01-01

    Two new saponins 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-mannopyranosyl sarsasapogenin, named timosaponin A Ⅳ(1) and(5β, 25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furost-20(22)-en-3,26-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→ 4) glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-galacopyranoside, named timosaponin B Ⅳ(2), were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. Their structures were elucidated by chemical characters and spectroscopic analysis.

  12. A triterpenoid saponin from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K; Zhao, Y Y; Tu, G Z; Guo, D A; Zhang, R Y; Zheng, J H

    1999-01-01

    A triterpenoid saponin (1) was obtained from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Its structure was elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-2, 7-octadienoyl]-16-deoxy-acacic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), named as Julibroside J26, based on the chemical and spectral methods.

  13. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  14. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  15. High-content screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity using quantitative single cell imaging cytometry on microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Su Chul; Pal, Sukdeb; Han, Eunyoung; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-01-07

    Drug-induced cardiotoxicity or cytotoxicity followed by cell death in cardiac muscle is one of the major concerns in drug development. Herein, we report a high-content quantitative multicolor single cell imaging tool for automatic screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity in an intact cell. A tunable multicolor imaging system coupled with a miniaturized sample platform was destined to elucidate drug-induced cardiotoxicity via simultaneous quantitative monitoring of intracellular sodium ion concentration, potassium ion channel permeability and apoptosis/necrosis in H9c2(2-1) cell line. Cells were treated with cisapride (a human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blocker), digoxin (Na(+)/K(+)-pump blocker), camptothecin (anticancer agent) and a newly synthesized anti-cancer drug candidate (SH-03). Decrease in potassium channel permeability in cisapride-treated cells indicated that it can also inhibit the trafficking of the hERG channel. Digoxin treatment resulted in an increase of intracellular [Na(+)]. However, it did not affect potassium channel permeability. Camptothecin and SH-03 did not show any cytotoxic effect at normal use (≤300 nM and 10 μM, respectively). This result clearly indicates the potential of SH-03 as a new anticancer drug candidate. The developed method was also used to correlate the cell death pathway with alterations in intracellular [Na(+)]. The developed protocol can directly depict and quantitate targeted cellular responses, subsequently enabling an automated, easy to operate tool that is applicable to drug-induced cytotoxicity monitoring with special reference to next generation drug discovery screening. This multicolor imaging based system has great potential as a complementary system to the conventional patch clamp technique and flow cytometric measurement for the screening of drug cardiotoxicity.

  16. Saponins from Cephalaria aristata C. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Gülcemal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One new oleanane-type saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1 was isolated from the MeOH extract of whole plant parts of Cephalaria aristata C. Koch along with three known oleanane-type saponins (2-4, 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-( β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6- β -D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4- β -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin and 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin respectively, (5-7, oleanolic acid (5, β -amyrin (6 and 20 β -hydroxyursolic acid (7 and one sterol glucoside (8, 29-hydroxystigmast-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyde. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analysis.

  17. Steroidal saponins of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, W; Sitek, M; Stochmal, A; Piacente, S; Pizza, C; Cheeke, P

    2001-09-01

    Eight steroidal saponins have been isolated from Yucca schidigera Roezl. trunk, and their structures were established by spectral (MS and NMR) techniques. These included three novel furostanol glycosides including 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furost-20(22)-en-3 beta,26-diol-12-one 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and five known spirostanol glycosides. On the basis of the extraction efficiency, furostanol glycosides made up only 6.8% of total saponins isolated.

  18. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M

    2012-07-01

    radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4.Conclusion: The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified.Keywords: Sapindus mukorossi, total saponin content, hepatoprotective

  19. Basic investigation on acoustic velocity change imaging method for quantitative assessment of fat content in human liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Kazune; Tanigawa, Shohei; Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    Fatty liver is a disease caused by the excess accumulation of fat in the human liver. The early diagnosis of fatty liver is very important, because fatty liver is the major marker linked to metabolic syndrome. We already proposed the ultrasonic velocity change imaging method to diagnose fatty liver by using the fact that the temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is different in water and in fat. For the diagonosis of a fatty liver stage, we attempted a feasibility study of the quantitative assessment of the fat content in the human liver using our ultrasonic velocity change imaging method. Experimental results showed that the fat content in the tissue mimic phantom containing lard was determined by its ultrasonic velocity change in the flat temperature region formed by a circular warming ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic lens having an appropriate focal length. By considering the results of our simulation using a thermal diffusion equation, we determined whether this method could be applied to fatty liver assessment under the condition that the tissue had the thermal relaxation effect caused by blood flow.

  20. Simplification of a haemolytic micromethod for toxic saponin quantification in alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simplification of a haemolytic micromethod is presented. In the orginal method, alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. leaf sap is spotted on the plate covered with a blood-gelatine suspension. In the presented method, the mashed alfalfa pulp is used instead of sap. Due to saponin diffusion and the reaction with erythrocytes, a haemolytic ring appears, which has a width proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. It is shown that the width of haemolytic ring does not depend on the sample weight ranging from 20 to 100 mg. This allows for the omission of laborious sap pressing and sample quantification. Individual alfalfa plants with different saponin contents were tested using leaf sap and leaf pulp for analyses. Good agreement was found with sap and leaf pulp methods. The correlation obtained by both methods was high, r = 0.87. The modified method requires only a small amount of plant material and makes the analyses of large numbers of individual plants per day possible. The method is especially recommended for breeding purposes.

  1. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  2. New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kazutaka; Baba, Masaki; Ito, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-07-15

    The research in our laboratory focuses on the isolation of saponins from cactus. In this study, we report five new triterpenoid saponins, dumortierinoside A methyl ester (1), pachanoside I1 (2), pachanoside D1 (3), gummososide A (4), and gummososide A methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-3 isolated from Isolatocereus dumortieri Backbg., and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from Stenocereus alamosensis A. C. Gibson & K. E. Horak. Compound 2 possessed a new pachanane-type triterpene skeleton, pachanol I, in its aglycon. The aglycon of 3 was pachanol D, while those of 4 and 5 were both gummosogenin, which we have previously reported, but this is the first report of pachanol D and gummosogenin in their aglycon forms. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-type I allergy activity of the saponins with RBL-2H3 (Rat basophilic leukemia) cells by measuring the β-hexosaminidase release inhibitory activity. As a result of these studies, gummososide A methyl ester (5) was found to show activity (IC(50)=99.5 μM) and thurberoside A exhibited mild activity (IC(50)=166.9 μM).

  3. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Qiao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Rui-Ping; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins and two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and chemical reaction as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 alpha-furostan-12-one-3beta,22 alpha,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostan-22-methoxy-2 alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-gentiobioside (3), and isorhamnetin-3-gentiobioside (4).

  4. Saponins and flavonoids of Allium triquetrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2003-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the flowers and bulbs of Allium triquetrum has been undertaken, leading to the isolation of five new furostanol saponins, triquetrosides A1/A2 (1a/1b), B (3), and C1/C2 (4a/4b), from the flowers, along with ascalonisides A1/A2 (6a/6b). The 22-O-methyl derivatives of triquetrosides A1/A2 (2a and 2b) and C1/C2 (5a and 5b) were also isolated, but they are considered extraction artifacts. Large amounts of seven kaempferol glycosides, of which one (7) has a new structure, were also isolated from both flowers and bulbs. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  5. Synthesis of Two Natural Oleanolic Acid Saponins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Chun-Xia; ZANG, Jing; WANG, Peng; ZHANG, Xiu-Li; GUAN, Hua-Shi; LI, Ying-Xia

    2006-01-01

    Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China3-O-[β-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]-oleanolic acid-28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester 1 was synthesized concisely by a convergent strategy. Using stepwise fashion for the synthesis of saponin 2,3-O-{ [β-D-glucopyranosyl-( 1→ 2 ) ]-[ α-L-arabinopyranosyl-( 1→ 3 ) ]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl }-oleanolic acid-28-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester, an abnormal phenomenon, that the terminal arabinosyl residue took the 1C4 conformation instead of typical 4C1 form, was observed. Deprotection or heating could not resume the normal conformation,which resulted in the product of 2' not 2.

  6. Three new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Chen, Xia; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-6-O-((3S)-3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)][β-D-6-O-((3S)-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β,16α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses and chemical degradations.

  7. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  8. A reliable and accurate portable device for rapid quantitative estimation of iodine content in different types of edible salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous monitoring of salt iodization to ensure the success of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI program can be significantly strengthened by the use of a simple, safe, and rapid method of salt iodine estimation. This study assessed the validity of a new portable device, iCheck Iodine developed by the BioAnalyt GmbH to estimate the iodine content in salt. Materials and Methods: Validation of the device was conducted in the laboratory of the South Asia regional office of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD. The validity of the device was assessed using device specific indicators, comparison of iCheck Iodine device with the iodometric titration, and comparison between iodine estimation using 1 g and 10 g salt by iCheck Iodine using 116 salt samples procured from various small-, medium-, and large-scale salt processors across India. Results: The intra- and interassay imprecision for 10 parts per million (ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm concentrations of iodized salt were 2.8%, 6.1%, and 3.1%, and 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Interoperator imprecision was 6.2%, 6.3%, and 4.6% for the salt with iodine concentrations of 10 ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm respectively. The correlation coefficient between measurements by the two methods was 0.934 and the correlation coefficient between measurements using 1 g of iodized salt and 10 g of iodized salt by the iCheck Iodine device was 0.983. Conclusions: The iCheck Iodine device is reliable and provides a valid method for the quantitative estimation of the iodine content of iodized salt fortified with potassium iodate in the field setting and in different types of salt.

  9. A new triterpenoid saponin from Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tun-Hai; Li, Hai-Tao; Xu, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Hong-Feng; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Han, Dong; Si, Yun-Shan; Li, Yu; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A new triterpenoid, saponin hehuanoside A, was isolated together with the known triterpenoid saponins 2, 3, and 4 from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin. With the help of chemical and spectral analyzes (IR, MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR), the structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was elucidated as 21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-d-quinovopyranosyl-2,7-octadienoyl]-3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-fucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-d-2-deoxy-2-acetamidoglucopyrasyl acacic acid 28-O-alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1). Three known triterpenoid saponins 2-4 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  10. Bacoside A3--a triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S; Pal, R; KulshreshthaDK

    1994-05-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, bacoside A3, a constituent of bacosides the saponin mixture of Bacopa monniera, was isolated and characterized. Its structure was established as 3-beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-O- [alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->2) ]O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]jujubogenin by chemical and spectral analyses. The cis-isomer of ebelin lactone was also obtained as one of the artefacts of the aglycone and its structure revised.

  11. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Parsons, Peter G; Chap, Sonet

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical characterization of a commercial herb sample supplied as Smilax ornata Lem. (sarsaparilla) led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins, including two new furostanol saponins sarsaparilloside B (1) and sarsaparilloside C (2), whose structures were elucidated via a combination...... in six human cell lines derived from different tumor types and one of the structures (2) was particularly active against the HT29 colon tumor cell line....

  12. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  13. Association of noninvasive quantitative decline in liver fat content on MRI with histologic response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Janki; Bettencourt, Ricki; Cui, Jeffrey; Salotti, Joanie; Hooker, Jonathan; Bhatt, Archana; Hernandez, Carolyn; Nguyen, Phirum; Aryafar, Hamed; Valasek, Mark; Haufe, William; Hooker, Catherine; Richards, Lisa; Sirlin, Claude B.; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging-estimated proton-density-fat-fraction (MRI-PDFF) has been shown to be a noninvasive, accurate and reproducible imaging-based biomarker for assessing steatosis and treatment response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) clinical trials. However, there are no data on the magnitude of MRI-PDFF reduction corresponding to histologic response in the setting of a NASH clinical trial. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the magnitude of MRI-PDFF reduction between histologic responders versus histologic nonresponders in NASH patients. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the MOZART trial, which included 50 patients with biopsy-proven NASH randomized to ezetimibe 10 mg/day orally or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary aim was to perform a head-to-head comparative analysis of histologic responders [defined as a ⩾2-point reduction in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Activity Score (NAS) without worsening fibrosis] versus nonresponders, and the corresponding quantitative change in liver fat content measured via MRI-PDFF. Results: Of the 35 patients who underwent paired liver biopsy and MRI-PDFF assessment at the beginning and end of treatment, 10 demonstrated a histologic response. Compared with histologic nonresponders, histologic responders had a statistically significant reduction in MRI-PDFF of −4.1% ± 4.9 versus −0.6 ± 4.1 (p < 0.04) with a mean relative percent change of −29.3% ± 33.0 versus +2.0% ± 24.0 (p < 0.004), respectively. Conclusions: Utilizing paired MRI-PDFF and liver histology data, we demonstrate that a relative reduction of 29% in liver fat on MRI-PDFF is associated with a histologic response in NASH. After external validation by independent research groups, these results can be incorporated into designing future NASH clinical trials, especially those utilizing change in hepatic fat quantified by MRI-PDFF, as a treatment endpoint. PMID:27582882

  14. Quantitative in vivo CT arthrography of the human osteoarthritic knee to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan content : correlation with ex-vivo reference standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tiel, J; Siebelt, M; Reijman, M; Bos, P.K.; Waarsing, J H; Zuurmond, A-M; Nasserinejad, K; van Osch, G J V M; Verhaar, J A N; Krestin, G P; Weinans, H; Oei, E H G

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, computed tomography arthrography (CTa) was introduced as quantitative imaging biomarker to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in human cadaveric knees. Our aim was to assess the correlation between in vivo CTa in human osteoarthritis (OA) knees and ex

  15. Quantitative in vivo CT arthrography of the human osteoarthritic knee to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan content: correlation with ex-vivo reference standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiel, J. van; Siebelt, M.; Reijman, M.; Bos, P.K.; Waarsing, J.H.; Zuurmond, A.M.; Nasserinejad, K.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Krestin, G.P.; Weinans, H.; Oei, E.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Recently, computed tomography arthrography (CTa) was introduced as quantitative imaging biomarker to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in human cadaveric knees. Our aim was to assess the correlation between in vivo CTa in human osteoarthritis (OA) knees and ex

  16. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  17. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  18. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  19. Two-dimensional gas chromatography and trilinear partial least squares for the quantitative analysis of aromatic and naphthene content in naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazen, B J; Johnson, K J; Weber, A; Synovec, R E

    2001-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of naphtha samples is demonstrated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) and chemometrics. This work is aimed at providing a GC system for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of complex process streams for process monitoring and control. The high-speed GC x GC analysis of naphtha is accomplished through short GC columns, high carrier gas velocities, and partial chromatographic peak resolution followed by multivariate quantitative analysis. Six min GC x GC separations are analyzed with trilinear partial least squares (tri-PLS) to predict the aromatic and naphthene (cycloalkanes) content of naphtha samples. The 6-min GC x GC separation time is over 16 times faster than a single-GC-column standard method in which a single-column separation resolves the aromatic and naphthene compounds in naphtha and predicts the aromatic and naphthene percent concentrations through addition of the resolved signals. Acceptable quantitative precision is provided by GC x GC/tri-PLS.

  20. Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Wittaya-areekul, Sakchai; Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Putalun, Waraporn; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2008-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is currently used as a drug and food supplement for memory improvement. However, studies on the physical and chemical stability of the extract components, especially on the lead compound important for pre-formulation, have not yet been reported. In this study, the stabilities of the crude extract and the diluted crude extract were investigated at various temperatures using saponin glycosides, bacopaside I and bacoside A3 as markers for quantitative analysis. The stability testing of bacopaside I and bacoside A3 standard solution was performed at various temperatures and pH values. The quantity of both compounds under all conditions was analyzed using HPLC techniques. The moisture adsorption of the crude extract was determined at 5, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C at 75 % relative humidity using gravimetric methods. The results revealed that the crude extract quickly adsorbed moisture up to 54 % w/w at both 40 and 80 degrees C, while it only slowly adsorbed moisture at 5 degrees C. The amounts of intact bacopaside I and bacoside A3 in the crude extract decreased drastically at 80 degrees C, slowly at 40 and 60 degrees C, and remained unchanged at 5 degrees C during the period of investigation. Moreover, the amount of both compounds in the standard solution dropped sharply at a pH of 1.2 but slowly at pH 6.8 and 9.0, respectively. The pre-formulation data could be further used for improvement of the final product quality.

  1. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  2. A Content Analysis of Quantitative Research in Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: A 10-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth O; Chang, Jennifer; Thomas, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We examined the trends of quantitative research over the past 10 years in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (JMFT). Specifically, within the JMFT, we investigated the types and trends of research design and statistical analysis within the quantitative research that was published in JMFT from 2005 to 2014. We found that while the amount of peer-reviewed articles have increased over time, the percentage of quantitative research has remained constant. We discussed the types and trends of statistical analysis and the implications for clinical work and training programs in the field of marriage and family therapy.

  3. Review: Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; HU Song-hua; XIAO Chen-wen; ARIJO Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines,ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc.,are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed.

  4. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  5. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Zygophyllum coccineum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-22

    of the publishers only Planta Medica Journal of Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research www.thieme.de/fz/plantamedica l www.thieme-connect.com...insecticidal activity of compounds 1, 3, 5, 6, and 9. Amin E et al. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive… Planta Med Letters Th is is a co py of th e...Amin E et al. Triterpenoidal Saponins: Bioactive… Planta Med Letters Th is is a co py of th e au th or ʼs pe rs on al re pr in t Th is is a co py of th

  6. Steroidal saponins from the leaves of Cestrum sendtenerianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Mimaki, Y; Motidome, M; Morita, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Yokosuka, A; Sashida, Y

    2000-12-01

    Five steroidal saponins were isolated from the EtOH extract of Cestrium sendtenerianum (Solanaceae), as confirmed by detailed analysis of their 1H, 13C, and two-dimensional NMR spectral data, and by the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The saponins were revealed to contain three hydroxyl groups at the C-1beta, C-2alpha, and C-3beta positions in the spirostanol skeleton, and to bear a di- or triglycoside at C-3 as the common structural features. One of the compounds, a spirostanol triglycoside, showed weak cytotoxic activity on HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells, with an IC50 value of 7.7 microg/ml.

  7. Quantitative model prediction of the combined effect of moisture content and temperature on purple mudstone decay in south-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anqiang; Zhao, Jixia; Lu, Chuanhao; Liu, Gangcai

    2017-10-01

    Rock decay is mainly the result of the combined effects of moisture content and temperature, but little is known about the quantitative relationship between these variables and the rate of rock decay. In this study we develop quantitative calculation models of rock decay rate under laboratory conditions and validate the efficiency of these models by comparing the predicted rock decay mass and that measured for rock exposed in the field. Rainfall and temperature data in the field were standardised to a dimensionless moisture content and temperature variables, respectively, and then the predicted rock decay mass was calculated by the models. The measured rock decay mass was determined by manual sieving. Based on our previously determined relationship between a single factor (moisture content or temperature) and the rate of rock decay in the laboratory, power function models are developed. Results show that the rock decay mass calculated by the model was comparable with field data, with averaged relative errors of 1.53%, 9.00% and 11.82% for the Tuodian group (J3t), Matoushan group (K2m) and Lufeng group (J1l), respectively, which are mainly due to inaccurate transformation of field rainfall into the rock moisture content and artificial disturbance when the samples were sieved in the field. Our results show that the developed models based on laboratory-derived rates can accurately predict the decay rates of mudstones exposed in the field.

  8. Effects of Saponins against Clinical E. coli Strains and Eukaryotic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Arabski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are detergent-like substances showing antibacterial as well as anticancer potential. In this study, the effects of saponins from Quillaja saponaria were analyzed against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Multidrug-resistant clinical E. coli strains were isolated from human urine. As eukaryotic cells, the CHO-K1 cell lines were applied. Antibacterial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin in the presence of saponins was measured by cultivation methods. Properties of saponins against CHO-K1 cells were measured by the MTT test, hemolysis assay and flow cytometry. Saponin from Quillaja saponaria has a cytotoxic effect at concentrations higher than 25 μg/mL and in the range of 12–50 μg/mL significantly increases the level of early apoptotic cells. Saponin at dose of 12 μg/mL enhances the six E. coli strains growth. We postulate that saponins increase the influx of nutrients from the medium into E. coli cells. Saponins do not have synergetic effects on antibacterial action of tested antibiotics. In contrary, in the presence of saponins and antibiotics, more CFU/mL E. coli cells were observed. This effect was similar to saponins action alone towards E. coli cells. In conclusion, saponins was cytotoxic against CHO-K1 cells, whereas against E. coli cells this effect was not observed.

  9. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  10. Quantitation of the THF Content in Fe[N(SiMe3)2]2·xTHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The absence of residual solvent in metal precursors can be of key importance for the successful preparation of metal complexes or materials. Herein, we describe methods for the quantitation of residual coordinated tetrahydrofuran (THF) that binds to Fe[N(SiMe3)2]2, a commonly used iron synthon, when prepared according to common literature procedures. A simple method for quantitation of the amount of residual coordinated THF using 1H NMR spectroscopy is highlighted. Finally, a detailed synthetic procedure is described for the synthesis of THF-free Fe[N(SiMe3)2]2. PMID:28248496

  11. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  12. Antiyeast steroidal saponins from Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca), a new anti-food-deteriorating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, M; Tamura, Y; Masuda, H; Mizutani, K; Tanaka, O; Ikeda, T; Ohtani, K; Kasai, R; Yamasaki, K

    2000-03-01

    A saponin fraction from the stems of Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca) exhibited potent growth-inhibitory activities against certain food-deteriorating yeasts, film-forming yeasts, and dermatophytic yeasts and fungi. From this fraction, a number of new anti-yeast monodesmosidic spirostanol saponins, named schidigera-saponins A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), B1 (4), C1 (5),C2 (6); 25(R and S) schidigera-saponins D1 (7), D2 (8), E1 (12), F1 (13); and 25(S) schidigera-saponins D3 (9), D4 (10), D5 (11), and F2 (14) were isolated, together with several related known saponins, and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (see Chart 1). The relationship between the antiyeast activities and the structures of these saponins is described.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Papiya Bigoniya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. (Liliacea is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension, standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o, and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05 higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.

  14. Ultrasound-induced physiological effects and secondary metabolite (saponin) production in Panax ginseng cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Wu, J; Ho, K P; Qi, S

    2001-08-01

    This work was aimed at the effects of ultrasound (US) on the growth and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of cultured plant cells. Suspension cultures of Panax ginseng cells were exposed to US at power density below 82 mW/cm3 for short periods of time (1-4 min) in a US bath (38.5-kHz fixed frequency and 810 W maximum peak power). Under most exposure conditions, US stimulated the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the ginsenoside saponins of ginseng cells, increasing the total saponin content of the cell by up to 75%. The growth and viability of ginseng cells were usually depressed immediately after the exposure to US, but recovered gradually to levels similar to those of a normal culture in a few days, with virtually no net loss of biomass yield at the end of the culture period. At some lower US doses, sonicated cultures could even reach slightly higher biomass yields than that of normal cultures. The effects of US on cell growth and secondary metabolite yield showed a significant correlation with the total US energy emitted (i.e., the product of US power and exposure time). Mechanical stress and microstreaming induced by acoustic cavitation were considered as the most possible causes of the various physiological effects of US on ginseng cells. In particular, the stimulation of secondary metabolite production by US may be a result of US-induced plant cell defense response.

  15. Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2012-10-01

    Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins. Key message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes.

  16. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  17. Quantitative determination of the fat, protein, lactose, and water content in cow milk using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luinge, Hendrik J.; Hop, E.; Lutz, E. T.; van der Maas, John H.; Holstra, A.; van Hemert, H. A.; Koops, J.; Wooldrik, H.; de Jong, E. A.; Ellen, G.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper the quantitative analysis of the four major components in cow milk using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry is described. Least squares regression using selected wavenumber regions is compared with full spectrum methods such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Results are comparable with data obtained from infrared filter instruments with respect to precision and accuracy.

