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Sample records for quantitative saponin contents

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Saponin Contents in Five Sea Cucumbers from the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Séverine; Gerbaux, Pascal; Flammang, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    To avoid predation, holothuroids produce feeding-deterrent molecules in their body wall and viscera, the so-called saponins. Five tropical sea cucumber species of the family Holothuriidae were investigated in order to study their saponin content in two different organs, the body wall and the Cuvierian tubules. Mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI- and ESI-MS) were used to detect and analyze saponins. The smallest number of saponins was observed in Holothuria atra, which contained a total of four congeners, followed by Holothuria leucospilota, Pearsonothuria graeffei and Actinopyga echinites with six, eight and ten congeners, respectively. Bohadschia subrubra revealed the highest saponin diversity (19 congeners). Saponin mixtures also varied between the two body compartments within a given animal. A semi-quantitative approach completed these results and showed that a high diversity of saponins is not particularly correlated to a high saponin concentration. Although the complexity of the saponin mixtures described makes the elucidation of their respective biological roles difficult, the comparisons between species and between body compartments give some clues about how these molecules may act as predator repellents. PMID:20161976

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Saponin Contents in Five Sea Cucumbers from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Flammang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid predation, holothuroids produce feeding-deterrent molecules in their body wall and viscera, the so-called saponins. Five tropical sea cucumber species of the family Holothuriidae were investigated in order to study their saponin content in two different organs, the body wall and the Cuvierian tubules. Mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI- and ESI-MS were used to detect and analyze saponins. The smallest number of saponins was observed in Holothuria atra, which contained a total of four congeners, followed by Holothuria leucospilota, Pearsonothuria graeffei and Actinopyga echinites with six, eight and ten congeners, respectively. Bohadschia subrubra revealed the highest saponin diversity (19 congeners. Saponin mixtures also varied between the two body compartments within a given animal. A semi-quantitative approach completed these results and showed that a high diversity of saponins is not particularly correlated to a high saponin concentration. Although the complexity of the saponin mixtures described makes the elucidation of their respective biological roles difficult, the comparisons between species and between body compartments give some clues about how these molecules may act as predator repellents.

  3. Quantitative determination of the saponin content and GC-MS study of the medicinal plant Cassytha filiformis (linn.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa; Adeola Opeyemi Ologan; FranklinAkinfemi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemicals, total saponin content and types of saponin present in leaf extracts of Cassytha filiformis. Methods: The leaves were extracted with n-hexane and methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated. The total saponin content of the butanol fraction was determined by colorimetry via a UV spectrophotometer and ginsenoside was used as the standard. Measurements were carried out at 550 nm. The butanol fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results: All screened phytochemicals were absent in the n-hexane extract while saponins, steroids, tannins and glycosides were present in the methanol extract. Flavonoids and alkaloids were absent. The total saponin content of the methanol extract is 73.47 μg ginsenoside Rb1 equivalent/g extract. The chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis gave eicosanoic acid, methyl ester as the most abundant compound and the steroidal saponin, cholestan-7-one and cyclic 1,2-ethanedienyl acetal as the most abundant saponin in the butanol fraction. Conclusions: The leaves of Cassytha filiformis are rich in steroidal saponins.

  4. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins.

  5. Identification of environmentally stable QTLs controlling Saponin content in Glycine max

    OpenAIRE

    Teraishi, Masayoshi; Tojo, Yuka; Yamada, Naohiro; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured t...

  6. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  7. Quantitative Comparison and Metabolite Profiling of Saponins in Different Parts of the Root of Panax notoginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Gao, Wei-Na; Liu, Yong; Yick, Pui-Wing; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although both rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng are officially utilized as notoginseng in ?Chinese Pharmacopoeia?, individual parts of the root were differently used in practice. To provide chemical evidence for the differentiated usage, quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of different portions derived from the whole root, as well as commercial samples, were carried out, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous ...

  8. Quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of saponins in different parts of the root of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Gao, Wei-Na; Liu, Yong; Yick, Pui-Wing; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-09-10

    Although both rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng are officially utilized as notoginseng in "Chinese Pharmacopoeia", individual parts of the root were differently used in practice. To provide chemical evidence for the differentiated usage, quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of different portions derived from the whole root, as well as commercial samples, were carried out, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous root. Ginsenoside Rb2 was proposed as a potential marker with a content of 0.5 mg/g as a threshold value for differentiating rhizome from other parts. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile further suggested 32 saponins as potential markers for the discrimination of different parts of notoginseng. Collectively, the study provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the distinct usage of different parts of notoginseng and, hence, is of great importance for the rational application and exploitation of individual parts of notoginseng.

  9. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

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    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  10. Optimization Extracting Technology of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. Saponins by Ultrasonic and Determination of Saponins Content in Samples with Different Source

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Wang; Qingwei Wei; Xinqiang Zhu; Chunmei Wang; Yonggang Wang; Peng Lin; Lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Extraction process was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiment (L9 (34)). Moreover, the content determination was studied in methodology. The optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions were: ethanol concentration of 75%, ultrasonic power of 420 w, the solid-liquid ratio of 1:15, extraction duration of 45 min, extraction temperature of 90°C and extraction for 2 times. Saponins content in Guazhou samples was significantly higher than those in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. Meanwhile, G...

  11. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  12. [Contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-ling; Yang, Sheng-chao; Chen, Zhong-jian; Shen, Yong; Wei, Fu-gang; Wang, Wu; Long, Ting-ju

    2014-10-01

    The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as the composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were studied to compare the medicinal quality and commercial values. Three-year-old Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was selected as the research materials. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins were determined by spectrophotometry. The compositions of saponin monomers were monitored by HPLC. The significance of content differences was determined by variance analysis. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizomawere about 204.85% and 33.86% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. The Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma both contained five saponin monomers whose contents were as follows: ginsenoside Rg1 > ginsenoside Rb1 > notoginsenoside R1 > ginsenoside Rd > ginsenoside Re. The contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 16.03%, 10.83% and 5.39% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. However, the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 0.93% and 3.33% higher than those of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. With respect to Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, the increase of the total anthocyanins in Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma reached a significant level, but the increases of total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re and the decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 did not. The total anthocyanins accumulation in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma implies the content increases of the total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re, and the slight decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 contents; but the type and relative contents of saponin monomers remain unchanged. The medicinal

  13. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Expression of saponin biosynthesis related genes in different tissues of Panax quinquefolius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Yu; Liu, Wei-Can; Zhang, Mei-Ping; Zhao, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Yan-Fang; Li, Li; Sun, Chun-Yu; Hu, Ke-Xin; Cong, Yue-Yi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between saponin content of Panax quinquefolius in different parts of the organization and expression of ginsenoside biosynthesis related gene was obtained by the correlation analysis between saponin content and gene expression. The 14 tissue parts of P. quinquefolius were studied, six saponins in P. quinquefolius. Samples (ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁, Rc, Rb₂ and Rd), group saponins and total saponins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric method. Simultaneously, the expression levels of 7 ginsenoside biosynthesis related genes ( SQS, OSC, DS, β-AS, SQE, P450 and FPS ) in different tissues of P. quinquefolius were determined by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Although 7 kinds of ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzyme gene in the P. quinquefolius involved in ginsenoside synthesis, the expression of β-AS and P450 genes had no significant effect on the content of monosodium saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins, FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE had significant or extremely significant on the contents of single saponins Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rd, group saponin PPD and PPT, total saponin TMS and total saponin TS ( P saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins in P. quinquefolius was affected by the interaction of multiple enzyme genes in the saponin synthesis pathway, the content of saponins in different tissues of P. quinquefolius was determined by the differences in the expression of key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, this study further clarified that FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of saponins in P. quinquefolius by correlation analysis, the biosynthesis of ginsenosides in P. quinquefolius was regulated by these five kind of enzymes in cluster co-expression of interaction mode. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. [Studies on preparative technology and quantitative determination for extracts of total saponin in roof of Panax japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-min; Lu, Ke-ming; Yuan, Ding; Zhang, Chang-cheng

    2008-11-01

    To explore the optimum extraction and purification condition of the total saponins in the root of Panax japonicus (RPJ), and establish its quality control methods. Designed L16 (4(5)) orthogonal test with the extraction rate of total saponins as index, to determine the rational extraction process, and the techniques of water-saturated n-butanol extraction and acetone precipitation were applied to purify the alcohol extract of RPJ. Total saponins were detected by spectrophotometry and its triterpenoidal sapogenin oleanolic acid detected by HPLC. The optimum conditions of total saponins from RPJ was as follows: the material was pulverized, dipped in 60% ethanol aqueous solution as extract solvent at 10 times of volume, and refluxed 3 times for 3 h each time. Extractant of water-saturated n-butanol with extraction times of 3 and precipitant of acetone with precipitation amount of 4-5 times were included in the purification process, which would obtain the quality products. The content of total saponins could reach to 83.48%, and oleanolic acid to 38.30%. The optimized preparative technology is stable, convenient and practical. The extract rate of RPJ was high and steady with this technology, which provided new evidence for industrializing production of the plant and developing new drug.

  17. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  18. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Badenes-Perez

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  19. Saponins and phenolic content in plant dietary additives of a traditional subsistence community, the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, T; Mahunnah, R L; Sanaya, P; Chapman, L; Ticktin, T

    1999-07-01

    Reports of plants added to milk and meat-based soups by the Maasai and Batemi in East Africa support a role for phenolic antioxidants and hypocholesterolemic agents in the diet, and provide explanation of the low incidence of cardiovascular disease of populations that traditionally consume high levels of dietary fat and cholesterol. Plant food additives used by the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania, were tabulated, based on interviews with 22 informants, while 17 specimens were collected in the field and analyzed for saponin and phenolic content. A total of 81% of the Batemi additives and 82% of those known to be used by the Maasai contain potentially hypocholesterolemic saponins and/or phenolics.

  20. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the content of IL-8 in serum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wei; Zhu Zunping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (Pns) against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Focal cerebral ischemia-reperal ischemia-reperfusion model in rat was established by occlusion the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, after 3 h reperfusion. The serum concentration of IL-8 was detected with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Png 50 mg·kg -1 ip, qd x 7d before MCAO decreased the serum content of IL-8 after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion: Pns has protective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by decreased the serum content of IL-8

  2. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  4. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  5. Molecular diversity and body distribution of saponins in the sea star Asterias rubens by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Marie; De Winter, Julien; Caulier, Guillaume; Eeckhaut, Igor; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    Saponins are natural molecules that the common sea star Asterias rubens produces in the form of steroid glycosides bearing a sulfate group attached on the aglycone part. In order to highlight the inter-organ and inter-individual variability, the saponin contents of five distinct body components, namely the aboral body wall, the oral body wall, the stomach, the pyloric caeca and the gonads, from different individuals were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry. MALDI-ToF experiments were selected as the primary tool for a rapid screening of the saponin mixtures, whereas LC-MS and LC-MS/MS techniques were used to achieve chromatographic separation of isomers. First of all, our analyses demonstrated that the diversity of saponins is higher than previously reported. Indeed, nine new congeners were observed in addition to the 17 saponins already described in this species. On the basis of all the collected MS/MS data, we also identified collision-induced key-fragmentations that could be used to reconstruct the molecular structure of both known and unknown saponin ions. Secondly, the comparison of the saponin contents from the five different body components revealed that each organ is characterized by a specific mixture of saponins and that between animals there are also qualitative and quantitative variability of the saponin contents which could be linked to the sex or to the collecting season. Therefore, the observed high variability unambiguously confirms that saponins probably fulfill several biological functions in A. rubens. The current results will pave the way for our future studies that will be devoted to the clarification of the biological roles of saponins in A. rubens at a molecular level. © 2013.

  6. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  7. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ginseng saponin by ultraviolet derivatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besso, H.; Saruwatari, Y.; Futamura, K.; Kunihiro, K.; Fuwa, T.; Tanaka, O.

    1979-01-01

    Ginsenoides Rb 1 , b 2 , c, d, e and g 1 quantitatively reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford the respective derivatives having strong UV absorption. The UV-derivatized saponins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the saponin-contents of the various Ginseng varieties were determined. It is possible to distinguish white Ginseng from the root hairs of Ginseng by the pattern analysis of HPLC. (orig.) [de

  8. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  9. Quantitative image of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa

    1990-01-01

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm 2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)

  10. Screening for triterpenoid saponins in plants using hyphenated analytical platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Tseng, Li Hong; Godejohann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    of saponin profiles from intact plant extracts as well as saponin aglycone profiles from hydrolysed samples. Continuously measured 1D proton NMR data during LC separation along with mass spectrometry data revealed significant differences, including contents of saponins, types of aglycones and numbers......Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid...... saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using...

  11. Effects of panaxadiol saponins on contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in two-hit rat models with hemorrhage and lipopolysaech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenxiang; Ding Yanhua; Li Lu; Zhao Xuejian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 contents in the two-hit rat models with hemorrhage and lipopolysaech (LPS) and the effects of panaxadiol saponins (PDS) on TNF-α and contents IL-6. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham operational group (S), hemorrhage group (H), two-hit group with hemorrhage and LPS groups (HL), Dexamethasone pretreatment group (HLD), PDS pretreatment group (HLP). The rat models were made by hemorrhagic shock as the first hit and with endotoxin as the second hit. Then the rats were killed after 6 h. The contents of serum TNF-α and IL-6 in rats were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: The serum TNF-α and IL-6 contents in HL group were increased significantly compared with S group or H group (P<0.001). The TNF-α and IL-6 contents in HLP group and HLD group were significantly lower than those in HL group (P<0.01). Conclusion: LPS can increase significantly the contents of serum TNF-α and IL-6 in rats with hemorrhagic shock. PDS can inhibit the release of serum TNF-α and IL-6, and has the same effects with DEX to protect against the tissue injuries of two-hit rats with hemorrhage and LPS. (authors)

  12. Characterization and Quantitation of Triterpenoid Saponins in Raw and Sprouted Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (Huauzontle) Grains Subjected to Germination with or without Selenium Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Mata-Ramírez, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocereal Chenopodium berlandieri spp. (huauzontle) was evaluated to determine saponin composition. Saponins were evaluated in raw and germinated grains subjected to chemical stress induced by sodium selenite. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with ELSD detector revealed the presence of 12 saponins, identified according to compounds previously assayed in Chenopodium quinoa. Saponins found at the highest concentrations in raw grains were derived from oleanolic and phytolaccagenic acids. Total saponin concentration significantly decreased in germinated compared to raw grains due to the significant loss of 90.1% and 95.7% of the phytolaccagenic acid without and with chemical selenium stress, respectively. The most abundant saponin in germinated sprouts decreased during normal germination. Interestingly, the concentration of this particular saponin significantly increased during the Se-induced stress germination. Chemical stress with selenium salts proved to change the saponin composition in geminated Chenopodium berlandieri spp. grains, therefore affecting their potential use as ingredient in the food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  14. Isolation of Three Triterpene Saponins, Including Two New Oleanane Derivatives, from Soldanella alpina and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Evaporative Light Scattering Detection of these Three Saponins in Four Soldenella Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julia; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Gafner, Frank; Ganzera, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The genus Soldanella is one of the few endemic to Europe. Some of its species have relevance in local traditional medicine. Earlier work has indicated the possible presence of saponins in S. alpina. To investigate S. alpina and other related species for the occurrence of saponins. Following sequential extraction with n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate the subsequent methanolic extract of S. alpina roots was fractionated after solvent precipitation using fast centrifugal partition chromatography and column chromatography. Structures were elucidated by LC-MS n , high-resolution MS, hydrolysis experiments and one-dimensional (1D)- and two-dimensional (2D)-NMR. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method was developed to quantitate saponins in the leaves and roots of four Soldanella species. Three triterpene saponins, two of them new natural products, were isolated from S. alpina. Based on an epoxyoleanal aglycone substituted with four sugar units, they were analytically quantitated using a Kinetex 2.6 μm hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column together with a mobile phase comprising of ammonium acetate, water and acetonitrile. Method validation confirmed that the assay meets all requirements in respect to linearity, accuracy, sensitivity and precision. All four Soldanella species investigated contained the three saponins. The lowest total level of the three saponins (1.09%) was observed in S. montana leaves while the highest saponin content (5.14%) was determined in S. alpina roots. The detection of saponins within the genus Soldanella is an indication that further phytochemical examination of this genus may reveal more secondary metabolites of interest. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Identification of Case Content with Quantitative Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Lolle; Olsen, Henrik Palmer; Tarissan, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    the relevant articles. In order to enhance information retrieval about case content, without relying on manual labor and subjective judgment, we propose in this paper a quantitative method that gives a better indication of case content in terms of which articles a given case is more closely associated with...

  16. Influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuo Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L(GSTTon SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit, and discusses the retina oxidative damage inhibition on chronic high intraocular pressure model of rabbit. METHODS:Totally 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group(A group; high intraocular pressure model blank group(B group; high intraocular pressure model with GSTT treated group(C group; high intraocular pressure model with Erigeron brevicapas hand mass(EBHMtreated group(D group. High intraocular pressure model was induced by 20g/L methylcellulose injection into the anterior chamber in B group, C group and D group. D group was injected 5 mg/kg GSTT and C group was injected 4.5mg/kg EBHM and measured intraocular pressure with Schiotz tonometer every day for 4 weeks. The retina tissue superoxide dismutase(SODand maleic dialdehyde(MDAcontent were detected 28 days later. RESULTS: After glaucoma model of rabbit eyes were established, the intraocular pressure during observation period was maintained in 32-39mmHg; High intraocular pressure model blank group and normal control group, EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group were compared, the differences of retina MDA, SOD content had statistical significance(P0.05; EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group and normal control group were compared, the content of MDA in the retina was still slightly higher(P<0.05, the content of SOD slightly lower(P<0.05 CONCLUSION: GSTT can effectively improve the retina SOD activity of chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit and reduce the content of MDA, which has a protective effect of persistent high intraocular retinal oxidative stress.

  17. PEMANFAATAN AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA SAPONIN DAUN PEPAYA PADA KEMASAN KELOBOT JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to utilize saponins from papaya leaves as antifungal on maize husk packaging. Crude and semi-pure saponins were extracted from papaya leaves using Soxhlet and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE methods. The total saponin contents were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Their ability to inhibit Aspergillus niger was tested by macrodillution method. The extracts were also applied to maize husk by soaking it for 5 minutes at concentration of 10, 20 and 25 mg/mL. The parameters observed were physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, total plate count (TPC and mold and yeast counts (MYC after 25 days of storage at room temperature (±28ºC. Drying of young papaya leaves using cabinet dryer resulted in the highest yield of crude saponin (12.96 ± 0.26%. Total saponin content in crude saponin extract was 115.43 mg/g, while in semi-pure saponin extract was 480.19 mg/g. Crude saponin and semi-pure saponin extract at concentration of 25 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of A. niger for 1.35 and 0.36 log CFU/mL, respectively after 24 hours. The WVTR test indicated that treatment with a concentration of 25 mg/mL of crude saponin extracts showed the lowest transmission. The addition of crude saponin and semi-pure saponin extract to the maize husk at the concentration of 10, 20 and 25 mg/mL was able to inhibit the microbial growth, represented by constant number in TPC and MYC for 25 days storage. This study showed that crude saponin and semi-pure saponin extract could improve the functional properties of maize husk as packaging materials.

  18. Saponin Profile of Wild Asparagus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; López, Sergio; Gil, Juan; Moreno, Roberto; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the saponin profiles from spears of different wild asparagus species in the context of its genetic diversity aside from geographical seed origin. They included Asparagus pseudoscaber Grecescu, Asparagus maritimus (L.) Mill., Asparagus brachiphyllus Turcz., Asparagus prostrates Dumort., and Asparagus officinalis L. The saponin analysis by LC-MS has shown that saponin profile from wild asparagus is similar to that previously described for triguero asparagus from Huétor-Tájar landrace (triguero HT), which had not ever been reported in the edible part of asparagus. All the samples, except A. officinalis, were characterized for having saponins distinct to protodioscin and the total saponin contents were 10-fold higher than those described for commercial hybrids of green asparagus. In particular, A. maritimus from different origins were rich in saponins previously found in triguero HT. These findings supported previous suggestion, based on genetic analysis, about A. maritimus being the origin of triguero HT. Multivariate statistics including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. The results showed that the greatest variance of the tested wild asparagus could be attributed to differences in the concentration of particular saponins and this knowledge could be a tool for identifying similar species. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Enrichment of total steroidal saponins from the extracts of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim by macroporous resin and the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins in the final product by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulan; Gao, Xin; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Pengqi; Xu, Xinya; Zhang, Ting; Ge, Yanhui; Zhang, Bilin; Wang, Mingchan; Zeng, Aiguo; Luo, Zhimin; Chang, Chun

    2017-03-01

    An effective and simple method was established for the separation and enrichment of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. The adsorption and desorption properties of seven macroporous resins were investigated. Among the tested resins, AB-8 resin showed the best adsorption and desorption capacities. The adsorption of steroidal saponins on AB-8 at 25°C was quite consistent with both the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. By optimizing the dynamic adsorption and desorption parameters, the content of steroidal saponins increased from 5.20% in the crude extracts to 51.93% in the final product, with a recovery yield of 86.67%. Furthermore, by scale-up separation, the concentration and recovery of total steroidal saponins were 43.8 and 85.5%, respectively, which suggested that AB-8 resin had great industrial and pharmaceutical potential because of its high efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins was established for the first time, which was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the final product. Based on the methodological validation results, the high-performance liquid chromatography method can be widely applied to the quality control of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim due to its excellent accuracy, stability, and repeatability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Ma, Ni; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL) exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL-ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd-were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity ( r 2  > 0.999), repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD PNL. These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Methods: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Results: Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL—ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd—were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity (r2>0.999, repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 2.98%, and inter- and intraday variations (RSD < 4.40% with recovery (98.7–106.1% of seven saponins concerned. This validated method was also conducted to determine seven components in 10 batches of PNL. Conclusion: These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products. Keywords: ginsenoside transformation, notoginsenoside Fd, notoginsenoside Fe, Panax notoginseng leaves, UPLC/Q-TOF MS

  3. The influence of saponins on cell membrane cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Stefan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2013-11-15

    We studied the influence of structurally different saponins on the cholesterol content of cellular membranes. Therefore a cell culture model using ECV-304 urinary bladder carcinoma cells was developed. To measure the cholesterol content we used radiolabeled (3)H-cholesterol which is chemically and physiologically identical to natural cholesterol. The cells were pre-incubated with (3)H-cholesterol and after a medium change, they were treated with saponins to assess a saponin-induced cholesterol liberation from the cell membrane. In another experiment the cells were pre-incubated with saponins and after a medium change, they were treated with (3)H-cholesterol to assess a saponin-induced inhibition of cholesterol uptake into the cell membrane. Furthermore, the membrane toxicity of all applied saponins was analyzed using extracellular LDH quantification and the general cytotoxicity was analyzed using a colorimetric MTT-assay and DNA quantification. Our results revealed a correlation between membrane toxicity and general cytotoxicity. We also compared the results from the experiments on the saponin-induced cholesterol liberation as well as the saponin-induced inhibition of cholesterol uptake with the membrane toxicity. A significant reduction in the cell membrane cholesterol content was noted for those saponins who showed membrane toxicity (IC50 saponins either liberated (3)H-cholesterol from intact cell membranes or blocked the integration of supplemented (3)H-cholesterol into the cell membrane. Saponins with little influence on the cell membrane (IC50 >100 μM) insignificantly altered the cell membrane cholesterol content. The results suggested that the general cytotoxicity of saponins is mainly dependent on their membrane toxicity and that the membrane toxicity might be caused by the loss of cholesterol from the cell membrane. We also analyzed the influence of a significantly membrane toxic saponin on the cholesterol content of intracellular membranes such as those

  4. [Correlation of gene expression related to amount of ginseng saponin in 15 tissues and 6 kinds of ginseng saponin biosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-yu; Zhang, Mei-ping; Li, Chuang; Jiang, Shi-cui; Yin, Rui; Sun, Chun-yu; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, β-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner.