  18. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apirak Sakunpak; Jirapornchai Suksaeree; Chaowalit Monton; Pathamaporn Pathompak; Krisana Kraisintu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis ofγ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.Methods:TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test.Results:Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  19. A New Saponin Transformed from Ginsenoside Rhl by Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong LI; Yue Mao SHEN; Ke Qin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A novel saponin was isolated from the transformed products of ginsenoside Rh1 by Bacillus subtilis. It's structure was determined to be 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxatriol on the basis of the spectral data.

  20. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Cesdiurins I-III, steroidal saponins from Cestrum diurnum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mostafa A; Mohamed, Khaled M; Kamel, Mohamed S; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of leaves of Cestrum diurnum L (Solanaceae) resulted in isolation of several furostanol steroidal saponins, named cesdiurins I-III (1-3). Their structures of the isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques as well as by mass spectral analyses.

  2. Steroidal saponins from the fruits of Cestrum ruizteranianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarraga, Elier; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Amaro-Luis, Juan Manuel; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Pouységu, Laurent; Quideau, Stéphane; Rojas, Luis B; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2011-12-01

    Seven spirostane and furostane-type glycosides were isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of the fruits of Cestrum ruizteranianum and characterized mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These known saponins belong to the delta5-spirostene and delta5-furostene series and are reported in this species for the first time.

  3. Triterpenes acids and saponins isolated from Licania arianeae Prance (Chrysobalanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Cândido, Lucilene Faustina de Oliveira; da Costa, Patrícia Miranda; do Nascimento, Ildomar Alves; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2008-07-01

    From the leaves and wood of Licania arianeae, ten known compounds were isolated and identified. They belong to pharmacological active triterpenes acids, including three oleanoic acids, five ursane acids, and two triterpenes saponin acids. Their structures were established by analysis of infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data of natural triterpenes and of methyl acetyl derivatives.

  4. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  5. Influence of saponins on the biodegradation of halogenated phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorek, Ewa; Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Sawczuk, Agata; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Biotransformation of aromatic compounds is a challenge due to their low aqueous solubility and sorptive losses. The main obstacle in this process is binding of organic pollutants to the microbial cell surface. To overcome these, we applied saponins from plant extract to the microbial culture, to increase pollutants solubility and enhance diffusive massive transfer. This study investigated the efficiency of Quillaja saponaria and Sapindus mukorossi saponins-rich extracts on biodegradation of halogenated phenols by Raoultella planticola WS2 and Pseudomonas sp. OS2, as an effect of cell surface modification of tested strains. Both strains display changes in inner membrane permeability and cell surface hydrophobicity in the presence of saponins during the process of halogenated phenols biotransformation. This allows them to more efficient pollutants removal from the environment. However, only in case of the Pseudomonas sp. OS2 the addition of surfactants to the culture improved effectiveness of bromo-, chloro- and fluorophenols biodegradation. Also introduction of surfactant allowed higher biodegradability of halogenated phenols and can shorten the process. Therefore this suggests that usage of plant saponins can indicate more successful halogenated phenols biodegradation for selected strains.

  6. New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone amurensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 黄晓君; 王磊; 王艳梅; 王英; 叶文才

    2012-01-01

    Five new oleanane-type saponins (1-5), together with three known ones (6-8), were isolated from the rhi- zomes of Anemone amurensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Compounds 2-4 are three novel sulfated oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides.

  7. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCO...

  8. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Heng, L.; Groot, de Æ.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. Traditionally, they are subdivided into triterpenoid and steroid glycosides, or into

  9. Constituents of catha edulis (alkaloids, triterpenoids and related substances and saponins)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizk, A.M.; Mobarak, Z. M.; El-Shihi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the alkaloids of khat samples from Egypt and Yemen revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. Cathine and the dimer of cathinone occured in both samples, while norephedine was detected only in Yemen samples. Investigation of certain other constituents viz. triterpenes, sterols, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and saponins resulted in the isolation and identification of several components أسفرت دراسة القلويدات فتي عينتين من القات المنزرع في مصر واليمن عن وجود ...

  10. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11.1.1.3.00. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  11. Toxicity testing of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera Roetzl. juice in relation to hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Narthecium ossifragum (L.) Huds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisløff, Helene; Uhlig, Silvio; Scheie, Eldri; Loader, Jared; Wilkins, Alistair; Flåøyen, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Yucca schidigera juice in doses of 1.5 g (63 mg sapogenin) and 3.0 g (126 mg sapogenin) per kg live weight was administered intraruminally to 30 lambs for 21 days to investigate whether the saponins in Y. schidigera were toxic to lambs and whether they could cause hepatogenous photosensitisation. Twelve lambs died or had to be euthanised. The main pathological findings in the diseased lambs were acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys, dehydration and watery content in the gastrointestinal tract. Fifteen lambs were euthanised at the end of the study, and the main pathological findings in dosed animals were accumulation of homogeneous pale PAS-positive material in the hepatocytes. There was a rise in serum creatinine and urea concentrations in the lambs with renal lesions the day before they died. Major Y. schidigera-related saponins were found in the liver and kidney samples from all lambs that were dosed with Y. schidigera juice. The results of the present study demonstrate that un-hydrolysed saponins can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The possible role of saponins in causing nephrotoxicity is discussed.

  12. Establishing a quantitative definition of quorum sensing provides insight into the information content of the autoinducer signals in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Jessica R; May, Amanda L; Hilliard, Kathryn R; Campagna, Shawn R

    2010-07-13

    Extracellular autoinducer concentrations in cultures of Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to test whether a quantitative definition of quorum sensing could help decipher the information content of these signals. Although V. harveyi was able to keep the autoinducer-2 to cell number ratio constant, the ratio of signal to cell number for V. harveyi autoinducer-1 and E. coli autoinducer-2 varied as the cultures grew. These data indicate that V. harveyi uses autoinducer-2 for quorum sensing, while the other molecules may be used to transmit different information or are influenced by metabolic noise.

  13. Content analysis of five occupational therapy journals, 2006-2010: further review of characteristics of the quantitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Andrew W; Brennan, Alexandra R; Journey, Tiffany I; Antill, Kayla D; McPherson, James J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To analyze the content of publications in 5 occupational therapy journals to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the literature base from 2006 to 2010. METHOD. A content analysis for 2006 through 2010 of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT), Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (AOTJ), British Journal of Occupational Therapy (BJOT), Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT), and Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy (SJOT) was completed. RESULTS. AJOT and SJOT had the highest percentage of articles focusing on physical disabilities, whereas a majority of articles in AOTJ, BJOT, and CJOT focused on education. SJOT published articles with the highest median number of participants in all research designs excluding descriptive studies. The majority of the research articles were descriptive for all journals. CONCLUSION. From 2006 to 2010, AJOT provided stronger evidence conducted at higher levels than the other journals by publishing more articles investigating interventions used to support clinical practice.

  14. Development of a quantitative morphological assessment of toxicant-treated zebrafish larvae using brightfield imaging and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Samantha; Wambaugh, John; Judson, Richard; Mosher, Shad; Radio, Nick; Houck, Keith; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    One of the rate-limiting procedures in a developmental zebrafish screen is the morphological assessment of each larva. Most researchers opt for a time-consuming, structured visual assessment by trained human observer(s). The present studies were designed to develop a more objective, accurate and rapid method for screening zebrafish for dysmorphology. Instead of the very detailed human assessment, we have developed the computational malformation index, which combines the use of high-content imaging with a very brief human visual assessment. Each larva was quickly assessed by a human observer (basic visual assessment), killed, fixed and assessed for dysmorphology with the Zebratox V4 BioApplication using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® V(TI) high-content image analysis platform. The basic visual assessment adds in-life parameters, and the high-content analysis assesses each individual larva for various features (total area, width, spine length, head-tail length, length-width ratio, perimeter-area ratio). In developing the computational malformation index, a training set of hundreds of embryos treated with hundreds of chemicals were visually assessed using the basic or detailed method. In the second phase, we assessed both the stability of these high-content measurements and its performance using a test set of zebrafish treated with a dose range of two reference chemicals (trans-retinoic acid or cadmium). We found the measures were stable for at least 1 week and comparison of these automated measures to detailed visual inspection of the larvae showed excellent congruence. Our computational malformation index provides an objective manner for rapid phenotypic brightfield assessment of individual larva in a developmental zebrafish assay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Influence of data preprocessing on the quantitative determination of nutrient content in poultry manure by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L J; Xing, L; Han, L J

    2010-01-01

    With increasing concern over potential polltion from farm wastes, there is a need for rapid and robust methods that can analyze livestock manure nutrient content. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method was used to determine nutrient content in diverse poultry manure samples (n=91). Various standard preprocessing methods (derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, Savitsky-Golay smoothing, and standard normal variate) were applied to reduce data systemic noise. In addition, a new preprocessing method known as direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) was tested. Calibration models for ammonium nitrogen, total potassium, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were developed with the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results showed that all the preprocessed data improved prediction results compared with the non-preprocessing method. Compared with the other preprocessing methods, the DOSC method gave the best results. The DOSC method achieved moderately successful prediction for ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. However, all preprocessing methods did not provide reliable prediction for total potassium. This indicates the DOSC method, especially combined with other preprocessing methods, needs further study to allow a more complete predictive analysis of manure nutrient content.

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of exosome protein content changes induced by hepatitis B virus in Huh-7 cells using SILAC labeling and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Wu, Yanxin; Duan, Jinlin; Ma, Yanchun; Shen, Zhongliang; Wei, Lili; Cui, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Junqi; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing

    2014-12-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis.

  17. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Saisai; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhou, Wenjun

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils.

  18. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  19. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  20. Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Saponins of Eggplant%超声波辅助提取茄子皂甙的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 姬晓灵; 丁亚亚; 杨伟; 吴涛; 段永强

    2014-01-01

    To study extraction technology of saponin from eggplant. the ultrasonic assisted extraction of saponin from eggplant, through orthogonal test of extraction temperature, extraction time, inspect, ethanol concentration, liquid ratio and power extraction on eggplant saponins extraction effects;using oleanolic acid as the control, vanillin-acetic acid as chromogenic agent, with visible spectrophotometric determination of total saponins in eggplant content. using orthogonal test to determine the optimal conditions for the extraction of saponin from eggplant, namely the extraction temperature was 50℃, ultrasound time as 20 min, ultrasonic power 80 W, ethanol concentration is 70%, solid-liquid ratio is 1∶20;in the best conditions of eggplant on extraction rate of 1.579 6 mg/g. The optimization with ultrasonie instrument extraction eggplant of saponins method further development and utilization of eggplant saponins provide a reference basis.%采用超声波辅助提取茄子中皂甙,通过正交试验,考察提取温度、提取时间、乙醇浓度、料液比及提取功率对茄子总皂甙提取的影响;以齐墩果酸为对照,香草醛-冰醋酸为显色剂,用可见分光光度法测定茄子总皂甙的含量。结果:利用正交试验确定茄子中皂甙的最佳提取条件,即浸提温度为50℃,超声时间为20 min,超声功率为80 W,乙醇体浓度为70%,料液比为1∶20(g/mL);在最佳条件下茄子中皂甙提取率为1.5796 mg/g。优化了用超声波仪提取茄子中的皂甙方法,为进一步开发利用茄子皂甙提供参考依据。

  1. [Near-infrared spectra combining with CARS and SPA algorithms to screen the variables and samples for quantitatively determining the soluble solids content in strawberry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-bo; Guo, Zhi-ming; Huang, Wen-qian; Zhang, Bao-hua; Zhao, Chun-jiang

    2015-02-01

    In using spectroscopy to quantitatively or qualitatively analyze the quality of fruit, how to obtain a simple and effective correction model is very critical for the application and maintenance of the developed model. Strawberry as the research object, this research mainly focused on selecting the key variables and characteristic samples for quantitatively determining the soluble solids content. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm was firstly proposed to select the spectra variables. Then, Samples of correction set were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA), and 98 characteristic samples were obtained. Next, based on the selected variables and characteristic samples, the second variable selection was performed by using SPA method. 25 key variables were obtained. In order to verify the performance of the proposed CARS algorithm, variable selection algorithms including Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE) and SPA were used as the comparison algorithms. Results showed that CARS algorithm could eliminate uninformative variables and remove the collinearity information at the same time. Similarly, in order to assess the performance of the proposed SPA algorithm for selecting the characteristic samples, SPA algorithm was compared with classical Kennard-Stone algorithm Results showed that SPA algorithm could be used for selection of the characteristic samples in the calibration set. Finally, PLS and MLR model for quantitatively predicting the SSC (soluble solids content) in the strawberry were proposed based on the variables/samples subset (25/98), respectively. Results show that models built by using the 0.59% and 65.33% information of original variables and samples could obtain better performance than using the ones obtained by using all information of the original variables and samples. MLR model was the best with R(pre)2 = 0.9097, RMSEP=0.3484 and RPD = 3.3278.

  2. Icogenin, a new cytotoxic steroidal saponin isolated from Dracaena draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan C; León, Francisco; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime

    2004-08-15

    This paper reports on the cytotoxic effect induced by a new natural steroidal saponin, icogenin, on the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Icogenin was found to be a cytotoxic compound IC(50) 2.6+/-0.9microM at 72h, with growth inhibition caused by the induction of apoptosis, as determined by microscopy of nuclear changes and the fragmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

  3. Two Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Saponins from Dracaena angustifolia Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new steroidal saponins, named drangustosides A–B (1–2, together with eight known compounds 3–10 were isolated and characterized from the MeOH extract of Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Compounds 1 and 2 showed anti-inflammatory activity by superoxide generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB.

  4. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities.

  5. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  6. A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin

    2010-01-01

    One new dammarane-type triterpene saponin, named (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene 3-O[α-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(l→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interrelation of spectroscopic methods, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, NMR.

  7. Three anti-tumor saponins from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Jian; Zhao, Yuying; Wang, Bin; Wu, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2006-05-15

    Three new triterpenoid saponins, julibroside J(29) (1), julibroside J(30) (2), and julibroside J(31) (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae) by using chromatographic method. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 displayed significant anti-tumor activities in vitro against PC-3M-1E8, HeLa, and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines at 10microM assayed by SRB and MTT methods.

  8. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-9(11),12-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2).

  9. Atomic Model and Micelle Dynamics of QS-21 Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Pedebos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available QS-21 is a saponin extracted from Quillaja saponaria, widely investigated as a vaccine immunoadjuvant. However, QS-21 use is mainly limited by its chemical instability, significant variety in molecular composition and low tolerance dose in mammals. Also, this compound tends to form micelles in a concentration-dependent manner. Here, we aimed to characterize its conformation and the process of micelle formation, both experimentally and computationally. Therefore, molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed in systems containing different numbers of QS-21 molecules in aqueous solution, in order to evaluate the spontaneous micelle formation. The applied methodology allowed the generation of micelles whose sizes were shown to be in high agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. Furthermore, the ester linkage between fucose and acyl chain was less solvated in the micellar form, suggesting a reduction in hydrolysis. This is the first atomistic interpretation of previous experimental data, the first micellar characterization of saponin micelles by SAXS and first tridimensional model of a micelle constituted of saponins, contributing to the understanding of the molecular basis of these compounds.

  10. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  11. Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik dan Degradabilitas Serat pada Pakan yang Disuplementasi Tanin dan Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Muthiah Dwi Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT. The study was conducted to assess the effect of the addition of tannins, saponin and their combinations on the feed, as defaunation agent in the dry matter and organic matter digestibility and ADF, NDF degradability. The study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 : feed without supplementation; T1: feed supplementation with 1,2% saponin; T2 : feed with supplemetation combined of 0,5% tannin and 0,9% saponin; T3 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,0% tannin and 0,6% saponin; T4 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin and T5 : feed with supplementation with 2% tannins. The result showed that DMD and OMD increased with treatment added combination  of tannin and saponin.  The best result for DMD and OMD in combination of  1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin.  Degradability of ADF and NDF was decreased on the supplemented feed.  The addition of a combination of tannins and saponins in the feed at dose of 1% tannin and 0.6% saponin showed the best result that increased of DMD and OMD and give good value on NDF and ADF degradability.

  12. Newspaper coverage of maternal health in Bangladesh, Rwanda and South Africa: a quantitative and qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugsa, Frey; Karmarkar, Ellora; Cheyne, Andrew; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-13

    To examine newspaper coverage of maternal health in three countries that have made varying progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5): Bangladesh (on track), Rwanda (making progress, but not on track) and South Africa (no progress). We analysed each country's leading national English-language newspaper: Bangladesh's The Daily Star, Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times, and South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times. We quantified the number of maternal health articles published from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013. We conducted a content analysis of subset of 190 articles published from 1 October 2010 to 31 March 2013. Bangladesh's The Daily Star published 579 articles related to maternal health from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013, compared to 342 in Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times and 253 in South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times over the same time period. The Daily Star had the highest proportion of stories advocating for or raising awareness of maternal health. Most maternal health articles in The Daily Star (83%) and The New Times/The Sunday Times (69%) used a 'human-rights' or 'policy-based' frame compared to 41% of articles from Sunday Times/The Times. In the three countries included in this study, which are on different trajectories towards MDG 5, there were differences in the frequency, tone and content of their newspaper coverage of maternal health. However, no causal conclusions can be drawn about this association between progress on MDG 5 and the amount and type of media coverage of maternal health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Newspaper coverage of maternal health in Bangladesh, Rwanda and South Africa: a quantitative and qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugsa, Frey; Karmarkar, Ellora; Cheyne, Andrew; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine newspaper coverage of maternal health in three countries that have made varying progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5): Bangladesh (on track), Rwanda (making progress, but not on track) and South Africa (no progress). Design We analysed each country's leading national English-language newspaper: Bangladesh's The Daily Star, Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times, and South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times. We quantified the number of maternal health articles published from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013. We conducted a content analysis of subset of 190 articles published from 1 October 2010 to 31 March 2013. Results Bangladesh's The Daily Star published 579 articles related to maternal health from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013, compared to 342 in Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times and 253 in South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times over the same time period. The Daily Star had the highest proportion of stories advocating for or raising awareness of maternal health. Most maternal health articles in The Daily Star (83%) and The New Times/The Sunday Times (69%) used a ‘human-rights’ or ‘policy-based’ frame compared to 41% of articles from Sunday Times/The Times. Conclusions In the three countries included in this study, which are on different trajectories towards MDG 5, there were differences in the frequency, tone and content of their newspaper coverage of maternal health. However, no causal conclusions can be drawn about this association between progress on MDG 5 and the amount and type of media coverage of maternal health. PMID:26769780

  14. Quantitative trait locus analysis of leaf morphological characters, yield-related traits, and secondary metabolite contents in Eucommia ulmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wei, J K; Li, Z Q; Lei, A N; Liu, M H

    2015-12-22

    Eucommia ulmoides is cultivated for the production of eucommia rubber and Chinese herbal drugs. Molecular breeding methods, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), have the potential to improve the efficiency of E. ulmoides breeding. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was applied to identify marker-trait associations for E. ulmoides using an F1 mapping population of 152 individuals derived from a cross between the wild genotype Xiaoye and the cultivar Qinzhong No. 1. A total of 78 QTLs were identified for 12 leaf traits involving morphology, yield, and secondary metabolites. Phenotypic variance explained by individual QTLs ranged from 10.4 to 53.3%. Fifteen QTL clusters, each harboring loci controlling at least two leaf traits, were detected across nine linkage groups. Co-location of these QTLs may be due to pleiotropy or linkage. Three main QTL regions for secondary metabolites were consistently identified each year. QTL information from this study furthers our understanding of the genetic architecture of these economically important traits and of MAS in E. ulmoides breeding.

  15. Pharmacokinetic studies of active triterpenoid saponins and the total secondary saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Lei, Tianli; Lv, Chongning; Zhao, Huimin; Xu, Haiyan; Lu, Jincai

    2017-02-15

    The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration range 5-1000 nmol/L for two analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.06% and accuracy was ranged from -3.16% to 3.34% for two analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 76.0%. Under the developed analytical conditions, the obtained values of main pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC0-t) indicated that the pure compounds were more efficient than the TSS extract in Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K absorption. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of two individual compounds demonstrated their poor oral absorption in rat ((a)F%, 0.019-1.521). In the study of absorption and transportation of Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the uptake permeability was in 10(-6)cm/sec range suggesting poor absorption, which confirmed the previous pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Interestingly, the uptake ratio of them declined significantly when treated with phloridzin (SGLT1 inhibitor). It indicated that the absorption of Hederacolchiside A1 in intestine was mainly through positive transport and SGLT1 might participate in its active absorption.

  16. A novel strategy for rapid quantification of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins in Panax notoginseng P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fa-Xiang; Yuan, Cen; Wan, Jian-Bo; Yan, Ru; Hu, Hao; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins (PTS) and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins (PDS) in Panax notoginseng, Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, based on the overlapping peaks of main components of PTS (calibrated by ginsenoside Rg1) and PDS (calibrated by ginsenoside Rb1), was proposed. The analysis was performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Under specific chromatographic conditions, all samples showed two overlapping peaks containing several main ginsenosides belonging to PTS and PDS, respectively. The overlapping peaks were also identified by using HPLC-MS. Based on the sum and ratio of PTS and PDS, 60 tested Panax samples were divided into three main clusters according to their species. The findings suggested that this strategy provides a simple and rapid approach to quantify PTS and PDS in Panax herbs.

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for fiber and lignin contents from an interspecific cross Oryza sativa×Oryza rufipogon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-kun XIE; Xiang-li KONG; Jie CHEN; Biao-lin HU; Piao WEN; Jie-yun ZHUANG; Jin-song BAO

    2011-01-01

    Rice straw is always regarded as a by-product of rice production,but it could be a significant energy source for ruminant animals.Knowledge of the genetic variation and genetic architecture of cell wall traits will facilitate rice breeders by improving relevant traits through selective breeding and genetic engineering.The common wild rice,Oryza rufipogon Griff.,which is considered to be the progenitor of Oryza sativa,has been widely utilized for the identification of genes of agronomic importance for rice genetic improvement.In the present study,the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for acid detergent fiber (ADF),neutral detergent fiber (NDF),acid detergent lignin (ADL),and ADL/NDF ratio was carried out in two environments using a backcrossed inbred line (BIL) population derived from a cross between the recurrent parent Xieqingzao B (XB) and an accession of Dongxiang wild rice (DWR).The results indicated that all four traits tested were continuously distributed among the BILs,but many BILs showed transgressive segregation.A total of 16 QTLs were identified for the four traits,but no QTLs were in common in two environments,suggesting that environment has dramatic effects on fiber and lignin syntheses.Compared to the QTL positions for grain yield-related traits,there were no unfavorable correlations between grain yield components and cell wall traits in this population.The QTLs identified in this study are useful for the development of dual-purpose rice varieties that are high in grain yield and are also high in straw quality.

  18. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahi, Vida; Mirzaie-asl, Asghar; Piri, Khosro; Nazeri, Sonbol; Mehrabi, Rahim

    2014-07-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra is an important medicinal plant throughout the world. Glycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid that is among the most important secondary metabolites produced by liquorice. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the levels of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effect of drought stress on the expression of important genes involved in the glycyrrhizin biosynthetic pathway was examined. Drought stress at the seedling stage was applied to 8-day-old plants using polyethylene glycol. Subsequently, the samples were collected 0, 4, 8 or 24 h post-treatment. At the adult plant stage, 10-month-old plants were subjected to drought stress by discontinuing irrigation. Subsequently, samples were collected at 2, 16 and 28 days after drought imposition (S(2d), S(16d) and S(28d), respectively). We performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays to evaluate the gene expression levels of sequalene synthase (SQS), β-amyrin synthase (bAS), lupeol synthase (LUS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) during stress. Finally, the glycyrrhizin content of stolons was determined via HPLC. The results revealed that due to osmotic stress, the gene expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased, whereas those of CAS were relatively unchanged at the seedling stage. At the adult plant stage, the expression levels of SQS and bAS were increased under drought stress conditions, whereas the gene expression level of CAS remained relatively constant. The glycyrrhizin content in stolons was increased only under severe drought stress conditions (S(28d)). Our results indicate that application of controlled drought stress up-regulates the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and directly enhances the production of secondary metabolites, including glycyrrhizin, in liquorice plants.