  5. Quantitative determination of triterpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  6. Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  7. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Pansani, Patrícia Luísa; Silveira, Luciano Alves Matias da; Naves, Aline de Araújo; Peixoto, Ana Cristina Abdu; Lima, Hellen Moreira de; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  8. [HPLC-ELSD for determining contents of three triterpenoidal saponins in fruits of Buddleja lindleyana from different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Yun; Ren, Ya-Shuo; Wu, De-Ling; Qiao, Jin-Wei

    2016-04-01

    To establish an HPLC-ELSD method for the quantification of triterpenoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana. The RP-HPLC-ELSD method was used for the determination of triterpenoids in B. lindleyana fruits, which were collected from different habitats. The column used was a packed with 5 μm stationary phase Waters SunFireTM C₁₈ (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of Methanol-water(82∶18) at a flow rate of 1 mL•min⁻¹. Column temperature: 30 ℃. ELSD conditions: drift tube temperature: 106 ℃; carrier gas (nitrogen) flow rate: 1.5 L•min⁻¹; amplification factor: 1. The calibration curves showed good linear relationship on a range from 0.702 to 28.08 μg(r=0.999 2) for Clinoposaponin III, 0.390 to 15.60 μg(r=0.998 9) for Desrhamnoverbascosaponin and 0.192 to 7.68μg(r=0.999 0) for Mimengoside I. The average recovery rate(n=6) were 99.41%, 99.08% and 98.67% and it's RSD were 0.86%, 1.56% and 1.80%. This method can be used to determine the contents of triterpenoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for its simplicity, accurateness and reliability. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. Method: A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Conclusion: Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  10. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenberg, D.; Kalender, W.A.; Banzer, D.; Schmilinsky, G.; Heyse, M.; Fischer, E.; Schneider, U.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for measuring bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae is increasingly used internationally. The effect of using conventional CT (single energy CT, SE-CT) and dual energy CT (DE-CT) on reproducibility has been examined. We defined a standard measurement protocol, which automatically evaluates a calibration phantom. This should ensure an in vivo reproducibility of 1 to 2%. Reference data, which has been obtained with this protocol from 113 normal subjects, using SE-CT ad DE-CT, are presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Stereoisomers of Saponins in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ming; Yi, Ya X.; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Le, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Panax notoginseng (Sanqi), a traditional Chinese medical drug which has been applied to medical use for over four centuries, contains high content of dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins. A number of stereoisomeric dammarane-type saponins exist in this precious herb, and some are particularly regarded as “biomarkers” in processed notoginseng. Contemporary researches have indicated that some saponin stereoisomers may show stereospecific pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, antioxidative, anti-photoaging, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuro-protective activities, as well as stereoselective effects on ion channel current regulation, cardiovascular system, and immune system. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of chemical compositions of raw and processed P. notoginseng with a particular emphasis on saponin stereoisomers. Besides, the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic researches, as well as determination and biotechnological preparation methods of stereoisomeric saponins in notoginseng are discussed extensively. PMID:29593531

  14. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by quantitative real-time PCR, reporter assay, and immunoblot analysis. In addition, saponin potentiated IFN-α-induced anti-HCV activity. Moreover, saponin exerted antiviral activity even in IFN-α resistant mutant HCVcc-infected cells. To investigate how cellular genes were regulated by saponin, we performed microarray analysis using HCVcc-infected cells. We demonstrated that suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) protein level was distinctively increased by saponin, which in turn resulted in inhibition of HCV replication. We further showed that silencing of SOCS2 resurrected HCV replication and overexpression of SOCS2 suppressed HCV replication. These data imply that saponin inhibits HCV replication via SOCS2 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that saponin may be a potent therapeutic agent for HCV patients. PMID:22745742

  15. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  16. Effects of total saponins from Trillium tschonoskii rhizome on grey and white matter injury evaluated by quantitative multiparametric MRI in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manzhong; Ouyang, Junyao; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Brian Chi Yan; Zhan, Yu; Yang, Le; Zou, Haiyan; Zhao, Hui

    2018-04-06

    Trillium tschonoskii rhizome (TTR), a medicinal herb, has been traditionally used to treat traumatic brain injury and headache in China. Although the potential neuroprotective efficacy of TTR has gained increasing interest, the pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. Steroid saponins are the main bioactive components of the herb. To investigate the protective and repair-promoting effects of the total saponins from TTR (TSTT) on grey and white matter damages in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay. Ischemic stroke was induced by MCAO. TSTT and Ginaton (positive control) were administered orally to rats 6h after stroke and daily thereafter. After 15 days of treatment, the survival rate of each group was calculated. We then conducted neurological deficit scores and beam walking test to access the neurological function after ischemic stroke. Subsequently, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and T2 relaxometry mapping were performed to measure infarct volume and grey and white matter integrity, respectively. Moreover, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was carried out to evaluate the grey and white matter microstructural damage. Additionally, arterial spin labelling (ASL) - cerebral blood flow (CBF) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images provided dynamic information about vascular hemodynamic dysfunction after ischemic stroke. Finally, haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was carried out to evaluate the stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain. The survival rate and neurological behavioural outcomes (Bederson scores and beam walking tests) were markedly ameliorated by TSTT (65mg/kg) treatment within 15 days after ischemic stroke. Moreover, T2WI and T2 relaxometry mapping showed that TSTT (65mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and attenuated grey and white matter injury, respectively, which was confirmed by histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. The results obtained from DTI showed that

  17. BEBERAPA TUMBUHAN OBAT ASAL KALIMANTAN TIMUR SEBAGAI SUMBER SAPONIN POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Rijai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponin is a class of natural compounds that have activity that is strongly associated with utilization in pharmacy. Exploration has been carried out against a number of secondary metabolite content of medicinal plants in East Kalimantan and some of them found to contain saponins. Plants were found to contain saponins and are considered potential Kokang leaf (Lepisanthes amoena, Kesumbakeling leaf (Bixa orellana, L, Belimbing Wuluh leaf (Averrhoa bilimbi L., Sugi Gadjah leaf (Hyptis capitata, Karamunting leaf (Melastoma malabathricum L, Cempedak bark (Artocarpus champeden, Wijaya Kusuma leaf (Epiphyllum oxipetalum, Langsat seeds (Lansium domesticum, ekor kucing leaf (Acalypha hispida, Kelor bark (Moringa oleifera, Jarong leaf (Stachytarpheta mutabilis, Miana leaf (Coleus atropureus, Jengger Ayam leaf (Celosia cristata, and fruit of Libo (Ficus vargelata. Key words : East borneo medicinal plants, saponins   Abstrak Saponin adalah golongan senyawa alami yang memiliki aktivitas yang sangat terkait dengan pemanfaatan dalam bidang farmasi. Telah dilakukan eksplorasi kandungan metabolit sekunder  terhadap sejumlah tumbuhan obat yang ada di Kalimantan Timur dan beberapa diantaranya terbukti mengandung saponin. Tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang terbukti mengandung sponin dan dianggap potensial adalah daun Kokang (Lepisanthes amoena, daun Kesumbakeling (Bixa orellana, L, daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L., daun Sugi Gadjah (Hyptis capitata, daun Karamunting (Melastoma malabathricum L, kulit batang Cempedak (Artocarpus champeden, daun Wijaya Kusuma (Epiphyllum oxipetalum, biji Langsat (Lansium domesticum, daun ekor kucing (Acalypha hispida, Kulit Batang Kelor (Moringa oleifera, daun Jarong (Stachytarpheta mutabilis, daun Miana (Coleus atropureus, daun Jengger Ayam (Celosia cristata, buah Libo (Ficus vargelata. Kata Kunci: Tumbuhan Obat Kaltim; Saponin

  18. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  19. Isolation and quantification of Quillaja saponaria Molina saponins and lipids in iscom-matrix and iscoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, S; Morein, B; Rönnberg, B

    1995-12-01

    In the iscom, multiple copies of antigen are attached by hydrophobic interaction to a matrix which is built up by Quillaja triterpenoid saponins and lipids. Thus, the iscom presents antigen in multimeric form in a small particle with a built-in adjuvant resulting in a highly immunogenic antigen formulation. We have designed a chloroform-methanol-water extraction procedure to isolate the triterpenoid saponins and lipids incorporated into iscom-matrix and iscoms. The triterpenoids in the triterpenoid phase were quantitated using orcinol sulfuric acid detecting their carbohydrate chains and by HPLC. The cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in the lipid phase were quantitated by HPLC and a commercial colorimetric method for the cholesterol. The quantitative methods showed an almost total separation and recovery of triterpenoids and lipids in their respective phases, while protein was detected in all phases after extraction. The protein content was determined by the method of Lowry and by amino acid analysis. Amino acid analysis was shown to be the reliable method of the two to quantitate proteins in iscoms. In conclusion, simple, reproducible and efficient procedures have been designed to isolate and quantitate the triterpenoids and lipids added for preparation of iscom-matrix and iscoms. The procedures described should also be useful to adequately define constituents in prospective vaccines.

  20. LC-MS-based quantification method for Achyranthes root saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yuki; Hoshino, Tatsuro; Morimoto, Hidetaka; Shinizu, Tomofumi; Narukawa, Yuji; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of Achyranthes root saponins: chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2), achyranthosides B (3), C (4), D (5), E (6), and G (7), sulfachyranthosides B (8) and D (9), and betavulgarosides II (10) and IV (11). Satisfactory separation of the saponins was achieved with the use of a volatile ion-pair reagent (dihexyl ammonium acetate) on a phenyl-hexylated silica gel column, and the amounts of saponins extracted under three different conditions were determined. When Achyranthes root was extracted with water at room temperature, achyranthosides B (3) and D (5) were the major saponins, and smaller amounts of other saponins (4, 6-11) were present. However, the amounts of chikusetsusaponins (1 and 2) were negligible. Under the condition to make a standard decoction of a Kampo formula, the major saponins were achyranthosides B (3), C (4), and D (5), and small amounts of chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2) appeared, whereas prolonged heating largely increased the amounts of chikusetsusaponins. This method can be used for quality control of Achyranthes root.

  1. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  2. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. PMID:21151446

  3. Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    1996-12-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata.

  4. Saponins from Albizia lebbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, B C; Achari, B; Yoshikawa, K; Arihara, S

    1995-03-01

    Three main saponins named albiziasaponins A, B, and C were isolated from the barks of Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were established through spectral analyses as acacic acid lactone 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)- beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-- >6)]- beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  5. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  6. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  7. Casual Sexual Scripts on the Screen: A Quantitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Elisabeth; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2018-07-01

    While existing content analyses have provided insightful information in terms of contextual factors and frequency of sexual behaviors, not much is known about the relational context in which sexual depictions generally occur. The current study addresses this void by employing content analytic methods to measure the frequency and context of depictions of sexual behavior within nine popular television shows produced in the U.S., while taking into account the type of sexual behavior. The results suggest that, in the analyzed television shows, sexual behaviors within a casual sexual context were almost as frequently shown as sexual behaviors within a committed relationship context. Whereas sexual behaviors within a committed relationship context were mainly limited to passionate kissing, sexual behaviors within a casual sexual context mostly consisted of explicit portrayals of sexual intercourse. Additionally, genre seemed to be an important factor when examining casual sexual television content. The situational comedy genre, for example, had no explicit portrayals of intercourse and mainly portrayed kissing couples within a committed relationship. The comedy drama genre, on the contrary, had the largest proportion of explicit sexual portrayals, usually between casual sexual partners. A second goal of this study was to analyze the portrayals of the typical casual sexual experience script and the typical casual sexual relationship script in which these sexual behaviors often occur. For instance, our analyses revealed that female characters were more likely to initiate casual sex compared to male characters. Moreover, casual sex often occurred between former partners.

  8. Development of method quantitative content of dihydroquercetin. Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Юрійович Владимиров

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today is markedly increasing scientific interest in the study of flavonoids in plant objects due to their high biological activity. In this regard, the urgent task of analytical chemistry is in developing available analytical techniques of determination for flavonoids in plant objects.Aim. The aim was to develop specific techniques of quantitative determination for dihydroquercetin and determination of its validation characteristics.Methods. The technique for photocolorimetric quantification of DQW, which was based on the specific reaction of cyanidine chloride formation when added zinc powder to dihydroquercetin solution in an acidic medium has been elaborated.Results. Photocolorimetric technique of determining flavonoids recalculating on DQW has been developed, its basic validation characteristics have been determined. The obtained metrological characteristics of photocolorimetric technique for determining DQW did not exceed admissibility criteria in accordance with the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine.Conclusions. By the results of statistical analysis of experimental data, it has been stated that the developed technique can be used for quantification of DQW. Metrological data obtained indicate that the method reproduced in conditions of two different laboratories with confidence probability 95 % unit value deviation was 101,85±2,54 %

  9. Saponins in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xiaogang

    -like structure, saponins have a lot of applications, e.g. as foaming agents in consumer products, as adjuvants in the vaccine, as biosurfactants in soil washing and as biopesticides in crop protection. Hence, they may leach into the aquatic environment due to their low octanol/water partition coefficient......This PhD thesis consists of three parts to illustrate the goal of getting a better understanding of the fate and toxicity of saponins in the aquatic environment. It includes an introduction to the general aspects of saponins, their chemistry and the ecotoxicology concepts, and a second part...... and poor binding to organic matter. They may therefore also pose a risk to the aquatic organisms. Since saponins are efficient against pests, they are most likely also toxic to the non-target organisms. However, their fate and toxicity in the environment are not fully understood. There are two main...

  10. [Identification of saponins from Panax notoginseng in metabolites of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Yin; Qiu, Shou-Bei; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tang, Dao-Quan; Chen, Bin

    2017-10-01

    UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS was used to identify metabolites in rat blood, urine and feces after the administration of n-butanol extract derived from steamed notoginseng. The metabolic process of saponins came from steamed notoginseng was analyzed. The metabolites were processed by PeakView software, and identified according to the structural characteristics of prototype compounds and the accurate qualitative and quantitative changes of common metabolic pathways. Four saponins metabolites were identified based on MS/MS information of metabolites, namely ginsenoside Rh₄, Rk₃, Rk₁, Rg₅,and their 15 metabolites were verified. The metabolic pathways of the four ginsenosides in n-butanol extract included glucuronidation, desugar, sulfation, dehydromethylation, and branch loss. The metabolites of main active saponin components derived from steamed Panax notoginseng were analyzed from the perspective of qualitative analysis. And the material basis for the efficacy of steamed notoginseng was further clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Optimization of a method for the profiling and quantification of saponins in different green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-03

    The main goal of this study was the optimization of a HPLC-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagus saponins. The method includes extraction with aqueous ethanol, cleanup by solid phase extraction, separation by reverse phase chromatography, electrospray ionization, and detection in a single quadrupole mass analyzer. The method was used for the comparison of selected genotypes of Huétor-Tájar asparagus landrace and selected varieties of commercial diploid hybrids of green asparagus. The results showed that while protodioscin was almost the only saponin detected in the commercial hybrids, eight different saponins were detected in the Huétor-Tájar asparagus genotypes. The mass spectra indicated that HT saponins are derived from a furostan type steroidal genin having a single bond between carbons 5 and 6 of the B ring. The total concentration of saponins was found to be higher in triguero asparagus than in commercial hybrids.

  12. Optimized aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon for production of a saponin-enriched bitter melon powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sing P; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Bitter melon, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), aqueous extracts are proposed to have health-promoting properties due to their content of saponins and their antioxidant activity. However, the optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon and the effects of spray drying have not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the aqueous extraction of the saponins from bitter melon, using response surface methodology, prepare a powder using spray drying, and compare the powder's physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity with aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and a commercial powder. The optimal aqueous extraction conditions were determined to be 40 °C for 15 min and the water-to-sample ratio was chosen to be 20:1 mL/g. For many of its physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity, the aqueous spray-dried powder was comparable to the aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and the commercial powder. The optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon followed by spray drying gave a high quality powder in terms of saponins and antioxidant activity. This study highlights that bitter melon is a rich source of saponin compounds and their associated antioxidant activities, which may provide health benefits. The findings of the current study will help with the development of extraction and drying technologies for the preparation of a saponin-enriched powdered extract from bitter melon. The powdered extract may have potential as a nutraceutical supplement or as a value-added ingredient for incorporation into functional foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Efficacy of the saponin component of Impatiens capensis Meerb.in preventing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Vicki A; Bowers, Christopher P; Kneubehl, Alexander R; Lendrum, Elizabeth C; Young, Linda M; Kinder, David H

    2015-03-13

    Many different tribes of American Indians used jewelweed, Impatiens capensis Meerb, as a plant mash to reduce development of poison ivy dermatitis. Saponins are a natural soapy constituent found within plants. A 2012 study suggested that saponins may be present in jewelweed which could be responsible for its efficacy in preventing rash development following contact with Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison ivy). This study validated this hypothesis and demonstrated additional biological activity of the jewelweed saponin containing extract. Fresh I. capensis leaves were extracted with methanol and further partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, with a final separation between water and n-butanol, to obtain a saponin containing extract. The presence of saponins in the extract was demonstrated by the observation of foaming and using a vanillin colorimetric assay for total saponins. Efficacy of the saponin containing extracts in rash reduction was tested by brushing poison ivy (PI) onto the forearms of volunteers (N=23) in six locations and treating these PI exposed areas with distilled water (control), saponin containing extracts, fresh plant mashes, and soaps made with and without plant extracts. Saponin containing extracts were further tested for biological activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and against cancer cell lines A-375, HT-29, and MCF-7. Additionally, because saponins have been shown to have a stimulatory effect in cardiac muscle 2 µl saponin extract was applied superficially to black worms, Lumbriculus variegatus (N=5). Both saponin containing extracts and all soaps tested were effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis; thus, saponin content correlates with PI rash prevention. No apparent antibiosis was observed against any bacteria tested; however, dose response cytotoxicity was documented against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and cytostatic activity was seen against the HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Lumbriculus

  14. Verbascum ancyritanum Bornm Bitkisinden Yeni Bir Saponin

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIR, Yılmaz; ÇOLAK, Naki

    1996-01-01

    Two saponins (Ancyritosaponin A and B) from the leaves and flowers of Verbascum ancyritanum have been isolated. Structure of the one saponin was elucidated by spectral methods (UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EIMS) as "ancyritosaponin A"

  15. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  16. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  17. Molluscicidal saponins from Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1993-01-01

    Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl......Two new monodesmosidic saponins were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Ethiopian strain 44 of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were established as 3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -beta-D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O......-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta -D-glucopyranosyloleanolic acid mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, HETCOR). The saponins are potent molluscicides against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata with LC...