  19. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curillova, Zelmira [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); VA Boston Healthcare System, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, West Roxbury, MA (United States); Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress {sup 82}Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p{<=}0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p{<=}0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8{+-}0.5 vs 1.7{+-}0.5 vs 1.5{+-}0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  20. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  1. Quantitative evaluation of the effect of moisture contents of coconut shell activated carbon used for respirators on adsorption capacity for organic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon is an elemental material used for hygienic applications, particularly as an adsorbent for harmful gases and vapors. In Japanese industrial and occupational hygiene, activated carbon produced from coconut shell is a traditional and popular adsorbent material due to its excellent adsorption ability and cost advantage. In this research, in order to clarify the effect of the preliminary content of moisture on the adsorption capacity in detail, we prepared several coconut shell activated carbons which were preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities. We measured their adsorption capacities as breakthrough times for 6 kinds of organic vapor, and attempted to determine the relationships between the relative weight increase of water adsorption and the decrease of adsorption capacities of the activated carbon specimens for the organic vapors. The procedure of the quantitative evaluation of the effect of moisture and the results are useful for practical applications of activated carbon, particularly those used as adsorbents in workplaces.

  2. Quantitative determinations of chemical compounds with nutritional value from Inca crops: Chenopodium quinoa ('quinoa').

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J A; Roldán, A; Gallardo, M; Escudero, T; Prado, F E

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative determinations of total and soluble proteins, total and free sugars, starch, total lipids, tanins, ash (Ca, Na, K, Fe, and P), and caloric value were carried out on quinoa flour. Results show that the amount of soluble proteins was higher than the standard value for wheat and maize and was very close to that of barley's. The yield of free sugars like glucose (4.55%), fructose (2.41%) and sucrose (2.39%) were also of importance. Iron and calcium levels were higher than the reported values for maize and barley. The same occurred for the caloric value (435.5 Kcal/100 g). The content of saponins was also examined since its effect on red blood cells of group A and O has been related as a potential problem of the Andes population. From the chemical analysis a more complete view about quinoa as human food was presented.

  3. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents.

  4. Quantitative Analysis Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Correlation between Mass Spectrometry Data and Sulfur Content of Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Liu Yingrong; Liu Zelong; Tian Songbai

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has become a powerful tool for ana-lyzing the detailed composition of petroleum samples. However, the correlation between the numerous peaks obtained by FT-ICR MS and bulk properties of petroleum samples is still a challenge. In this study, the internal standard method was applied for the quantitative analysis of four straight-run vacuum gas oils (VGO) by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) FT-ICR MS. The heteroatom class distribution of these VGO samples turned to be different when the concentration changed. Linear relationship between the normalized abundance and the concentration of VGO samples was identiifed for the total aromatic compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, S1 and N1 species. The differences of the response factors were also discussed. The sulfur contents of a series of crude oils were proved to be linear with the FT-ICR MS data calibrated by the response factor of S1 species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the internal standard method in quantitative analysis with APPI FT-ICR MS, and the bulk properties of petroleum samples could be correlated directly with the FT-ICR MS data.

  5. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize emulsio

  6. Multidirectional effects of triterpene saponins on cancer cells - mini-review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Czyż, Jarosław; Podolak, Irma; Wójcik, Katarzyna; Galanty, Agnieszka; Janeczko, Zbigniew; Michalik, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene saponins (saponosides) are found in a variety of higher plants and display a wide range of pharmacological activities, including expectorant, anti-inflamatory, vasoprotective, gastroprotective and antimicrobial properties. Recently, a potential anticancer activity of saponins has been suggested by their cytotoxic, cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and anti-invasive effects. At high concentrations (more than 100 µM) saponins exert cytotoxic and haemolytic effects via permeabilization of the cell membranes. Noteworthy, the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, the induction of apoptosis and attenuation of cell invasiveness is observed in the presence of low saponin concentrations. Saponins might affect the expression of genes associated with malignancy. These alterations are directly related to the invasive phenotype of cancer cells and depend on "cellular context". It illustrates the relationships between the action of saponins, and the momentary genomic/proteomic status of cancer cells. Here, we discuss the hallmarks of anti-cancer activity of saponins with the particular emphasis on anti-invasive effect of diverse groups of saponins that have been investigated in relation to tumor therapy.

  7. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications.

  8. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  9. Surface properties of adsorption layers formed from triterpenoid and steroid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagureva, N.; Tcholakova, S.; Golemanov, K.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants with non-trivial surface and aggregation properties which find numerous important applications in several areas (food, pharma, cosmetic and others). In the current paper we study the surface properties of ten saponin extracts, having different molecular structure

  10. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize

  11. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  12. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  13. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo Jr., Billy W.

    2000-06-09

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  14. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Jr., Billy W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  15. Efficient improvement of surface activity of tea saponin through Gemini-like modification by straightforward esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin; Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin; Liu, Songbai

    2015-03-15

    Novel strategy of Gemini-like modification has been applied in development of new nonionic surfactants, tea saponin esters, with enhanced surface activity by simple esterification. Tea saponin was treated with acyl chlorides of different chain length and different ratio of tea saponin and acyl chloride under alkaline condition. The structures of tea saponin esters were analysed and confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and ESI-MS. Surface activity investigation revealed that esterification with the chain length of C12 and C14 and the ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 produced superior surface activity compared with tea saponin. The exceptional surface activity of the new surfactants suggested their great potential application in food industry as green surfactants due to their environmental benign nature as well as simple and inexpensive preparation. The strategy of Gemini-like modification will facilitate development of green surfactants based on natural resources.

  16. Structural analysis of complex saponins of Balanites aegyptiaca by 800 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerk, Dan; Chapagain, Bishnu P; Lindin, Therese; Wiesman, Zeev; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-10-01

    The main saponin (1) present in the mesocarp of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit is a mixture of 22R and 22S epimers of 26-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-beta-[4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-22,26-dihydroxyfurost-5-ene. This structure differs from a previously reported saponin isolated from this source by the site of attachment of the rhamnosyl residue, and presumably represents a structural revision of the latter. The main saponin (2) present in the kernel is a xylopyranosyl derivative of 1. The use of high-field NMR enabled the practically complete assignment of 1H and 13C chemical shifts of these complex saponins, existing as a mixture of C-22 epimers. Moreover, the work represents a new approach to structural elucidation of saponins: direct preparative-scale HPLC-RID of crude extracts followed by high-field NMR investigations supported by ESI-MSn.

  17. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Calendula stellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehbili, Meryem; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Abedini, Amin; Morjani, Hamid; Sarazin, Thomas; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-09-04

    Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28. Like most Calendula saponins, the sugar moiety linked at C-3 was either β-d-glucose or β-d-glucuronic acid which could be substituted at C-3 by a β-d-galactose and/or C-2 by a supplementary β-d-galactose or a β-d-glucose. The sugar moiety linked to C-28 was determined as β-d-glucose. The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 1-20 by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus followed by the determination of MIC values of active compounds by serial dilution technique against 5 bacteria revealed that; calendustellatoside D was the most active against Enterococcus faecalis with an antibacterial effect comparable to antibiotics. The cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated against fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) and human lung cancer cell line (A549). Calendustellatosides B and D exhibited a low cytotoxic activity against HT1080 cell line with IC50 values of 47 ± 0.6 and 39 ± 0.5 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two diastereomeric saponins with cytotoxic activity from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K; Zhao, Y; Tu, G; Cui, J; Jia, Z; Zhang, R

    2000-02-25

    Two diastereomeric saponins, julibrosides J1 (1) and J9 (2), both of which show cytotoxic activity, were obtained from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence [L.B. Ma et al., Carbohydr. Res., 281 (1996) 35-46], the structure of 1 was revised as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6R)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(beta-D-quinovopyranosyl)-2,7- octadienoyl)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl] acacic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->4 )]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. The diastereoisomer 2 of 1 was identified as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-[(6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(beta-D-quinovopyranosyl)-2,7- octadienoyl)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl] acacic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->4 )]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Saponin 2 is a new saponin named julibroside J9. Both julibrosides J1 and J9 show good inhibitory action against the KB cancer cell line in vitro.

  19. Haemolytic activities of plant saponins and adjuvants. Effect of Periandra mediterranea saponin on the humoral response to the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W R; Bernardo, R R; Peçanha, L M; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    1997-06-01

    An 87.7% (P saponin combined to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania donovani (FML). However, an undesirable haemolytic effect was described for several saponins. Aiming to improve the formulation with FML/saponin, we comparatively analysed the haemolytic potential of recently characterized plant saponins and currently used adjuvants. The haemolytic activity of steroidic saponins from Agave sisalana; Smilax officinalis as well as commercial saponin (Riedel De Haën's), was higher than that of triterpenoid ones (Bredemeyera floribunda; Periandra mediterranea) and the Freund's complete adjuvant. The concentration resulting in 50% haemolysis was 500 micrograms ml-1 for aluminum hydroxide. The low haemolytic effect of P. mediterranea saponin was abolished by removal of its glycidic moiety and its sapogenin fraction as well as the Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant were non-haemolytic within this range. Furthermore, the adjuvant effect of three doses of P. mediterranea saponin injected with the FML antigen of L. donovani, was assayed in mice, either by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) or the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The anti-FML IgG antibody levels increased and detectable levels were observed up to 3 months in the s.c. group. The response was expanded in both groups after an injection with a fourth vaccine dose. The IgG response showed increased levels of IgG2a only in the i.p. group, while IgG2b and IgG1 but not IgG3 antibodies were higher than controls in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recently described triterpenoid fractions of P. mediterranea can be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.

  20. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wu, Biao; Chen, Gang; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,24R,25R)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (1) and (23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (2).

  1. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  2. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  3. Triterpenoid saponins from the shells of Argania spinosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Asma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soufiaoui, Mohamed; Carbone, Virginia; Malorni, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2002-07-31

    Two new oleanene saponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the shell of Argania spinosa. They possess protobassic acid and 16alpha-protobassic acid as aglycons. The disaccharide moiety linked to C-3 of the aglycon is made up of two glucose units; the pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 is made up of arabinose, xylose, and three rhamnose units. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (DQF-COSY, 1D TOCSY, and 2D HOHAHA) and (1)H-(13)C (HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy along with mass spectrometry.

  4. Cytotoxic triterpenes from the acid hydrolyzate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Tan, De-Hong; Yan, Ting-Cai; Jiang, Dong-Hua; Hou, Ming-Xiao

    2017-05-02

    One new dammarane-type triterpene, gypsapogenin A (1), was isolated from the acid hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, together with two known compounds, (20S,24S)-3β,20,21β,23β,25-pentahydroxy-21,24-cyclodammarane (2) and (23S)-3β-hydroxydammar-20,24-dien-21-oic acid 21,23-lactone (3). Its structural elucidations were accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against HepG2 and A549 human cancer cell lines.

  5. An isoflavan and saponins from Astragalus depressus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamria Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nine known secondary metabolites were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Astragalus depressus L. (Fabaceae family, including one isoflavan, namely pendulone (1 and eight saponins, namely cyclogaleginoside A (2, astrasieversianin II (3, astrasieversianin IV (4, astrasieversianin VII (5, astrasieversianin VI (6, astrasieversianin XIV (7, dehydrosoyasaponin I (8 and soyasaponin I (9. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  6. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  8. A new dammarane-type saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shao-Fang; Jang, Moonhee; Wang, Yu-Rong; Piao, Xiang-Lan

    2016-04-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum has been widely used as a traditional herb for its antioxidant and immunostimulatory activities. We have previously reported several useful dammarane-type saponins with cytotoxicity against A549 human lung cancer cells from heat-processed G. pentaphyllum. In this study, a new dammarane-type saponin, 20(S)-2α,3β,12β-tetrahydroxydammar-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (namely gypenoside Jh1), was isolated from the ethanol extract of heat-processed G. pentaphyllum using column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Gypenoside Jh1 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was associated with apoptotic cell death characterized by morphological changes, Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining, Annexin V and propidium iodide binding and mitochondrial potentials assay. Quantitative analysis using flow cytometry also showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells was increased after gypenoside Jh1 treatment. These findings indicated that gypenoside Jh1 showed antiproliferative effects on A549 cells and mitochondrial-dependent pathway is involved in gypenoside Jh1-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Profiles of steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Tribulus pentandrus, T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus and T. parvispinus by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Arafa I; Janda, Bogdan; Mahalel, Usama A; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Tribulus is a well-known pharmaceutical herb that has been used for a long time in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It has been found that the genus Tribulus is rich in biologically active furostane-, cholestane- and spirostane-type steroidal saponins. To develop a rapid, sensitive and accurate method based on liquid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) to identify different saponins in three species of the genus Tribulus, and to quantify the compounds that are already known. After extraction from the species studied, the extracts were subjected to HPLC analyses with an XTerra® MS C(18) -column and a binary mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, and with an ESI-MS detection in the negative ion mode. Data were acquired and processed using the Xcalibur 1.3 software. The results exhibited that the profiles of native steroidal glycosides of both T. pentandrus and T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus were very similar to each other, but that of T. parvispinus was remarkably different. The fragmentation patterns provided evidence that the saponins possess spirostane-, cholestane- and furostane-type aglycones. Quantitative analyses suggested that these species are a rich source of steroidal saponins. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of the key compounds without preparative isolation of the components from the crude extract of Tribulus species. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Reliability of quantitative content analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enschot-van Dijk, R. van

    2014-01-01

    Reliable coding of stimuli is a daunting task that often yields unsatisfactory results. This paper discusses a case study in which tropes (e.g., metaphors, puns) in TV commercials were analyzed as well the extent and location of verbal and visual anchoring (i.e., explanation) of these tropes. After

  11. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, H D; Sarveiya, V P; Pal, S C; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) on the transfer latency, whereas anxiolytic activity was assessed by studying its effect on the duration of occupancy in the closed arm. Results showed significant improvement in the retention ability of the normal and amnesic mice as compared to their respective controls. Animals treated with BF (25 mg/kg) spent more time in the open arm in a dose-dependent manner. The BF was without any significant effect on motor coordination. However, it significantly inhibited passivity and hypothermia induced by baclofen (10 mg/kg), a GABA(B) agonist. The data emanated in the present study suggests involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins obtained from A. lebbeck.

  12. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  13. THE QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE CONTENT OF JUVENILE FISH AT THE MOUTH OF THE RIVERS NERETVA AND MALA NERETVA DURING THE SUMMER-AUTUMN PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antolović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the changes in content and abundance of local juvenile fish community species at stations along the mouth of the Rivers Neretva and Mala Neretva during August, October and December 2008. A total of 690 specimens were collected using a small coastal trawl, out of which 437 were collected at the mouth of the River Neretva and 253 at the mouth of the River Mala Neretva. The specimens were categorized into 14 families and 19 species. The most abundant species from the total catch belonged to the families Atherinidae (40%, Mugilidae (15.79%, Gobiidae (15.50% and Sparidae (13.04%. The Margalef index on specie richness was greater in the regions inhabited by larger numbers of species, ranging between 1.66 in August and 4.13 in October, wheras the highest diversity ranging between 0.393 in December and 0.923 in October was noted using the Simpson index. The highest value using the Shannon Wiener index was 1.18 in December and the lowest at 0.36 was in October, as almost 90% of the catch consisted of only two species. The Pielou index, which describes the variety of ichtiocenoza numerically, ranged between 0.14 in October and 0.74 in December. The stations investigated showed great similarities considering specie content, wheras there were differences in quantitative structure. The station at the mouth of the River Mala Neretva was richer in species as compared to the station at the mouth of the River Neretva, where we came across a smaller number of species, but a greater number of specimens.

  14. [Effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (ADR) and approach its mechanism of action. Cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (ADR 2 mg x L(-1)) group, and GSTT (100, 30, and 10 mg x L(-1)) groups. MTT colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of CK, LDH, AST, SOD, MDA and NO were detected, and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Effect of GSTT on caspase-3 was detected with Western blotting. Compared with control group, contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were increased, and activity of SOD was reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by ADR. Numbers of survival cells were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were decreased, and activity of SOD was increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). Apoptosis of cardiocytes and concentration of caspase-3 can be reduced by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). GSTT can protect cardiocytes impaired by ADR, which are possible involved with its effect of resisting oxygen free radical.

  15. Tannic acid and saponin for removing arsenic from brownfield soils: Mobilization, distribution and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    Plant biosurfactants were used for the first time to remove As and co-existing metals from brownfield soils. Tannic acid (TA), a polyphenol, and saponin (SAP), a glycoside were tested. The soil washing experiments were performed in batch conditions at constant biosurfactant concentration (3%). Both biosurfactants differed in natural pH, surface tension, critical micelle concentration and content of functional groups. After a single washing, TA (pH 3.44) more efficiently mobilized As than SAP (pH 5.44). When both biosurfactants were used at the same pH (SAP adjusted to 3.44), arsenic mobilization was improved by triple washing. The process efficiency for TA and SAP was similar, and depending on the soil sample, ranged between 50%-64%. Arsenic mobilization by TA and SAP resulted mainly from decomposition of Fe arsenates, followed by Fe(3+) complexation with biosurfactants. Arsenic was efficiently released from reducible and partially from residual fractions. In all soils, As(V) was almost completely removed, whereas content of As(III) was decreased by 37%-73%. SAP and TA might be used potentially to remove As from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Miscibility of Quillaja Saponins with other Co-surfactants under Different pH Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Corina L; Salminen, Hanna; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The miscibility behavior of mixed surfactant systems and the influence of extrinsic parameters are crucial for their application as emulsifiers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the miscibility behavior of mixed systems composed of commercial Quillaja saponin and a co-surfactant, namely sodium caseinate, pea protein, rapeseed lecithin, or egg lecithin. These mixtures were evaluated macro- and microscopically at different concentration ratios (maximum concentration 5% w/v) at pH 3, 5, and 7 at 25 °C. The individual ingredients were also assessed for their charge properties and surface hydrophobicity. The results showed that Quillaja saponin-caseinate mixtures were miscible only at pH 7, and showed aggregation and precipitation at lower pH due to increasing electrostatic attraction forces. Rheological measurements showed that Quillaja saponin-pea protein mixtures formed gelled structures at all tested pH values mainly via association of hydrophobic patches. Quillaja saponins mixed with rapeseed lecithin were miscible at all tested pH values due to electrostatic repulsion. Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin mixtures aggregated independent of pH and concentration ratio. The microscopic analysis revealed that the lower the pH and the higher the Quillaja saponin ratio, the denser were the formed Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin aggregates. The results are summarized in ternary phase diagrams that provide a useful tool in selecting a surfactant system for food applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Saisai [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhou Wenjun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils. - Saponin has great potential for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and phenanthrene from the combined contaminated soils.

  18. Effect of saponins on n-hexane removal in biotrickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yanhong; Yang, Chunping; Cheng, Yan; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Saponins was applied to enhance the removal of n-hexane in a biotrickling filter (BTF) in this study. Comparison experiments were carried out to examine the effect of saponins on n-hexane removal in two BTFs at various saponins concentrations, n-hexane loading rates (LRs) and gas empty bed contact times (EBCTs). Results show that the optimum concentration of saponins in nutrient feed was 50.0mgL(-1). When organic LR of n-hexane increased from 47.8 to 120.0gm(-3)h(-1), the removal efficiency (RE) for BTF1 (with saponins) and BTF2 (without saponins) decreased from 91.3% to 83.3% and from 62.8% to 56.8%, respectively. As gas EBCT decreased from 30.0 to 7.5s, the RE declined from 88.4% to 64.5% for BTF1 and from 61.4% to 38.3% for BTF2. Saponins could also decrease the biomass accumulation rate within the medium bed. These results could be referred in the design and operation of BTFs for hydrophobic VOC removal.

  19. Src/Syk-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Triterpenoidal Saponins from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Sik; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Seulah; Jung, Kiwon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (family Cucurbitaceae), also known as gac, or red melon, is an edible Southeast Asian fruit valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Specifically, Momordicae Semen, the seeds of the gac fruit, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat boils, rheumatic pain, muscle spasm, hemorrhoids, and hemangiomas. In this study, a chemical investigation into a gac seed ethanol (EtOH) extract resulted in the identification of three triterpenoidal saponins (1-3), which were investigated for their anti-inflammatory effects. Among the saponins, momordica saponin I (compound 3) reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were decreased by momordica saponin I. Additionally, the translocation of p65 and p50 (subunits of the transcription factor NF-[Formula: see text]B) into the nucleus was remarkably inhibited. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of inflammatory signaling proteins (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text], Src, and Syk) known to be upstream regulatory molecules of p65 were decreased under momordica saponin I-treated conditions. The molecular targets of momordica saponin I were confirmed in overexpression experiments and through immunoblot analyses with Src and Syk. This study provides evidence that momordica saponin I could be beneficial in treating inflammatory diseases, and should be considered a bioactive immunomodulatory agent with anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Phenetic relationships among natural population accessions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae in central Zagros region of Iran, based on quantitative morphology, flavonoids and glycyrrhizin contents data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sharifi-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenetic relationships among thirty five accessions from natural populations of two varieties of Glycyrrhiza glabra in central Zagros region of Iran were studied. Twenty one quantitative morphological characters were measured for twenty seven accessions. PCO, clustering, K-means and MDS analyses were performed on morphological dataset. Polar flavonoid constituents of twenty four accessions were extracted, purified using TLC and characterized at the skeleton class level. Glycyrrhizin contents of rhizomes in twenty four accessions were quantified using image processing methods. Results of multivariate analysis of both morphological and flavonoid spot profile data showed that accessions could be partitioned into two main groups based on geographical locality of the populations. The most variable morphological trait based on CV values, was seed area and the least variable one was Legume width in the widest portion. Accessions of both varieties produced various flavonoids of class flavones and flavonols. Seven flavonoid constituents from the two varieties were separated based on different Rf values. The results revealed that there were moderate (not prominent levels of variation between the studied accessions. Separation of the varieties based on the single qualitative character in the available literature, was confirmed. Rhizomes of both varieties showed similar amounts of glycyrrhizin and almost similar types of flavonoids in their TLC profiles, suggesting that both were equivalent as herbal drugs in folk medicine.

  1. Fine Mapping of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8, a Quantitative Trait Locus for Flag Leaf Nitrogen Content, Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Yamanouchi, Utako; Tanabata, Takanari; Sun, Jian; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sage, Rowan F.; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yonemaru, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the rate of leaf photosynthesis is one important approach for increasing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Exploiting the natural variation in CO2 assimilation rate (A) between rice cultivars using quantitative genetics is one promising means to identify genes contributing to higher photosynthesis. In this study, we determined precise location of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8 (CAR8) by crossing a high-yielding indica cultivar with a Japanese commercial cultivar. Fine mapping suggested that CAR8 encodes a putative Heme Activator Protein 3 (OsHAP3) subunit of a CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor called OsHAP3H. Sequencing analysis revealed that the indica allele of CAR8 has a 1-bp deletion at 322 bp from the start codon, resulting in a truncated protein of 125 amino acids. In addition, CAR8 is identical to DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1, which was reported to control rice flowering date. The increase of A is largely due to an increase of RuBP regeneration rate via increased leaf nitrogen content, and partially explained by reduced stomatal limitation via increased stomatal conductance relative to A. This allele also increases hydraulic conductivity, which would promote higher stomatal conductance. This indicates that CAR8 affects multiple physiological aspects relating to photosynthesis. The detailed analysis of molecular functions of CAR8 would help to understand the association between photosynthesis and flowering and demonstrate specific genetic mechanisms that can be exploited to improve photosynthesis in rice and potentially other crops. PMID:28197156

  2. Influence of the leaf content and herbal particle size on the presence and extractability of quantitated phenolic compounds in Cistus incanus herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Peer; Rusche, Nele; Saake, Bodo; Rohn, Sascha

    2014-11-12

    A variety of Cistus incanus products and thereof a majority of herbal teas are offered by manufacturers despite a classification as Novel Food. For a re-evaluation of this legal status, a characterization of bioactive ingredients will provide data. These teas consist of various compositions of plant parts and particle sizes. Whereas some include high leaf contents with a small particle size, others mainly consist of woody stem parts. For the consumer it is of interest which product yields the highest concentrations of bioactive phenolic compounds in the final infusions. In this study, four commercially available samples were divided into leaves and stems. Additionally, one sample was reconstituted in three mixtures of these plant parts. The amount of wood was determined by cellulose concentration. The aim was to estimate the influence of the plant parts on the concentration of phenolic compounds, which were identified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and quantitated by LC-DAD. Furthermore, one herbal tea was separated into six fractions with different particle sizes to investigate the influence of particle size on the extractability of phenolic compounds. On basis of the results, the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds in the infusions were yielded when leafy parts with a small particle size were used for brewing.

  3. Correlation and quantitative trait loci analyses of total chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of rice (Oryza sativa) under water stress and well-watered conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Song-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Xiu-Dong; Li, Lin; Luo, Li-Jun; Liu, Guo-Lan; Zhou, Qing-Ming

    2009-09-01

    In order to explore the relevant molecular genetic mechanisms of photosynthetic rate (PR) and chlorophyll content (CC) in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we conducted a series of related experiments using a population of recombinant inbred lines (Zhenshan97B x IRAT109). We found a significant correlation between CC and PR (R= 0.19**) in well-watered conditions, but no significant correlation during water stress (r= 0.08). We detected 13 main quantitative trait loci (QTLs) located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10, which were associated with CC, including six QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 during water stress, and seven QTLs located on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 in well-watered conditions. These QTLs explained 47.39% of phenotypic variation during water stress and 56.19% in well-watered conditions. We detected four main QTLs associated with PR; three of them (qPR2, qPR10, qPR11) were located on chromosomes 2, 10, and 11 during water stress, and one (qPR10) was located on chromosome 10 in well-watered conditions. These QTLs explained 34.37% and 18.41% of the phenotypic variation in water stress and well-watered conditions, respectively. In total, CC was largely controlled by main QTLs, and PR was mainly controlled by epistatic QTL pairs.

  4. Daily newspaper reporting on elderly care in Sweden and Finland: a quantitative content analysis of ethnicity- and migration-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Torres

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Media representations are important sources of information especially about contexts that people have limited access to (such as the one we address here, that is, elderly care. Representations of this also give us an insight into how ethnicity-, culture-, and migration-related issues are regarded. This article aims to shed light on media representations related to the nexus of elderly care, ethnicity, and migration in Sweden and Finland, given that the two countries have similar elderly care regimes but different migration regimes. The study uses quantitative content analysis to analyze all of the daily newspaper articles on elderly care that have touched upon these issues and have been published in one major newspaper in each country between 1995 and 2011 (N=347. In this article, we present the topics that these newspaper articles discuss; the elderly care actors that the articles focus on (i.e. whether the focus has been on elderly care recipients, elderly care providers or informal caregivers; the ethnic backgrounds of those who expressed themselves in the articles (i.e. whether the focus has been on the ethnic majority or on ethnic minorities; and the type of explanatory frameworks used in the daily press reporting in question. The article problematizes the media representations of ethnicity- and migration-related issues within the Swedish and Finnish elderly care sectors that the analysis has unveiled in relation to the debate on the challenges that the globalization of international migration poses to the elderly care sector.

  5. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of a Panax notoginseng preparation using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Qing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xuesaitong (XST injection, consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, was widely used for the treatment of cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases in China. This study develops a simple and global quality evaluation method for the quality control of XST. Methods High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV was used to identify and quantify the chromatographic fingerprints of the XST injection. Characteristic common peaks were identified using HPLC with photo diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/ESI-MSn. Results Representative fingerprints from ten batches of samples showed 27 'common saponins' all of which were identified and quantified using ten reference saponins. Conclusion Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis identified most of the common saponins for the quality control of P. notoginseng products such as the XST injection.

  6. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp.: structure and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Parsons, Peter G; Chap, Sonet; White, Eve F; Blanchfield, Joanne T; Lehmann, Reginald P; De Voss, James J

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical characterization of a commercial herb sample supplied as Smilax ornata Lem. (sarsaparilla) led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins, including two new furostanol saponins sarsaparilloside B (1) and sarsaparilloside C (2), whose structures were elucidated via a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The previously unreported spectroscopic characterization of sarsaparilloside (3), Δ(20(22))-sarsaparilloside (4), and parillin (5) is also provided. The antiproliferative activity of the isolated saponins was compared in six human cell lines derived from different tumor types and one of the structures (2) was particularly active against the HT29 colon tumor cell line.

  7. Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Yu; Tsai; Yue-Hwa; Chen; Yi-Wen; Chien; Wen-Hsuan; Huang; Shyh-Hsiang; Lin

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of extracted soybean saponins on the growth of human colon cancer cells.METHODS:WiDr human colon cancer cells were treated with 150,300,600 or 1200 ppm of soy saponin to determine the effect on cell growth,cell morphology,alkaline phosphatase(AP) and protein kinase C(PKC) activities,and P53 protein,c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression.RESULTS:Soy saponin decreased the number of viable cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed 12-Otetradecanol-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PKC ...

  8. LC-ESI-MS/MS,a modified method for simultaneous quantification of isoflavonoids,flavonoids,alkaloids and saponins in a Chinese herbal preparation Gegen-Qinlian decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS/MS)method was established to simultaneously quantitate four categories of compounds(isoflavonoids,flavonoids,alkaloids and saponins)in Gegen-Qinlian decoction(GQD).These compounds were separated by a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK C18 column with a linear gradient consisting of 0.1%(v/v)formic acid in water(A)and 0.1%(v/v)formic acid in acetonitrile(B),and delivered at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min.All the analytes w...

  9. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods:The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions:The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  10. Isolation and structure elucidation of a highly haemolytic saponin from the Merck saponin extract using high-field gradient-enhanced NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, C; Gavin, J A; Aumelas, A; Bonnet, P A; Roumestand, C

    1997-07-11

    Saponins SAPO50 and SAPO30, of which SAPO50 is highly haemolytic, have been isolated from the commercial Merck Saponin. Their structures have been determined exclusively by high-field gradient-enhanced NMR methods. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of these saponins in pyridine-deuterium oxide have been assigned by homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments. Anomeric configurations were obtained by combined use of 1JCH, 3JH-1.H-2, and 1D-NOESY data. Sugar residues were identified by use of 3JHH values obtained from their subspectra recorded using an optimized 1D-zeta-TOCSY sequence. Linkage assignments were made using the ge-HMBC and 1D-NOESY spectra. This study shows that SAPO50 represents a hitherto undescribed saponin with the following structure: 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin 28-O-(6-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1--> 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D- fucopyranoside. SAPO30, however, corresponds to a saponin previously described [D. Frechet, B. Christ, B. Monegier du Sorbier, H. Fischer, and M. Vuilhorgne, Phytochemistry, 30 (1991) 927-931].

  11. 茶皂素对奶牛瘤胃发酵及瘤胃微生物区系的影响%Effects of Tea Saponin on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Microflora of Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严淑红; 赵士萍; 蒋琦晖; 方洛云; 周敏; 闵婉平; 蒋林树

    2016-01-01

    for determination of rumen fermentation parameters and rumen microorganisms (real⁃time quantitative PCR method). The results showed as follows: 1) compared with control group, tea saponin significantly reduced rumen fluid pH (30 and 40 g/d groups), ammonia nitrogen concentration (20, 30 and 40 g/d groups) (P0.05) . 2) Compared with control group, the contents of rumen fluid proto⁃zoa and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens of tea saponin groups were significantly decreased ( P0.05) . In conclusion, the supplementation of tea saponin can improve the pat⁃tern of rumen fermentation and has a significant effect on rumen microbial flora, and the optimal level for dairy cows is 30 g/d.

  12. Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Tian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts obtained from Platycodon grandiflorum roots led to isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23,24-pentahydroxyoleanane-28(13-lactone (1 and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,12α,16α,23α-tetrahydroxyoleanane-28(13- lactone (2 by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques, as well as chemical means. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against human ECA-109 cells.

  13. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  14. Are saponins and sapogenins precursors of prednisolone? Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Labella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of cortisol into prednisolone in cattle faeces was demonstrated and provided by literature, given the structural similarity of prednisolone with cortisol. In this study, we evaluated a possible neo-formation of prednisolone, as results of a faecal or environmental contamination. A saponine, α-solanine, and a sapogenin, diosgenin, were selected as possible precursors. A simple method without extraction was applied. The analyses were performed by HPLC–MSn to evaluate the possible transformations. The results showed that prednisolone was detected in the faecal suspension spiked with diosgenin at t= 8h, while cortisol was also detected at t = 24h in the sample of faeces spiked with α-solanine. In the feed and in the control samples, no transformations were observed.

  15. A Cytotoxic Saponin with Two Monoterpenoids from Albizia julibrissin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new cytotoxic saponin(1), Julibrosides J27, was isolated from the stem barks of Alibizia.julibrissin by chromatography, and the structure was elucidated as 3-O-b -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-b -D- fucopyranosyl - (1→ 6) -b - D-glucopyranosyl - 21-O-[(6S)-2 -trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxylmethy 6- methyl - 6- hydroxy)-2,7-octadienoyl-b -D-quinovopy--ranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl}- acacic acid- 28 -O-b -D-glucopranosyl-(1→ 3)-[(a -L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→ 4)]-a -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-b -D-glucopyrnosyl ester based on spectral and chemical evidences.

  16. Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Mareni R.; Pertile, Roberto; Correa, Melissa M.; Schenkel, Eloir P., E-mail: marenif@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Farmacia; Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de; Palermo, Jorge A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2010-07-01

    Two saponins were isolated from the leaves of Lippia alba. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl -(1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-16alpha, 23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named as Lippiasaponin I (2) and as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha-Larabinopyranosyl)-16alpha,23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named Lippiasaponin II (3). (author)

  17. LC-MS(n) characterization of steroidal saponins in Helleborus niger L. roots and their conversion products during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckstein, Sarina M; Stintzing, Florian C

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal saponins comprise a substantial part of the secondary metabolite spectrum in the medicinal plant Helleborus niger L. (black hellebore). The saponin fraction from the roots was investigated by LC-MS(n) resulting in 38 saponins and β-ecdysone. Nine diosgenyl-type glycosides, mainly furostanols consisting of the aglycones diosgenin, macranthogenin, sceptrumgenin, and sarsasapogenin were accompanied by 5 diosgenyl-type saponins exhibiting an aglycone with an additional OH group. However, the most relevant compounds were 24 acetylated polyhydroxy saponins including hellebosaponins A and D. The enzymes glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and pectinase were used to obtain an idea on potential fermentative transformation reactions by incubation of the isolated model saponins macranthosid I and hellebosaponin A. In a second step, aqueous H. niger extracts containing a much greater range of saponins were monitored during fermentation and 12months of storage. The metabolites were examined and assigned by LC-MS(n) and targeted extracted ion current (EIC) scan analyses. Good agreement was found among the results from the model compounds and the whole aqueous fermented extracts. The native diosgenyl-type furostanol saponins were converted to spirostanols under scission of hexoses. Alteration of the acetylated polyhydroxy saponins, exclusively spirostanols, took place following cleavage of acetyl groups and terminal deoxyhexoses. Most interestingly, the pentoses of the sugar chain at C(1) were not affected. Conversion of acetylated polyhydroxy saponins resulted in a final structure type which was stable and detectable, even after 12months of fermentation and storage.

  18. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace, E-mail: grace.gosmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique [UMR-CNRS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. des Glucides; Schenkel, Eloir P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2010-07-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and {alpha}-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  19. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  20. Structure of a new saponin: chrysantellin A from Chrysanthellum procumbens Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchi, M; Bruneteau, M; Trouilloud, M; Combier, H; Sartre, J; Michel, G

    1979-12-01

    A new saponin has been isolated from a tropical plant Chrysantellum procumbens Rich. which is thought to be useful in the therapy of digestive troubles. The structure of this saponin was determined by chemical methods, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The aglycone moiety is a triterpene, echinocystic acid; D-glucose, D-xylose and L-rhamnose are carbohydrate components. The structure of saponin was established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl [L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 3)-D-xylopyranosyl-)beta 1 leads to 4)-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(alpha 1 leads to 2)-D-xylopyranosyl]-(alpha 1 leads to 28)-echinocystyl. The name, chrysantellin A, is proposed for this new saponin.

  1. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  2. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations.

  3. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E.

  4. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar; M. S. Maier; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  5. Hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary: a novel conditioning agent for hair care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Dae, K; Chang-Kew, K; Chung-Nam, L; Byung-Jo, H

    1989-10-01

    Synopsis A new quaternary ammonium compound, hydrolysed ginseng-saponin quaternary (HGSQ), from Korean ginseng saponin and 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, has been developed as a conditioning agent for hair care products. This structure has a hydrophobic group from the aglycone of ginseng saponin which is biologically active and considered as the most important component of Korean ginseng. Its properties of surface tension, conductivity, critical micelle concentration (CMC), eye irritation, sorption onto hair, tensile strength for 20% extension and moisture retention effect were studied. Its cationic character allows the molecule to be more substantive than ginseng saponin. HGSQ had good physical properties and was safe enough as a cosmetic raw material. Also half-head tests of HGSQ-containing shampoo were carried out to evaluate the conditioning effects in shampoos. HGSQ showed good conditioning properties in a shampoo.

  6. MS/MS similarity networking accelerated target profiling of triterpene saponins in Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2017-07-15

    The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins. Moreover, a compound database of triterpene saponins was established and successfully applied to uncover their distribution features in ESL samples collected from different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-01

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  8. Furostanol saponins and ecdysones with cytotoxic activity from Helleborus bocconei ssp. intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Formisano, Carmen; Irace, Carlo; Maffettone, Carmen; Mascolo, Nicola

    2009-09-01

    Two furostanol saponins helleboroside A (1) and helleboroside B (2) were isolated from the methanol extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. intermedius (Guss.) Greuter and Burdet, along with the furospirostanol saponin 4 and two ecdysones: ecdysterone (5) and polypodyne B (6). Compound 2 was enzymatically hydrolysed to give product 3. The biological activity of all compounds was tested against rat C6 glioma cells showing a significant cytotoxicity for compounds 3, 4 and 6.

  9. Anti-platelet aggregation triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2007-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi has resulted in the isolation of two new tirucallane-type triterpenoid saponins, sapinmusaponins Q (1) and R (2), along with three known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (3-5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical hydrolysis. Biological evaluation showed that both sapinmusaponins Q and R demonstrated more potent anti-platelet aggregation activity than aspirin.

  10. Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on vascular endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    關超然; 關加荤

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibition of endothelium-dependent in vitro vascular relaxation induced by the total saponins (gensenosides) from Panax notoginseng ( PNS ) and the effect of PNS on the cytosolic Ca2 + concentration on cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.METHODS: The endothelial-dependent vascular relaxation was assessed using acetylcholine (ACh) or cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) induced relaxation in endothelium-intact rat aorta. Cytosolic Caa + level was assessed in real time using dynamic digital fluorescence ratio imaging.RESULTS: In addition to its direct relaxation of the smooth muscle cells at high concentrations, PNS, at 100 mg/L having little effect on smooth muscle, caused a marked inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation brought about by PNS. This inhibitory effect was due to its inhibition of elevation of cytosolic Ca2 + , which is required for the activation of NO generation and release from the vascular endothelial cells. Nifedipine has no effect on either the endothelium-dependent relaxation or the cytosolic Ca2 + level in the cultured endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with the known action of PNS on receptor-operated Ca2 + channels and support our contention that PNS inhibits endotheliumdependent relaxation by preventing the increase of Ca2 + level in endothelial cells via the receptor-operated Ca2 + channels in the presence of ACh or the non-selective cation channels opened by CPA.

  11. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  12. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T H; Huang, S C; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2008-09-26

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antitumor and antioxidant activities, has been shown to contain several functional components like saponins and flavonoids. However, their identities remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop an appropriate extraction, purification and HPLC-MS method to determine saponins and flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum. Both flavonoids and saponins were extracted with methanol, followed by purification with a C18 cartridge to elute the former with 50% methanol and the latter with 100% methanol. A total of 34 saponins were separated within 40 min by a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water, in which 18 saponins were identified by LC-MS with ESI mode and Q-TOF (LC/MS/MS). Similarly, a total of eight flavonoids were separated within 45 min by the same column and a gradient solvent system of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water, with identification being carried out by a post-column derivatization method and LC-MS with ESI mode. The amounts of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum ranged from 170.7 to 2416.5 mug g(-1), whereas saponins were from 491.0 to 89,888.9 mug g(-1).

  13. Insect growth regulator activity of Cestrum parqui saponins: an interaction with cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, C; Ben, Halima-Kamel M; Ben, Hamouda M H

    2006-01-01

    Cestrum parqui is an ornamental shrub known for its insecticidal activity against some insect pests; this activity comes from the crude saponic extract of the leaves of this plant, the saponins cause insect growth regulator symptoms (development and moulting perturbation). In this work we try to demonstrate the hypothesis that saponins interact with ecdysone (moulting hormone) synthesis mechanisms by reducing diet cholesterol absorption (cholesterol forms the skeleton of ecdysone and of other ecdysteroids). To show the cholesterol/saponin interaction we used a stored product pest insect (Tribolium confuisurn), the larva of this insect are affected by saponins added in their diet, but the addition of cholesterol permits to reduce significatively this insecticidal propriety. Using Spodoptera littoralis larva model the tentative to detect a cholesterol rate reduction on the level of hemolymph is also unsuccessful. All these experiments shows that this type of reaction can't occur in the diet or in the digestive system but probably in insect cells. It is clear that Cestrurn parqui saponins affect the cholesterol metabolism but the exactly mechanism is still unknown. More investigations are necessary to develop this hypothesis and to envisage the use of Cestrum saponins as insect growth regulator bioinsecticide.

  14. Phyto-saponins as a natural adjuvant for delivery of agromaterials through plant cuticle membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2006-08-23

    With growing use of synthetic adjuvants in modern agriculture, their impacts on the environment are being questioned. In a search for an environmentally safe phyto-adjuvant, we have investigated natural glycosidic saponin for delivery of agromaterials through plant cuticle membranes. Four saponin preparations from Quillaja saponaria bark (QE), obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, and Balanites aegyptiaca fruit mesocarp (ME), kernel (KE), and root (RE), isolated and characterized in our laboratory, were used for testing the delivery of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) across isolated intact astomatous adaxial Citrus grandis leaf cuticle membranes (CMs). The results showed that both Q. saponaria and B. aegyptiaca saponin preparations enhanced delivery of 2,4-D through CMs. Among the saponin preparations, ME exhibited a significantly higher level of delivery of 2,4-D with a concentration effect (2% being the highest). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) characterization of these saponin preparations in aqueous solution clearly demonstrated the formation of nanoscale vesicles. Various possibilities for a natural amphiphatic phyto-saponin as a delivery adjuvant through CMs are discussed.

  15. Determination of saponins in the kernel cake of Balanites aegyptiaca by HPLC-ESI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2007-01-01

    The kernel cake produced from Balanites aegyptiaca fruit of Israeli origin was analysed for its saponin constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The HPLC was equipped with a reversed-phase C18 column and a refractive index detector (RID), and elution was isocratic with methanol and water (70:30). The MS system was equipped with electrospray ionisation (ESI). Nine compounds were chromatographically separated, their masses were determined in the negative ion mode and subsequent fragmentation of each component was carried out. From the nine components, six saponins with molecular masses of 1196, 1064, 1210, 1224, 1078 and 1046 Da were identified, with the compound of mass 1210 Da being the main saponin (ca. 36%). Saponins with masses of 1224 and 1046 Da have not been previously reported in B. aegyptiaca. In all saponins, diosgenin was found to be the sole aglycone. This study shows that HPLC-ESI/MS is a quick and reliable technique for characterizing the saponins from kernel cake of B. aegyptiaca.

  16. Cytotoxicity of the compounds isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis saponins and apoptosis induced by 23-hydroxybetulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xingzeng; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Ge; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Xiangyun; Feng, Xu; Lin, Xiukun

    2015-01-01

    The rizoma of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Total saponins from P. chinensis can induce the apoptosis of solid cancer cells; however, their activity on chronic myeloid leukemia and the mechanisms remains unknown. To study the activity of total saponins and the main active fractions from P. chinensis saponins on chronic myeloid leukemia, and to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities. The cytotoxic activity were assayed by MTT; cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry system; changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using JC-1; and the apoptosis signaling pathway was determined by western blotting. We demonstrated that total P. chinensis saponin displayed cytotoxic activity against K562 cell line. In addition, we identified 23-hydroxybetulinic acid (HBA), pulchinenoside A (PA), and anemoside B4 (AB4) from the total saponins, with the most cytotoxic compound HBA. Glycosylation at C3 and C28 of HBA significantly reduces its cytotoxicity. HBA could promote cell cycle arrest at S phase and induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway. HBA disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential significantly (p < 0.01) and selectively downregulates the levels of Bcl-2, survivin and upregulates Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Total saponins from P. chinensis may be effective natural products against human chronic myelogenous leukemia; HBA is one of the bioactive components responsible for its anticancer activity, and could be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic drug for leukemia.