  18. Discriminant content validity: a quantitative methodology for assessing content of theory-based measures, with illustrative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane; Hart, Jo; Glidewell, Liz; Schröder, Carin; Pollard, Beth

    2014-05-01

    In studies involving theoretical constructs, it is important that measures have good content validity and that there is not contamination of measures by content from other constructs. While reliability and construct validity are routinely reported, to date, there has not been a satisfactory, transparent, and systematic method of assessing and reporting content validity. In this paper, we describe a methodology of discriminant content validity (DCV) and illustrate its application in three studies. Discriminant content validity involves six steps: construct definition, item selection, judge identification, judgement format, single-sample test of content validity, and assessment of discriminant items. In three studies, these steps were applied to a measure of illness perceptions (IPQ-R) and control cognitions. The IPQ-R performed well with most items being purely related to their target construct, although timeline and consequences had small problems. By contrast, the study of control cognitions identified problems in measuring constructs independently. In the final study, direct estimation response formats for theory of planned behaviour constructs were found to have as good DCV as Likert format. The DCV method allowed quantitative assessment of each item and can therefore inform the content validity of the measures assessed. The methods can be applied to assess content validity before or after collecting data to select the appropriate items to measure theoretical constructs. Further, the data reported for each item in Appendix S1 can be used in item or measure selection. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There are agreed methods of assessing and reporting construct validity of measures of theoretical constructs, but not their content validity. Content validity is rarely reported in a systematic and transparent manner. What does this study add? The paper proposes discriminant content validity (DCV), a systematic and transparent method

  19. Tackling saponin diversity in marine animals by mass spectrometry: data acquisition and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroo, Corentin; Colson, Emmanuel; Demeyer, Marie; Lemaur, Vincent; Caulier, Guillaume; Eeckhaut, Igor; Cornil, Jérôme; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    Saponin analysis by mass spectrometry methods is nowadays progressively supplementing other analytical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Indeed, saponin extracts from plant or marine animals are often constituted by a complex mixture of (slightly) different saponin molecules that requires extensive purification and separation steps to meet the requirement for NMR spectroscopy measurements. Based on its intrinsic features, mass spectrometry represents an inescapable tool to access the structures of saponins within extracts by using LC-MS, MALDI-MS, and tandem mass spectrometry experiments. The combination of different MS methods nowadays allows for a nice description of saponin structures, without extensive purification. However, the structural characterization process is based on low kinetic energy CID which cannot afford a total structure elucidation as far as stereochemistry is concerned. Moreover, the structural difference between saponins in a same extract is often so small that coelution upon LC-MS analysis is unavoidable, rendering the isomeric distinction and characterization by CID challenging or impossible. In the present paper, we introduce ion mobility in combination with liquid chromatography to better tackle the structural complexity of saponin congeners. When analyzing saponin extracts with MS-based methods, handling the data remains problematic for the comprehensive report of the results, but also for their efficient comparison. We here introduce an original schematic representation using sector diagrams that are constructed from mass spectrometry data. We strongly believe that the proposed data integration could be useful for data interpretation since it allows for a direct and fast comparison, both in terms of composition and relative proportion of the saponin contents in different extracts. Graphical Abstract A combination of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry methods, including ion mobility spectroscopy, is developed to afford a

  20. Teaching Note--"By Any Means Necessary!" Infusing Socioeconomic Justice Content into Quantitative Research Course Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Existing research suggests a majority of faculty include social justice content in research courses but not through the use of existing quantitative data for in-class activities that foster mastery of data analysis and interpretation and curiosity about social justice-related topics. By modeling data-driven dialogue and the deconstruction of…

  1. A modified spectrophotometric assay to estimate deglycosylation of steroidal saponin to sapogenin by mixed ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-08-30

    The lack of a method for measuring deglycosylation of saponins in ruminal fluid has limited the ability to investigate the impact of these compounds on rumen microorganisms. A simple spectrophotometric assay was adapted and a protocol developed to enable measurement of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. The procedure was used for in vitro determination of deglycosylation activity of rumen bacteria obtained from cattle fed or not fed Yucca schidigera saponin, and to determine the relative deglycosylase activities of extracellular and cell-associated enzymes from ruminal content. Modifications to the spectrophotometric assay (i.e. heating time shortened to 10 min and 0.5 mL dH(2)O added to the reaction mixture) improved the stability of the optical density (425 nm) of the chromophore for up to 24 h post-reaction. Centrifugation (12 000 x g, 20 min) enabled differential estimations of steroidal saponin and sapogenin in ruminal fluid. Steroidal saponin added to defaunated ruminal fluid (dRF) or clarified ruminal fluid (cRF) was recovered completely from the mixture as saponin + sapogenin (99.1% and 100.6%, respectively), whereas saponin recovery from the supernatant of dRF was greatly reduced (P ruminal extracellular enzyme preparation was recoverable in supernatant after 24 h, compared with only 26-32% remaining in supernatant from incubation with a cell-associated enzymes fraction. Mixed rumen bacteria deglycosylate steroidal saponin to sapogenin, at activity levels unaffected by prior exposure to saponin, but they were unable to degrade the sapogenin core structure. Deglycosylation activity occurred primarily in the cell-associated enzyme fraction of ruminal content. Copyright (c) 2008 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A study of quantitative radiography for moisture content distributions in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Horie, T.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum pre-cooling in cut flower or perishable vegetables industry are used for protecting from the deterioration of the perishables during transportation. Some improvements of the pre-cooling way, however, are required for a bruise in plant on the way of handling. Neutron radiography is suitable to detect and observe the bruise in plant, especially, moisture content distributions in leaves, flowers and stalks. Neutron spectrum in irradiation neutron beams is required for obtaining quantitative moisture contents in plant. The neutron spectrum measurements for determination of effective cross-section of water are carried out at CN-3 experimental hole of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) by time of flight method. Moisture content distributions in leaves of chrysanthemum, before and after the vacuum pre-cooling are measured by cold neutron radiography at the experimental hole. The local decreases of moisture contents caused by a bruise on the surface of the leaves are measured quantitatively by the cold neutron radiography. The quantitative changes of the moisture content in the leaves are able to read out from the cold neutron radiography image. (M. Suetake)

  3. Trichomonicidal and parasite membrane damaging activity of bidesmosic saponins from Manilkara rufula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    Full Text Available The infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Treatment relies on one class of drugs, the 5-nitroimidazoles, but resistance is widespread. New drugs are urgently needed. We reported the effect of crude and purified saponin fractions of Manilkara rufula against Trichomonas vaginalis. The compound responsible for antitrichomonal activity was isolated and identified as an uncommon bidesmosic saponin, Mi-saponin C. This saponin eliminated parasite viability without toxicity against the human vaginal epithelial line (HMVII. In addition, the isolated saponin fraction improved the metronidazole effect against a metronidazole-resistant isolate and dramatically reduced the cytoadherence of T. vaginalis to human cells. Investigation of the mechanism of death showed that the saponin fraction induced the parasite death due to profound membrane damage, inducing a disturbance of intracellular content without nuclear damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antitrichomonal activity in the bidesmosic saponins of Manilkara rufula.

  4. Quantitative determination of bone mineral content (QCT) - intercomparison of computer tomographs of the same construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, R.; Banzer, D.; Felsenberg, D.; Wolf, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An intercomparison of 4 CT scanners of the same manufacturer was performed. The bone mineral content of 11 lumbar vertebral columns removed directly post mortem was determined in a specially constructed lucite-water phantom. Even devices of the same construction were shown to yield a variation in the quantitative evaluation markedly exceeding the annual physiological mineral loss. As long as scanner adjustment by physical calibration phantoms has not yet been established, a course assessment and therapy control of bone mineral content should always be carried out on the same QCT scanner. (orig.) [de

  5. Italian version of Dyspnoea-12: cultural-linguistic validation, quantitative and qualitative content validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Arrigoni, Cristina; Groppelli, Katia; Magon, Arianna; Dellafiore, Federica; Pittella, Francesco; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Chessa, Massimo; Yorke, Janelle

    2018-01-16

    Dyspnoea-12 is a valid and reliable scale to assess dyspneic symptom, considering its severity, physical and emotional components. However, it is not available in Italian version due to it was not yet translated and validated. For this reason, the aim of this study was to develop an Italian version Dyspnoea-12, providing a cultural and linguistic validation, supported by the quantitative and qualitative content validity. This was a methodological study, divided into two phases: phase one is related to the cultural and linguistic validation, phase two is related to test the quantitative and qualitative content validity. Linguistic validation followed a standardized translation process. Quantitative content validity was assessed computing content validity ratio (CVR) and index (I-CVIs and S-CVI) from expert panellists response. Qualitative content validity was assessed by the narrative analysis on the answers of three open-ended questions to the expert panellists, aimed to investigate the clarity and the pertinence of the Italian items. The translation process found a good agreement in considering clear the items in both the six involved bilingual expert translators and among the ten voluntary involved patients. CVR, I-CVIs and S-CVI were satisfactory for all the translated items. This study has represented a pivotal step to use Dyspnoea-12 amongst Italian patients. Future researches are needed to deeply investigate the Italian version of  Dyspnoea-12 construct validity and its reliability, and to describe how dyspnoea components (i.e. physical and emotional) impact the life of patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.

  6. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachie; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Ito, Satoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Triterpene saponins, pachanosides C1, E1, F1 and G1 (1-4), and bridgesides A1, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1 and E2 (5-11) were isolated from Echinopsis macrogona. Compounds 1-4 were saponins with pachanane type triterpene saponins, while the others (5-11) were oleanane type triterpene saponins. While the aglycones of 2-4 and 8-11 were hitherto unknown, the structure of pachanol C was revised in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Graphene Sheet Content in Wood Char Powders during Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jia Liou; Wu-Jang Huang

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of the graphene sheet content in carbon-containing materials is arguable and has not yet been developed.The authors report on a feasible method to characterize graphene sheet content quantitatively in pyrolized carbon materials using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer.A direct carbonation at 300 ℃ followed by catalytic pyrolysis (heat-treatment temperature was set at 700-1400 ℃)under a vacuum condition was used for turning wood waste into pyrolized wood char powders.The graphene content in the samples was calculated through an analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the carbon (100) crystal plane at around 42°-43° in XRD.Results showed that the FWHM and the calculated graphene sheet content of pyrolized wood char powders depended on the heat-treatment temperature,and the FWHM of wood char powder with well-developed graphene sheets (100%) was determined to be 5.0.In addition,the trend to 100% graphene sheet-contained pyrolized carbon powder was obtained at a heattreatment temperature of 2700 ℃.The resistivity of the wood char powder with 100% graphene sheets was predicted to be 0.01 Ω cm,close to our experimental data of 0.012 and 0.006 Ω cm for commercial graphite and graphene products,respectively.

  9. [Quantitative determination of glass content in monazite glass-ceramics by IR technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Zhang, Bao-min

    2003-04-01

    Monazite glass-ceramics consist of both monazite and metaphoshate glass phases. The absorption bands of both phases do not overlap each other, and the absorption intensities of bands 1,275 and 616 cm-1 vary with the glass contents. The correlation coefficient between logarithmic absorbance ratio of the two bands and glass contents was r = 0.9975 and its regression equation was y = 48.356 + 25.93x. The absorbance ratio of bands 952 and 616 cm-1 also varied with different ratios of Ce2O3/La2O3 in synthetic monazites, with r = 0.9917 and a regression equation y = 0.2211 exp (0.0221x). High correlation coefficients show that the IR technique could find new application in the quantitative analysis of glass content in phosphate glass-ceramics.

  10. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao; Liang, Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300∼2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R 2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R 2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil

  11. Medicago truncatula CYP716A12 Is a Multifunctional Oxidase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Hemolytic Saponins[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Panara, Francesco; Tava, Aldo; Scaramelli, Laura; Porceddu, Andrea; Graham, Neil; Odoardi, Miriam; Piano, Efisio; Arcioni, Sergio; May, Sean; Scotti, Carla; Calderini, Ornella

    2011-01-01

    Saponins, a group of glycosidic compounds present in several plant species, have aglycone moieties that are formed using triterpenoid or steroidal skeletons. In spite of their importance as antimicrobial compounds and their possible benefits for human health, knowledge of the genetic control of saponin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In the Medicago genus, the hemolytic activity of saponins is related to the nature of their aglycone moieties. We have identified a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP716A12) involved in saponin synthesis in Medicago truncatula using a combined genetic and biochemical approach. Genetic loss-of-function analysis and complementation studies showed that CYP716A12 is responsible for an early step in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. Mutants in CYP716A12 were unable to produce hemolytic saponins and only synthetized soyasaponins, and were thus named lacking hemolytic activity (lha). In vitro enzymatic activity assays indicate that CYP716A12 catalyzes the oxidation of β-amyrin and erythrodiol at the C-28 position, yielding oleanolic acid. Transcriptome changes in the lha mutant showed a modulation in the main steps of triterpenic saponin biosynthetic pathway: squalene cyclization, β-amyrin oxidation, and glycosylation. The analysis of CYP716A12 expression in planta is reported together with the sapogenin content in different tissues and stages. This article provides evidence for CYP716A12 being a key gene in hemolytic saponin biosynthesis. PMID:21821776

  12. Medicago truncatula CYP716A12 is a multifunctional oxidase involved in the biosynthesis of hemolytic saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Panara, Francesco; Tava, Aldo; Scaramelli, Laura; Porceddu, Andrea; Graham, Neil; Odoardi, Miriam; Piano, Efisio; Arcioni, Sergio; May, Sean; Scotti, Carla; Calderini, Ornella

    2011-08-01

    Saponins, a group of glycosidic compounds present in several plant species, have aglycone moieties that are formed using triterpenoid or steroidal skeletons. In spite of their importance as antimicrobial compounds and their possible benefits for human health, knowledge of the genetic control of saponin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In the Medicago genus, the hemolytic activity of saponins is related to the nature of their aglycone moieties. We have identified a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP716A12) involved in saponin synthesis in Medicago truncatula using a combined genetic and biochemical approach. Genetic loss-of-function analysis and complementation studies showed that CYP716A12 is responsible for an early step in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. Mutants in CYP716A12 were unable to produce hemolytic saponins and only synthetized soyasaponins, and were thus named lacking hemolytic activity (lha). In vitro enzymatic activity assays indicate that CYP716A12 catalyzes the oxidation of β-amyrin and erythrodiol at the C-28 position, yielding oleanolic acid. Transcriptome changes in the lha mutant showed a modulation in the main steps of triterpenic saponin biosynthetic pathway: squalene cyclization, β-amyrin oxidation, and glycosylation. The analysis of CYP716A12 expression in planta is reported together with the sapogenin content in different tissues and stages. This article provides evidence for CYP716A12 being a key gene in hemolytic saponin biosynthesis.

  13. Quantitative Prediction of Coalbed Gas Content Based on Seismic Multiple-Attribute Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfang Pan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of gas planar distribution is crucial to selection and development of new CBM exploration areas. Based on seismic attributes, well logging and testing data we found that seismic absorption attenuation, after eliminating the effects of burial depth, shows an evident correlation with CBM gas content; (positive structure curvature has a negative correlation with gas content; and density has a negative correlation with gas content. It is feasible to use the hydrocarbon index (P*G and pseudo-Poisson ratio attributes for detection of gas enrichment zones. Based on seismic multiple-attribute analyses, a multiple linear regression equation was established between the seismic attributes and gas content at the drilling wells. Application of this equation to the seismic attributes at locations other than the drilling wells yielded a quantitative prediction of planar gas distribution. Prediction calculations were performed for two different models, one using pre-stack inversion and the other one disregarding pre-stack inversion. A comparison of the results indicates that both models predicted a similar trend for gas content distribution, except that the model using pre-stack inversion yielded a prediction result with considerably higher precision than the other model.

  14. [Determination by high performance chromatography, steroid saponins in a biologically active food supplements containing the extract of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O I; Perederiaev, O I; Ramenskaia, G V

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal saponins are bioactive substances of Tribulus terrestris and can be used to assess the quality of raw materials and processed products from them. For this purpose has been developed the method of qualitative and quantitative determination of steroidal saponins by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass-selective detection and optimal conditions of sample preparation (70% methanol extraction with sonication and heating); also has been studied steroidal saponins composition of Tribulus terrestris (protodioscin, tribulosaponin B, metilprotodiostsin, terrestrozin H, prototribestin, gracillin and others were found).

  15. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative determination of amorphous content in ceramic materials using x-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinski, M.A.; Hubbard, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative technique which employs a modified method of additions approach to analyze for low amorphous content in crystalline matrices was developed and tested. Known amounts of amorphous material are added to the starting powder. The method uses the ratio of a measure of the intensity of the amorphous phase corrected for background to the background corrected intensity of a reference line from a crystalline phase. The amorphous spiking phase must be close in composition to the amorphous phase existing in the analyte. A critical step of the method is to correctly establish the background intensity. A completely crystalline material of similar scattering power was used to establish background intensity

  17. The utilization of microbes as a fermentation agent to reduce saponin in Trembesi leaves (Sammanea saman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariri, A. K.; Mulyono, A. M. W.; Tari, A. I. N.

    2018-03-01

    This objective of this research was to observe the utilization of microbes as a fermentation agent of trembesi leaves that can increase the quality of trembesi leaves as ruminants feed. Before fermentation, trembesi leaves were divided into three treatments. They were control = non-agentic in fermentation, D-An = the addition of Aspergillus niger as fermentation agent, and D-Lp = the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as fermentation agent. Each treatment experienced five repetitions. The experimental design used a randomized direct pattern group design. The analysis included proximate analysis consisting of water content, crude protein content, crude fiber content, lipid content, mineral content (ash) and saponin content after fermentation. It could be concluded that the utilization of Aspergillus niger and Lactobacillus plantarum in fermentation could decrease saponin content and could increase the nutrient content of trembesi leaves by increasing crude protein content otherwise by decreasing crude fiber content of trembesi leaves.

  18. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao

    2008-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  19. Triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Jun-Song; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Seven new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named dianversicosides A-G (1-7), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) group in 1-4 was ascertained by chemical analysis combined with a chiral HPLC method. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against a small panel of cancer and other cell lines.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  1. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong [South Central Univ. for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2014-04-15

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time.

  2. Triterpenoid Saponins from Stauntonia chinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fang; Wang, Sha; Wang, Debin; Xu, Jing; Yang, Guangzhong

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of S. chinensis were previously reported to contain nortriterpenoid saponins, neolignan glycosides, flavonoids. To find the biologically active compounds, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on the stem of S. chinensis, which resulted in isolation of two new triterpenoid saponins, named as yemuo-side YM. Their structues were established on the basis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. In addition, eight known triterpene glycoside 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-30-norhederagenin, sinofoside A, yemuoside YM11, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranos yl-akebonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin, hederasaponin D and 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-hederagenin were isolated from this plant. Compounds and were isolated from thisplant for the first time

  3. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF VOLUMETRIC ICE CONTENT IN FROZEN GROUND BY DIPOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Neradovskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric estimation of the ice content in frozen soils is known as one of the main problems in the engineering geocryology and the permafrost geophysics. A new way to use the known method of dipole electromagnetic profiling for the quantitative estimation of the volumetric ice content in frozen soils is discussed. Investigations of foundation of the railroad in Yakutia (i.e. in the permafrost zone were used as an example for this new approach. Unlike the conventional way, in which the permafrost is investigated by its resistivity and constructing of geo-electrical cross-sections, the new approach is aimed at the study of the dynamics of the process of attenuation in the layer of annual heat cycle in the field of high-frequency vertical magnetic dipole. This task is simplified if not all the characteristics of the polarization ellipse are measured but the only one which is the vertical component of the dipole field and can be the most easily measured. Collected data of the measurements were used to analyze the computational errors of the average values of the volumetric ice content from the amplitude attenuation of the vertical component of the dipole field. Note that the volumetric ice content is very important for construction. It is shown that usually the relative error of computation of this characteristic of a frozen soil does not exceed 20% if the works are performed by the above procedure using the key-site methodology. This level of accuracy meets requirements of the design-and-survey works for quick, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly zoning of built-up remote and sparsely populated territories of the Russian permafrost zone according to a category of a degree of the ice content in frozen foundations of engineering constructions.

  4. Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of β-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kita, Akiko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2011-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to β-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon of soybean saponins. We identified two putative β-amyrin synthase genes in soybean that manifested distinct expression patterns with regard to developmental stage and tissue specificity. Given that one of these genes, GmBAS1, was expressed at a much higher level than the other (GmBAS2) in various tissues including the developing seeds, we constructed two RNAi vectors that encode self-complementary hairpin RNAs corresponding to the distinct regions of GmBAS1 under the control of a seed-specific promoter derived from the soybean gene for the α' subunit of the seed storage protein β-conglycinin. These vectors were introduced independently into soybean. Six independent transgenic lines exhibited a stable reduction in seed saponin content, with the extent of saponin deficiency correlating with the β-amyrin synthase mRNA depletion. Although some transgenic lines produced seeds almost devoid of saponins, no abnormality in their growth was apparent and the antioxidant activity of their seeds was similar to that of control seeds. These results suggest that saponins are not required for seed development and survival, and that soybean seeds may therefore be amenable to the modification of triterpenoid saponin content and composition through molecular biologic approaches.

  5. Surface rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirova, R; Marinova, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Stoyanov, S; Pelan, E

    2011-10-18

    Extracts of the Quillaja saponaria tree contain natural surfactant molecules called saponins that very efficiently stabilize foams and emulsions. Therefore, such extracts are widely used in several technologies. In addition, saponins have demonstrated nontrivial bioactivity and are currently used as essential ingredients in vaccines, food supplements, and other health products. Previous preliminary studies showed that saponins have some peculiar surface properties, such as a very high surface modulus, that may have an important impact on the mechanisms of foam and emulsion stabilization. Here we present a detailed characterization of the main surface properties of highly purified aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponins. Surface tension isotherms showed that the purified Quillaja saponins behave as nonionic surfactants with a relatively high cmc (0.025 wt %). The saponin adsorption isotherm is described well by the Volmer equation, with an area per molecule of close to 1 nm(2). By comparing this area to the molecular dimensions, we deduce that the hydrophobic triterpenoid rings of the saponin molecules lie parallel to the air-water interface, with the hydrophilic glucoside tails protruding into the aqueous phase. Upon small deformation, the saponin adsorption layers exhibit a very high surface dilatational elasticity (280 ± 30 mN/m), a much lower shear elasticity (26 ± 15 mN/m), and a negligible true dilatational surface viscosity. The measured dilatational elasticity is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the Volmer adsorption model (260 mN/m). The measured characteristic adsorption time of the saponin molecules is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude longer than that predicted theoretically for diffusion-controlled adsorption, which means that the saponin adsorption is barrier-controlled around and above the cmc. The perturbed saponin layers relax toward equilibrium in a complex manner, with several relaxation times, the longest of them being around 3

  6. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  7. Identification and genome organization of saponin pathway genes from a wild crucifer, and their use for transient production of saponins in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Kuzina, Vera; Erthmann, Pernille Ø; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Augustin, Jörg M; Olsen, Carl Erik; Scholtalbers, Jelle; Volpin, Hanne; Andersen, Sven Bode; Hauser, Thure P; Muranaka, Toshiya; Bak, Søren

    2015-11-01

    The ability to evolve novel metabolites has been instrumental for the defence of plants against antagonists. A few species in the Barbarea genus are the only crucifers known to produce saponins, some of which make plants resistant to specialist herbivores, like Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth. Genetic mapping in Barbarea vulgaris revealed that genes for saponin biosynthesis are not clustered but are located in different linkage groups. Using co-location with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance, transcriptome and genome sequences, we identified two 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases that form the major triterpenoid backbones. LUP2 mainly produces lupeol, and is preferentially expressed in insect-susceptible B. vulgaris plants, whereas LUP5 produces β-amyrin and α-amyrin, and is preferentially expressed in resistant plants; β-amyrin is the backbone for the resistance-conferring saponins in Barbarea. Two loci for cytochromes P450, predicted to add functional groups to the saponin backbone, were identified: CYP72As co-localized with insect resistance, whereas CYP716As did not. When B. vulgaris sapogenin biosynthesis genes were transiently expressed by CPMV-HT technology in Nicotiana benthamiana, high levels of hydroxylated and carboxylated triterpenoid structures accumulated, including oleanolic acid, which is a precursor of the major resistance-conferring saponins. When the B. vulgaris gene for sapogenin 3-O-glucosylation was co-expressed, the insect deterrent 3-O-oleanolic acid monoglucoside accumulated, as well as triterpene structures with up to six hexoses, demonstrating that N. benthamiana further decorates the monoglucosides. We argue that saponin biosynthesis in the Barbarea genus evolved by a neofunctionalized glucosyl transferase, whereas the difference between resistant and susceptible B. vulgaris chemotypes evolved by different expression of oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  8. [Leaching Remediation of Copper and Lead Contaminated Lou Soil by Saponin Under Different Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-xia; Yang, Ya-li; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Li, Rong-hua; Meng, Zhao-fu; Yang, Ya-ti

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the leaching remediation effect of the eco-friendly biosurfactant saponin for Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil, batch tests method was used to study the leaching effect of saponin solution on single Cu, Pb contaminated Lou soil and mixed Cu and Pb contaminated Lou soil under different conditions such as reaction time, mass concentration of saponin, pH, concentration of background electrolyte and leaching times. The results showed that the maximum leaching removal effect of Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil was achieved by complexation of the heavy metals with saponin micelle, when the mass concentration of saponin solution was 50 g x L(-1), pH was 5.0, the reaction time was 240 min, and there was no background electrolyte. In single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, the leaching percentages of Cu were 29.02% and 25.09% after a single leaching with 50 g x L(-1) saponin under optimal condition, while the single leaching percentages of Pb were 31.56% and 28.03%, respectively. The result indicated the removal efficiency of Pb was more significant than that of Cu. After 4 times of leaching, the cumulative leaching percentages of Cu reached 58.92% and 53.11%, while the cumulative leaching percentages of Pb reached 77.69% and 65.32% for single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, respectively. The fractionation results of heavy metals in soil before and after a single leaching showed that the contents of adsorbed and exchangeable Cu and Pb increased in the contaminated soil, while the carbonate-bound, organic bound and sulfide residual Cu and Pb in the contaminated Lou soil could be effectively removed by saponin.

  9. Comparative analysis of bone mineral contents with dual-energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T. J.; Yoon, S. M.; Kim, O. B.; Lee, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The Dual-Energy Quantitative Computed Tomography(DEQCT) was compared with bone equivalent K 2 HPO 4 standard solution and ash weight of animal cadaveric trabecular bone in the measurement of bone mineral contents(BMC). The attenuation coefficient of tissues highly depends on the radiation energy, density and effective atomic number of composition. The bone mineral content of DEQCT in this experiments was determined from empirical constants and mass attenuation coefficients of bone, fat and soft tissue equivalent solution in two photon spectra. In this experiments, the BMC of DEQCT with 80 and 120kV p X rays was compared to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. We obtained the mass attenuation coefficient of 0.2409, 0.5608 and 0.2206 in 80kV p , and 0.2046, 0.3273 and 0.1971 cm 2 /g in 120kV p X-ray spectra for water, bone and fat equivalent materials, respectively. The BMC with DEQCT was accomplished with empirical constants K 1 =0.3232, K 2 =0.2450 and mass attenuation coefficients has very closed to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. The BMC of empirical DEQCT and that of manufacturing DEQCT were correlated with ash weight as a correlation r=0.998 and r=0.996, respectively. The BMC of empirical DEQCT using the experimental mass attenuation coefficients and that of manufacture have showed very close to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. (author)

  10. The portrayal of infant feeding in British women's magazines: a qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Myles, P; Pritchard, C

    2017-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 58 magazines, there were 90 references to infant feeding with an average of 1.5 (range: 0-5) per magazine. Breastfeeding and formula feeding references were present in equal number and both were predominantly portrayed positively. There was only 1 visual representation of breast feeding compared with 11 of bottle feeding. Potential drivers for breastfeeding included its role in post-pregnancy weight loss and celebrity endorsement while family routine, the role of males in the house and concerns about adverse health effects were identified as barriers to breastfeeding. An improvement in visual representations of breast feeding and factual information in women's weekly magazines may be helpful in re-defining social norms regarding infant feeding. Keywords: food and nutrition, health promotion, public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Chromosomal mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling elastin content in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauguier, Dominique; Behmoaras, Jacques; Argoud, Karène; Wilder, Steven P; Pradines, Christelle; Bihoreau, Marie Thérèse; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Jacob, Marie Paule

    2005-03-01

    Extracellular matrix molecules such as elastin and collagens provide mechanical support to the vessel wall. In addition to its structural role, elastin is a regulator that maintains homeostasis through biologic signaling. Genetically determined minor modifications in elastin and collagen in the aorta could influence the onset and evolution of arterial pathology, such as hypertension and its complications. We previously demonstrated that the inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat shows an aortic elastin deficit in both abdominal and thoracic segments, partly because of a decrease in tropoelastin synthesis when compared with the LOU rat, that elastin gene polymorphisms in these strains do not significantly account for. After a genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the aortic elastin, collagen, and cell protein contents in an F2 population derived from BN and LOU rats, we identified on chromosomes 2 and 14, 3 QTL specifically controlling elastin levels, and a further highly significant QTL on chromosome 17 linked to the level of cell proteins. We also mapped 3 highly significant QTL linked to body weight (on chromosomes 1 and 3) and heart weight (on chromosome 1) in the cross. This study demonstrates the polygenic control of the content of key components of the arterial wall. Such information represents a first step in understanding possible mechanisms involved in dysregulation of these parameters in arterial pathology.

  12. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  13. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  14. Segmental Quantitative MR Imaging analysis of diurnal variation of water content in the lumbar intervertebral discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ting Ting; Ai, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tao; Li, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes in water content in the lumbar intervertebral discs by quantitative T2 MR imaging in the morning after bed rest and evening after a diurnal load. Twenty healthy volunteers were separately examined in the morning after bed rest and in the evening after finishing daily work. T2-mapping images were obtained and analyzed. An equally-sized rectangular region of interest (ROI) was manually placed in both, the anterior and the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF), in the outermost 20% of the disc. Three ROIs were placed in the space defined as the nucleus pulposus (NP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired 2-tailed t tests were used for statistical analysis, with p < 0.05 as significantly different. T2 values significantly decreased from morning to evening, in the NP (anterior NP = -13.9 ms; central NP = -17.0 ms; posterior NP = -13.3 ms; all p < 0.001). Meanwhile T2 values significantly increased in the anterior AF (+2.9 ms; p = 0.025) and the posterior AF (+5.9 ms; p < 0.001). T2 values in the posterior AF showed the largest degree of variation among the 5 ROIs, but there was no statistical significance (p = 0.414). Discs with initially low T2 values in the center NP showed a smaller degree of variation in the anterior NP and in the central NP, than in discs with initially high T2 values in the center NP (10.0% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.037; 6.4% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.006, respectively). Segmental quantitative T2 MRI provides valuable insights into physiological aspects of normal discs.

  15. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sven David Lausten; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins...... increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels...... of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25 % lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25 % lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25 % defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content...

  16. Where does the toxicity come from in saponin extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Cao, Yi; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Chr Bruun; Cedergreen, Nina

    2018-08-01

    Saponin-rich plant extracts contain bioactive natural compounds and have many applications, e.g. as biopesticides and biosurfactants. The composition of saponin-rich plant extracts is very diverse, making environmental monitoring difficult. In this study various ecotoxicity data as well as exposure data have been collected to explore which compounds in the plant extract are relevant as plant protection agents and furthermore to clarify which compounds may cause undesired side-effects due to their toxicity. Hence, we quantified the toxicity of different fractions (saponins/non-saponins) in the plant extracts on the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. In addition, we tested the toxicity changes during saponin degradation as well. The results confirm that saponins are responsible for the majority of toxicity (85.1-93.6%) of Quillaja saponaria extract. We, therefore, suggest saponins to be the main target of saponin-rich plant extracts, for instance in the saponin-based biopesticide regulation. Furthermore, we suggest that an abundant saponin fraction, QS-18 from Q. saponaria, can be a key monitoring target to represent the environmental concentration of the saponins, as it contributes with 26% and 61% of the joint toxicity to D. magna and D. rerio, respectively out of the total saponins. The degradation products of saponins are 3-7 times less toxic than the parent compound; therefore the focus should be mainly on the parent compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo

    1996-01-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  20. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author).

  1. Quantitative measurement of bone mineral contents in patients with senile osteoporosis and chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography using X-ray (XCT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using sup(99m)Tc-MDP of the skull were performed in patients with ''senile osteoporosis'' and with chronic renal failure, in order to quantitatively determine bone mineral contents. XCT: In females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (6th decade), the EMI number of frontal bone was significantly low compared with that of control group, of the same age. The EMI number in ''senile osteoporosis'' correlated with the value of serum 25 (OH) D and 1 α - 25 (OH) 2 D. The EMI number in hemodialyzed patients was significantly low compared with that in the control group. On the other hand, the EMI number in non-hemodialyzed chronic renal failure patients showed no significant difference compared with findings in the control group. The EMI number of the frontal bone in patients with partial parathyroidectomy showed a slight rise compared with findings before surgery. Bone scintigram, Bone scan SPECT: Positive scan was seen in patients with long term hemodialysis and increased values of serum Alk-Pase and PTH were often apparent. Scintigraphic improvement in patients with renal osteodystrophy treated with vitamin D 3 showed a good correlation with improvement in serum Alk-Pase values. On SPECT, frontal bone activity in patients with renal osteodystrophy was significantly high compared with that in the control group. In case of renal osteodystrophy treated with partial parathyroidectomy, the frontal bone activity was markedly decreased compared with findings before surgery. (J.P.N.)

  2. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  3. Cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from Clematis tangutica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Da-Wa, Zhuo-Ma; Guo, Da-Le; Fang, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Xi; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Xia, Bing; Chen, Lei; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Eight previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, clematangoticosides A-H, together with eight known saponins, were isolated from the whole plants of Clematis tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, in combination with chemical methods (acid hydrolysis and mild alkaline hydrolysis). Clematangoticosides D-G were found to be unusual 23, 28-bidesmosidic glycosides. The cytotoxic activities of all of the isolated saponins were evaluated against the four human cancer cell lines SGC-7901, HepG2, HL-60 and U251MG. Clematoside S, sapindoside B, kalopanax saponin A, and koelreuteria saponin A exhibited cytotoxicity against all of the test cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.88-27.20 μM, while clematangoticoside D and F showed selective cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 with IC50 values of 24.22 and 21.35 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  5. [Quantitative image of bone mineral content--dual energy subtraction in a single exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T

    1990-09-25

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiography system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within +/- 4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within +/- 11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of +/- 10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease.

  6. Family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions: a systematic review and quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Tayla; Agaronov, Alen; Young, Ta'Loria; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Davison, Kirsten K

    2017-08-24

    A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base. Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched the PubMed, PsycIFO, and CINAHL databases to identify eligible interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity with an active family component published between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of study design, behavioral domains targeted, and sample demographics were extracted from eligible articles using a comprehensive codebook. More than 90% of the 119 eligible interventions were based in the United States, Europe, or Australia. Most interventions targeted children 2-5 years of age (43%) or 6-10 years of age (35%), with few studies targeting the prenatal period (8%) or children 14-17 years of age (7%). The home (28%), primary health care (27%), and community (33%) were the most common intervention settings. Diet (90%) and physical activity (82%) were more frequently targeted in interventions than media use (55%) and sleep (20%). Only 16% of interventions targeted all four behavioral domains. In addition to studies in developing countries, racial minorities and non-traditional families were also underrepresented. Hispanic/Latino and families of low socioeconomic status were highly represented. The limited number of interventions targeting diverse populations and obesity risk behaviors beyond diet and physical activity inhibit the development of comprehensive, tailored interventions. To ensure a broad evidence base, more interventions implemented in developing countries and targeting racial

  7. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  8. Two new triterpene saponins from the anti-inflammatory saponin fraction of Ilex pubescens root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Liang

    2008-07-01

    The saponin fraction from the ethanolic extracts of the root of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Arn. (Ilexaceae) was found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Two novel triterpene saponins, pubescenosides C and D (1 and 2, resp.), together with five known saponins were isolated from this saponin fraction. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated as (20beta)-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and (20beta)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa- 12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. Five known saponins isolated from the saponin fraction were identified as ilexsaponin B(1), B(2), B(3), A(1), and chikusetsusaponin IV(a).

  9. Ultraviolet spectroscopic evaluation of bioactive saponin fraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate and characterize the saponin principles, using chromatographic and ..... triterpenoids, reducing sugars, amino acids, flavonoids, ..... blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Int. J. Biol. Chem. ... homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta. States of ... mellitus: Systematic review and meta- analysis. BMJ,.

  10. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  11. Surface Shear Rheology of Saponin Adsorption Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial

  12. Hypocholesterolemic Response to Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Afrose, Sadia; Hossain, Md. Sharoare; Maki, Takaaki; Tsujii, Hirotada

    2010-01-01

    Dietary karaya saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus (R. capsulatus) are known to have hypocholesterolemic actions, as reported in our previous studies. This study examined possible synergistic hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus in broilers. A total of 150 broilers were allocated into 10 treatments: control, saponin 25 mg, saponin 50 mg, saponin 75 mg, saponin 25 mg+R. capsulatus 0.2 g, saponin 25 mg+R. capsulatus 0.4 g, saponin 50 mg+R. capsulatus 0.2 g, saponin 50 ...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative analysis of contents of epidermoid and dermoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Mikihiko; Kubo, Osami; Hiyama, Hirofumi; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Izawa, Masahiro; Kagawa, Mizuo; Takakura, Kintomo; Kobayashi, Naotoshi; Toyoda, Masako [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The intracapsular cholesterol protein, and calcium contents of epidermoid and dermoid cysts from seven patients were compared with the signal intensities on T[sub 1]-weighted spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) images. All specimens had a paste-like consistency when resected. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts demonstrated a wide range of cholesterol and calcium contents, and epidermoid cysts were not always rich in cholesterol. Five patients had cysts with lower signal intensity than white matter, which contained more than 18.3 mg/g wet weight of protein. One of these patients had the highest cholesterol content of all seven patients (22.25 mg/g wet weight) and another had the highest calcium content (0.75 mg/g wet weight). Two patients had cysts with higher signal intensity than white matter, with protein contents of lower than 4.3 mg/g wet weight. High protein content (>18.3 mg/g wet weight) may decrease signal intensity on T[sub 1]-weighted MR images, while low protein content (<4.3 mg/g wet weight) may increase signal intensity in epidermoid and dermoid cysts with high viscosity (paste-like consistency) contents. (author).

  14. Copper removal from contaminated soils by soil washing process using camellian-derived saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fernanda Campos, Maria; Videla, Álvaro; Letelier, María Victoria; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2015-04-01

    Antofagasta Region in North of Chile has been the main copper producer district in the world. As a consequence of a lack of mining closure regulation, a large number of abandon small-to-medium size metal-contaminated sites have been identified in the last survey performed by the Chilean Government. Therefore, more research development on sustainable reclamation technologies must be made in this extreme arid-dry zone. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of soil remediation by washing contaminated soil using camellian-derived saponin for the mobilization of copper. Soil samples were taken from an abandoned copper mine site located at 30 km North Antofagasta city. They were dried and sieved at 75 µm for physico-chemical characterization. A commercial saponin extracted from camellias seed was used as biosurfactant. The soil used contains 67.4 % sand, 26.3 % silt and 6.3 % clay. The soil is highly saline (electric conductivity, 61 mScm-1), with low organic matter content (0.41%), with pH 7.30, and a high copper concentration (2200 mg Kg-1 soil). According to the sequential extraction procedure of the whole soil, copper species are mainly as exchangeable fraction (608.2 mg Kg-1 soil) and reducible fraction (787.3 mg Kg-1 soil), whereas the oxidizable and residual fractions are around 205.7 and 598.8 mg Kg-1 soil, respectively. Soil particles under 75 µm contain higher copper concentrations (1242 mg Kg-1 soil) than the particle fraction over 75 µm (912 mg Kg-1 soil). All washing assays were conducted in triplicate using a standard batch technique with and without pH adjustment. The testing protocols includes evaluation of four solid to liquid ratio (0.5:50; 1.0:50; 2.0:50, and 5.0:50) and three saponin concentrations (0, 1, and 4 mg L-1). After shaking (24 h, 20±1 °C) and subsequently filtration (0.45 µm), the supernatants were analyzed for copper and pH. The removal efficiencies of copper by saponin solutions were calculated in according to the

  15. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  16. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum—A. cepa monosomic addition lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium’s defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance. PMID:28800607

  17. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  18. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  19. Quantitative analysis of Internet television and video (WebTV: A study of formats, content, and source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.

  20. The effect of organic and biofertilizers on some quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting bacteria with various mechanisms such as an increase in uptake and availability of nutrients can improve plant growth. In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizers and Vermicompost on quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of vegetative parts of summer savory, a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2008- 2009 at Agriculture Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: Nitragin, Nitragin+Vermicompost, Nitragin+Nitroxin, Nitragin+Phosphate solublizing bacteria, Nitragin+Phosphate solublizing bacteria+Vermicompost, Nitragin+Phosphate solublizing bacteria+Nitroxin, Nitragin+Nitroxin+Vermicompost and control. Plants were harvested twice at 10% flowering stag. The result showed that biofertilizers and Vermicompost had significant effects (p≤0.01 on plant height, percentage of leaf and stem, biological yield and essential oil contents of leaves in both harvests. The combination of Nitragin + Nitroxin and Vermicompost and control treatments had the highest and the lowest plant height, percentage of stem and leaf, and biological yield. It seems that seed inoculation with biofertilizers enhanced root development and hence availability of moisture and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, summer savory inoculation with biofertilizers could improve some quantitative and essential oil contents.

  1. Potent antitrypanosomal triterpenoid saponins from Mussaenda luteola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five new triterpenoid saponins, heinsiagenin A 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-Beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->2)]-B-D-glucopyranoside (1), heinsiagenin A 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-B-D-glucopyranosyl- (1->2)]-[B-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)]-B-D-glucopyranoside (2). 2a-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-o-[a-L-rhamn...

  2. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  3. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  4. Quantitative mapping of matrix content and distribution across the ligament-to-bone insertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Spalazzi

    Full Text Available The interface between bone and connective tissues such as the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL constitutes a complex transition traversing multiple tissue regions, including non-calcified and calcified fibrocartilage, which integrates and enables load transfer between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. The objective of this study was to investigate region-dependent changes in collagen, proteoglycan and mineral distribution, as well as collagen orientation, across the ligament-to-bone insertion site using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIR-I. Insertion site-related differences in matrix content were also evaluated by comparing tibial and femoral entheses. Both region- and site-related changes were observed. Collagen content was higher in the ligament and bone regions, while decreasing across the fibrocartilage interface. Moreover, interfacial collagen fibrils were aligned parallel to the ligament-bone interface near the ligament region, assuming a more random orientation through the bulk of the interface. Proteoglycan content was uniform on average across the insertion, while its distribution was relatively less variable at the tibial compared to the femoral insertion. Mineral was only detected in the calcified interface region, and its content increased exponentially across the mineralized fibrocartilage region toward bone. In addition to new insights into matrix composition and organization across the complex multi-tissue junction, findings from this study provide critical benchmarks for the regeneration of soft tissue-to-bone interfaces and integrative soft tissue repair.

  5. Quantitative Mapping of Matrix Content and Distribution across the Ligament-to-Bone Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalazzi, Jeffrey P.; Boskey, Adele L.; Pleshko, Nancy; Lu, Helen H.

    2013-01-01

    The interface between bone and connective tissues such as the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) constitutes a complex transition traversing multiple tissue regions, including non-calcified and calcified fibrocartilage, which integrates and enables load transfer between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. The objective of this study was to investigate region-dependent changes in collagen, proteoglycan and mineral distribution, as well as collagen orientation, across the ligament-to-bone insertion site using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIR-I). Insertion site-related differences in matrix content were also evaluated by comparing tibial and femoral entheses. Both region- and site-related changes were observed. Collagen content was higher in the ligament and bone regions, while decreasing across the fibrocartilage interface. Moreover, interfacial collagen fibrils were aligned parallel to the ligament-bone interface near the ligament region, assuming a more random orientation through the bulk of the interface. Proteoglycan content was uniform on average across the insertion, while its distribution was relatively less variable at the tibial compared to the femoral insertion. Mineral was only detected in the calcified interface region, and its content increased exponentially across the mineralized fibrocartilage region toward bone. In addition to new insights into matrix composition and organization across the complex multi-tissue junction, findings from this study provide critical benchmarks for the regeneration of soft tissue-to-bone interfaces and integrative soft tissue repair. PMID:24019964

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Clematis argentilucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Ma, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Haifeng; Liu, Xinyou

    2014-09-01

    Reinvestigation of the n-BuOH extract of the roots of Clematis argentilucida led to the isolation of a new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin 1 and a new taraxerane-type saponin 2, four known saponins 3-6 first isolated from the species, together with seven saponins 7-13 reported in the previous papers. The structures of saponins 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The ursane-type and taraxerane-type triterpenoid saponins were obtained from genus Clematis for the first time, and the aglycone of saponin 1, 3β,28-dihydroxy-18αH-ursan-20-en was first encountered. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated against human glioblastoma U251MG cell lines. The monodesmosidic saponins 1, 2 and 4-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cells with IC50 values ranging from 6.95 to 38.51 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  8. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  9. FT-IR imaging for quantitative determination of liver fat content in non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, K; Maslak, E; Chlopicki, S; Baranska, M

    2015-08-07

    In this work we apply FT-IR imaging of large areas of liver tissue cross-section samples (∼5 cm × 5 cm) for quantitative assessment of steatosis in murine model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD). We quantified the area of liver tissue occupied by lipid droplets (LDs) by FT-IR imaging and Oil Red O (ORO) staining for comparison. Two alternative FT-IR based approaches are presented. The first, straightforward method, was based on average spectra from tissues and provided values of the fat content by using a PLS regression model and the reference method. The second one – the chemometric-based method – enabled us to determine the values of the fat content, independently of the reference method by means of k-means cluster (KMC) analysis. In summary, FT-IR images of large size liver sections may prove to be useful for quantifying liver steatosis without the need of tissue staining.