  17. 匙羹藤总皂苷抗氧化活性研究%Study on antioxidant activity of total saponins of gymnema sylvestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华慧; 李姝; 潘柳谷; 黄燕军

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the effect of total saponins of Gymnema sylvestre on rat liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxide (LPO) effect. Methods: by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) spectrophotometric method determination of rat liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) secondary decomposition product malondialdehyde (MDA) content, in order to examine the effect of total saponins of Gymnema sylvestre on experimental rat liver LPO effect by xanthine oxidase method determination of the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ammonium molybdate significantly colorimetric determination of CAT activity. The effect of the size of the total saponins of Gymnema sylvestre the role of experimental rat liver SOD and cat. Results: with the control group comparison of total saponins of Gymnema sylvestre in 1.0mg/ml-6.0mg/ml concentration range can inhibit rat liver lipid peroxidation; can improve the activity of SOD and cat in rat liver in 1.0mg/ml-6..5mg/ml concentration within the scope of. Conclusion: the total saponins of Gymnema sylvestre can improve SOD and CAT activity in rat liver, reduce the production of MDA.%目的:研究匙羹藤总皂苷对大鼠肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、和脂质过氧化物(LPO)作用的影响。方法:通过硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)分光光度法测定大鼠肝脏脂质过氧化(LPO)的二级分解产物丙二醛(MDA)的含量,以考察匙羹藤总皂苷对实验大鼠肝脏LPO的作用影响,采用黄嘌呤氧化酶法测定SOD活力,钼酸铵显色法测定CAT的活力,考察匙羹藤总皂苷对实验大鼠肝脏SOD和CAT的作用大小。结果:与对照组比较匙羹藤总皂苷在1.0mg/ml~6.0mg/ml浓度范围可抑制大鼠肝脏LPO作用;在1.0mg/ml~6.5mg/ml浓度范围内可提高大鼠肝脏SOD和CAT的活性。结论:匙羹藤总皂苷可以提高大鼠肝脏SOD和CAT的活性,降低MDA的产生。

  18. 金樱根总皂苷的超声提取工艺研究%Study on ultrasonic extraction of total saponins of root of Rosa Laevigate Wichx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易运红; 吴功庆; 王莲婧; 刘意; 田素英

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent to extract saponins from root of Rosa Laevigate Wichx.Preferred extraction process of total saponins from root of Rosa Laevigate Wichx.was determined through the single- factor test and orthogonal test. The results showed that significance of four factors like ethanol concentration, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and temperature on the extract of total saponins content of root of Rosa Laevigate Wichx.was as follows:ethanol concentration > temperature > solid-liquid ratio > extraction time. The optimal level of extraction by ultrasound was the ethanol concentration of 80% ,temperature 50℃, solid-liquid ratio 1:50, extraction time 2.5h. Higher dissolution rates of total saponins can be gotten by the appropriate extraction condition. Saponins of stems of Rosa Laevigate Wichx.were extracted on the same extraction process. Experimental results showed that saponins of root of Rosa Laevigate Wichx.was 6.77mg/g which was more than saponins of stems of Rosa Laevigate Wichx.%以乙醇溶液为溶剂提取了金樱根的总皂苷,通过单因素实验、正交实验确定金樱根总皂苷的优选提取工艺.结果表明,乙醇浓度、提取时间、料液比、温度4因素对金樱根总皂苷提取含量的影响的显著性顺序为:乙醇浓度>温度>料液比>提取时间.金樱根总皂苷超声提取的最优水平为乙醇浓度80%,温度50℃,料液比1:50,提取时间2.5h.恰当的提取条件可使金樱根总皂苷的溶出率更高.在相同的提取条件下,金樱根比茎中总皂苷的舍量高6.77mg/g.

  19. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  20. Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes.

  1. Fungal endophyte-derived Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis: diversity, antioxidant capacities in vitro and relations to phenolic, flavonoid or saponin compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Su, Tian-Jiao; Cai, Shi-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fungal endophytes are rich fungal resources for the production of an enormous quantity of natural products. In the present study, 53 fungal endophytes were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis (FUW). Of these, 49 strains were identified and grouped into 17 different taxa, and priority was conferred to the Fusarium genus. All fungal fermented filtrates displayed antioxidant activities. The DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacities (ABTS), reduction power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total saponin content (TSC) were evaluated using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and ethanol fractions extracted from five representative fungal cultures. The last three fractions showed more potent antioxidant activity than the first fraction. Significant positive correlations were found between the compositions (TPC, TFC and TSC) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP). In addition, multifarious natural antioxidant components were identified from the fungal extracts, including gallic acid, rutin, phlorizin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl hydroquinone; these were determined preliminarily by TLC-bioautography, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. This study showed abundant fungal resources in FUW. Phenolics, flavonoids and saponins are crucial bioactive constituents in these abundant fungal endophytes and can be viewed as new potential antioxidant resources. PMID:28165019

  2. Fungal endophyte-derived Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis: diversity, antioxidant capacities in vitro and relations to phenolic, flavonoid or saponin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Su, Tian-Jiao; Cai, Shi-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2017-02-06

    Diverse fungal endophytes are rich fungal resources for the production of an enormous quantity of natural products. In the present study, 53 fungal endophytes were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis (FUW). Of these, 49 strains were identified and grouped into 17 different taxa, and priority was conferred to the Fusarium genus. All fungal fermented filtrates displayed antioxidant activities. The DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacities (ABTS), reduction power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total saponin content (TSC) were evaluated using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and ethanol fractions extracted from five representative fungal cultures. The last three fractions showed more potent antioxidant activity than the first fraction. Significant positive correlations were found between the compositions (TPC, TFC and TSC) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP). In addition, multifarious natural antioxidant components were identified from the fungal extracts, including gallic acid, rutin, phlorizin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl hydroquinone; these were determined preliminarily by TLC-bioautography, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. This study showed abundant fungal resources in FUW. Phenolics, flavonoids and saponins are crucial bioactive constituents in these abundant fungal endophytes and can be viewed as new potential antioxidant resources.

  3. Saponins (Ginsenosides) from the Leaves of Panax quinquefolius Ameliorated Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Yue; Hu, Jun-Nan; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Rui; He, Yu-Fang; Hou, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Qing; Yang, Ge; Li, Wei

    2017-05-10

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common inducements of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the world. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the liver protection activity of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and the involved mechanisms were demonstrated for the first time. Mice were pretreated with PQS (150 and 300 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 7 days before being treated with 250 mg/kg APAP. Severe liver injury was exerted at 24 h post-APAP, and hepatotoxicity was assessed. Our results showed that pretreatment with PQS significantly decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the APAP administration. Meanwhile, compared with that in the APAP group, PQS decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression and restored reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in livers of mice. PQS inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver tissues. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis revealed that PQS pretreatment inhibited the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways via increase of Bcl-2 and decrease of Bax and caspase-3 protein expression levels. Liver histopathological observation provided further evidence that PQS pretreatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and congestion. Biological indicators of nitrative stress such as 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) were inhibited after PQS pretreatment, compared to the APAP group. The present study clearly demonstrates that PQS exerts a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatic injury because of its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The findings from

  4. 基于木通皂苷探讨中药质量评价用对照提取物研究%Study on reference extracts for quality assessment on traditional Chinese medicines based on akebiae saponin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁贤达; 高慧敏; 王智民; 张启伟

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and summary of current application of reference extracts of traditional Chinese medicine,reference extracts for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines are divided into three classes by purpose; (1)herbal or volatile oil reference extracts for TLC identification of original herbal medicines or patent traditional Chinese medicines containing original herbal medicines,(2)component reference extracts for identification of certain components or positioning of chromatographic peaks,(3)reference extracts marked with component content to be determined for quantitative analysis on samples. For the third kind of reference extracts ,akebiae saponin was taken as an example for preparation thought and methods in such aspects as preparation process,component identification and content analysis.%在分析总结中药对照提取物应用现状的基础上,提出中药质量评价用对照提取物根据用途不同,分为3类:①药材或挥发油对照提取物,用于原药材提取物或含原药材的中成药薄层鉴别;②组分对照提取物,用于某类组分鉴别或色谱峰定位;③标示了待测成分含量的对照提取物,可用于样品的定量分析.针对第3类对照提取物,以木通皂苷为例,从制备工艺、成分鉴定和含量分析等方面探讨了其研制思路和方法.

  5. Hemolytic and cytotoxic effects of saponin like compounds isolated from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaheh Amini; Mohammad Nabiuni; Javad Baharara; Kazem Parivar; Javad Asili

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the saponin from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocomaerinaceus Methods: In an attempt to prepare saponin from brittle star, collected samples were minced and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane, n-buthanol. Then, concentrated n-butanol extract were loaded on HP-20 resin and washed with dionized water, 80% ethanol and 100%ethanol respectively. Subsequently, detection of saponin was performed by foaming property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic analysis on thin layer chromatography. The cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and under invert microscopy.Results:) and to evaluate its hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. method. The presence of C-H bond, C-O-C and OH in fourier transform infrared spectrum of fraction 80% ethanol is characteristic feature in the many of saponin compounds. Hemolytic assay revealed HD50 value was 500 µg/mL. MTT assay exhibited that saponin extracted in IC50 value of 25 µg/mL inducsd potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in 24 h and 12.5 µg/mL in 48 h, meanwhile in lower concentration did not have considerable effect against HeLa cells.Conclusions:The existence of saponin in Ophiocoma erinaceus were approved by phytochemical These findings showed that only 80% ethanol fraction Persian Gulf brittle star contained saponin like compounds with hemolytic activity which can be detected simply by phytochemical that can be appreciable for future anticancer research.

  6. [Mechanisms of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris via activating PKCepsilon against myocardial apoptosis induced by oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Si; Ji, Ying-Shi; Li, Hong; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2009-02-01

    This study is to observe the effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and apoptosis-associated protein in the apoptosis of cultured cardiocyte apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to explore the mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis. Primary cardiocytes were isolated and cultured. Myocardial apoptosis was induced by H2O2 and analyzed with flow cytometry. Protein content of phospho-PKCepsilon, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected with Western blotting analysis. Cleaved caspase-3 protein content was determined with immunocytochemical technique. After the pretreatment of 100 mg x L(-1) GSTT, compared with H2O2 group, GSTT could not only decrease the apoptotic percentage in cardiocytes damaged by H2O2 (P < 0.01), but also reduce protein contents of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01), and increase protein content of phospho-PKCepsilon and Bcl-2 significantly (P < 0.01). PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (Che) could prevent partly the effect of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after PKCepsilon activation.

  7. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  8. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive.

  9. New 30-Noroleanane Triterpenoid Saponins from Holboellia coriacea Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new 30-noroleanane triterpenoid saponins, akebonoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1, akebonoic acid 28-O-(6′′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (Holboelliside A, 2 and 3β,20α,24-trihydroxy-29-norolean-12-en-28-oic acid 3-O-(6′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Holboelliside B, 3 were isolated from the stems of Holboellia coriacea Diels, together with five known compounds, eupteleasaponin VIII (4, 3α-akebonoic acid (5, quinatic acid (6, 3β-hydroxy-30-norhederagenin (7 and quinatoside A (8. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against three human tumors HepG2, HCT116 and SGC-7901 cell lines in vitro.

  10. Antioxidative effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ningna; Tang, Yang; Keep, Richard F; Ma, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Jianming

    2014-09-15

    Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in cell death associated with neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. Antioxidant compounds that improve endogenous antioxidant defenses have been proposed for neural protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of total saponin in leaves of Panax notoginseng (LPNS) on oxidative stress and cell death in brain cells in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay indicated that LPNS (5 μg/ml) reduced H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical astrocytes (23±8% reduction in LDH release vs. control). Similar protection was found in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation induced SH-SY5Y (a human neuroblastoma cell line) cell damage (78±7% reduction vs. control). The protective effects of LPNS in astrocytes were associated with attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These effects involved activation of Nrf2 (nuclear translocation) and upregulation of downstream antioxidant systems including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1). These results demonstrate for the first time that LPNS has antioxidative effects which may be neuroprotective in neurological disorders.

  11. New cycloartane saponin and monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M.; Backheet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A new cycloartane-type saponin with unusual hydroxylation at C-17 and a unique side chain, 9 (R), 19, 22 (S), 24 (R) bicyclolanost-3β, 12α, 16β, 17α tetrol-25-one 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and two new monoterpenoid glucoindole alkaloids, 10-methoxy pumiloside (2) and the previously chemically synthesized, 10-methoxy strictosidine (3) along with other five known compounds, 7α-morroniside (4), 7-epi-loganin (5), (7β)-7-O-methylmorroniside (6), 5(S)-5-carboxystrictisidine (7) and apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside (8) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola (Rubiaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolates was accomplished by extensive (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopic data analysis and HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 4–8 were reported for the first time from the genus Mussaenda. Interestingly, this is the first report for the occurrence of the monoterpenoid glucoindole-type alkaloids in the genus which might be useful for the chemotaxonomic evaluation of the genus Mussaenda. All isolates were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activities. Compound 7 showed good antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 and IC90 values of 13.7 and 16.6 µM compared to IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99 µM for the positive control DFMO, difluoromethylornithine. PMID:26969788

  12. Screening for feeding deterrent and insect growth regulatory activity of triterpenic saponins from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kumar, Jitendra; Dhingra, Swaran; Parmar, Balraj S

    2010-01-13

    Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active in controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L(-1) alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prep-HPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyarnosyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[beta-D-xyl(OAc).beta-D-arabinopyranosyl.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[beta-D-glc.beta-D-glc.beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (GI50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile-lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton.

  13. Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, Ciliate Protozoal Populations, and Milk Production from Dairy Cows Fed Cinnamaldehyde, Quebracho Condensed Tannin, or Yucca schidigera Saponin Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T. A; Chouinard, P. Y

    2008-01-01

    ...% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production...

  14. Accumulation and Dynamic Trends of Triterpenoid Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Achyranthus bidentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting Li; Zhenghai Hu

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between structural features of various vegetative organs and triterpenoid saponin accumulation in Achyranthus bidentata Blume was investigated using anatomy, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The results showed that the primary and secondary structures of roots, and the structures of stems and leaves of A. bidentata, were similar to those of ordinary dicotyledonous plants. The enlargement of its roots, however, was primarily associated with growth and differentiation of tertiary structures. There were collateral medullary vascular bundles in addition to the normal vascular bundles in the stem. The tertiary structure was not only main parts in the roots of A. bidentata, but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponin in its growth and development. The stem may be the essential transport organ of triterpenoid saponin, while palisade parenchyma may be the primary synthesis location. In November, the total quantity of triterpenoid saponin and overall biomass in the roots reach a maximum level. This was the best time, therefore, to harvest the roots and corresponded to the traditional harvest period. Despite the withered appearance of leaves, stems also contained substantial amounts of triterpenoid saponin, and it was recommended that the stems of A. bidentata should be used.

  15. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Yang, Juanjuan; Lou, Linjie; Zhu, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd2+ or Zn2+. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils.

  16. Saponins from Tribulus terrestris L. protect human keratinocytes from UVB-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Margherita; Lisi, Sabrina; D'Amore, Massimo; De Lucro, Raffaella; Carati, Davide; Castellana, Donatello; La Pesa, Velia; Zuccarello, Vincenzo; Lofrumento, Dario D

    2012-12-05

    Chronic exposure to solar UVB radiation damages skin, increasing the risk to develop cancer. Hence the identification of compounds with a photoprotective efficacy is essential. This study examined the role of saponins derived from Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on the modulation of apoptosis in normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) exposed to physiological doses of UVB and to evaluate their antitumoral properties. In NHEK, TT saponins attenuate UVB-induced programmed cell death through inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) TT saponins do not make the malignant keratinocytes more resistant to UVB and determine an enhanced apoptotic response. The photoprotective effect of TT saponins is tightly correlated to the enhancement of NER genes expression and the block of UVB-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our study shows experimental evidence that TT has a preventive efficacy against UVB-induced carcinogenesis and the molecular knowledge on the mechanisms through which TT saponins regulate cell death suggests great potential for TT to be developed into a new medicine for cancer patients.

  17. Modulating effect of ginseng saponins on heterologously expressed HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk-seong KIM; Sook-jin SON; Hyo-shin KIM; Yong-duk KIM; Kyu-seung LEE; Byeong-hwa JEON; Kwang-jin KIM; Jin-kyu PARK; Jin-bong PARK

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of ginseng saponins on the heterologously expressed human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) that encodes the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ channel. Methods: A two-electrode voltage clamp tech nique was used. HERG currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes injected with HERG cRNA. Results: Crude saponins of Korean red ginseng (GS) induced a minimal increase of the maximal HERG conductance without changes in the voltage-dependent HERG current activation and inactivation curves. GS, however,decelerated HERG current deactivation in a concentration-dependent manner,which was more noticeable with panaxitriol (PT) than panaxidiol (PD). Consistently,ginseng saponins increased the HERG deactivation time constants with the order of potency of Rg1 (a major component of PT)>Rf 1>Rb1 (a major component of PD).Re had little effect on HERG deactivation. During a cardiac action Potential, GS increased the outward HERG current. Conclusion: Ginseng saponins enhance HERG currents, which could be in part a possible mechanism of the shortening cardiac action potential of ginseng saponins.

  18. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  19. The Sg-1 glycosyltransferase locus regulates structural diversity of triterpenoid saponins of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-05-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar-dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1(a) allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1(b) encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1(a) and Gly-138 in Sg-1(b) proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-1(0) is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products.

  20. [Ultrasound assisted the enzymolysis of ginsenosides to prepare pare ginseng saponin Compound K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Cui, Li; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2014-08-01

    To prepare ginseng saponin Compound K with ultrasound-assisted total zymolytic ginseng saponins. The conversion rate was taken as the index to detect the pre-treatment factors such as ultrasonic power and ultrasonic time, as well as the impact of enzymatic factors, such as pH value, temperature, concentration of substrate, dosage of enzyme and reaction time, on the conversion rate. The response surface method was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The enzymolytic products were identified with MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The results showed that the optimum conditions of the ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis were 250 W for ultrasonic power, 15 min for ultrasonic time, 5.5 for enzymolytic pH, 50 degrees C for enzymolytic temperature, 36 h for enzymolytic time, 4:5 for enzymolytic dosage: substrate and 1.0 g x L(-1) for concentration of substrate. The relative molecular mass of reaction products was 622.4. Therefore, the nuclear magnetic map verified that the reaction product was rare ginseng saponin Compound K. Under the above conditions, based on the total zymolytic ginseng saponins, the conversion rate of rare ginseng saponin Compound K was 6.91% in proportion to the total of ginsenosides. The process features gentle reaction conditions, high conversion rate and simple and reliable process, which is suitable for industrial production.

  1. Enhanced removal of lead from contaminated soil by polyol-based deep eutectic solvents and saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hayyan, Adeeb; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.

  2. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of a complex triterpene saponin mixture of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Sterk, Heinz; Mittelbach, Martin; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2006-06-01

    A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach was applied to a complex crude triterpene saponin extract of Chenopodium quinoa seed coats. In ESI-MS/MS spectra of triterpene saponins, characteristic fragmentation reactions are observed and allow the determination of aglycones, saccharide sequences, compositions, and branching. Fragmentation of aglycones provided further structural information. The chemical complexity of the mixture was resolved by a complete profiling. Eighty-seven triterpene saponins comprising 19 reported and 68 novel components were identified and studied by MS. In addition to four reported, five novel triterpene aglycones were detected and characterized according to their fragmentation reactions in ESI-MS/MS and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). As a novelty fragmentation pathways were proposed and analyzed based upon quantum chemical calculations using a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional method. Accuracy of the assignment procedure was proven by isolation and structure determination of a novel compound. As the relative distribution and composition of saponins varies between different cultivars and soils, the presented strategy allows a rapid and complete analysis of Chenopodium quinoa saponin distribution and composition, and is particularly suitable for quality control and screening of extracts designated for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial applications.

  3. Fractionation, structural studies, and immunological characterization of the semi-synthetic Quillaja saponins derivative GPI-0100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J; Reynolds, Robert C; Pathak, Ashish K; Finley-Woodman, Kyra; May, Richard D

    2003-09-08

    Unfractionated GPI-0100 (UFGPI-0100) containing semi-synthetic derivatives of deacylated Quillaja saponins (DS saponins) modified at the glucuronic acid residue was resolved by reverse phase low-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) into two fractions, RP18-1 and RP18-2, with different compositions and adjuvanticity. The fraction RP18-1 contained DS saponin adducts of N-dicyclohexylurea, and stimulated Th2 immunity with production of IgG1, while the RP18-2 fraction contained the dodecylamide derivatives of DS saponins and stimulated Th1 immunity with production of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CTL. The strong immune stimulatory properties of RP18-2, relative to RP18-1, and the formation of RP18-1/RP18-2 mixed micelles may account for the effective stimulation of Th1 immunity by UFGPI-0100. UFGPI-0100 was free of acylated quillaja saponin components, including the more stable QS-7.

  4. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  5. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  6. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  7. Content Analysis

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    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  8. COMPARATIVE, QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHEMOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AMONG NORTH INDIAN TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

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    Kumar Ashwani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, Several medicinal plant species are used in herbal drug industries, whereas Tribulus terrestris extract has an ancient tradition in folk medicine and in ayurveda as a diuretic, mood enhancer, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent. Due to few phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are no quality criteria for this Tribulus terrestris species as raw material. In this work, we present unique fingerprints of six samples of Tribulus terrestris population relating to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloid and saponins. Qualitative analysis of the phytochemicals of methanolic extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins in all the plants. Quantitative analysis showed that the crude saponin was the major phytochemical constituent present in highest percentage followed by crude tannin in all six plants. These chemical characterizations can provide, for example, authentication of samples, detection of adulterations, and differentiation between closely related species.

  9. The responses of the quantitative characteristics of a ramet population of the ephemeroid rhizomatous sedge Carex physodes to the moisture content of the soil in various locations on sand dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudureheman, Buhailiqiemu; Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Guan, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yongkuan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the soil moisture content was measured, and the quantitative characteristics of this sedge species were compared. The phenotypic plasticity of each parameter and the linear regression relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the soil moisture content was significantly affected by location, soil depth, and sampling date. The aboveground biomass, underground biomass, biomass density, and population density at the peak were significantly higher than elsewhere on the dune. However, the morphological plasticity index of the quantitative characteristics was higher at the base and middle of the dune. When the soil moisture content decreased, the underground biomass and ramet biomass density increased. The aboveground and underground biomasses were strongly negatively correlated, but the ramet height and aboveground biomass were strongly positively correlated. These results indicated that the soil water content significantly affected the clonal growth of C. physodes. The responsiveness of C. physodes may be adaptive when the soil resource supply is low. The strong morphological plasticity of the species appears to be ecologically important for the maintenance and dominance of this species in the dune habitat.

  10. The Responses of the Quantitative Characteristics of a Ramet Population of the Ephemeroid Rhizomatous Sedge Carex physodes to the Moisture Content of the Soil in Various Locations on Sand Dunes

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    Buhailiqiemu Abudureheman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the soil moisture content was measured, and the quantitative characteristics of this sedge species were compared. The phenotypic plasticity of each parameter and the linear regression relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the soil moisture content was significantly affected by location, soil depth, and sampling date. The aboveground biomass, underground biomass, biomass density, and population density at the peak were significantly higher than elsewhere on the dune. However, the morphological plasticity index of the quantitative characteristics was higher at the base and middle of the dune. When the soil moisture content decreased, the underground biomass and ramet biomass density increased. The aboveground and underground biomasses were strongly negatively correlated, but the ramet height and aboveground biomass were strongly positively correlated. These results indicated that the soil water content significantly affected the clonal growth of C. physodes. The responsiveness of C. physodes may be adaptive when the soil resource supply is low. The strong morphological plasticity of the species appears to be ecologically important for the maintenance and dominance of this species in the dune habitat.

  11. Quantitation of dopamine, serotonin and adenosine content in a tissue punch from a brain slice using capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huaifang; Pajski, Megan L; Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2013-01-01

    Methods to determine neurochemical concentrations in small samples of tissue are needed to map interactions among neurotransmitters. In particular, correlating physiological measurements of neurotransmitter release and the tissue content in a small region would be valuable. HPLC is the standard method for tissue content analysis but it requires microliter samples and the detector often varies by the class of compound being quantified; thus detecting molecules from different classes can be difficult. In this paper, we develop capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection (CE-FSCV) for analysis of dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content in tissue punches from rat brain slices. Using field-amplified sample stacking, the limit of detection was 5 nM for dopamine, 10 nM for serotonin, and 50 nM for adenosine. Neurotransmitters could be measured from a tissue punch as small as 7 µg (7 nL) of tissue, three orders of magnitude smaller than a typical HPLC sample. Tissue content analysis of punches in successive slices through the striatum revealed higher dopamine but lower adenosine content in the anterior striatum. Stimulated dopamine release was measured in a brain slice, then a tissue punch collected from the recording region. Dopamine content and release had a correlation coefficient of 0.71, which indicates much of the variance in stimulated release is due to variance in tissue content. CE-FSCV should facilitate measurements of tissue content in nanoliter samples, leading to a better understanding of how diseases or drugs affect dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content.