  10. Genetic Architecture and heritability of some Quantitative Characters,oil content and fatty.acid composition in safflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Fried, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of gene action for some quantitative, oil content and quality characters in safflower was studied in an F 1 diallel set involving 4 parents. Both additive and dominance genetic variance were important for most traits. The magnitude of non additive gene action was higher than of additive genetic variance for all traits, except for first branch height, palmitic and stearic acids. The distribution of positive and negative alleles in the parental populations was a symmetrical for all traits except for 100-seed weight. Most of dominant genes had positive effects in plant height, oil content and oleic acid. Dominance degree was over dominance for all traits except for flowering date and first branch height which showed partial dominance. The narrow sense heritability was 75%, 82%, and 89% for stearic acid, flowering date and first branch height, whears 50 to 67% were found for seed yield/plant, plant height, and oil content. Values of less than 50% were determined for other traits. The V r-W r graphical analysis showed partial dominance for flowering date, first branch height, no. of capitula/plant, palmitic and linoleic acids. Complete dominance for 100-seed weight and over dominance for plant height, seed yield, oil content and oleic acid. 2 fig., 2 tab

  11. Quantitative Content Analysis of Communication Patterns on Facebook: A Case Study of the Croatian Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Brautović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of involving citizens more deeply in the democratic process, Facebook is becoming an increasingly important tool for governments in policy making. Facebook has the potential to increase political participation, but many governments fail to use it in the right way, because they just share information online and do not engage with their followers/citizens. This paper shows how the Croatian government is using Facebook and the communication patterns resulting from their work. The quantitative analysis of 20,546 posts and 52,311 comments show that communication is one way, rather than interactive. Government users do not follow the 90-9-1- rule of thumb for social networks.

  12. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  13. Increase in the selenium content of extra virgin olive oil: quantitative and qualitative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amato, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of food crops for human consumption is a direct strategy increasing dietary intake of selenium (Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the Se content of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO by spraying the olive tree canopy with sodium selenate and the effect of the increase in Se on the chemical properties and sensory characteristics of the EVOO. Se treatments were up to 50 times more effective in enhancing Se content in the EVOO compared with the untreated controls. Se concentration in all the EVOO samples can be considered adequate and useful for providing the human diet with the correct dose of Se. Se-enriched EVOO showed a significant increase in pigment and phenol content. Also, Se treatment does not produce negative effects on fruit characteristics or the sensory quality of EVOO.La biofortificación de cultivos alimenticios para el consumo humano es una estrategia directa para aumentar la ingesta de selenio (Se en la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el contenido de Se en aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE pulverizando la copa de los olivos con selenato de sodio y el efecto del aumento en el contenido de Se en las propiedades químicas y características sensoriales del AOVE. Los tratamientos con Se fueron muy eficaces consiguiendo aumentar el contenido de Se en el AOVE hasta 50 veces más en comparación con los controles no tratados. La concentración de Se en todas las muestras EVOO puede considerarse adecuada y útil para proporcionar a la dieta humana con la dosis correcta de Se. EVOO-Se enriquecido mostró un aumento significativo en pigmentos y contenido de fenoles. Además, el tratamiento de Se no implica efectos negativos sobre caracteristicas frutales ni sobre la calidad sensorial de AOVE.

  14. Interaction of saponin 1688 with phase separated lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maohui; Balhara, Vinod; Jaimes Castillo, Ana Maria; Balsevich, John; Johnston, Linda J

    2017-07-01

    Saponins are a diverse family of naturally occurring plant triterpene or steroid glycosides that have a wide range of biological activities. They have been shown to permeabilize membranes and in some cases membrane disruption has been hypothesized to involve saponin/cholesterol complexes. We have examined the interaction of steroidal saponin 1688-1 with lipid membranes that contain cholesterol and have a mixture of liquid-ordered (L o ) and liquid-disordered (L d ) phases as a model for lipid rafts in cellular membranes. A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence was used to probe the effect of saponin on the bilayer. The results demonstrate that saponin forms defects in the membrane and also leads to formation of small aggregates on the membrane surface. Although most of the membrane damage occurs in the liquid-disordered phase, fluorescence results demonstrate that saponin localizes in both ordered and disordered membrane phases, with a modest preference for the disordered regions. Similar effects are observed for both direct incorporation of saponin in the lipid mixture used to make vesicles/bilayers and for incubation of saponin with preformed bilayers. The results suggest that the initial sites of interaction are at the interface between the domains and surrounding disordered phase. The preference for saponin localization in the disordered phase may reflect the ease of penetration of saponin into a less ordered membrane, rather than the actual cholesterol concentration in the membrane. Dye leakage assays indicate that a high concentration of saponin is required for membrane permeabilization consistent with the supported lipid bilayer experiments. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation of furostanol saponins by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhu, Lingling; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Yongwei; Sun, Qinglong; Liu, Shuchen; Liu, Chao; Ma, Baiping

    2017-10-25

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has good separation efficiency and is suitable for separating weakly polar compounds. Furostanol saponins, as an important kind of steroidal saponins, generally have two sugar chains, which are polar and hydrophilic. The hydroxyl group at the C-22 position of furostanol saponins is active and easily reacts with lower alcohols under appropriate conditions. The separation of hydrophilic furostanol saponins was tested by SFC in this study. The effects of chromatographic conditions on the separation of the mixed furostanol saponins and their hydroxyl derivatives at the C-22 position were studied. The conditions for SFC, which included different column polarity, modifier, additive, and column temperature, were tested. After optimization, the mixed 10 similar structures of furostanol saponins were separated in 22min on the Diol column at a temperature of 40°C. The mobile phase was CO 2 (mobile phase A) and methanol (containing 0.2% NH 3 ∙H 2 O and 3% H 2 O) (mobile phase B). The backpressure was maintained isobarically at 11.03MPa. SFC was found to be effective in separating the furostanol saponins that shared the same aglycone but varied in sugar chains. SFC was sensitive to the number and type of sugars. The resolution of furostanol saponin isomers was not ideal. The extract of Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright was profiled by SFC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The main saponins of the extract were well separated. Therefore, SFC could be used for separating hydrophilic furostanol saponins and analyzing traditional Chinese medicines that mainly contained steroidal saponins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  17. Content, Quality, and Assessment Tools of Physician-Rating Websites in 12 Countries: Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Fabia; Schulz, Peter J

    2018-06-14

    Websites on which users can rate their physician are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about the website quality, the information content, and the tools they offer users to assess physicians. This study assesses these aspects on physician-rating websites in German- and English-speaking countries. The objective of this study was to collect information on websites with a physician rating or review tool in 12 countries in terms of metadata, website quality (transparency, privacy and freedom of speech of physicians and patients, check mechanisms for appropriateness and accuracy of reviews, and ease of page navigation), professional information about the physician, rating scales and tools, as well as traffic rank. A systematic Web search based on a set of predefined keywords was conducted on Google, Bing, and Yahoo in August 2016. A final sample of 143 physician-rating websites was analyzed and coded for metadata, quality, information content, and the physician-rating tools. The majority of websites were registered in the United States (40/143) or Germany (25/143). The vast majority were commercially owned (120/143, 83.9%), and 69.9% (100/143) displayed some form of physician advertisement. Overall, information content (mean 9.95/25) as well as quality were low (mean 18.67/47). Websites registered in the United Kingdom obtained the highest quality scores (mean 26.50/47), followed by Australian websites (mean 21.50/47). In terms of rating tools, physician-rating websites were most frequently asking users to score overall performance, punctuality, or wait time in practice. This study evidences that websites that provide physician rating should improve and communicate their quality standards, especially in terms of physician and user protection, as well as transparency. In addition, given that quality standards on physician-rating websites are low overall, the development of transparent guidelines is required. Furthermore, attention should be paid to the

  18. The assessment of cortical and spongy bone mineral content with quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Aritomi, Hiroshi; Iwanami, Shigeru; Kusano, Shouichi; Marumo, Fumiaki.

    1991-01-01

    The CT numbers of cortex at the level of 20 cm (CT20) and spongiosa in the lateral condyle at the level of 2 cm (CT02) proximal from the distal end of the femur, and the bone mineral density of spongiosa in the L3 body (BMD), were obtained by QCT. The study included 43 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 female patients with primary osteoporosis (OP), 20 female nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF: nonHD), 37 hemodialyzed patients (CRF: HD),including 13 parathyroidectomized patients (CRF: HD, PTX), and 10 healthy volunteers. CT20 correlated closely with age in RA. CT02 and BMD correlated closely with age in RA and OP. CT20 and CT02 correlated closely with the duration of hemodialysis in CRF:HD, but not with the duration of disease in RA. The values of CT20 and CT02 in the CRF: HD. PTX group was significantly lower than those in the other CRF groups. BMD in the RA group was not different from that of healthy volunteers. The CT20 values of the one-third of RA patients older than 60 years were extremely low compared with those of the other two-thirds. The results indicated that BMD was useful in assessing bone mineral content in OP, but not in RA. CT02 and CT20 were useful in assessing bone mineral content in these three diseases, CT20 was especially useful for patients in the CRF: HD group and those with RA older than 60 years, but it was not useful in the CRF: nonHD group. (author)

  19. Structure and content of radiology reports, a quantitative and qualitative study in eight medical centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosmans, Jan M.L.; Weyler, Joost J.; Parizel, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: In order to determine how the quality of the radiology report can be improved, the variation in content, form and length of the report needs to be examined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare the length and structure of radiology reports (reports of abdominal CT examinations) in eight hospitals in the Netherlands and Flanders, the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. Materials and methods: Eight hundred reports - 100 from each collaborating center - were collected. After exclusion of the reports that did not fulfill the criteria for a standard CT examination of the abdomen, 525 were retained for further study. The structure of each report was analyzed and the constituting parts (technical information, description of the findings, conclusion, advice, remark, note) were determined. The character and word count of the report and its constituting parts were measured and the results were grouped according to the country (Netherlands vs. Belgium/Flanders), the qualification of the radiologist (staff members vs. residents.) and the nature of the hospital (university medical centers vs. community hospitals). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the Netherlands and Flanders, and between staff members and residents. The authors also found a wide variety in the lay-out and the overall content of the radiology report. Conclusion: While most of the differences we found are probably rooted in local tradition, a standard model for the radiology report in centers sharing the same language may be a means to avoid interpretation mistakes by referring physicians, and to promote better care.

  20. Keanekarragamann Beberapa Varietas Sansevieria trifasciata berdasarkan Karakter Anatomi, Isozim, dan Kandungan Saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHIKA FEBRI DEWATISARI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation on leaves color and shape. The aim of this research was to investigate anatomical structure (leaves, stem and root of five cultivars of Sansevieria trifasciata namely Green tiger, Hahnii medio picta, Green arrow, Golden hahni, and Hahnii cream, as well as isozymic banding pattern and saponin constituent. The results indicated that those five cultivars have genetic variation. Hahnii medio picta has unique morphological shape than the others, while Green arrow has different stalk cells than the others. The dendogram resulting from peroxidase data, S. trifasciata was clustered in two groups where Hahnii medio picta has its own group. The esterase data is also showing two groups, where Golden Hahnii has its own group. The saponin constituent was found in the all five cultivars, which Golden Hahnii had the highest content, i.e. 1.77783 mg/g and 1.5810 mg/gag respectively for leaves and roots.

  1. A rapid and quantitative method to determine the tritium content in DNA from small tissue sampes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasche, V.; Zoellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative two-step procedure to isolate double-strand DNA from small (10-100 mg) animal tissue samples is presented. The method is developed for investigations to evaluate the relative importance of organically bound tritium for the dose factors used to calculate dose commitments due to this nuclide. In the first step the proteins in the homogenized sample are hydrolysed, at a high pH (9.0) and ionic strength (1.5) to dissociate protein from DNA, using immobilized Proteinase K as a proteolytic enzyme. The DNA is then absorbed to hydroxylapatite and separated from impurities by step-wise elution with buffers of increasing ionic strength. More than 90% of the DNA in the samples could be isolated in double-strand form by this procedure. The method has been applied to determine pool-sizes and biological half-life times of tritium in DNA from various animal (mouse) tissues. It has also been shown to be suitable in other radiobiological studies where effects on DNA are investigated. (author)

  2. A quantitative analysis of the quality and content of the health advice in popular Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amanda; Smith, David; Peel, Roseanne; Robertson, Jane; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-06-01

    To examine how health advice is provided in popular magazines and the quality of that advice. A prospective quantitative analysis of the quality of health advice provided in Australian magazines between July and December 2011 was conducted. A rating instrument was adapted from the Media Doctor Australia rating tool used to assess quality of health news reporting. Criteria included: recommends seeing a doctor; advice based on reliable evidence; advice clear and easily applied; benefits presented meaningfully; potential harms mentioned; evidence of disease mongering; availability and cost of treatments; obvious advertising; vested interest, and anecdotal evidence. 163 health advice articles were rated showing a wide variation in the quality of advice presented between magazines. Magazines with 'health' in the title, rated most poorly with only 36% (26/73) of these articles presenting clear and meaningful advice and 52% (38/73) giving advice based on reliable evidence. Australian magazines, especially those with health in the title, generally presented poor quality, unreliable health advice. Teen magazine Dolly provided the highest quality advice. Consumers need to be aware of this when making health choices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Lowering of cholesterol bioaccessibility and serum concentrations by saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Atanasov, Vasil; Pantcheva, Ivayla; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Using an in vitro digestion model, we studied the effect of six saponin extracts on the bioaccessibility of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). In the absence of saponins, around 78% of the available cholesterol was solubilized in the simulated intestinal fluids. The addition of two

  4. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of extracts and saponins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Two saponins were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate ... 57.7 ± 12.1 µg/mL). Saponin 2 exhibited high activity against intracellular amastigotes ..... implication, and technological consideration. J Food Sci. 2007 ...

  5. International gender bias in nursing research, 2005-2006: a quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Denise F; Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports a study that examined the extent to which nurse researchers internationally disproportionately include females as participants in their research. A bias toward predominantly male samples has been well-documented in medical research, but recently a gender bias favoring women in nursing research has been identified in studies published in four North American journals. We extracted information about study samples and characteristics of the studies and authors from a consecutive sample of 834 studies published in eight leading English-language nursing research journals in 2005-2006. The primary analyses involved one-sample t-tests that tested the null hypothesis that males and females are equally represented as participants in nursing studies. Studies from different countries, in different specialty areas, and with varying author and methodologic characteristics were compared with regard to the key outcome variable, percent of participants who were female. Overall, 71% of participants, on average, were female, including 68% in client-focused research and 83% in nurse-focused studies (all presearch in almost all specialty areas, particularly in mental health, community health, health promotion, and geriatrics. The bias favoring female participants in client-focused studies was especially strong in the United States and Canada, but was also present in European countries, most Asian countries, and in Australia. Female overrepresentation was persistent, regardless of methodological characteristics (e.g., qualitative versus quantitative), funding source, and most researcher characteristics (e.g., academic rank). Studies with male authors, however, had more sex-balanced samples. The mean percentage female in client-focused studies with a female lead author was 70.0, compared to 52.1 for male lead authors. Nurse researchers not only in North America but around the globe need to pay attention to who will benefit from their research and to whether they are

  6. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  7. THE QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE CONTENT OF JUVENILE STONEFLIES (PLECOPTERA IN MACROZOOBENTHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Gajević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the changes in content and abundance of local juvenile stonefly communities species at the sites Garež, Delijaš and Balbašići during autumn of 2009 and spring and summer of 2010. A total of 1585 specimens were collected using a mash for zoobentos, out of which 541 were collected at the site Garež, 486 at the site Delijaš and 558 at the site Balbašići. The specimens were categorized into five families and 20 species. The most abundant species out of the total number at the site Garež was Leuctra nigra (73,94%, at the site Delijaš Perla marginata (19,96%, and at the site Balbašići Leuctra nigra (25,63%. The highest diversity indeces were at the site Delijaš, and the highest eveness was at site Balbašići. Key words: Crna Rijeka River, communities of juvenile stoneflies, Plecoptera

  8. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-β-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  9. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  10. Stability of pea DDMP saponin and the mechanism of its decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Hoppe, K.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; DeCroos, K.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    DDMP saponin can be converted to saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one). The stability of DDMP saponin from pea was investigated under various conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration, pH). DDMP saponin in water was observed to be unstable

  11. Kinetic study of Saponins B stability in navy beans under different processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are rich in the legumes which are known to provide many health benefits for human beings. Saponins B is the main component in the saponins group present in navy beans. The stability of saponins B during food processing is a key issue to evaluating the quality and nutrition of food products....

  12. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  13. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  14. Saponins from Cephalaria aristata C. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Gülcemal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One new oleanane-type saponin, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1 was isolated from the MeOH extract of whole plant parts of Cephalaria aristata C. Koch along with three known oleanane-type saponins (2-4, 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-( β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6- β -D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4- β -D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin and 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2- α -L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin respectively, (5-7, oleanolic acid (5, β -amyrin (6 and 20 β -hydroxyursolic acid (7 and one sterol glucoside (8, 29-hydroxystigmast-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyranosyde. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analysis.

  15. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  16. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihye; Lim, Seri; Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by...

  17. Molluscicidal saponins from a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiilborg, S. T.; Christensen, S. B.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Three new monodesmosidic saponins, all glycosides of 2 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid, were isolated from an aqueous extract of a Zimbabwean strain of Phytolacca dodecandra. Their structures were, mainly by spectroscopic methods (LSIMS, H-1 NMR, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, J-resolved (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, HETCOR......-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Two of the saponins were submitted to a preliminary screening for molluscicidal activity against the schistosomiasis transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata and showed, respectively, strong and weak activity. In addition, four saponins previously reported from other strains of Phytolacca...

  18. Anti-diabetic activity of Holothuria thomasi saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Barky, Amira R; Hussein, Samy A; Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A; Hafez, Yehia A; Mohamed, Tarek M

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a global health problem. It characterized by hyperglycemia that induces oxidative stress leading to a generation of free radicals. A wide variety of natural products in plants and other marine animals represent antioxidant activity and other health benefits like those of sea cucumber. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of glycosidic compound - saponin - derived from the Egyptian sea cucumber, Holothuria thomasi. Saponin has been extracted from the Egyptian sea cucumber and confirmed by hemolysis, Salkowski tests, FT/IR, UV and GC-MS analysis. Eighty white female albino rats were divided into four equal groups. The first two groups of rats; control normal and control normal saponin-treated groups. The last two groups which were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin had one diabetic control and the other diabetic group that got 300mg/kg B.wt. of saponin extract after Thirty-five days after diabetes induction and lasted for six weeks. The functional group of saponin extract which established with FT/IR spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of saponin in the extracted materials as shown in the peak of the functional group in relevance to the standard one. The UV spectra revealed that λ max of saponin extract was 282nm which in accordance to the standard saponin. Also, GC-MS analysis indicated that the aglycone part of saponin was methyl esters of octadecanoic acid. Saponin extract significantly decreased serum glucose, α-amylase activity, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α concentrations and liver L-MDA. However, serum insulin and liver glycogen levels were significantly increased as compared with the diabetic non-treated groups. The histopathological results supported that saponin extract markedly reduced the degenerative change in β-cells. This study, therefore, depicts that the Egyptian Holothuria thomasi, sea cucumber saponin as a hypoglycemic agent with the potential to normalize

  19. Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña, Javier; Castillo, Purificación; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-08-20

    This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients.

  20. Four major saponins from Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Plasun, M; Korhammer, S; Haslinger, E; Hiller, K; Kubelka, W

    1991-01-01

    Four new bisdesmosidic saponins each containing eight carbohydrate units were isolated from Solidago canadensis. GC, GC-MS, FABMS analysis and mainly the use of 2D NMR techniques allowed their identification as bayogeninglycosides (canadensissaponins 1-4) 3-O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-[alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-[beta-D- xylopyranosyl-(1----3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-[beta-D- apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]-beta-D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl- (1----]-bayogenin; -(1----2)-[beta-D-apio-D-furanosyl-(1----3)]-ara- binopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin; -[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)]-beta- D-6-deoxyglucopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin and - [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1----3)]-arabinopyranosyl-(1----]-bayogenin.

  1. Three new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Chen, Xia; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were established as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-6-O-((3S)-3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gypsogenic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)][β-D-6-O-((3S)-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-3β,16α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses and chemical degradations.

  2. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  3. Quantitative X-ray methods of amorphous content and crystallinity determination of SiO2, in Quartz and Opal mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketabdari, M.R.; Ahmadi, K.; Esmaeilnia Shirvani, A.; Tofigh, A.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique is commonly used for qualitative analysis of minerals, and has also been successfully used for quantitative measurements. In this research, the matrix flushing and a new X-ray diffraction method have been used for the determination of crystallinity and amorphous content of Opal and Quartz mixture. The PCAPD is used to determine the quantitative analysis of these two minerals

  4. Semisynthesis of Analogues of the Saponin Immunoadjuvant QS-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Walkowicz, William E; Tan, Derek S; Gin, David Y

    2017-01-01

    Saponins are triterpene glycoside natural products that exhibit many different biological properties, including activation and modulation of the immune system, and have therefore attracted significant interest as immunological adjuvants for use in vaccines. QS-21 is the most widely used and promising saponin adjuvant but suffers from several liabilities, such as scarcity, dose-limiting toxicity, and hydrolytic instability. Chemical synthesis has emerged as a powerful approach to obtain homogeneous, pure samples of QS-21 and to improve its properties and therapeutic profile by providing access to optimized, synthetic saponin variants. Herein, we describe a general method for the semisynthesis of these molecules from QS-21, with detailed synthetic protocols for two saponin variants developed in our recent work.