  12. Intake of total saponins and polysaccharides from Polygonatum kingianum affects the gut microbiota in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongli; Lu, Jianmei; Wang, Yanfang; Gu, Wen; Yang, Xingxin; Yu, Jie

    2017-03-15

    The gut microbiota has been reported to play a critical role in metabolic diseases, including in diabetes. Polygonatum kingianum has been used in the treatment of diabetes and related diseases in China for centuries. Total saponins (TSPK) and total polysaccharides (PSPK) were reported to be major types of active constituents of P. kingianum. This research aims at investigation of their therapeutical mechanisms on diabetes based on the regulation of gut microbiota. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats were induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin-injection from male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The blood biochemical indicators were measured. Intestinal microbial diversities and the overall structural changes in gut microbiota and the contents of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were discussed. T2D rats were treated with TSPK (0.025 and 0.1g/kg) and PSPK (0.1g/kg) for 56 days. Major biochemical indexes, such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were measured. Intestinal microbial diversities and the overall structural changes in gut microbiota were discussed based on the sequencing results on V4 region of 16S rDNA. Moreover, the contents of the SCFAs in faeces, which were fermentation products produced from gut microbiota were determined by gas chromatography (GC). Oral administration of TSPK and PSPK prevented the increase of FBG. TSPK (0.025g/kg) enhancing the content of FINS at the end of research. Furthermore, TSPK and PSPK improved the intestinal microecology by decreasing the abundances of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and increasing that of Firmicutes. However, TSPK.L, PSPK and TSPK.H displayed discrepant regulation roles on Firmicutes. TSPK.L and PSPK significantly increased the abundance of Ruminococcaceae family and Ruminococcus genus in Firmicutes phylum, however, TSPK.H increased the abundances of Veillonellaceae family and Anaerovibrio genus. 57 Key variables, altered after treated by TSPK and PSPK

  13. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) saponins induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are naturally occurring metabolites present in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and other plant sources which have been associated with several health benefits. Mate saponins were extracted with methanol from dry leaves, partially purified and quantified. UV-HPLC analysis showed that the m...

  14. Quantitative estimatation of lead, cadmium. and nickel contents by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in fruitbodies of some macromycetes in Poland

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    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium and nickel in dry fruitbodies of 13 species of macromycetes collected in Poland from 33 natural habitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS were estimated.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  16. Dammarane triterpene saponin from Bacopa monniera as the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R; Gopalakrishnan, C; Bhutani, K K

    2001-11-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae), exhibited an inhibitory effect on superoxide released from polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The major saponin bacoside A(3) was found to be responsible for this effect in the herb. This compound showed 85, 91.66, 91.66, and 83 % inhibitions of NBT reduction at the concentrations of 200, 100, 50, and 25 microg/ml, respectively, with an IC(50) value of 10.22 microg/ml. These inhibitory effects were compared with those of the standard positive controls, quercetin and ascorbic acid with IC(50) of 111 and 14.16 microg/ml, respectively. Another major saponin bacopasaponin C was found to be much less potent as compared to bacoside A(3) whereas the remaining two mixtures of saponins were found to be inactive.

  17. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

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    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  18. Effects on chicks of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel saponin given by different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, H B; Mohammed, O S; Abu al Futuh, I M; Adam, S E

    1992-06-01

    The effect of oral or parenteral administration of crude saponin extract from Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernal on Hisex-type chicks was studied. Seven-d-old chicks were given 5 mg Balanites crude saponin/kg/d im, 25 mg/kg/d ip or 250 mg/kg/day po for 3 w. When compared to controls, the body weights of dosed chicks were depressed and serum LDH and GOT activities and uric acid concentrations were significantly elevated. There were no consistent differences in serum GGT, CPK, total cholesterol and total protein between control and dosed birds. The main lesions were fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation and necrosis of hepatocytes, lymphocytic nodules, epithelial cell degeneration of the renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and varying degrees of hemorrhage in the thigh and breast muscles. Myositis or peritonitis were observed in chicks given Balanites crude saponins im or ip, respectively.

  19. EFEK SENYAWA SAPONIN PADA SAPINDUS RARAK DENGAN PAKAN BERBASIS JERAMI PADI DALAM MITIGASI GAS METANA

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    Nanang Krisnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study saponin in Sapindus rarak were added to the diet of rice straw ammoniation (20 & 40%, related to the effect in reducing methane emissions of ruminants and pattern of rumen fermentation were tested by in vitro. Completly randomized block design with four treatments and four replications was used. Variables measured were gas production total, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA total, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. The results showed that the addition saponins in S. rarak as a source of rice straw ammoniation significant effect (P<0.05 of the total gas production, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. S. rarak use as a source of saponins with a dose of 20% on rice straw ammoniation was able to reduce methane gas production drop in gas production total, concentration of N-ammonia, and protozoa population.

  20. Prepared Clinopodii Saponin Microspheres by Spay Drying Method%喷雾干燥法制备断血流皂苷微球

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娇婷; 王妙飞; 张道英

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索喷雾干燥技术制备断血流皂苷微球的最佳工艺参数.方法:利用高效液相色谱法测定断血流皂苷A含量;以外观形态、载药量和包封率为指标,对进风温度、进样速度、增塑剂种类、药物与囊材比例等因素进行考察.结果:最佳工艺参数为进风温度90C,进料速度2.5 mL·min-1,增塑剂为甘油,药物与囊材比例1:4.结论:断血流皂苷微球质量符合预期要求;采用喷雾干燥法制备断血流皂苷微球工艺合理、可行.%Objective: To explore the optimun technique parameters on preparing clinopodii saponin microspheres by spray drying technique. Method: HPLC were used to determine the content of clinopodii saponinA, Investigate the influence factors with appearance,the loading capacity and entrapment efficiency as indexes,such as inlet temperature,feeding rate,kinds of plasticizer,ratio of drug to coating material. Result:The optimum technique parameters was as follows: inlet temperature at 90℃ , feeding rate as 2. 5 mL · min-1, kinds of plasticizer was glycerine, ratio of drug to coating material was 1: 4. Conclusion: Clinopodii saponin microspheres accorded with expected demand. The optimum technique was reasonable, feasible.

  1. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core

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    Markus Himmelsbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  2. The plant hopper Issus coleoptratus can detoxify phloem sap saponins including the degradation of the terpene core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Weth, Agnes; Böhme, Christine; Schwarz, Martin; Bräunig, Peter; Baumgartner, Werner

    2016-02-10

    Issus coleoptratus is a small plant hopper which mainly feeds on the phloem sap from ivy. Although all parts of ivy are poisonous as the plant contains saponins, especially hederasaponins, I. coleoptratus can cope with the poison. In contrast to other animals like the stick insect Carausius morosus which accumulates saponins in its body, I. coleoptratus can degrade and disintegrate not only the saponins but even the genines, i.e. the triterpene core of the substances. This is perhaps made possible by a specialised midgut and/or the salivary glands. When the glands and the gut are dissected and added to saponins in solution, the saponins, including the genines, are degraded ex vivo.

  3. Protection of Acanthopanax Senticosus Saponin on Free Radical Injury Induced Aging of Nerve Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永进; 顾永健; 顾小苏

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Acanthopanax senticosus saponin (ASS) on free radical injury induced neuron aging. Methods: On day 7 of fetal mice, cortical neuron primary passage cultures were divided into the normal control group, model group and ASS groups. The model group using free radical (FeSO4 plus H2O2) injury mode prepared in vivo cultured ICR mice cortical neuron aging model; ASS groups: 24 hrs before and after treated with H2O2 and FeSO4, different concentration of ASS was added, according to biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) etc. and histomorphologic change to observe the protection of ASS on aging neurons. Results: The LDH, SOD, MDA of the model group were compared with the normal group, P<0.01; ASS groups added 1.25 mg/100 ml, 2.5 mg/100 ml, 5 mg/100 ml concentration of ASS, their LDH, SOD, MDA compared with the model group P<0.05-0.01, the difference was significant. In medicated groups the SOD activity of oxidization injured nerve cells obviously elevated, LDH activity and MDA content apparently lowered. Microscope and scanning electron microscopic observation showed that supplemented with ASS to protect the nerve cell injury abated, part of the cellular structure tended to normalize. Conclusion: ASS could act against free radical toxic effect, increase the anti-oxidase activity, strengthen the protection of neuron cells. It is assumed that the effect against nerve cell aging was possibly through scavenging oxygen free radical, strengthening the stability of cell membrane, thus delaying the development of aging.

  4. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhen; Li, Shiyou

    2007-08-01

    Continued chemical investigation on the fruits of North American Aesculus pavia L. resulted in the isolation and identification of 13 polyhydroxyoleanene pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named aesculiosides IIe-IIk (1-7), and IIIa-IIIf (8-13), together with 18 known compounds: aesculiosides Ia-Ie (14-18), IIa-IId (19-22), IVa-IVc (23-25), 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,15 alpha,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,28-hexahydroxyolean-12-ene (26), 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,24 beta,28-hexahydroxyolean-12-ene (27), 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21,22-O-diangeloyl-3beta,16 alpha,21 beta,22 alpha,28-pentahydroxyolean-12-ene (28), R(1)-barrigenol (29), scopolin (30), and 5-methoxyscopolin (31). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 14-22 and 26-28 were tested in vitro for their activity against 59 cell lines from nine different human cancers including leukemia, non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast. It was found that compounds with two-acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 had cytotoxic activity for all cell lines tested with GI(50) 0.175-8.71 microM, while compounds without acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 had weak or no cytotoxic activity. These results suggest that the acyl groups at C-21 and C-22 are essential for their activity.

  5. Antifungal activity of saponins originated from Medicago hybrida against some ornamental plant pathogens

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    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of total saponins originated from roots of Medicago hybrida (Pourret Trautv. were evaluated in vitro against six pathogenic fungi and eight individual major saponin glycosides were tested against one of the most susceptible fungi. The total saponins showed fungitoxic effect at all investigated concentrations (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% but their potency was different for individual fungi. The highest saponin concentration (0.1% was the most effective and the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. callistephi, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi was 84.4%, 69.9%, 68.6%, 57.2%, 55.0%, respectively. While Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., a pathogen of Muscari armeniacum, was inhibited by 9.5% only. Eight major saponin glycosides isolated from the total saponins of M. hybrida roots were tested against the mycelium growth of Botrytis tulipae. The mycelium growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited by hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-galactopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed low fungitoxic activity. Medicagenic acid 3-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-[α-L- hamnopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]- 28-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D- lucopyranoside did not limit or only slightly inhibited growth of the tested pathogen. While 2β, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12 ene-23-al-28-oic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside slightly stimulated mycelium growth of B. tulipae.

  6. Macromolecular interactions of triterpenoids and targeted toxins: role of saponins charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Weng, Alexander; Pieper, Alexandra; Mergel, Katharina; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Görick, Cornelia; Wiesner, Burkhard; Eichhorst, Jenny; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

    2013-10-01

    Macromolecular interaction of protein toxins with certain plant triterpenoids holds potential for application in tumor therapy. The ability of only certain saponins to enhance the endosomal escape of toxins specifically in tumor cells was evaluated and set into correlation with the electrophoretic mobility. Saponins from Saponaria officinalis Linn, were selected as a lead to understand this evolutionarily conserved principle in detail. Agarose gel electrophoresis was utilized to procure pure saponin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility, which were tested for their ability to enhance the toxicity by live cell monitoring. Five fractions (SOG1-SOG5) were isolated with a relative electrophoretic mobility of (-0.05, 0.41, 0.59, 0.75 and 1.00) and evaluated using thin layer chromatography, HPLC, and mass spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity experiments revealed highest effectiveness with SOG3. Live cell imaging experiments with SOG3 revealed that this saponin with a specific REM of 0.59 could assist in the lyso/endosomal release of the toxic payload without affecting the integrity of plasma membrane and could lead to the induction of apoptosis. This charge dependent enhancement was also found to be highly specific to type I ribosome inactivating proteins compared to bacterial toxins. Charge interaction of plant toxins and saponins with tumor cells, plays a major role in toxin specific modulation of response. The finding opens up newer ways of finding protein saponin interaction conserved evolutionarily and to test their role in endosomal escape of therapeutic molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanistic study of the anticancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in R6 fibroblast cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoZ; HsaiW

    2002-01-01

    The anticancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gp)saponins was tested.The results indicated that the Gp saponins inhibited ras-induced foci in dosage and time-dependent manners.To facilitate the investigation of the mode of inhibition of Gp in living cells,a green fluorescent protein-ras fusion construct was generated and used to substitute ras in the study.Cells acquired GFP-ras gene grew into green fluorescent foci with striking transforming morphology in the absence of Gp,whereas the GFP-ras transfected cell,in most of cases,remained as single green fluorescent cell with Gp saponins present in the medium.Gp saponins exhibited non-cytotoxic effect on either normal or the transformed R6 cells.However.Gp saponins posted a strong inhibition against the growth of the rastransformed cells that were co-cultivated with normal R6 cells.The level of Raf-1 protein was sharply down-regulated after Gp treatment.Gp treatment can also induce instability of Raf-1,instead of transcriptional inactivation of the protein expression.A cDNA microarray analysis displayed four genes,i.e.β2-microglobulin,GST7-7,gelatinase A and cathepsin L were up-regulated,while three genes:Erk-1,γIGFBP-6,and 14-3-3 zeta were down-regulated upon treatment with Gp saponins.The results were verified by Northern blot analysis.The finding that an anti-cancer effect of a non-toxic drug may be mediated through the surrounding normal cells is conceptually novel and should have a broad implication in the future development of drugs or dietary supplements with cancer prevention function.

  8. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  9. A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin from the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, R N

    2001-01-01

    A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin m.f. C42H68O13, m.p. 315 degrees-317 degrees C was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina. Its structure was characterized as 3-beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4)O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]16-alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en(13)-28-oic acid by several spectral and chemical analysis. This new triterpenoid saponin showed antimicrobial activity against various plants pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  10. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  11. Steroidal Saponins from the Mesocarp of the Fruits of Raphia farinifera (Arecaceae) and their Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapondjou, Léon A; Siems, Kristina J; Böttger, Stefan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-11-01

    Eight steroidal saponins (1-8), including one previously unreported derivative (1), have been isolated from the mesocarp of Raphia farinifera fruits by combined column chromatography and RP-HPLC methods. They were characterized by spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR experiments) and spectrometric (ESIMS) methods, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported compounds in the literature. All the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against urinary bladder carcinoma cells (ECV-304). Our results revealed that, for a high cytotoxicity, a sugar chain of at least three sugar moieties attached to C-3 of the steroidal saponin is necessary.

  12. Two new biologically active triterpenoidal saponins acylated with salicylic acid from Albizia adianthifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Mohamed; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Laurens, Véronique; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Two new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, adianthifoliosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a 95% ethanolic extract of roots of Albizia adianthifolia. Their structures were elucidated mainly by using a combination of 600 MHz 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by FABMS and HRESIMS. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as glycosides of acacic acid acylated by an o-hydroxybenzoyl unit. The crude saponin mixture (CSM), compounds 1 and 2...

  13. A new triterpenoid saponin and an oligosaccharide isolated from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; Yang, De-Po; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Xue, Xue; Zhu, Long-Ping; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin (1) and a new oligosaccharide (2), together with three known saponins (3-5), have been isolated from n-BuOH extract of the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structures were elucidated using detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra along with their mass spectrometric data and the results of acid hydrolysis. Of the isolated compounds 1 and 3-5 displayed cytotoxic effects against human cancer cell lines in A-549 (lung carcinoma), MDA-231 (breast carcinoma) and PC-3 (prostatic carcinoma).

  14. The structures of four triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of Trifolium incarnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel bisdesmosidic saponin, 3-0-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 - 2-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1-2-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-22-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ole­an-l2-ene-24-ol has been isolated from the seed of the clover, Trifolium incarnatum. The structure of this and of three other structurally related saponins, 3-0-(β-D-glucuronopyra-nosylolean-l2-ene-22, 24-diol, soyasaponin I and soyasaponin III have been assigned on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

  15. Panax notoginseng saponins mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibit marrow adiposity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing-Zheng; Wang, Yi; Meng, Yan; Li, Guan-Wu; Chang, Shi-Xin; Nian, Hua; Liang, Yong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Previous data have suggested that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) can prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by dual action: stimulation of new bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption. Marrow adipogenesis has been identified as a negative indicator of skeletal strength and integrity. This study assessed the effects of early PNS supplementation on bone microarchitecture preservation and marrow fat content in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups for 12 weeks of treatment: (1) sham operation (SHAM) + vehicle; (2) ovariectomy (OVX) + vehicle; (3) OVX + 17β-estradiol (25 μg/kg); (4) OVX + PNS (300 mg/kg/d, PO). Marrow fat content of the femur was determined, using fat/water magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks after operation. At the end of the experiment, bone turnover, trabecular microarchitecture, and marrow adipocytes were assessed by serum biomarkers, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histopathology, respectively. The effects of PNS on adipocytic differentiation were reflected by expression levels of the adipogenic genes PPARγ2 and C/EBPα, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Ovariectomized rats experienced remarkable increases in marrow fat content across time points, which were accompanied by elevated rate of bone turnover, global volumetric bone density, and trabecular microarchitecture deterioration. These OVX-induced pathological changes are reversible in that most of them could be mostly corrected upon 17β-estradiol treatment. PNS treatment significantly reduced marrow adipogenesis (adipocyte density, -27.2%; size, -22.7%; adipocyte volume-to-tissue volume ratio, -53.3%; all P bone mass loss and microarchitecture deterioration. Moreover, PNS enhanced osteoblast activity but suppressed osteoclast turnover, as evidenced by decreased levels of serum C-terminal telopeptides of type

  16. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  17. Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1997-10-15

    1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species

  18. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  19. Effects of tea saponin on growth and antioxidant enzyme system of rape%茶皂素对油菜幼苗生长发育及抗氧化酶系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董敬娜; 敬佩; 李光德; 周楠楠; 袁宇飞; 于冲; 张明明

    2011-01-01

    采用溶液培养的方法研究茶皂素对白菜型油菜东京绿(Brassica rapa L.)幼苗生长发育及抗氧化酶系统的影响.结果表明:在5~200mg·L-1的茶皂素浓度范围内,随浓度增加,油菜幼苗的根长表现出先升高后降低的趋势;在5~100mg·L-1的茶皂素浓度范围内,油菜幼苗的株高表现出与根长相同的趋势,但在茶皂素200mg·L-1时株高显著降低;油菜叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性逐渐降低;过氧化物酶(POD)活性在低于20mg·L-1时低于对照,随后升高;过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性则仅在浓度为50mg·L-1和100mg·L-1时高于对照;油菜叶片中MDA含量先升高后降低.统计分析发现,浓度范围在5~200mg·L-1的茶皂素对油菜幼苗叶片的生长、抗氧化酶系统和MDA含最没有显著影响,而200mg·L-1显著抑制株高.结果说明了培养液中低于200mg·L-1的茶皂素除降低幼苗株高外,对油菜的苗期是安全的.%As a biological surface active agent, tea saponin is used on leaching repair of soil contaminated by heavy metal. The object of this study was to investigate the effect of tea saponin on plant growth and antioxidant enzyme system. Different concentrations of tea saponin were tested in liquid culture using Brassica rapa L. cv Tokyo Green seedlings. Results showed that tea saponin had no significant effect on root length of the seedlings under 200mg · L-1. But when the chemical concentration reached 200 mg · L-1, the plant height was significantly inhibited. The activity of SOD ( superoxide dismutase) in leaves was gradually decreased in tea saponin liquid. The POD (peroxidase) activity was decreased at concentrations lower than 20mg · L-1 and then became higher than no chemical control. On the contrary, the CAT (catalase) activities were higher than control only when tea saponin concentration were 50mg · L-1 and 100mg · L-1. The MDA (malondialdehyde) contents varied in the liquids.Statistically, there was no significant

  20. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of alcohol extract of Polyscias filicifolia shoot, leaf, cell biomass of suspension culture and saponin fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewska, Jadwiga; Karwicka, Ewa; Drozd, Janina; Anuszewskal, Elzbieta; Sliwińska, Anita; Nosov, Aleksander; Olszowska, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Some medicinal plants are the object of biotechnologists' special interest owing to their content of secondary metabolites, which have a strong pharmacological effect. Polyscias filicifolia is a plant known for long in traditional medicine of the Southeast Asia. Literature data suggest that it acts on the endocrine system, has adaptogenic and antiulcerative activity, shows bactericidal and insecticidal properties, restores the activity of the protein synthesis system in the conditions of long- and short-term anoxia, as well as reduces the effect of many mutagens in vitro. The purpose of the studies was to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of ethanol extracts from Polyscias filicifolia dry shoots and leaves obtained in vitro, as well as cell biomass from suspension culture. Saponin fraction from dried shoots was also tested. Initially, the cytotoxic effect was evaluated using the murine connective tissue cell line C3H/AN - L929. The genotoxic properties of the extracts were assessed using standard screening tests: the Ames test and the micronucleus test. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that none of the extracts increases the number of revertants, both in tests with and without metabolic activation. The lack of in vitro genotoxic and mutagenic activity of tested shoot, dried leaf, cell biomass extracts, as well as the saponin fraction from dried shoots allows us to hope that Polyscias filicifolia could be used as a possible pharmaceutical raw material showing therapeutic properties.

  1. Rapid, cost-effective and accurate quantification of Yucca schidigera Roezl. steroidal saponins using HPLC-ELSD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenon, Mathieu; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Birtić, Simona

    2017-04-15

    Yucca GRAS-labelled saponins have been and are increasingly used in food/feed, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. Existing techniques presently used for Yucca steroidal saponin quantification remain either inaccurate and misleading or accurate but time consuming and cost prohibitive. The method reported here addresses all of the above challenges. HPLC/ELSD technique is an accurate and reliable method that yields results of appropriate repeatability and reproducibility. This method does not over- or under-estimate levels of steroidal saponins. HPLC/ELSD method does not require each and every pure standard of saponins, to quantify the group of steroidal saponins. The method is a time- and cost-effective technique that is suitable for routine industrial analyses. HPLC/ELSD methods yield a saponin fingerprints specific to the plant species. As the method is capable of distinguishing saponin profiles from taxonomically distant species, it can unravel plant adulteration issues. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. EXTRACTION OF TANNINS AND SAPONINS FROM PLANT SOURCES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON In vitro METHANOGENESIS AND RUMEN FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yuliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to extract tannins from Swietenia mahagony and saponins from Sapindusrarak by using different solvents, and to test their extracts on in vitro rumen fermentation andmethanogenesis. Solvents used for extraction were water, methanol, acetone and their combinations.Tannin and saponin extracts were added into each incubation bottle containing Brachiaria humidicolagrass and Indigofera sp. legume (1:1 w/w according to the following treatments (in four replicates: R1:control substrate, R2: R1 + 0.5 mg/ml tannin extract, R3: R1 + 1 mg/mL tannin extract, R4: R1 + 0.5mg/mL saponin extract, R5: R1 + 1 mg/mL saponin extract, R6: R1 + 0.5 mg/mL tannin extract + 0.5mg/mL saponin extract, and R7: R1 + 1 mg/mL tannin extract + 1 mg/mL saponin extract. Resultsrevealed that 75% water + 25% methanol was the best solvent to extract tannins from S. mahagonywhereas 100% methanol was the best to extract saponins from S. rarak. The highest gas production andthe lowest methane emission were obtained in R7. It can be concluded that combination of tannin andsaponin extracts were potential in mitigating ruminal methane emissions.

  3. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  4. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  5. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in the non-model Crucifer Plant Barbares Vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye

    are identified and found to be responsible for resistance towards flea beetles (Phyllotreta nemorum) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella). Genes involved in the biosynthesis of these saponins were recently identified, however the complete biosynthetic pathway is not known to date. These findings set...

  6. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  7. Two new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yuan; Teng Fei Ji; Ai Guo Wang; Jian Bo Yang; Ya Lun Su

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the n-BuOH extract from the seeds of Allium cepa L.led to isolation of four furostanol saponins,two of which were new compounds,named ceparoside A (1a) and ceparoside B (2a).The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated through a combination of NMR,MS spectral data and chemical analysis.

  8. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  9. Structure and absolute configuration of helosides A and B, new saponins from Chamaelirium luteum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of Chamaelirium luteum roots led to the isolation of two new steroidal saponins, helosides A and B, that contain a previously unreported aglycone, helogenin. Their structures and absolute configuration were elucidated through MS-MS, NMR, chemical degradation, and X-ray crystallography....

  10. Three new oleanane triterpenoid saponins acetylated with monoterpenoid acid from Albizia julibrissin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Qingying; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Yuying; Wu, Lijun

    2010-10-01

    Three new minor oleanane triterpenoid saponins acetylated with monoterpenoid acid, julibroside J(32), julibroside J(35) and julibroside J(36), along with one new natural product, prosapogenin 9, were isolated from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the chemical and spectroscopic evidences.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Saponin-Producing Fungal Endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres, and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL. According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  12. Isolation and characterization of saponin-producing fungal endophytes from Aralia elata in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yang, Hongyan; You, Xiangling; Li, Yuhua

    2012-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of endophytic fungi of Aralia elata distributed in Northeast China as well as their capacity to produce saponins. Ninety-six strains of endophytic fungi were isolated, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were employed to identify the isolates. The saponin concentrations of the culture filtrates of representative strains were measured. The agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify the saponins produced by representative strains. Alternaria, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporium, Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Dictyochaeta, Penicillium, Fusarium, Nectria, Peniophora, Schizophyllum, Cladosporium and Trichoderma species were isolated in this study. Overall, 25% of the isolates belonged to Diaporthe (Diaporthe eres), and 12.5% belonged to Alternaria. The highest concentration of saponins was produced by G22 (2.049 mg/mL). According to the results of the phylogenetic analysis, G22 belonged to the genus Penicillium. The culture filtrate of G22 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and ginsenosides Re and Rb2 were detected in G22 culture filtrates by HPLC.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Raju B; Samaddar, Suman; Simi, S M; Rao, Srinivas T

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective potential of a saponin isolated from the roots of Momordica cymbalaria against peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A steroidal saponin (SMC) was isolated from M. cymbalaria Fenzl and purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Diabetes was induced in male Wister rats by injecting streptozotocin 45 mg/kg. Diabetic rats were divided into six groups for neuroprotective effect--three each for preventive and curative groups. Neuropathic analgesia was assessed by tail-flick and hot-plate methods. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and sciatic nerves were isolated, and histopathological analysis was performed. Antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) of the saponin was also carried out on the isolated DRG neurons and sciatic nerves to assess total oxidative stress. In both preventive and curative protocols, rats administered with SMC showed significant decrease in tail immersion latency time and increase in pain sensitivity when compared to diabetic control group. There was improvement in the myelination and degenerative changes of the nerve fiber in both the groups, and an obvious delay in the progression of neuropathy was evident. SMC treatment showed significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation in the nerves. The steroidal saponin of M. cymbalaria (SMC) possesses potential neuroprotective effect in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with respect to neuropathic analgesia, improvement in neuronal degenerative changes, and significant antioxidant activity.

  14. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Strug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  15. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  16. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

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    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  17. Determination of 5 Saponins in Different Heat Processed Panax Notoginseng%三七不同加热炮制品中5种皂苷类成分的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新惠; 赵荣华; 张荣平; 朱培芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立一种用HPLC测定三七生品及不同温度加热炮制品中5种皂苷类成分含量的方法,为研究三七炮制机理及探索生熟三七药理作用差异提供物质基础。方法采用HPLC同时测定生品及不同炮制品中三七皂苷R1、人参皂苷Rg1、人参皂苷Re、人参皂苷Rb1、人参皂苷Rd的含量。Agilent Zorbax SB-C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),乙腈和水梯度洗脱,流速1.0mL·min-1,柱温20℃,检测波长203nm。结果该方法中5种化合物线性关系良好,r均在0.9997及以上,回收率为97.6%~101.7%.3种炮制品(蒸制品、油炸品和砂炒品)中5种皂苷类成分含量整体比生品均有不同程度下降,同时均有新成分产生。炮制品中五种成分含量下降幅度和新产生成分含量增加幅度与加热温度相关。砂炒品中5种皂苷类成分含量下降幅度最大,新产生成分的含量最高。结论该方法可用于三七炮制品中皂苷类成分的含量测定和质量控制。砂炒法是一种有前景的三七炮制方法。生品与炮制品三七的物质组成和含量各不相同,这也许就是导致生熟三七药理作用差异的直接原因,相关研究正在进行中。%Objective To establish a method for the quantitative determination of 5 saponins in raw and different temperature processed panax notoginseng, which would provide the material basis of processing mechanisms and pharmacological effects differences of raw and processed panax notoginseng. Methods The contents of notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1、Re、Rb1、Rd were determined by HPLC simultaneously. The separation was performed on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18(4. 6mm×250mm,5μm)column, the flow rate was 1 mL·min-1,the column temperature was 20 ℃ and the wavelength of UV detector was 203 nm. Results With this method,5 compounds showed a good linear relationship (r≥0. 9997)with recovery range 97. 6%-101. 7%. There were differences among the contents

  18. Is fucose the answer to the immunomodulatory paradox of Quillaja saponins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2015-12-01

    Quillaja saponins, e.g. QS-21, are immunomodulating aldehyde-carrying triterpene glycosides, which depending on the acylation state of their single fucosyl residue (Fucp) induce either Th1/Th2 or Th2 immunity. Indeed, their changes in immunomodulation or adjuvanticity from Th1/Th2 to sole Th2 immunity, correlate with the presence of acylated and de-acylated Fucp residues, respectively. Thus, it is possible to infer that the single Fucp residue is responsible for the Th2 immunity biasing induced by de-acylated Q. saponins (QT-0101). That removal of the fucosylated oligosaccharide from de-acylated Q. saponins results once more in the induction of Th1/Th2 immunity supports the Fucp role in polarizing the response toward Th2 immunity. From structural and functional analogies with the helminths' fucosylated glycans, it is possible to infer that these saponins' Fucp must bind to the lectin DC-SIGN on dendritic cells (DC). This binding to DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin that shows significant pliability in its binding interactions, must result in polarization toward Th2 while inhibiting Th1 immunity. Apparently, acylation of the Fucp by large fatty acids sterically hinders this sugar from binding to DC-SIGN, preventing a biasing to Th2 immunity. Evidently, de-acylation of Q. saponins may negatively affect vaccines requiring Th1 immunity for immune protection, particularly those against pathogens that use DC-SIGN to infect DCs and modulate Th2 immunity. However, it could be valuable in vaccines that require a sole Th2 immunity, like those against proteinopathies, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. Hence, it would valuable to elucidate the possible interactions between DC-SIGN and the QT-0101 immunomodulator.

  19. Mycoremediation of manganese and phenanthrene by Pleurotus eryngii mycelium enhanced by Tween 80 and saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Xu, Yongan; Ding, Wenbo; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation of areas co-contaminated with metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by mushrooms has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this study, Pleurotus eryngii was introduced for the removal of Mn and phenanthrene (Phe) from potato liquid medium (PDL) simultaneously. Effects of Tween 80 and saponin on P. eryngii growth together with Mn uptake as well as Phe removal were investigated. Although pollutants had a negative effect on mycelial morphology and growth, P. eryngii could still tolerate and remove Mn and Phe. Tween 80 increased removal of Mn and Phe through increase of P. eryngii growth, Phe solubility, pollutants bioavailability, and specific surface area of mycelium pellets, moreover, the activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase, which played an important role on PAHs biodegradation. The maximal removal of Mn and Phe was achieved (92.17 and 93.85 % after 15 days incubation, respectively) with 0.6 g L(-1) Tween 80. Treatments with saponin markedly inhibited P. eryngii growth (50.17-66.32 % lower relative to control) due to its fungistatic activity. Nevertheless, saponin could slightly enhance Phe removal through increasing solubility of Phe, and Phe removal rate varied from 80.53 to 87.06 % in saponin treatments. Joint stress of Mn and Phe induced a strong antioxidative response, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in surfactants-treated mycelium compared with control. Generally, Tween 80 was more suitable for strengthening mycoremediation by P. eryngii than saponin, and could be a promising alternative for the remediation of heavy metals and PAHs co-contaminated sites by mushrooms.

  20. Evaluation of efficacy of saponin and freund's incomplete adjuvanted paratuberculosis vaccine in murine model

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    Jubeda Begum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy between saponin adjuvanted paratuberculosis killed vaccine and Freund's incomplete (FIC adjuvanted paratuberculosis vaccine in mice model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 11 months using 80 Swiss albino mice by dividing into four groups (Group I-mice vaccinated with killed Mycobacterium avium subspp. paratuberculosis (MAP adjuvanted with saponin, Group II- for FIC, Group III- Saponin control and Gr IV- FIC control. Faecal shedding, changes in body weight, presence of local reactions and clinical symptoms, were evaluated. Serological assays for humoral and cell mediated immune response were determined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and nitric oxide test (NO respectively. A total of 76 serum samples, 52 faecal samples and 20 tissue samples were collected at different intervals during the study period. ZN staining; AGID test and nitric oxide test were employed for analysis of samples. Results: A total of 38 samples (37 faecal and 1 tissue sample and 18 serum samples were recorded as positive by ZN staining and AGID test respectively from all four groups of mice. Significant decrease in faecal shedding of organisms was observed in Group I mice vaccinated with saponin adjuvanted vaccine in comparison to Group II. Gain in body weight of Group I mice was recorded as higher than Group II. NO test revealed increase in the concentration of NO level in both vaccinated group but more significant in Group I. Conclusion: The tests results obtained revealed that killed MAP vaccine adjuvanted with saponin have higher protective efficacy in terms of reduced faecal shedding, gain in body weight, less side effects, absence of attributable specific symptoms of Johne's disease, etc. in comparison to killed MAP vaccine adjuvanted with FIC. The present study also reveals that AGID and NO estimation tests are specific tests which can be employed for diagnosis and comparison of efficacy of paratuberculosis

  1. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

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    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  2. Comparative Validation of Five Quantitative Rapid Test Kits for the Analysis of Salt Iodine Content: Laboratory Performance, User- and Field-Friendliness.

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    Fabian Rohner

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency has important health and development consequences and the introduction of iodized salt as national programs has been a great public health success in the past decades. To render national salt iodization programs sustainable and ensure adequate iodization levels, simple methods to quantitatively assess whether salt is adequately iodized are required. Several methods claim to be simple and reliable, and are available on the market or are in development.This work has validated the currently available quantitative rapid test kits (quantRTK in a comparative manner for both their laboratory performance and ease of use in field settings.Laboratory performance parameters (linearity, detection and quantification limit, intra- and inter-assay imprecision were conducted on 5 quantRTK. We assessed inter-operator imprecision using salt of different quality along with the comparison of 59 salt samples from across the globe; measurements were made both in a laboratory and a field setting by technicians and non-technicians. Results from the quantRTK were compared against iodometric titration for validity. An 'ease-of-use' rating system was developed to identify the most suitable quantRTK for a given task.Most of the devices showed acceptable laboratory performance, but for some of the devices, use by non-technicians revealed poorer performance when working in a routine manner. Of the quantRTK tested, the iCheck® and I-Reader® showed most consistent performance and ease of use, and a newly developed paper-based method (saltPAD holds promise if further developed.User- and field-friendly devices are now available and the most appropriate quantRTK can be selected depending on the number of samples and the budget available.

  3. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  4. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

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    Mengquan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT; Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca2+ was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2 was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting. Results: TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

  5. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production.

  6. Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological

  7. ENZYME HYDROLYSIS OF SOYBEAN SAPONIN SUGAR-MOIETY%酶法水解大豆苷中的含糖部分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 徐龙权; 翟滨; 苏志国; 金凤燮

    2001-01-01

    @@ Saponin is the general name of low polymerized glycosides and in which the steroid or terpenoid is aglycone.The soybean saponin is composed of the triterpenoid aglycones (sapogenols)and sugar-moiety.Soybean saponin was divided into group A,group B,group E and group DDMP by the aglycones[1-3].It has been shown that soybean saponin has a lot of physiological activities and pharmacological action.For example,it can be used to resist cancer,adjust immunity,prevent and treat heart blood vessel disease.In addition, soybean saponin has been extensively used in cosmetics.However,the soybean saponin has dry mouth feel(DMF)which decreases the quality of soybean food products.Many facts have verified that sugar-moiety is very important to the biological activity of saponin[4].For example,in ginseng saponin of binary alcohol,the saponins which contain five sugar-moieties such as Ra1,Ra2,Ra3,have low activity,however,saponins containing one sugar-moiety like Rh2 have very strong activity of resisting cancer.When the sugar-moiety of soybean saponin was removed out,some special activities like resisting oxidation and resisting thrombus emerged and the DMF would decrease.But,reports concerning the sugar-moiety hydrolysis of soybean saponin by enzyme have not been found.In the paper,the enzyme hydrolysis of soybean saponin sugar-moiety and the strains producing hydrolytic enzyme of saponin were studied.

  8. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  9. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. A systematic approach for the chromatographic fractionation and purification of major steroid saponins in commercial extracts of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, F; Ferreira, F; Pedreschi, F

    2017-03-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl. (yucca) is one of the major industrial sources of steroid saponins used as animal and human food additives. This work describes a new, systematic and reproducible three-step method by medium and high-pressure liquid chromatography (under RP, NP and RP conditions), for the isolation and purification of three groups of saponins, which were further purified in six sub-fractions, and finally into twelve individual steroid saponins previously reported in Y. schidigera. In accordance to the increasing applications of yucca extracts, further analytical, biological and physicochemical studies are still required. The presented method is applicable to the preparation of steroids saponins previously reported in commercial extracts of Y. schidigera, both as highly purified mixtures of defined composition, including twelve pure components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core, and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.

  12. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  13. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  14. Determination of Total Saponins in Robinia pseudoacacia L. Flowers by Colorimetry%比色法测定刺槐花中总皂苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计红芳; 张令文; 杨铭铎; 李斌; 颜振敏; 张帆

    2012-01-01

    Study was carried out to establish the method of determining saponins content in Robinia pseudoacacia L. Flowers (RPF) by colorimetry. With Ginsenoside Rgl as standard material, the condition of vanillin-perchloric acid colorimetry was optimized by orthogonal design. The suitable conditions for colorimetry were obtained as follows: the sample solution was e-vaporated by water bath heating at 60℃, and was mixed with 0.2 mL acetic acid containing 7.0% vanillin and 1 mL perchloric acid, and reaction mixture was incubated at 60 ℃ for 20 min. Detection wavelength was 545 nm. A good linear relationship was achieved in the range of 0-0.24 mg with the regression equation of y=3.547 0x+0.010 9 (R2=0.998 9), and the average recovery was 100.07%(RSD=2.10% ,n=7). The average content of total saponins in RPF was 2.177%. This method was simple, accurate, excellently stable and repeatable, and was suitable for the determination of total saponins in RPF.%建立了比色法测定刺槐(Robinia pseudoacacia L.)花提取物总皂苷含量的方法.以人参皂苷Rg1作为对照品,通过正交设计对香草醛-高氯酸比色法的试验条件进行优化,确定最佳比色条件为:60℃水浴挥干溶剂后,加入0.2 mL 7.0%香草醛-冰乙酸液和1 mL高氯酸,于60℃水浴20 min,测定波长为545nm.样品在0~0.24 mg范围内呈良好的线性关系,回归方程为y=3.547 0x+0.010 9(R2=0.998 9),平均加样回收率为100.07%(RSD=2.10%,n=7),测得刺槐花提取物中总皂苷平均含量为2.177%.该方法简便、准确、重现性与稳定性较好,可用于测定刺槐花提取物总皂苷含量.

  15. Chemical investigation of saponins from twelve annual Medicago species and their bioassay with the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tava, Aldo; Pecetti, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    The saponin and sapogenin composition of the aerial growth of 12 annual Medicago species sampled at full senescence were investigated. Saponins were extracted from the plant material and obtained in a highly pure grade by reverse-phase chromatography, with a yield ranging from 0.38 +/- 0.04% to 1.35 +/- 0.08% dry matter, depending on the species. Sapogenins were then obtained after acid hydrolysis of saponins, and evaluated by GC/FID and GC/MS methods. Different compositions of the aglycone moieties were observed in the 12 Medicago species. Medicagenic acid was the dominant aglycone in M. x blancheana, M. doliata, M. littoralis, M. rotata, M. rugosa, M. scutellata, M. tornata and M. truncatula, bayogenin and hederagenin in M. arabica and M. rigidula, echinocystic acid in M. polymorpha, and soyasapogenol B in M. aculeata. The purified saponin mixtures, characterized by different chemical compositions, were then used in a toxicity test using the brine shrimp Artemia salina. The most active compounds were the saponins from M. arabica and M. rigidula with LD50 values of 10.1 and 4.6 microg/mL, respectively. A structure-activity relationship for the tested saponin mixtures was observed.

  16. Site-specific {sup 13}C content by quantitative isotopic {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometry: A pilot inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaintreau, Alain; Fieber, Wolfgang; Sommer, Horst [Firmenich SA, Corporate R and D Division, P.O. Box 239, 1211 Geneva 8 (Switzerland); Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Pagelot, Alain [Bruker Biospin SAS, 34 rue de l‘Industrie, 67166 Wissembourg Cedex (France); Moskau, Detlef; Moreno, Aitor [Bruker Biospin AG, Industriestrasse 26, 8117 Fällanden (Switzerland); Schleucher, Jürgen [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, S-90187 Umeå (Sweden); Reniero, Fabiano; Holland, Margaret; Guillou, Claude [European Commission, Joint Research Centre – Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, via E. Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Remaud, Gérald S., E-mail: gerald.remaud@univ-nantes.fr [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First ring test on isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry. •Evaluation of the intra- and inter-variability of the NMR spectrometers used. •Definition of a protocol for qualification of the performance of the spectrometer. -- Abstract: Isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the {sup 13}C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic {sup 13}C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic {sup 13}C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ{sup 13}C{sub i} profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ{sup 13}C{sub i} in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results.

  17. Optimization of Extraction Process of Total Saponins from Root Bark ofAralia chinensis L.%楤木根皮总皂苷的提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蕾; 葛洁英

    2015-01-01

    目的:优化楤木根皮中总皂苷的提取工艺。方法采用香草醛-浓硫酸显色法测定楤木根皮总皂苷含量;以楤木根皮总皂苷提取率为指标,在单因素试验基础上,通过正交试验考察提取温度、乙醇浓度和液固比对提取效果的影响。结果楤木根皮总皂苷提取的最优工艺参数为:提取时间60 min,提取温度80℃,乙醇浓度80%,液固比7:1。结论得到了楤木根皮总皂苷提取的最优工艺参数,为楤木资源的综合利用和开发奠定基础。%Objective To optimize the extraction process of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. Methods The content of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. was determined by the vanillin-sulfuric acid chromogenic assay. On the basis of single factor experiment, orthogonal test was adopted to determine the impacts of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and the rate of solvent to material on the extraction rate of total saponins.Results The optimized extraction process of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. was as follows: extraction time of 60 min, extraction temperature of 80℃, ethanol concentration of 80 % and the rate of solvent to material of 7:1.Conclusion The optimum extraction process parameters of total saponins from the root bark ofAralia chinensis L. were obtained. This study provided the basis for comprehensive utilization and development ofAralia chinensis L.

  18. Isolation and evaluation of cytogenetic effect of Brahmi saponins on cultured human lymphocytes exposed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachaveedu, Mangathayaru; Papacchan, Sunu; Sanyal, Sudip; Koshy, Teena; Telapolu, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Major saponins of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera, Fam: Scrophulariaceae) - bacosides A and B - were isolated from the total methanol extract and characterised based on melting point, TLC, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. They were evaluated for their in vitro cytogenetic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. The frequency of chromatid type aberrations and reciprocal interchanges between sister chromatids in the treated cells was scored in comparison to the untreated control. At 30 μg/mL dose, bacoside A showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of both CA and SCE and bacoside B showed an increase only in SCE. Our report of the genotoxicity of the saponins is significant in view of the reports of anticancer activity of Brahmi extracts.

  19. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Isolation, characterization, and quantification of steroidal saponins in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Mitchell, Robert B; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Gardner, Dale R; Azadi, Parastoo

    2009-03-25

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environmentally friendly biomass energy crop. A recent 5 year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540% more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest, and process it into cellulosic ethanol. If switchgrass is grown on a scale useful for a bioenergy source, some of the material could be used by livestock as hay or pasture. Switchgrass has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs (Ovis aries) and horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a simple extraction and rapid reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantifying the major saponins in switchgrass samples. Differences in the relative concentrations of different saponins were observed between switchgrass cultivars and plant parts.

  1. A PAIR OF 24-HYDROPEROXYL EPIMERIC DAMMARANE SAPONINS FROM FLOWER-BUDS OF PANAX GINSENG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG QIU; ZHONG-ZE MA; SUI-XU XU; XIN-SHENG YAO; CHUN-TAO CHE; YING-JIE CHEN

    2001-01-01

    Further investigation on the saponins of the flower-buds of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of a pair of new 24-epimers of dammarane type saponins named ginsenoside I and II. The structures of the epimers were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence as 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-S-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S)-trihydroxy-24ξ-hydroperoxydam-mar-25-ene, except for their C-24 configurations. Ginsenoside Ⅰ is a new triterpene glycoside,and ginsenoside Ⅱ is a known compound first isolated from a natural plant.

  2. Correlation and path analysis between lycopene content and main quantitative traits of tomato%番茄果实中番茄红素含量与主要数量性状相关性及通径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相梅; 许向阳; 张贺; 康立功; 姜景彬; 李景富

    2011-01-01

    试验对由高色素番茄和加工番茄配制的15个杂交组合的11个主要数量性状与番茄红素含量进行相关性及通径分析.结果表明,果实横径和心室数与番茄红素含量呈极显著负相关;果实纵径和单果重与番茄红素含量呈显著性负相关;单序果数与番茄红素含量呈显著性正相关.果实横径、心室数和单果重对番茄红素含量的直接通经系数与遗传相关系数方向相同,均为负值;单序果数与番茄红素含量的直接通经系数与遗传相关系数方向相反,均为正值.所以应选择心室数少、单果重小和单株结果少的材料作为选育材料的目标.%Analysis on correlation and path analysis between lycopene content and 11 principal quantitative traits of tomato (Solanum /ycopersicum) fruit from 15 crossed lines by high pigment tomato materials and processing tomatoes was carried out, respectively. The results showed that there was a highly significantly negative correlation between lycopene content and transverse diameter or ventricle number, and significantly negative correlation between lycopene content and vertical diameter or single fruit weight. The study showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between lycopene content and the number of fruits per inflorescence. The genetic correlation coefficients and direct path coefficients were all below zero between lycopene content and fruit transverse diameter, ventricle number, or single fruit weight; but had a positive value when compared between lycopene content and the number of fruits per inflorescence. So the targets would be materials with littler ventricular, littler fruit weight and single plant yield.

  3. Flavonol glycosides and steroidal saponins from the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Watanabe, K; Ando, Y; Sakuma, C; Sashida, Y; Furuya, S; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides (1, 2) and seven steroidal saponins (3-9), including four new ones (4, 6, 7, and 9). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against human oral squamous cell carcinoma-(HSC-2) cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts are reported.