  5. [Study on extraction and purification technology of Hubei ophiopogon saponins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Han; Li, Chong-Ming; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Xia

    2013-05-01

    To explore the extraction and purification technology of total saponins from the effective parts of Liriope spicata. Orthogonal design was used. Macroporous resin was selected to separate and purify total saponin from the effective parts of Liriope spicata. The process validation was conducted. The total saponins was determined by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 10 times the amount of ethanol (70%) for each occasion and hot reflux (3 x 2 h). Total saponins was purified by D101 macroporous resin. The concentration of eluting ethanol was 50% - 70%. Ethanol (70%) was selected as the best eluent. The result of process validation was consistent with the study. The process is simple and stable enough to significantly improve the extraction rate of the effective parts. The study can provide reference for the research and production of effective parts of traditional Chinese medicine such as Liriope spicata.

  6. Saponin Isolation as Main Ingredients of Insecticide and Collagen Type I From Crown of Thorn-Starfish (Acanthaster planci)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarko, Anondho; Januardi Ginting, Mikael; Sahlan, Muhamad; Krisanta Endah Savitri, Imelda; Florensia, Yunita; Sudiarta, Maria Regina; Pastika, Satria; Rafiki, Fakhri; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-10-01

    The outbreaks of crown of thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) resulted in the severe destruction of coral reefs in a large number of Indonesia’s marine ecosystem, especially in the western part. At the moment, control efforts are proven to be ineffective because of its high cost and labor intensive. Recent research found that A. planci contain saponins that act as cytotoxic compound and can be used as an environment-friendly insecticide to eradicate Kalotermitidae pest. Saponins extracted by maceration using ethanol 96.0% with a total yield of saponins 9.04% and 4.66% for two test. Purification of saponin was achieved by utilization of activated carbon with a mass of carbon:volume sample 1:2 (w/v) and stirred for 20 minutes. Sapogenin can be isolated by hydrolyzing using hydrochloric acid, and thus 168.4 mg sapogenin is obtained. In addition to saponins, A. planci also contains collagen Type I. Collagen isolation by multistage extraction began with extracting the collagen with alkaline solvent, with water, NaOH 0.1 M, and Ca(OH)2 0.2 M as the solvent variations. The second step is acid-enzymatic extraction by pepsin digestion in 0.5 M acetic acid. Collagen extract will be further purified by salting out and dialysis method to obtain pure collagen yield called Pepsin Solubilized Collagens (PSC). Characterization of PSC consists of quantitative and qualitative analysis such as Lowry method, gel electrophoresis, UV spectroscopy, amino acid composition analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result shows Ca(OH)2 0.2 M as the best extraction solvent with 2.26% yield of PSC.

  7. Kinetics of the sorption of triterpene saponin by hypercrosslinked polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, N. V.; Brezhneva, T. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of sorption of triterpene saponin by the polymer sorbent NM-200 is considered. The influence of the surface activity of glycoside on the rate of formation and structure of the adsorption layer on the sorbent's surface is established. The rate-determining step of sorption is found to be diffusion into the sorbent grain. The value of the activation energy demonstrates the determining role of dispersion forces in the interaction between triterpene saponin and the polymer sorbent MN-200.

  8. Protein content and functional characteristics of serum-purified exosomes from patients with colorectal cancer revealed by quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Xie, Yong; Xu, Lai; Zhan, Shaohua; Xiao, Yi; Gao, Yanpan; Wu, Bin; Ge, Wei

    2017-02-15

    Tumor cells of colorectal cancer (CRC) release exosomes into the circulation. These exosomes can mediate communication between cells and affect various tumor-related processes in their target cells. We present a quantitative proteomics analysis of the exosomes purified from serum of patients with CRC and normal volunteers; data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003875. We identified 918 proteins with an overlap of 725 Gene IDs in the Exocarta proteins list. Compared with the serum-purified exosomes (SPEs) of normal volunteers, we found 36 proteins upregulated and 22 proteins downregulated in the SPEs of CRC patients. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that upregulated proteins are involved in processes that modulate the pretumorigenic microenvironment for metastasis. In contrast, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that play critical roles in tumor growth and cell survival were principally downregulated. Our study demonstrates that SPEs of CRC patients play a pivotal role in promoting the tumor invasiveness, but have minimal influence on putative alterations in tumor survival or proliferation. According to bioinformatics analysis, we speculate that the protein contents of exosomes might be associated with whether they are involved in premetastatic niche establishment or growth and survival of metastatic tumor cells. This information will be helpful in elucidating the pathophysiological functions of tumor-derived exosomes, and aid in the development of CRC diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 UICC.

  9. A quantitative content analysis of UK newsprint coverage of proposed legislation to prohibit smoking in private vehicles carrying children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Chris; Semple, Sean; Wood, Karen; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2015-08-08

    Mass media representations of health issues influence public perceptions of those issues. Despite legislation prohibiting smoking in public spaces, second-hand smoke (SHS) remains a health risk in the United Kingdom (UK). Further legislation might further limit children's exposure to SHS by prohibiting smoking in private vehicles carrying children. This research was designed to determine how UK national newspapers represented the debate around proposed legislation to prohibit smoking in private vehicles carrying children. Quantitative analysis of the manifest content of 422 articles about children and SHS published in UK and Scottish newspapers between 1st January 2003 and 16th February 2014. Researchers developed a coding frame incorporating emergent themes from the data. Each article was double-coded. The frequency of relevant articles rose and fell in line with policy debate events. Children were frequently characterised as victims of SHS, and SHS was associated with various health risks. Articles discussing legislation targeting SHS in private vehicles carrying children presented supportive arguments significantly more frequently than unsupportive arguments. The relatively positive representation of legislation prohibiting smoking in vehicles carrying children is favourable to policy advocates, and potentially indicative of likely public acceptance of legislation. Our findings support two lessons that public health advocates may consider: the utility of presenting children as a vulnerable target population, and the possibility of late surges in critical arguments preceding policy events.

  10. 45Ca distribution and transport in saponin skinned vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, M.A.; Diecke, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    45 Ca distribution and transport were studied in chemically skinned strips of caudal artery from Kyoto Wistar rats. Sarcolemmal membranes were made hyperpermeable by exposure for 60 min to solutions containing 0.1 mg/ml of saponin. Skinned helical strips responded with graded contractions to changes in ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffered free Ca solutions (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and were sensitive to the Mg-ATP concentration. Tissues loaded in the presence of 10(-7) M Ca contracted in response to 10 mM caffeine. These experiments indicate the strips are skinned and possess a functional regulatory and contractile system and an intact Ca sequestering system. 45 Ca distributes in three compartments in skinned caudal artery strips. The Ca contents of two components are linear functions of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration and desaturate at rapid rates. They correspond to the extracellular and cytoplasmic spaces. A significantly smaller component releases Ca at comparatively slower rates. 45 Ca uptake by the slow component consists of an ATP-dependent and an ATP-independent fraction. The 45 Ca content of the ATP-dependent fraction is a function of the free Ca concentration and is independent of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration. Its content was enhanced by oxalate and was abolished by Triton X-100 skinning solutions. The ATP-independent component was not affected by Triton X-100 skinning and may represent Ca binding to cytoplasmic molecules and structures. The sequestered Ca was released with caffeine or Ca but not by epinephrine. The observations indicate that the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle strips skinned with saponin retain their functional integrity after saponin skinning

  11. Effect of dosing quillaia saponin on waste water form marine products industries; Suisan kako danchi kara o haisui ni taisuru quillaia saponin no tenka no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-20

    For waste water treatment facilities of S marine products industrial complex, a demonstrative test was carried out on a waste water treatment method in which addition of biological activity promoter `quillaia saponin` and the aerobic/anaerobic method are combined. In the S marine products industrial complex, there are more than 100 plants which deal mostly with salt-preserved and boiled-fish-paste products. The plant is operated by the activated sludge method with the pretreatment pressurized floatation. The capacity of the aeration tank and concentration tank for the experiment was 2600m{sup 3} and 110m{sup 3}, respectively. The amount of saponin added was approximately 3mg/L for the amount of influent (raw waste water). The measurement items were transparency, SS, COD, BOD, n-hexane extracts (oil content), MLSS, etc. As a result of the experiment, it was found that the equipment of flocculant addition and pressurized floatation as pretreatment facilities is not necessary; the activated sludge treatment of even the waste water in which n-hexane extracts are more than 100mg/L is possible without the pretreatment; and the n-hexane extracts in the treated water is less than 2mg/L. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Unraveling the response of plant cells to cytotoxic saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Macovei, Anca; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Raimondi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of pharmacological properties are ascribed to natural saponins, in addition to their biological activities against herbivores, plant soil-borne pathogens and pests. As for animal cells, the cytotoxicity and the chemopreventive role of saponins are mediated by a complex network of signal transduction pathways which include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The involvement of other relevant components of the saponin-related signaling routes, such as the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α, the interleukin (IL)-6 and the Nuclear Transcription FactorκB (NFκB), has been highlighted in animal cells. By contrast, information concerning the response of plant cells to saponins and the related signal transduction pathways is almost missing. To date, there are only a few common features which link plant and animal cells in their response to saponins, such as the early burst in ROS and NO production and the induction of metallothioneins (MTs), small cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. This aspect is discussed in the present paper in view of the recent hypothesis that MTs and NO are part of a novel signal transduction pathway participating in the cell response to oxidative stress. PMID:21673512

  13. Quantitative detection of Fusarium spp. and its correlation with fumonisin content in maize from South African subsistence farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Koch, S.H.; Ncube, E.; Allwood, J.; Flett, B.; Vries, de P.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative detection tool was developed to enable the monitoring of fumonisin-producing fungi in food and feed commodities. To this end, a quantitative PCR (TaqMan) was developed that targets a conserved region in the polyketide synthase gene fum1, which is involved in the biosynthesis of

  14. Effects of different components of Mao Dongqing's total flavonoids and total saponins on transient ischemic attack (TIA) model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming-San; Peng, Meng-Fan; Ma, Rui-Juan; Bai, Ming; Liu, Bao-Song

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To study the effects of the different components of the total flavonoids and total saponins from Mao Dongqing's active site on the rats of TIA model, determine the optimal reactive components ratio of Mao Dongqing on the rats of TIA. Methods: TIA rat model was induced by tail vein injection of tert butyl alcohol, the blank group was injected with the same amount of physiological saline, then behavioral score wasevaluated. Determination the level of glutamic acid in serum, the activity of Na+-K+-ATP enzyme, CA ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in Brain tissue, observe the changes of hippocampus in brain tissue, the comprehensive weight method was used to evaluate the efficacy of each component finally. Results: The contents of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing can significantly improve the pathological changes of brain tissue in rats, improve the activity of Na + -K + -ATP enzyme, Ca ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in the brain of rats, and reduce the level of glutamic acid in serum. The most significant of the contents was the ratio of 10:6. The different proportions of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing all has a better effect on the rats with TIA, and the ratio of 10:6 is the best active component for preventing and controlling TIA.

  15. Characterization of Metabolic Pathways and Absorption of Sea Cucumber Saponins, Holothurin A and Echinoside A, in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Zhang, Lingyu; Cao, Jian; Xiang, Gao; Cong, Peixu; Dong, Ping; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong; Wang, Yuming

    2017-08-01

    Sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) exhibit a wide spectrum of bioactivities, but their metabolic characteristics are not well elucidated. In this study, the metabolism of holothurin A (HA) and echinoside A (EA), 2 major saponins in sea cucumber, by gut microflora were investigated. First, we conducted an in vitro study, where in the SCSs were incubated with intestinal microflora and the metabolites were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. We also conducted an in vivo study on rats, where in the intestinal contents, serum, urine, and feces were collected and evaluated after oral administration of SCSs. In the in vitro study, we identified 6 deglycosylated metabolites of HA and EA, assigned M1-M6. In the in vivo study, we found all the deglycosylated metabolites in the intestinal contents after oral administration, and both the metabolites and their prototype components could be absorbed. Four metabolites were identified in the serum, 6 in the urine, and 4 in the feces. The saponins with different structures showed different absorption characteristics in rats. According to our results, deglycosylation is the main intestinal microflora-mediated metabolic pathway for SCSs, and both the SCSs and deglycosylated metabolites can be absorbed by intestine. This study improves the understanding of the metabolism of HA and EA by gut flora, which will be useful for further analysis of the bioactivity mechanism of SCSs. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. National citation patterns of NEJM, The Lancet, JAMA and The BMJ in the lay press: a quantitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casino, Gonzalo; Rius, Roser; Cobo, Erik

    2017-11-12

    To analyse the total number of newspaper articles citing the four leading general medical journals and to describe national citation patterns. Quantitative content analysis. Full text of 22 general newspapers in 14 countries over the period 2008-2015, collected from LexisNexis. The 14 countries have been categorised into four regions: the USA, the UK, Western World (European countries other than the UK, and Australia, New Zealand and Canada) and Rest of the World (other countries). Press citations of four medical journals (two American: NEJM and JAMA ; and two British: The Lancet and The BMJ ) in 22 newspapers. British and American newspapers cited some of the four analysed medical journals about three times a week in 2008-2015 (weekly mean 3.2 and 2.7 citations, respectively); the newspapers from other Western countries did so about once a week (weekly mean 1.1), and those from the Rest of the World cited them about once a month (monthly mean 1.1). The New York Times cited above all other newspapers (weekly mean 4.7). The analysis showed the existence of three national citation patterns in the daily press: American newspapers cited mostly American journals (70.0% of citations), British newspapers cited mostly British journals (86.5%) and the rest of the analysed press cited more British journals than American ones. The Lancet was the most cited journal in the press of almost all Western countries outside the USA and the UK. Multivariate correspondence analysis confirmed the national patterns and showed that over 85% of the citation data variability is retained in just one single new variable: the national dimension. British and American newspapers are the ones that cite the four analysed medical journals more often, showing a domestic preference for their respective national journals; non-British and non-American newspapers show a common international citation pattern. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  17. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1278 - Quillaja saponaria extract (saponins); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quillaja saponaria extract (saponins... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1278 Quillaja saponaria extract (saponins); exemption... (saponins) are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities. [72 FR 41935, Aug...

  19. A Content Analysis of Quantitative Research in Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: A 10-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth O; Chang, Jennifer; Thomas, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We examined the trends of quantitative research over the past 10 years in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (JMFT). Specifically, within the JMFT, we investigated the types and trends of research design and statistical analysis within the quantitative research that was published in JMFT from 2005 to 2014. We found that while the amount of peer-reviewed articles have increased over time, the percentage of quantitative research has remained constant. We discussed the types and trends of statistical analysis and the implications for clinical work and training programs in the field of marriage and family therapy. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Saponins from seeds of Genus Camellia: Phytochemistry and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Tong, Tuantuan; Ren, Ning; Tu, Youying; Li, Bo

    2018-05-01

    Camellia seeds have been traditionally used as oil raw materials in Asia, and are known for a wide spectrum of applications. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins are the major specialised metabolites in Camellia seeds, and more than seventy saponins have been isolated and characterized. These natural compounds have caught much attention due to their various biological and pharmacological activities, including modulation of gastrointestinal system, anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-microorganism, antioxidation, neuroprotection, hypolipidemic effects, foaming and detergence, as well as helping the accumulation of pollutants by plants. These compounds have a promising application in medicine, agriculture, industry and environmental protection. The present paper summarized the information from current publications on Camellia seed saponins, with a focus on the advances made in chemical structures, determination methods, bioactivities and toxicity. We hope this article will stimulate further investigations on these compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Lysimachia fortunei Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Lin; Yang, Zi-Ni; He, Cui; Liao, Hai-Bing; Wang, Heng-Shan; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Six previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, fortunosides A-F, together with six known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lysimachia fortunei Maxim. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analyses (1D, 2D-NMR and HRESIMS) and chemical methods. All isolated triterpenoid saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human liver cancer cell lines (SMMC-7721, Hep3B, HuH7, and SK-Hep-1). Three saponins with the aglycone protoprimulagenin A exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against all of the tested human cancer cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 4.76 to 15.12 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  3. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods: TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results: Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for dete...

  4. A TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FROM SEEDS OF KOLOWE (Chydenanthus excelsus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Rijai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A triterpenoid saponin have been isolated from n-butanol fraction of the seeds of kolowe (Chydenanthus excelsus. The structure was determined as 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3- β - D-glucuronopyranosyloxy]- 22α -O-(2-methylbutiroyloxyolean-12-en-15α,16α,28-tri-hydroxy. Structure elucidation was accomplished by NMR (HMBC, HMQC/HSQC, ROE, ROESY, TOCSY methods, ESIMS, and IR spectroscopic.   Keywords: Chydenanthus excelsus, Lecythidaceae, Triterpenoid saponin

  5. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M2, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M 2 lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author)

  6. Determination of Tannin and Saponin Dosage for Defaunation Improvement Feed Fermentability

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, I.M. D; Muktiani, A; Christianto, M

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of tannin, saponin or combination of tannin and saponin to the concentrate of the ration on the microbial population and fermentability of feed in vitro and to assess the best dosage of uses. The research was arranged according to completely randomized design with four treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were ration without tannin and saponin (T0), ration with 1.2% saponin (T1), ration with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin (T...

  7. Cytotoxic and anti-colorectal tumor effects of sulfated saponins from sea cucumber Holothuria moebii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siran; Ye, Xuewei; Chen, Lu; Xie, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2015-11-15

    Whether sulfated saponins from Holothuria moebii inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and have anti-colorectal tumor effects in animal model has not been investigated. To evaluate the cytotoxic and anti-colorectal tumor effects of sulfated saponins from sea cucumber Holothuria moebii. (1) Column chromatography was used to prepare the total and individual saponins and HPLC was applied to define the components of the total saponins; (2) the activity of the total and individual saponins inhibiting the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells was determined by SRB assay and the apoptosis induced by the saponins was qualified using cytometric analysis with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining; and (3) the antitumor effects of the sulfated saponins on colorectal CT-26 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice were tested. The total and individual sulfated saponins significantly inhibited the proliferation of four different human colorectal cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 1.04 to 4.08 μM (or 1.46 to 3.24 μg/ml for total saponins) and induced late apoptosis at an early treatment time in cancer cells. The total saponins (120 mg/kg) had antitumor activity in colorectal CT-26 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. The sulfated saponins from H. moebii remarkably inhibited the proliferation of different human colorectal cancer cells and had significant anti-colorectal tumor activity in animal model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  9. Saponin Interactions with Model Membrane Systems - Langmuir Monolayer Studies, Hemolysis and Formation of ISCOMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Carolin; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2016-12-01

    Saponins are used in medicine due to their pharmacological and immunological effects. To better understand interactions of saponins with model membranes and natural membranes of, for example, erythrocytes, Langmuir film balance experiments are well established. For most saponins, a strong interaction with cholesterol was demonstrated in dependence of both the aglycone part and the sugar moieties and is suggested to be correlated with a strong hemolytic activity, high toxicity, and high surface activity, as was demonstrated for the steroid saponin digitonin. In general, changes in the sugar chain or in substituents of the aglycone result in a modification of the saponin properties. A promising saponin with regard to fairly low hemolytic activity and high adjuvant effect is α -tomatine, which still shows a high affinity for cholesterol. An interaction with cholesterol and lipids has also been proven for the Quillaja saponin from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. This triterpene saponin was approved in marketed vaccines as an adjuvant due to the formation of immunostimulating complexes. Immunostimulating complexes consist of a Quillaja saponin, cholesterol, phospholipids, and a corresponding antigen. Recently, another saponin from Quillaja brasiliensis was successfully tested in immunostimulating complexes, too. Based on the results of interaction studies, the formation of drug delivery systems such as immunostimulating complexes or similar self-assembled colloids is postulated for a variety of saponins. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenjun; Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie; Zhu Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ . Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: → The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. → Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. → Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. → Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. → Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  11. Effects of Saponins against Clinical E. coli Strains and Eukaryotic Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabski, Michał; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Lankoff, Anna; Kaca, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are detergent-like substances showing antibacterial as well as anticancer potential. In this study, the effects of saponins from Quillaja saponaria were analyzed against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Multidrug-resistant clinical E. coli strains were isolated from human urine. As eukaryotic cells, the CHO-K1 cell lines were applied. Antibacterial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin in the presence of saponins was measured by cultivation methods. Properties of saponins against CHO-K1 cells were measured by the MTT test, hemolysis assay and flow cytometry. Saponin from Quillaja saponaria has a cytotoxic effect at concentrations higher than 25 μg/mL and in the range of 12–50 μg/mL significantly increases the level of early apoptotic cells. Saponin at dose of 12 μg/mL enhances the six E. coli strains growth. We postulate that saponins increase the influx of nutrients from the medium into E. coli cells. Saponins do not have synergetic effects on antibacterial action of tested antibiotics. In contrary, in the presence of saponins and antibiotics, more CFU/mL E. coli cells were observed. This effect was similar to saponins action alone towards E. coli cells. In conclusion, saponins was cytotoxic against CHO-K1 cells, whereas against E. coli cells this effect was not observed. PMID:22500084

  12. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (-C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  13. Effects of Saponins against Clinical E. coli Strains and Eukaryotic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Arabski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are detergent-like substances showing antibacterial as well as anticancer potential. In this study, the effects of saponins from Quillaja saponaria were analyzed against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Multidrug-resistant clinical E. coli strains were isolated from human urine. As eukaryotic cells, the CHO-K1 cell lines were applied. Antibacterial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin in the presence of saponins was measured by cultivation methods. Properties of saponins against CHO-K1 cells were measured by the MTT test, hemolysis assay and flow cytometry. Saponin from Quillaja saponaria has a cytotoxic effect at concentrations higher than 25 μg/mL and in the range of 12–50 μg/mL significantly increases the level of early apoptotic cells. Saponin at dose of 12 μg/mL enhances the six E. coli strains growth. We postulate that saponins increase the influx of nutrients from the medium into E. coli cells. Saponins do not have synergetic effects on antibacterial action of tested antibiotics. In contrary, in the presence of saponins and antibiotics, more CFU/mL E. coli cells were observed. This effect was similar to saponins action alone towards E. coli cells. In conclusion, saponins was cytotoxic against CHO-K1 cells, whereas against E. coli cells this effect was not observed.

  14. Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and antioxidative activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia nutshell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    Full Text Available Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5-68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18-2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner.

  15. Quantitative analysis of γ–oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC–image analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirak Sakunpak

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  16. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  17. Pennogenyl Saponins from Paris quadrifolia L. Induce Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz-Hajduk, Justyna; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Kochan, Kinga; Adamska, Anna; Kosiński, Igor; Ochocka, J. Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pennogenyl saponins are the active compounds of large number of plant species and consequently many polyherbal formulations. Hence, great interest has been shown in their characterization and in the investigation of their pharmacological and biological properties, especially anticancer. This present study reports on the evaluation of cytotoxic effects and explanation of the molecular mechanisms of action of the two pennogenyl saponins (PS 1 and PS 2) isolated from Paris quadrifolia L. rhizomes on human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa. To determine the viability of the cells treated with the compounds we used real-time cell proliferation analysis and found that the pennogenyl saponins PS 1 and PS 2 strongly inhibited the tumor cells growth with IC50 values of 1.11 ± 0.04 μg/ml and 0.87 ± 0.05 μg/ml, respectively. The flow cytometry analysis indicated that the two compounds induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HeLa cells in the early stage of apoptosis. Quantitative PCR and Western Blot analysis showed that the two saponins significantly increased mRNA expression of FADD and BID as well as induced caspase-8 via increased of procaspase-8 processing in the treated cells. The results of this study suggest that both the extrinsic death receptor and intrinsic mitochondrial pathways are involved in the programmed cell death. PMID:26295969

  18. Quantitative assessment of alkali-reactive aggregate mineral content through XRD using polished sections as a supplementary tool to RILEM AAR-1 (petrographic method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Nélia; Sorensen, Bjørn E.; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The mineral content of 5 aggregate samples from 4 different countries, including reactive and non-reactive aggregate types, was assessed quantitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using polished sections. Additionally, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the opal-CT identified in one of the aggregate samples. Critical review of results from polished sections against traditionally powdered specimen has demonstrated that for fine-grained rocks without preferred orientation the assessment of mineral content by XRD using polished sections may represent an advantage over traditional powder specimens. Comparison of data on mineral content and silica speciation with expansion data from PARTNER project confirmed that the presence of opal-CT plays an important role in the reactivity of one of the studied aggregates. Used as a complementary tool to RILEM AAR-1, the methodology suggested in this paper has the potential to improve the strength of the petrographic method.

  19. Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of mixtures with large amorphous contents. The case of stoneware ceramics and bricks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gualtieri, A. F.; Riva, V.; Bresciani, A.; Maretti, S.; Tamburini, M.; Viani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), s. 835-846 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : amorphous phases * bricks * ceramics * internal standards * quantitative phase analysis Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014 http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?S160057671400627X

  20. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  1. Inhibitory effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the protective effects of total saponins from Ilex pubescens Hook (IPTS) against cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Benhnken Design (BBD) was carried out to optimize the extraction of IPTS. Thereafter, H9c2 cell model prepared by hydrogen ...

  2. Steroidal saponins from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia, together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed th...

  3. Two new triterpenoid saponins from rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Lu, Jincai; Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Two new 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid-type triterpenoid saponins, raddeanoside Ra (1) and raddeanoside Rb (2), were isolated from the rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated to be 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-alpha...

  4. Triterpenoidal saponins: bioactive secondary metabolites from Zygophyllum coccineum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum coccineum L., led to the isolation of nine ursane-type triterpene saponins (1-9) including one new: zygophylloside S (1), together with known flavonoid glycoside (10), and sterol glycoside (11). The isolated compounds were tested for ant...

  5. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor. The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  6. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  7. Illumination on “Reserving Phloem and Discarding Xylem” and Quality Evaluation of Radix polygalae by Determining Oligosaccharide Esters, Saponins, and Xanthones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. or Polygala sibirica L. exhibits protective effects on the central nervous system and is frequently used to treat insomnia, amnesia, and other cognitive dysfunction. In our study, we studied nine bioactive compounds spanning oligosaccharide esters, saponins, and xanthones by using a sensitive, efficient, and validated method established on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The quantified result of interesting compounds proved that accumulation of those compounds were found in phloem rather than in xylem. By taking the standardized result of nine compound contents into account, the “Spider-web” analytical result of xylem and phloem from Radix polygalae (RP unveiled the rationality of RP’s classical use in clinic including discarding the xylem and reserving the phloem. Moreover, the remarkable variation was also revealed from the quantitative result of 45 samples with different diameters from the different origins, which did not significantly correlate with the variation of RP’s diameter. Our study could shed the light on the quality assessment of RP for further research and illustrate the scientific connotation of the processing method of “discarding the xylem and reserving the phloem”.

  8. Anemarrhena asphodeloides Non-Steroidal Saponin Components Alter the Pharmacokinetic Profile of Its Steroidal Saponins in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhishu; Li, Guolong; Yang, Jie; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Zhu, Zhenhua; Song, Zhongxing

    2015-06-26

    A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was established to determine the plasma concentrations of four steroidal saponins. Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to four groups which were orally administered Anemarrhena asphodeloides extracts (ASE), ASE combined with macromolecular fraction (ASE-MF), ASE combined with small molecule fraction (ASE-SF) and ASE combined with small molecule and macromolecular fraction (ASE-SF-MF) containing approximately the same dose of ASE. At different time points, the concentration of timosaponin BII, anemarsaponin BIII, timosaponin AIII and timosaponin E1 in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC were calculated using the DAS 3.2 software package. The statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test with p saponins. It was found that Cmax and AUC of four steroidal saponins in group ASE-SF and ASE-SF-MF, were significantly increased compared with those in group ASE. These results indicate that SF in A. asphodeloides extracts could increase the absorption and improve the bioavailability of the steroidal saponins.

  9. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11.1.1.3.00. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  10. Strengthening Triterpene Saponins Biosynthesis by Over-Expression of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase Gene and RNA Interference of Cycloartenol Synthase Gene in Panax notoginseng Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conform to the multiple regulations of triterpene biosynthesis, the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS was transformed into Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng cells in which RNA interference (RNAi of the cycloartenol synthase (CAS gene had been accomplished. Transgenic cell lines showed both higher expression levels of FPS and lower expression levels of CAS compared to the wild-type (WT cells. In the triterpene and phytosterol analysis, transgenic cell lines provided a higher accumulation of total triterpene saponins, and a lower amount of phytosterols in comparison with the WT cells. Compared with the cells in which RNAi of the CAS gene was achieved, the cells with simultaneously over-expressed FPS and silenced CAS showed higher triterpene contents. These results demonstrate that over-expression of FPS can break the rate-limiting reaction catalyzed by FPS in the triterpene saponins biosynthetic pathway; and inhibition of CAS expression can decrease the synthesis metabolic flux of the phytosterol branch. Thus, more precursors flow in the direction of triterpene synthesis, and ultimately promote the accumulation of P. notoginseng saponins. Meanwhile, silencing and over-expressing key enzyme genes simultaneously is more effective than just manipulating one gene in the regulation of saponin biosynthesis.

  11. Estimation of Total Saponins and Evaluate Their Effect on in vitro Methanogenesis and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Wheat Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Goel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to estimate the total saponins and evaluate their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation by in vitro gas production techniques. Three plant material, rough chaff tree seed (Achyranthus aspara, T1, gokhru seed (Tribulus terrestris, T2 and Siris seed (Albizia lebbeck, T3 were selected for present study. The total saponins content in T1, T2 and T3 were 45.75, 25.65 and 48.26% (w/w, respectively. Three levels of each saponins (3, 6 and 9% on DM basis and wheat straw based (50R:50C medium fiber diet (200±10 mg were used for the evaluation of their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern. Results showed the maximum methane reduction (49.66% in term of mM/gDDM and acetate propionate ration (35.08% were found in T1 at 6 and 3% levels. Result show that propionate production (mM/ml was increased; protozoa population decreased (75% significantly on addition with T3 at 6% level. No significant variation was found in dry matter digestibility in all cases. The present results demonstrate that total saponins extracted from different herbal plants are a promising rumen modifying agent. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  12. An experimental study: quantitatively evaluating the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis with two-dimensional ShearWave™ Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X-H; Zhang, J-J; Gao, F; Li, F; Bai, M; Du, L-F; Xing, J-F

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the value of two-dimensional ShearWave ™ Elastography (2D-SWE) on quantitatively evaluating the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis. Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the pre-sexual maturity group (Group 1) and the sexual decline group (Group 2) according to age. The ultrafast ultrasound device Aixplorer ® (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) was used for 2D-SWE imaging of penis, and the measurement index was shear wave stiffness (SWS). The immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the content of collagen fibres in penis, and the measurement index was positive area percentage (PAP). The differences of SWS between the two groups and PAP between the two groups were analysed. SWS of Group 1 and Group 2 was 10.18 ± 1.09 and 8.02 ± 1.34 kPa, and SWS of Group 2 was significantly lower than Group 1 (p penis measured with 2D-SWE would change significantly as well. Two-dimensional SWE can be used to quantitatively evaluate the change of the content of collagen fibres in penis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded within Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was…

  14. Quantitative hepatosplenic scintiscanning. Experimental and clinical studies to determine the contents of radioactivity in liver and spleen following administration of 99mTc sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuchtinger, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hepatosplenic scintiscans were obtained from 78 patients following administration of 99mTc sulfur colloid using a double-head scanner and subjected to quantitative analysis. It was the aim of the study to assess the practicability of quantitative scintiscanning of liver and spleen, to define the range of generally acceptable, normal values for the concentration of 99mTc sulfur colloid in liver and spleen as well as to evaluate the clinical relevance of this method. The following values were determined to be normal: 4.7±1.5 for the liver: Spleen ratio; 31±3% for the proportion of the left hepatic lobe in total liver concentration; 68.7±5.4% and 17.4±3.6% for the active contents of liver and spleen, respectively. Quantitative scintiscanning constitutes a very sensitive method to detect transformation processes in the liver that are associated with a decreased liver: Spleen ratio and an increased ratio between the left hepatic lobe and the total organ. The method is unsuitable to assess pathological accumulation of the tracer substances. The question as to whether the use of the more time-consuming procedure of quantitative scintiscanning is justified by the additional diagnostic information gained remains to be investigated in further studies. (TRV) [de

  15. UDP-Glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C Subfamily in Barbarea vulgaris Catalyze Sapogenin 3-O-Glucosylation in Saponin-Mediated Insect Resistance1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jörg M.; Drok, Sylvia; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Sanmiya, Kazutsuka; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Khakimov, Bekzod; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hansen, Esben Halkjær; Kuzina, Vera; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Hauser, Thure; Bak, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are bioactive metabolites that have evolved recurrently in plants, presumably for defense. Their biosynthesis is poorly understood, as is the relationship between bioactivity and structure. Barbarea vulgaris is the only crucifer known to produce saponins. Hederagenin and oleanolic acid cellobioside make some B. vulgaris plants resistant to important insect pests, while other, susceptible plants produce different saponins. Resistance could be caused by glucosylation of the sapogenins. We identified four family 1 glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that catalyze 3-O-glucosylation of the sapogenins oleanolic acid and hederagenin. Among these, UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 show highest activity, substrate specificity and regiospecificity, and are under positive selection, while UGT73C12 and UGT73C13 show lower substrate specificity and regiospecificity and are under purifying selection. The expression of UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 in different B. vulgaris organs correlates with saponin abundance. Monoglucosylated hederagenin and oleanolic acid were produced in vitro and tested for effects on P. nemorum. 3-O-β-d-Glc hederagenin strongly deterred feeding, while 3-O-β-d-Glc oleanolic acid only had a minor effect, showing that hydroxylation of C23 is important for resistance to this herbivore. The closest homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, UGT73C5, only showed weak activity toward sapogenins. This indicates that UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 have neofunctionalized to specifically glucosylate sapogenins at the C3 position and demonstrates that C3 monoglucosylation activates resistance. As the UGTs from both the resistant and susceptible types of B. vulgaris glucosylate sapogenins and are not located in the known quantitative trait loci for resistance, the difference between the susceptible and resistant plant types is determined at an earlier stage in saponin biosynthesis. PMID:23027665

  16. Comparison of two analytical methods for the local quantitative determination of lithium and boron contents in cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavillet, D.; Guenther-Leopold, I.; Martin, M.; Guillong, M.; Hellwig, Ch.; Sell, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors contain boric acid for reactivity control. As the acidic coolant conditions result in an increased attack of the circuit materials, LiOH is added to render the coolant slightly alkaline. However, LiOH can affect corrosion of the Zr alloy cladding. Thus the Li content in the oxide layers of irradiated fuel rods is of high interest, especially for new alloys (pathfinder rods). At the 'Paul Scherrer Institut' the lithium as well as the boron content in the oxide layers of claddings are determined by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Quantification is performed by direct comparison with a Zircaloy-oxide layer implanted with B and Li. A new and independent method using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was applied to cross-check the SIMS data. (authors)

  17. Development of a quantitative morphological assessment of toxicant-treated zebrafish larvae using brightfield imaging and high-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Samantha; Wambaugh, John; Judson, Richard; Mosher, Shad; Radio, Nick; Houck, Keith; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    One of the rate-limiting procedures in a developmental zebrafish screen is the morphological assessment of each larva. Most researchers opt for a time-consuming, structured visual assessment by trained human observer(s). The present studies were designed to develop a more objective, accurate and rapid method for screening zebrafish for dysmorphology. Instead of the very detailed human assessment, we have developed the computational malformation index, which combines the use of high-content imaging with a very brief human visual assessment. Each larva was quickly assessed by a human observer (basic visual assessment), killed, fixed and assessed for dysmorphology with the Zebratox V4 BioApplication using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® V(TI) high-content image analysis platform. The basic visual assessment adds in-life parameters, and the high-content analysis assesses each individual larva for various features (total area, width, spine length, head-tail length, length-width ratio, perimeter-area ratio). In developing the computational malformation index, a training set of hundreds of embryos treated with hundreds of chemicals were visually assessed using the basic or detailed method. In the second phase, we assessed both the stability of these high-content measurements and its performance using a test set of zebrafish treated with a dose range of two reference chemicals (trans-retinoic acid or cadmium). We found the measures were stable for at least 1 week and comparison of these automated measures to detailed visual inspection of the larvae showed excellent congruence. Our computational malformation index provides an objective manner for rapid phenotypic brightfield assessment of individual larva in a developmental zebrafish assay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Three further triterpenoid saponins from Gleditsia caspica fruits and protective effect of the total saponin fraction on cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melek, Farouk R; Aly, Fawzia A; Kassem, Iman A A; Abo-Zeid, Mona A M; Farghaly, Ayman A; Hassan, Zeinab M

    2015-01-01

    Three triterpenoidal saponins were isolated from the saponin fraction derived from a Gleditsia caspica Desf. methanolic fruit extract. The isolated saponins were identified as gleditsiosides B, C, and Q based on spectral data. The saponin-containing fraction was evaluated in vivo for genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities. The fraction caused no DNA damage in Swiss albino male mice treated with a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight for 24 h, although it significantly inhibited the number of chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in bone marrow and germ cells when applied before or after CP administration. The inhibitory indices in chromosomal aberrations were 59% and 41% for bone marrow and 48% and 43% for germ cells, respectively. In addition, the saponin fraction was found to reduce the viability of the human tumor cell line MCF-7 in a dose-dependent manner with an extrapolated IC50 value in the range of 220 μg/mL.

  19. Cyclic Voltammetric Study of Complexes of Fe (III) with Saponins Isolated from Cicer aritinum and Glycyrrhizin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.S.; Kazmi, S.A.; Anwar, H

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric study was used to analyze three new saponins (isolated from the seeds of Cicer aritinum) along with a known saponin soyasaponin I and beta sitosterol glycoside isolated saponins as well as glycyrrhizin. These studies were carried out in aqueous medium at Glassy carbon (GCE) electrode vs. AgCl reference electrode. Results revealed that the voltammograms of Fe(III) with isolated saponins are irreversible while that of Fe(III)-glycyrrhizin complex is reversible. Even though precise Eo values of their Fe(III) complex could not be determined, it is clearly indicated that Fe(III) forms complexes with these saponins. The ability to form strong complexes with Fe(III) therefore reduces the availability of Fe(III) by saponins. (author)

  20. New steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Xiangrong; Hua, Dong; Cheng, Guang; Wang, Kaixing; Zhang, Lihan; Tang, Haifeng; Wang, Minchang

    2016-06-01

    Four new furostanol saponins, named padelaosides C-F (1-4), together with four known spirostanol saponins 5-8 were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi Franchet. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The discovery of the new compounds 1-4 extended the diversity and complexity of this furostanol saponin family. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87MG and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell lines. The known spirostanol saponins 7 and 8 exhibited notable cytotoxicity against the two tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 1.13 and 3.42μM, respectively, while the new furostanol saponins 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 15.28 to 16.98μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct detection of saponins in crude extracts of soapnuts by FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Meshari Saad; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Direct detection of saponins in soapnuts (Sapindus mukorossi) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is investigated in this project. Potassium bromide powder was mixed with extracted powder of soapnuts and compressed to a thin pellet for examination process. The outcome of the FTIR spectra of saponin demonstrated characteristic triterpenoid saponin absorptions of OH, C = O, C-H, and C = C, while the glycoside linkages to the sapogenins were indicated by the absorptions of C-O. The significance of this study is that saponin absorption peaks are directly detectable in crude aqueous and 95% ethanol extracts of soapnuts powder using FTIR spectroscopy, thereby eliminating the need of further expensive and exhaustive purification steps. The extracts of soapnuts were screened for saponins along with controls by phytochemical tests, and advanced spectroscopic techniques such as ultra fast liquid chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry were also implemented to validate the saponins.

  2. Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Chien, Yi-Wen; Huang, Wen-Hsuan; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of extracted soybean saponins on the growth of human colon cancer cells. METHODS: WiDr human colon cancer cells were treated with 150, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm of soy saponin to determine the effect on cell growth, cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and protein kinase C (PKC) activities, and P53 protein, c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression. RESULTS: Soy saponin decreased the number of viable cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed 12-O-tetradecanol-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PKC activity (P saponins developed cytoplasmic vesicles and the cell membrane became rougher and more irregular in a dose-dependent manner, and eventually disassembled. At 600 and 1200 ppm, the activity of AP was increased (P saponin. CONCLUSION: Soy saponin may be effective in preventing colon cancer by affecting cell morphology, cell proliferation enzymes, and cell growth. PMID:20632438

  3. Calcium-Magnesium salt of saponins from bird's foot trefoil seeds (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium-magnesium salt of saponins was isolated from bird's foot trefoil seeds with a yield of 0.04%. The salt contained: 1.37% - Ca and 0.04% - Mg. The saponin salts were deionized on IR-120 Amberlite and free crystalline saponin was obtained. In both cases the presence of one major component and of three trace ones was found, using TLC. In acid hydrolysates of the saponin salts and of the free saponin the following sugars were identified: rhamaose, xylose, glucose, galactose, glucuronic acid. From among aglycones soyasapogenols B, C, traces of E, and of one unidentified in both cases were found. The Ca-Mg salt obtained seems to be a natural form of saponins in bird's foot trefoil seeds.

  4. Kinetics of the inhibition of cotton seeds germination by lucerne saponins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaim, U.; Birk, Y.; Dovrat, A.; Berman, T.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of inhibition of cotton-seed germination by lucerne saponins depends upon the period of pre-immersion in the saponin solution prior to germination. After 5 hr of pre-immersion in a 0.5% lucerne saponin solution, a 40% drop in germination was noted. The respiration rate decreased after 3hr of pre-immersion. The diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of seeds pre-immersed in saponins also decreased with an increasing pre-immersion time. Inhibition of germination was irreversible after pre-immersion in saponins for 6 hr or more. The effect of saponins does not appear to be biochemically specific because the germination and respiration rates of the cotton seeds which were immersed in aqueous solutions of anionic, nonionic or cationic commercial surfactants were similarly inhibited. (auth.)

  5. [Studies on technology optimization for extracting triterpenoid saponins from Picria felterrae by multi-target grading method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong; Ning, De-sheng; Liang, Xiao-yan

    2009-12-01

    To study the optimum extraction conditions of triterpenoid saponins from Picria felterrae. The optimum extraction conditions were investigated by the contents of the total glycosides and picfeltarraenine I A and I B, using orthogonal test. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: using 70% alcohol of 19 times than the amount of original material soaking 3 hours, extracting twice with hot reflux method at 80 degrees C, 3h the first time, 1 h the second time. The selected extraction conditions are convenient and practical with high accuracy, and could be used as a reference for industrial production.

  6. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-08-15

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein.

  7. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-01-01

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein

  8. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  9. Trifasciatosides A-J, Steroidal Saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Tanaka, Chiaki; Jie, Bai; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2016-01-01

    Four previously unreported steroidal saponins, trifasciatosides A-D (1-4), three pairs of previously undescribed steroidal saponins, trifasciatosides E-J (5a, b-7a, b) including acetylated ones, together with twelve known compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Sansevieria trifasciata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlated spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC), total correlated spectroscopy (TOCSY), nuclear Overhauser enhancement and exchange spectroscopy (NOESY), electrospray ionization-time of flight (ESI-TOF)-MS and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 4, and 7a, b exhibited moderate antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells.

  10. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  11. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus superbus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Two new triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-9(11),12-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl olean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2).