  4. Synthesis and crystal structures of C24-epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang Rong; Yang, Jing Jing; Liu, Juan; Hou, Gui Ge; Meng, Qing Guo

    2016-06-01

    Ocotillol-type saponins have a wide spectrum of biological activities. Previous studies indicated that the configuration at the C24 position may be responsible for their stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. Natural ocotillol-type saponins share a 20(S)-form but it has been found that the 20(R)-stereoisomers have different pharmacological effects. The semisynthesis of 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins has not been reported and it is therefore worthwhile clarifying their crystal structures. Two C24 epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins, namely (20R,24S)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol, C30H52O4, (III), and (20R,24R)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol monohydrate, C30H52O4·H2O, (IV), were synthesized, and their structures were elucidated by spectral studies and finally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The (Me)C-O-C-C(OH) torsion angle of (III) is 146.41 (14)°, whereas the corresponding torsion angle of (IV) is -146.4 (7)°, indicating a different conformation at the C24 position. The crystal stacking in (III) generates an R4(4)(8) motif, through which the molecules are linked into a one-dimensional double chain. The chains are linked via nonclassical C-H...O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network, and further stacked into a three-dimensional structure. In contrast to (III), epimer (IV) crystallizes as a hydrate, in which the water molecules act as hydrogen-bond donors linking one-dimensional chains into a two-dimensional network through intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains extend helically along the crystallographic a axis and generate a C4(4)(8) motif.

  5. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Sharma; Satish Chandra Sati; Om Prakash Sati; Maneesha Dobhal Sati; Sudhir Kumar Kothiyal; Deepak Kumar Semwal; Anil Mehta

    2013-01-01

    A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1)-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion m...

  6. A new friedelane triterpenoid and saponin with moderate antimicrobial activity from the stems of Drypetes laciniata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Veronique Fannang; Victor Kuete; Celine Mbazoa Djama; Marlise Diane J. Dongfack; Jean Duplex Wansi; Francois Tillequin; Elisabeth Seguin; Elizabeth Chosson; Jean Wandji

    2011-01-01

    A new friedelane-type triterpene named 3β-hydroxyfriedelane-7,12,22-trione, as well as nine known compounds were isolated from the whole stems of Drypetes laciniata Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The new triterpene derivative and a known saponin were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities and they appeared to be moderate active.

  7. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y C; Lin, C L; Chen, B H

    2010-12-15

    A preparative column chromatographic method was developed to isolate flavonoids and saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese Medicinal herb, and evaluate their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell Hep3B, with the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3) being used for comparison. Initially the powdered G. pentaphyllum was extracted with ethanol, followed by eluting flavonoids and saponins with ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) and 100% ethanol, respectively, in an open-column containing 5 g of Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN, and then subjected to HPLC-MS analysis. The flavonoid fraction was mainly composed of quercetin- and kaempferol-glycosides, while in saponin fraction, both ginsenoside Rb(3) and ginsenoside Rd dominated. Both fractions were more effective against Hep3B cells than the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3), with the cell cycle being arrested at G0/G1 phase for all the treatments. Additionally, the inhibition effect followed a dose-dependent increase for all the sample treatments. The result of this study may be used as a basis for possible phytopreparations in the future with G. pentaphyllum as raw material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation, chemical characterization and biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. roots were isolated and their acid hydrolysis revealed several aglycones that were obtained in crystalline form and characterized. Medicagenic acid, hederagenin and soyasapogenols A. B, C. D, E and F were found. Crude saponins were separated into cholesterol-precipitable and nonprecipitable fractions. The precipitable fraction consisted of medicagenic acid glycosides: glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose were found as their sugar chain components. The nonprecipitable fraction was a mixture of hederagenine and soyasapogenol glycosides, and glucose arthinose. xylose. galactose and glucuronic acid were found in the sugar component,. 7 he medicagenic acid glycosides made up 6% of root dry matter and showed high biological activity. They cuased red blood cells lysis (haemolytic index 3000, completely inhibited Trichoderma viride growth at the concentration of 2.5 Mg. 100 cm-3 of growth medium and retarded wheat seedling growth at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. The cholesterol-nonprecipitable fraction caused no blood cell lysis and fungus growth inhibition, although it did inhibit seedling growth, but to a much lesser extent than medicagenic acrd glycosides. The detrimental effect of alfalfa root saponins on winter wheat crop after alfalfa is discussed.

  11. Effect of steroidal saponin from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Yanke, L J; Cheeke, P R

    2000-05-01

    The effects of steroidal saponins (SAP) isolated from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal bacteria and fungi were investigated in pure culture studies. Prevotella bryantii, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Selenomonas ruminantium and Streptococcus bovis were cultured through ten 24-h transfers in ruminal fluid medium containing 0 or 25 microg SAP ml-1 (measured as smilagenin equivalents). The four strains, each non-exposed or pre-exposed to SAP, were then inoculated into medium containing 0 or 250 microgram smilagenin equivalents ml-1 and 24-h growth curves were determined. The cellulolytic ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Rc. albus were cultured for 72 h on Whatman no. 1 filter paper in medium containing 0, 9, 90 or 180 microgram SAP ml-1 for the determination of filter paper digestion and endoglucanase activity. The ruminal bacteria differed in their responses to SAP. Steroidal saponins in the medium reduced the growth of Strep. bovis (P 0.05) between pre-exposed and non-exposed cultures and the concentrations of total SAP and soluble (deglycosylated) SAP in the liquid fraction were unchanged (P > 0.05) over time. Steroidal saponins inhibited the digestion of filter paper by all three cellulolytic bacteria, but F. succinogenes was less (P schidigera inhibit cellulolytic ruminal bacteria and fungi, but their effects on amylolytic bacteria are species dependent and similar to the effects of ionophores. As such, SAP may be useful in nutritional applications targeting starch-digesting ruminal micro-organisms.

  12. Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita

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    Byung Soo Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC50 value of 92.8 μg/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC50 values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 μg/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies and its saponin and non-saponin fractions on rat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C F; Killeen, G F; Connolly, C D; Power, R F

    2001-07-01

    Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies, family Lillaceae, was fractionated with butan-1-ol to yield a butanol extractable fraction (BE; saponin fraction) and a non-butanol fraction (NBE; non-saponin fraction). Four groups of eight male rats were allowed ad libitum access to diets supplemented with water (control) or 200 mg x kg(-1) total Y. schidigera (TOT) or 200 mg x kg(-1) of each of the fractions (NBE or BE). The effects of dietary supplementation with the fractions and their interactions in TOT were analyzed according to the factorial experimental design by two-way analysis of variance. All three supplementation groups displayed significantly reduced serum urea levels (P < 0.05). The TOT and NBE fractions were found to significantly increase serum insulin levels (P < 0.01) in the absence of any fluctuations in serum glucose levels. Urea cycle enzyme activities, namely, arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) and argininosuccinate lyase (EC 4.3.2.1), were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in vivo, although no effect was observed in vitro. Both fractions displayed effects, indicating that the active constituents are present in both fractions.

  14. 粘红酵母菌肥对蓖麻生长性状及其种子含油量的影响%Effect of Rhodotorula glutinis Fertilizer on Ricinus communis's Quantitative Characters and Oil Content in Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步泽; 薛飞燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of Rhodotorula glutinis fertilizer on the quantitative characters and seed oil content in seed,three treatments such as Rhodotorula glutinis microbial fertilizer,chemical fertilizer of compound elements and control were carried out both in pot and field experiments. Plant height and diameter during the growth period,seed size and its water content in fresh seed and oil content in dry seed after harvested were detected. The results demonstrated that Rhodotorula glutinis fertilizer promoted the Ricinus communis sprout growth and the seed oil content,and inhibited the mature plant,seed size and its fresh weight. The seed oil content of Ricinus communis treating with Rhodotorula glutinis microbial fertilizer was 40.33%,significantly higher than that in control treatment.%为了解粘红酵母菌肥的施用对蓖麻植株生长、种子性状及其含油量的影响,分别测定了菌肥施用组、化肥施用组和空白对照组的蓖麻植株株高和茎粗、收获期种子籽粒大小、鲜重、鲜籽粒含水量和干籽粒含油量。结果表明:粘红酵母菌肥对盆栽蓖麻苗期的株高增长有不显著的促进作用,而化肥则表现出显著的抑制作用;粘红酵母菌肥对田间蓖麻植株生长中后期的株高和茎粗均有显著抑制作用;粘红酵母菌肥对蓖麻种子大小和鲜重增加也有显著抑制作用,而对种子鲜籽粒含水量和干籽粒含油量的积累有显著促进作用;菌肥施用组所得蓖麻种子含油量可达40.33%,显著高于对照。

  15. Evaluation of protective effect of Sapindus mukorossi saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Asad, B Syed; Fazil, MA; Sudharshan, RD; Rasheed, SA; Pradeep, HA; Aboobacker, S; Thayyil, AH; Riyaz, AK; Mansoor, M; Aleem, MA; Zeeyauddin, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Anjum, A; Ibrahim, M

    2012-01-01

    Aim This investigation aimed to assess the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Fruit of S. mukorossi was collected and authenticated, and dried pericarp powder subjected to extraction with cold ethanol (70%) by maceration followed by isolation of total saponin fraction. Hepatoprotective activity was demonstrated in the CCl4-damaged primary monolayer culture. In in vivo studies, pretreatment with total saponin fraction (50,100 and 150 mg/kg per os once a day for 4 days before CCl4 introduction and continued afterward for 3 days) attenuated the CCl4-induced acute increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and considerably reduced histopathological alterations. Further, saponin fraction reduced thiopentone-induced (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) sleeping time in rats. Results Saponin fraction pretreatment improves bromsulphalein clearance and also increases cellular viability. Saponin administration replenished depleted hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutase by improving the antioxidant status of the liver and liver function enzymes. These effects substantiate protection of cellular phospholipids from peroxidative damage induced by highly reactive toxic intermediate radicals formed during biotransformation of CCl4. Conclusion The above findings lead to the conclusion that the saponin fraction of S. mukorossi has a protective capability both in vitro on primary hepatocyte cultures and in vivo in a rat model of CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest that the inclusion of this S. mukorossi fruit pericarp in the management of liver disorders is justified. PMID:22888266

  16. Triterpenoid Saponins from Cortex Albiziae%合欢皮中的三萜皂苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹坤; 赵玉英; 张如意

    2008-01-01

    Cortex Albiziae, the dried stem bark of a leguminous plant, Albizia julibrissin Durazz, was specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edit.) as a traditional Chinese medicine to be used to relieve melancholia and uneasiness of body and mind, to invigorate the circulation of blood and subside a swelling. In a course of our quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines, the n-BuOH soluble part of 95% EtOH extracts from the stem barks of Albizia julibrissin was subjected to a series of solvent treatment and chromatographic separations, including Rp-HPLC methods, giving rise to 28 pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins. Based on chemical methods and spectroscopic evidences, the structures of saponins were identified, which included six pairs of diastereoisomers, five pairs of position isomers, and 26 of them were new compounds. All the saponins are trisdesmosidic saponins, which are composed of an acacic acid moiety, 7-9 monosaccharide moieties, 1-2 monoterpenic acid moieties, and exhibited their molecular ion peaks around m/z 2 000. Their carbon-13 signals and most of proton signals were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The proton and carbon signals of several known saponins were revised and reassigned. The spectroscopic properties related to these saponins were analyzed and summarized. The cytotoxic activity and other activities of these saponins and their analogues were discussed also.%合欢皮作为传统中药,为豆科植物合欢的干燥茎皮.在1995年版中国药典中记载合欢皮具有解郁安神、活血化瘀的作用.在我们对传统中药品质进行研究的过程中,通过对合欢皮95%乙醇提取物的正丁醇可溶部位进行一系列溶剂处理和层析分离,分离获得28个五环三萜皂苷.基于化学和波谱证据,我们鉴定了它们的结构,包括6对非对映异构体、5对位置异构体,其中26个皂苷为新化合物.所有分离皂苷均为三糖链皂苷,含有金合欢酸皂苷元,7~9个单糖和1~2

  17. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  18. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  19. Metabolite profiling of triterpene saponins in Medicago truncatula hairy roots by liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollier, Jacob; Morreel, Kris; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

    2011-06-24

    Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant natural products, with an enormous variety in structure and bioactivities. Here, triterpene saponins from hairy roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula were profiled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC ESI FT-ICR MS). Owing to the accuracy of the FT-ICR MS, reliable molecular formulas of the detected compounds could be predicted, which, together with the generated MS(n) spectra, allowed the tentative identification of 79 different saponins, of which 61 had not been detected previously in M. truncatula. Upon collision-induced dissociation of saponins that contain a uronic acid residue in the sugar chain, fragment ions resulting from cross-ring cleavages of the uronic acid residues were observed. The identified saponins are glycosides of 10 different sapogenins, of which three were not detected before in M. truncatula. Zanhic acid glycosides, which are prevalent in the aerial parts of M. truncatula, were absent in the hairy root extracts. This metabolite compendium will facilitate future functional genomic studies of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in M. truncatula.

  20. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  1. 乙肝病毒表面抗原定量与HBV-DNA含量的相关性分析%HBV Surface Antigen Quantitation of DNA Content Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘添皇; 何宗运

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨HBV表面抗原(HBsAg)定量与HBV-DNA含量的相关性,为乙型肝炎的预防和治疗提供帮助。方法选取2011年6月至2012年8月间在我院门诊及住院的诊断为乙型肝炎的患者180例,同时进行HBsAg和HBV-DNA定量检测,分析两者之间的相关性。结果 HBsAg浓度在20~200 ng/mL时,HBV-DNA的阳性率上升较明显,表明在该时期体内有大量乙肝病毒复制,具有传染性,并可能对机体具有一定的破坏性。随着HBsAg含量的升高,HBV-DNA阳性率也随着不断增高。结论在临床诊断、治疗中,联合检测HBsAg和HBV-DNA有助于乙肝患者的病情观察、用药、评估疗效及判断预后。%  Objective Explore the correlation analysis of the Quantitative DNA content of HBV surface antigen, and help to prevent and treat of hepatitis B. Methods June 2011 to August 2012 in our hospital outpatient and inpatient diagnosis of 180 cases of hepatitis B patients, while giving the quantitative detection of HBsAg and HBV-DNA analysis of the correlation between the two. Results HBsAg concentration of 20-200 ng/mL, HBV-DNA positive rate increased more significantly in the period, a large number of hepatitis B virus replication, the virus of the body has a certain destructive and infectious. HBV-DNA positive rate of HBsAg content increased, along with the constant increase.Conclusion During the clinical diagnosis and treatment, combined detection of HBsAg and HBV-DNA can help patients with hepatitis B disease observation, medication, predict efficacy and prognosis.

  2. Determination of Paeoniflorin in Total Saponins of Radix Paeoniae Rubra by TLC Scanning%双波长薄层扫描测定赤芍总甙中芍药甙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先祥; 刘青云; 俞能高; 葛少祥

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the preparing technology of total saponins ofRadix Paeoniae Rubra and its quality standards. Methods: Total saponins were extracted from Paeonia lactiflora Pall. by EtOH refluxing, EtO degreasing and n-BuOH extracts, the yield was more than 5%. The dual wavelength TLC-scanning was used to determine the content of paeoniflorin at 254 nm. Results: The average content of paeoniflorin in the extractive was 44.1%. Conclusion: The extracting method was simple, rapid and available.%目的:研究赤芍总甙的制备工艺和质量标准。方法:赤芍经乙醇回流,乙醚脂和正丁醇萃取得到赤芍总甙,得率>5%,所得赤芍总甙以双波长薄层扫描测定了芍药甙含量,测定波长λS=254nm。结果:样品中芍药甙含量平均为44.1%。结论:该提取方法简便、快速、可行。

  3. The amphiphilic nature of saponins and their effects on artificial and biological membranes and potential consequences for red blood and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Joseph H; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule

    2014-11-28

    Saponins, amphiphiles of natural origin with numerous biological activities, are widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Some saponins exhibit relatively selective cytotoxic effects on cancer cells but the tendency of saponins to induce hemolysis limits their anticancer potential. This review focused on the effects of saponin activity on membranes and consequent implications for red blood and cancer cells. This activity seems to be strongly related to the amphiphilic character of saponins that gives them the ability to self-aggregate and interact with membrane components such as cholesterol and phospholipids. Membrane interactions of saponins with artificial membrane models, red blood and cancer cells are reviewed with respect to their molecular structures. The review considered the mechanisms of these membrane interactions and their consequences including the modulation of membrane dynamics, interaction with membrane rafts, and membrane lysis. We summarized current knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved in the interactions of saponins with membrane lipids and examined the structure activity relationship of saponins regarding hemolysis and cancer cell death. A critical analysis of these findings speculates on their potential to further develop new anticancer compounds.

  4. Application of foam column as green technology for concentration of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana and Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saponins, molecules classified as triterpenic or steroidal glycosides, are metabolites distributed in all the plant kingdom that can be used for the production of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in soil bioremediation. Saponins are normally extracted from natural resources with water, ethanol and/or methanol, and then concentrated by liquid-liquid partitioning with n-butanol. An alternative concentration method is with a foam column, by which the saponins can be concentrated via preferential adsorption at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the objective of this work was the use of a foam column for the concentration of saponins from juá and sisal, evaluating parameters such as: initial working volume in the column, saponin concentration in the extracts from juá and sisal, air flow rate, pH, Raschig rings loading and operation time. When a gradient air flow rate and 25 g of Raschig rings were used, 82.6% of the jua saponins loaded onto the system were recovered in a 3.46-fold concentrated solution after 9 h of operation. Regarding sisal saponins, a concentration factor of 1.98 was observed with 90.5% of saponin recovery during 4.5 h of operation.

  5. Protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid against murine fetal deformities caused by hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荷莲; 王博蔚; 赵丹; 韩丽英

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid on mouse embryos subjected to high heat.Methods Mice were used for the experiment.Results After exposure of pregnant mice to high heat, the rates of teratism, stillbirth, and fetal absorption were markedly lower in mice treated with ginseng saponin and folic acid following heat exposure than in untreated mice. There were no significant differences in these rates when comparing mice treated with vitamin B12 with the untreated mice.Conclusions Ginseng saponin and folic acid can lessen injuries to murine embryos caused by high heat, while vitamin B12 has little protective effect against high temperature except for promoting overall embryonic growth.

  6. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  7. An improved facile method for extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by focused microwave-assisted extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Xinjian; Lin, Junwei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    An improved fast method for extraction of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris based on the use of focus microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) is proposed. Under optimized conditions, four steroidal saponins were extracted from Tribulus terrestris and identified by GC-MS, which are Tigogenin (TG), Gitogenin (GG), Hecogenin (HG) and Neohecogenin (NG). One of the most important steroidal saponins, namely TG was quantified finally. The recovery of TG was in the range of 86.7-91.9% with RSDTribulus terrestris from different areas of occurrence. The difference in chromatographic characteristics of steroidal saponins was proved to be related to the different areas of occurrence. The results showed that FMAE-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-saving method for the extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris.

  8. Antiproliferative crude soy saponin extract modulates the expression of IkappaBalpha, protein kinase C, and cyclooxygenase-2 in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Yu, Rina; Kim, Jeong-Sang; Kim, Young-Kyoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2004-07-08

    Frequent consumption of soy and soy-based products is associated with reduced cancer incidence particularly for breast, colon, and prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of crude soy saponin extract on PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-induced inflammatory responses. Human adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) were treated with various concentrations of saponin extract for 72 h. Cell growth was measured at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, and the PMA-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), protein kinase C (PKC), and IkappaBalpha were determined. The results indicate that crude saponin extract decreased cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Crude soy saponin extract suppressed the degradation of IkappaBalpha in PMA-stimulated cells, while COX-2 and PKC expressions were significantly down-regulated. These findings support the hypothesis that the soy saponins reduce the risk of colon tumorigenesis possibly by suppressing inflammatory responses.

  9. Digital gene-expression profiling analysis of the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To prevent cardiovascular disease, people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE in yolk and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using digital gene-expression profiling analysis. Liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. RESULTS: The cholesterol content of the yolks of eggs from hens fed 120 mg/kg ASE declined considerably on day 60. Other groups (60, 240, 480 mg/kg ASE group also showed decreases, but they were not significant. Digital gene expression generated over nine million reads per sample, producing expression data for least 12,384 genes. Among these genes, 110 genes showed greater than normal expression in the liver and 107 genes showed greater than normal expression in the ovary. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1 and apolipoprotein H (Apoh, which act in the synthesis of bile acid and cholesterol efflux, showed more expression in the livers of hens given dietary ASE supplementation. In the ovary, levels of very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr, apolipoprotein B (Apob, apovitellenin 1 (ApovldlII and vitellogenin (VtgI, VtgII and VtgIII in ovary decreased with dietary ASE supplementation. CONCLUSION: Transcriptome analysis revealed that the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE were partially mediated by enhancement of cholesterol efflux in the liver and this reduced of cholesterol deposition in the ovary.

  10. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed.

  11. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  12. Saponinas antifúngicas de Swartzia langsdorffii Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

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    Sara Regina de Marqui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-b-D-(6'-methyl-glucopyranosyl-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  13. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

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    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  14. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  15. Antifungal activity of bioactive triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noor Afshan; Srivastava, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    A novel oleanen type triterpenoid glycoside has been isolated from butanolic seed extracts of Cassia angustifolia. Its structure was elucidated as 3-O-{beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-2, 16alpha-dihydroxy-4, 20-hydroxy methyl olean-12-ene-28-oic acid on the basis of spectral evidence (i.e. FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FAB-MS data). The isolated saponin was tested for its antifungal activity, where the maximum inhibition was found in Colletotrichium dematium.

  16. A New Triterpenoid Saponin and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

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    Amita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylated triterpenoid saponin elucidated as hederagenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (2→1-[3-O-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosylester has been isolated from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The structure of the compound was determined by means of chemical and spectral analysis including advanced 2D NMR studies. The ethanolic extract from pericarps of the plant showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against various test organisms by Agar well diffusion method.

  17. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria.

  18. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

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    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (ptea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  19. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  20. Saponins do not affect the ecdysteroid receptor complex but cause membrane permeation in insect culture cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Ellen; Swevers, Luc; Soin, Thomas; Geelen, Danny; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This project studied the effects of four saponins with a triterpenoid (Quillajasaponaria saponin and aescin) or steroid structure (digitonin and diosgenin which is the deglycosylated form of dioscin) on insect cells, namely Schneider S2 cells of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera). A series of different experiments were performed to investigate potential mechanisms of action by saponins with regard to ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) responsiveness, cell viability, cell membrane permeation, and induction of apoptosis with DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 like activity. Major results were that (1) exposure of S2 cells containing an EcR-based reporter construct to a concentration series of each saponin scored no EcR activation, while (2) a loss of ecdysteroid signaling was observed with median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)'s) of 3-50 μM, and in parallel (3) a concentration-dependent change in loss of cell numbers in an cell viability assay with median effective concentrations (EC(50)'s) of 8-699 μM. In continuation, it was of interest that (4) a trypan blue assay with Q. saponaria saponin confirmed the cell membrane permeation effect leading to cell toxicity with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 44 μM, and interestingly this effect was very rapid. Another three interesting observations were that (5) exposure to 20E at 500 nM as used in the EcR-based report assay induced caspase-3 like activities which may help to explain the discrepancies between loss of EcR-responsiveness and cell viability, (6) low concentrations of saponins induced DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 like activities, confirming their potential to induce apoptosis, and (7) the saponin effects were counteracted with addition of cholesterol to the culture medium. In general the data obtained provide evidence that the anti-ecdysteroid action by saponins is not based on a true antagonistic interaction with EcR signaling, but can be explained by a cytotoxic action due to permeation of the