  12. Saponins from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongzhu; Koike, Kazuo; Li, Wei; Satou, Tadaaki; Guo, Dean; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Five new saponins, mimengosides C-G (1-5), were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis along with five known compounds, namely, songaroside A, acteoside, phenylethyl 2-glucoside, echinacoside, and phenylethyl alcohol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods, and these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against HL-60 leukemia cells.

  13. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  14. Inter- and intra-organ spatial distributions of sea star saponins by MALDI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Marie; Wisztorski, Maxence; Decroo, Corentin; De Winter, Julien; Caulier, Guillaume; Hennebert, Elise; Eeckhaut, Igor; Fournier, Isabelle; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    Saponins are secondary metabolites that are abundant and diversified in echinoderms. Mass spectrometry is increasingly used not only to identify saponin congeners within animal extracts but also to decipher the structure/biological activity relationships of these molecules by determining their inter-organ and inter-individual variability. The usual method requires extensive purification procedures to prepare saponin extracts compatible with mass spectrometry analysis. Here, we selected the sea star Asterias rubens as a model animal to prove that direct analysis of saponins can be performed on tissue sections. We also demonstrated that carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as an embedding medium to facilitate the cryosectioning procedure. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging was also revealed to afford interesting data on the distribution of saponin molecules within the tissues. We indeed highlight that saponins are located not only inside the body wall of the animals but also within the mucus layer that probably protects the animal against external aggressions. Graphical Abstract Saponins are the most abundant secondary metabolites in sea stars. They should therefore participate in important biological activities. Here, MALDI imaging is presented as a powerful method to determine the spatial distribution of saponins within the animal tissues. The inhomogeneity of the intra-organ saponin distribution is highlighted, paving the way for future elegant structure/activity relationship investigations.

  15. Bioactive constituents of oleanane-type triterpene saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juan-Hua; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Li, Cun-Yu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Three new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely licorice-saponin M3 (1), licorice-saponin N4 (2), and licorice-saponin O4 (3), an artificial product (4), as well as five known triterpene glucuronides (5-9), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and by comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. The inhibitory effects of the selected compounds on neuraminidase were evaluated, and the preliminary structure-activity relationship was also predicted.

  16. Newspaper coverage of maternal health in Bangladesh, Rwanda and South Africa: a quantitative and qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugsa, Frey; Karmarkar, Ellora; Cheyne, Andrew; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine newspaper coverage of maternal health in three countries that have made varying progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5): Bangladesh (on track), Rwanda (making progress, but not on track) and South Africa (no progress). Design We analysed each country's leading national English-language newspaper: Bangladesh's The Daily Star, Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times, and South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times. We quantified the number of maternal health articles published from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013. We conducted a content analysis of subset of 190 articles published from 1 October 2010 to 31 March 2013. Results Bangladesh's The Daily Star published 579 articles related to maternal health from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2013, compared to 342 in Rwanda's The New Times/The Sunday Times and 253 in South Africa's Sunday Times/The Times over the same time period. The Daily Star had the highest proportion of stories advocating for or raising awareness of maternal health. Most maternal health articles in The Daily Star (83%) and The New Times/The Sunday Times (69%) used a ‘human-rights’ or ‘policy-based’ frame compared to 41% of articles from Sunday Times/The Times. Conclusions In the three countries included in this study, which are on different trajectories towards MDG 5, there were differences in the frequency, tone and content of their newspaper coverage of maternal health. However, no causal conclusions can be drawn about this association between progress on MDG 5 and the amount and type of media coverage of maternal health. PMID:26769780

  17. Quantitative trait loci for maysin synthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) lines selected for high silk maysin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D F; Snook, M E; Houchins, K E; Rector, B G; Widstrom, N W; McMullen, M D

    2007-06-01

    Maysin is a naturally occurring C-glycosyl flavone found in maize (Zea mays L.) silk tissue that confers resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea, Boddie). Recently, two new maize populations were derived for high silk maysin. The two populations were named the exotic populations of maize (EPM) and the southern inbreds of maize (SIM). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was employed to determine which loci were responsible for elevated maysin levels in inbred lines derived from the EPM and SIM populations. The candidate genes consistent with QTL position included the p (pericarp color), c2 (colorless2), whp1 (white pollen1) and in1 (intensifier1) loci. The role of these loci in controlling high maysin levels in silks was tested by expression analysis and use of the loci as genetic markers onto the QTL populations. These studies support p, c2 and whp1, but not in1, as loci controlling maysin. Through this study, we determined that the p locus regulates whp1 transcription and that increased maysin in these inbred lines was primarily due to alleles at both structural and regulatory loci promoting increased flux through the flavone pathway by increasing chalcone synthase activity.

  18. Pharmacokinetic studies of active triterpenoid saponins and the total secondary saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Lei, Tianli; Lv, Chongning; Zhao, Huimin; Xu, Haiyan; Lu, Jincai

    2017-02-15

    The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0.99) over the concentration range 5-1000 nmol/L for two analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.06% and accuracy was ranged from -3.16% to 3.34% for two analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 76.0%. Under the developed analytical conditions, the obtained values of main pharmacokinetic parameters (C max and AUC 0-t ) indicated that the pure compounds were more efficient than the TSS extract in Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K absorption. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of two individual compounds demonstrated their poor oral absorption in rat ( a F%, 0.019-1.521). In the study of absorption and transportation of Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, the uptake permeability was in 10 -6 cm/sec range suggesting poor absorption, which confirmed the previous pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. Interestingly, the uptake ratio of them declined significantly when treated with phloridzin (SGLT1 inhibitor). It indicated that the absorption of Hederacolchiside A1 in intestine was mainly through positive transport and SGLT1 might participate in its active absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of triterpenoid saponins in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral total saponin of Aralia elata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yichun; Xue, Juan; Li, Baimei; Lin, Xiaoting; Wang, Zhibin; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reliable analytical ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Aralia-saponin IV, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, Aralia-saponin A and Aralia-saponin B after the oral administration of total saponin of Aralia elata leaves in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. The analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electrospray ionization source with negative ionization mode. Under the experimental conditions, the calibration curves of four analytes had good linearity values (r > 0.991). The intra- and inter-day precision values of the four analytes were ≤ 11.6%, and the accuracy was between -6.2 and 4.2%.The extraction recoveries of four triterpenoid saponins were in the range of 84.06-91.66% (RSD saponins in rat plasma after oral administration of total saponin of Aralia elata leaves, which helps guiding clinical usage of Aralia elata leaves. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curillova, Zelmira [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); VA Boston Healthcare System, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, West Roxbury, MA (United States); Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kwong, Raymond Y. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress {sup 82}Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p{<=}0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p{<=}0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8{+-}0.5 vs 1.7{+-}0.5 vs 1.5{+-}0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curillova, Zelmira; Yaman, Bettina F.; Sitek, Arkadius; El Fakhri, Georges; Dorbala, Sharmila; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Di Carli, Marcelo F.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function. We evaluated 136 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress 82 Rb PET/CT and CAC scoring who showed normal myocardial perfusion. The CAC score, resting and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and coronary vascular resistance were analyzed. Global and regional CAC scores showed significant but weak inverse correlations with hyperemic MBF (r=-0.31 and r=-0.26, p≤0.0002 respectively) and CFR (r=-0.28 and r=-0.2, p≤0.001 respectively). With increasing CAC score, there was a modest stepwise decline in CFR on a per-patient basis (1.8±0.5 vs 1.7±0.5 vs 1.5±0.4, p=0.048, with total CAC=0, 1-400 and >400, respectively) and on a per-vessel basis. In multivariable modeling only body mass index and CAC score were predictive of CFR. In patients with an intermediate likelihood of, but without overt, CAD, there is a statistically significant but weak inverse correlation between CAC content and coronary vasodilator function. The strength of this association weakens after adjusting CAC scores for age, gender and coronary risk factors. This suggests that CAC and coronary vasodilator function provide biologically different information regarding atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  2. Identification of Major Quantitative Trait Loci for Seed Oil Content in Soybeans by Combining Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongce; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Zili; Chang, Fangguo; Kong, Jiejie; Gai, Junyi; Zhao, Tuanjie

    2017-01-01

    Soybean oil is the most widely produced vegetable oil in the world and its content in soybean seed is an important quality trait in breeding programs. More than 100 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for soybean oil content have been identified. However, most of them are genotype specific and/or environment sensitive. Here, we used both a linkage and association mapping methodology to dissect the genetic basis of seed oil content of Chinese soybean cultivars in various environments in the Jiang-Huai River Valley. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (NJMN-RIL), with 104 lines developed from a cross between M8108 and NN1138-2 , was planted in five environments to investigate phenotypic data, and a new genetic map with 2,062 specific-locus amplified fragment markers was constructed to map oil content QTLs. A derived F 2 population between MN-5 (a line of NJMN-RIL) and NN1138-2 was also developed to confirm one major QTL. A soybean breeding germplasm population (279 lines) was established to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 59,845 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. In the NJMN-RIL population, 8 QTLs were found that explained a range of phenotypic variance from 6.3 to 26.3% in certain planting environments. Among them, qOil-5-1, qOil-10-1 , and qOil-14-1 were detected in different environments, and qOil-5-1 was further confirmed using the secondary F 2 population. Three loci located on chromosomes 5 and 20 were detected in a 2-year long GWAS, and one locus that overlapped with qOil-5-1 was found repeatedly and treated as the same locus. qOil-5-1 was further localized to a linkage disequilibrium block region of approximately 440 kb. These results will not only increase our understanding of the genetic control of seed oil content in soybean, but will also be helpful in marker-assisted selection for breeding high seed oil content soybean and gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of seed oil content.

  3. Impact of two different saponins on the organization of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchowiec, Beata; Gorczyca, Marcelina; Wojszko, Kamila; Janikowska, Maria; Henry, Max; Rogalska, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    Saponins, naturally occurring plant compounds are known for their biological and pharmacological activity. This activity is strongly related to the amphiphilic character of saponins that allows them to aggregate in aqueous solution and interact with membrane components. In this work, Langmuir monolayer techniques combined with polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and Brewster angle microscopy were used to study the interaction of selected saponins with lipid model membranes. Two structurally different saponins were used: digitonin and a commercial Merck Saponin. Membranes of different composition, namely, cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) were formed at the air/water and air/saponin solution interfaces. The saponin-lipid interaction was characterized by changes in surface pressure, surface potential, surface morphology and PM-IRRAS signal. Both saponins interact with model membranes and change the physical state of membranes by perturbing the lipid acyl chain orientation. The changes in membrane fluidity were more significant upon the interaction with Merck Saponin. A higher affinity of saponins for cholesterol than phosphatidylglycerols was observed. Moreover, our results indicate that digitonin interacts strongly with cholesterol and solubilize the cholesterol monolayer at higher surface pressures. It was shown, that digitonin easily penetrate to the cholesterol monolayer and forms a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl groups. These findings might be useful in further understanding of the saponin action at the membrane interface and of the mechanism of membrane lysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemolytic and Cytotoxic Properties of Saponin Purified from Holothuria leucospilota Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Soltani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH, alkyl (C-H, ether (C-O and ester (–C=O absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  5. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W C

    1985-01-01

    The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panecki Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

  7. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  9. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Menghua; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Qian; Wang, Linling; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous desorption of trace metal elements and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from mixed contaminated soil with a novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and biodegradable chelant S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). Results showed significant promotion and synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS. The maximal desorption of Pb, Cu and PCB were achieved 99.8%, 85.7% and 45.7%, respectively, by addition of 10 mM EDDS and 3000 mg L −1 saponin. The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. The sorption of EDDS and saponin on soil was inhibited by each other. EDDS could enhance the complexation of metals with the saponin micelles and the solubilization capabilities of saponin micelles for PCB. Our study suggests the combination of saponin and EDDS would be a promising alternative for remediation of co-contaminated soils caused by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) and metals. -- Highlights: ► A novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and EDDS was used to simultaneously remove mixed contaminations from soil. ► Significant synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with EDDS/saponin. ► The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. -- Significant synergistic effect on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS

  10. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  11. Remarkably high surface visco-elasticity of adsorption layers of triterpenoid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants, with molecules composed of a hydrophobic steroid or triterpenoid group, and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains attached to this group. Saponins are used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, due to their excellent ability to stabilize

  12. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  13. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) to discover genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hwan-Su; Lee, Hyoshin; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-03-14

    Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, is a highly valued woody medicinal plant belonging to the family Araliaceae. E. senticosus produces a rich variety of saponins such as oleanane-type, noroleanane-type, 29-hydroxyoleanan-type, and lupane-type saponins. Genomic or transcriptomic approaches have not been used to investigate the saponin biosynthetic pathway in this plant. In this study, de novo sequencing was performed to select candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. A half-plate 454 pyrosequencing run produced 627,923 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 422 bases. De novo assembly generated 72,811 unique sequences, including 15,217 contigs and 57,594 singletons. Approximately 48,300 (66.3%) unique sequences were annotated using BLAST similarity searches. All of the mevalonate pathway genes for saponin biosynthesis starting from acetyl-CoA were isolated. Moreover, 206 reads of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 145 reads of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) sequences were isolated. Based on methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, 3 CYPs and 3 UGTs were finally selected as candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. The identified sequences associated with saponin biosynthesis will facilitate the study of the functional genomics of saponin biosynthesis and genetic engineering of E. senticosus.

  15. Kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of sorption of saponin of Quillaja Saponaria Molina on chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, N. V.; Smuseva, S. O.; Brezhneva, T. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    The equilibrium and kinetic curves of the sorption of saponin of Quillaja saponaria molina on chitosan were analyzed. The inner diffusion was found to be limiting, and its coefficients were calculated. It was found that the form of the curves of the sorption isotherms of saponin is determined by the competing processes of association in solution and absorption by chitosan.

  16. Role of the hydrophobic phase for the unique rheologica properties of saponin adsorption layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.G.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Saponins are a diverse class of natural, plant derived surfactants, with peculiar molecular structure consisting of a hydrophobic scaffold and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. Saponins have strong surface activity and are used as natural emulsifiers and foaming agents in food and

  17. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    Full Text Available The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1 is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50 values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  18. Surface properties of adsorption layers formed from triterpenoid and steroid saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagureva, N.; Tcholakova, S.; Golemanov, K.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Saponins are natural surfactants with non-trivial surface and aggregation properties which find numerous important applications in several areas (food, pharma, cosmetic and others). In the current paper we study the surface properties of ten saponin extracts, having different molecular structure

  19. Effect of Paris saponin on antitumor and immune function in U14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bearing mice, and reduced the serum IL-4 level. The Paris saponin can inhibit U14 cell growth and prolong survival time of mice; it is speculated that the Paris saponin may express its anti-tumor activity by improving the body's immune system.

  20. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Jr., Billy W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  1. [Studies on the process of Herba Clinopodii saponins purified with macroporous adsorption resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yan, Dan; Han, Yumei

    2005-10-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of saponins with macroporous adsorption resin. The adsorptive characteristics and elutive parameters of the process were studied by taking the elutive and purified ratio of saponins as markers. 11.4 ml of the extraction of Herba Clinopodii (crude drugs 0.2 g/ml) was purified with a column of macroporous adsorption resin (phi15 mm x H90 mm, dry weight 2.5 g) and washed with 3BV of distilled water, then eluted with 3BV of 30% ethanol and 3BV of 70% ethanol. Most of saponins were collected in the 70% ethanol. With macroporous adsorption resin adsorbing and purifying,the elutive ratio of saponins is 86.8% and the purity reaches 153.2%. So this process of applying macroporous adsorption resin to adsorb and purify Saponins is feasible.

  2. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  3. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wu, Biao; Chen, Gang; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,24R,25R)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (1) and (23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (2).

  4. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  5. Effect of dosing quillaia saponin on waste water from edible meat industry; Shokuniku kako kojo no haisui ni taisuru quillaia saponin no tenka no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-20

    For the waste water from meat processing factories, high in BOD and fat concentration, an effective treatment method was studied, wherein quillaia saponin was dosed. The waste water treatment facility of Factory K, manufacturer of ham and sausage, includes a total volume of 410m{sup 3} of aeration tanks taking in an average of 300m{sup 3}/day of waste water. The facility suffers from sludge overflows routinely, and, as a measure to cope with the situation, coagulating agents are dosed to the waste water for forced settlement. Under these circumstances, investigations were conducted to learn the effect of saponin dosing to the facility. Beginning on the 50th day of operation, saponin was dosed to the aeration tanks, and no coagulating agents were dosed to the waste water being treated by aeration. Approximately 3mg/liter of saponin was dosed to the influent waste water not treated. As the result, it was found that the BOD value decreased in the treated waste water while that in the influent untreated waste water increased as the run advanced. Even when the load grew heavier and the pretreatment was dispensed with, there was improvement in the treated water thanks to saponin dosing, which confirmed the effectiveness of saponin dosing. 6 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  7. Psychopharmacological properties of saponins from Randia nilotica stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjuma, N M; Chindo, B A; Abdu-Aguye, I; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2014-01-01

    Decoctions of Randia nilotica Stapf. (Rubiaceae) have been used in the Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy, anxiety, depression and psychosis for many years and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of Northern Nigeria. The aim of this study is to establish whether the saponins present in R. nilotica are responsible for its acclaimed beneficial effects in Nigerian traditional medicine. The behavioural properties of the saponin-rich fraction (SFRN) of R. nilotica stem bark were studied on hole-board, diazepam-induced sleep, rota-rod and beam-walking in mice. The anticonvulsant properties of SFRN were also examined on maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal LD₅₀ of SFRN in mice and rats were estimated to be 11.1 and 70.7 mg/kg, respectively. SFRN significantly prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep; diminished head dip counts in the hole-board test and protected mice against maximal electroshock seizures. SFRN failed to protect mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill at the doses tested. SFRN significantly decreased the number of foot slips in the beam-walking assay in mice with no effect on time to reach the goal box. This study provides evidence of the psychopharmacological effects of SFRN, thus supporting further development of the psychoactive components as remedies for epilepsy.

  8. THE QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE CONTENT OF JUVENILE FISH AT THE MOUTH OF THE RIVERS NERETVA AND MALA NERETVA DURING THE SUMMER-AUTUMN PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antolović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the changes in content and abundance of local juvenile fish community species at stations along the mouth of the Rivers Neretva and Mala Neretva during August, October and December 2008. A total of 690 specimens were collected using a small coastal trawl, out of which 437 were collected at the mouth of the River Neretva and 253 at the mouth of the River Mala Neretva. The specimens were categorized into 14 families and 19 species. The most abundant species from the total catch belonged to the families Atherinidae (40%, Mugilidae (15.79%, Gobiidae (15.50% and Sparidae (13.04%. The Margalef index on specie richness was greater in the regions inhabited by larger numbers of species, ranging between 1.66 in August and 4.13 in October, wheras the highest diversity ranging between 0.393 in December and 0.923 in October was noted using the Simpson index. The highest value using the Shannon Wiener index was 1.18 in December and the lowest at 0.36 was in October, as almost 90% of the catch consisted of only two species. The Pielou index, which describes the variety of ichtiocenoza numerically, ranged between 0.14 in October and 0.74 in December. The stations investigated showed great similarities considering specie content, wheras there were differences in quantitative structure. The station at the mouth of the River Mala Neretva was richer in species as compared to the station at the mouth of the River Neretva, where we came across a smaller number of species, but a greater number of specimens.

  9. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-02-21

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  10. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradation in an oxygen-limiting environment using a saponin-based microbubble suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ju; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a saponin-based microbubble suspension to enhance aerobic biodegradation of phenanthrene by subsurface delivery. As the microbubble suspension flowed through a sand column pressure buildup and release was repeatedly observed, which delivered oxygen to the less permeable regions. Burkholderia cepacia RPH1, a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, was mainly transported in a suspended form in the microbubble suspension. When three pore volumes of the microbubble suspension containing B. cepacia RPH1 was introduced into a column contaminated with phenanthrene (100 mg/kg), the oxygen content declined to 5% from an initial value of 20% within 5 days and correspondingly, 34.4% of initial phenanthrene was removed in 8 days. The addition of two further three pore volumes enhanced the biodegradation efficiency by a factor of 2.2. Our data suggest that a saponin-based microbubble suspension could be a potential carrier for enhancing the aerobic biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting environment. - Microbubble suspension can enhance the phenanthrene biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting condition.

  11. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradation in an oxygen-limiting environment using a saponin-based microbubble suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ju; Kim, Young-Jin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyoungphile, E-mail: kpnam@snu.ac.k [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the ability of a saponin-based microbubble suspension to enhance aerobic biodegradation of phenanthrene by subsurface delivery. As the microbubble suspension flowed through a sand column pressure buildup and release was repeatedly observed, which delivered oxygen to the less permeable regions. Burkholderia cepacia RPH1, a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, was mainly transported in a suspended form in the microbubble suspension. When three pore volumes of the microbubble suspension containing B. cepacia RPH1 was introduced into a column contaminated with phenanthrene (100 mg/kg), the oxygen content declined to 5% from an initial value of 20% within 5 days and correspondingly, 34.4% of initial phenanthrene was removed in 8 days. The addition of two further three pore volumes enhanced the biodegradation efficiency by a factor of 2.2. Our data suggest that a saponin-based microbubble suspension could be a potential carrier for enhancing the aerobic biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting environment. - Microbubble suspension can enhance the phenanthrene biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting condition.

  12. [Effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (ADR) and approach its mechanism of action. Cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (ADR 2 mg x L(-1)) group, and GSTT (100, 30, and 10 mg x L(-1)) groups. MTT colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of CK, LDH, AST, SOD, MDA and NO were detected, and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Effect of GSTT on caspase-3 was detected with Western blotting. Compared with control group, contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were increased, and activity of SOD was reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by ADR. Numbers of survival cells were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were decreased, and activity of SOD was increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). Apoptosis of cardiocytes and concentration of caspase-3 can be reduced by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). GSTT can protect cardiocytes impaired by ADR, which are possible involved with its effect of resisting oxygen free radical.

  13. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Saisai [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhou Wenjun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils. - Saponin has great potential for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and phenanthrene from the combined contaminated soils.

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive saponin from mahogany seed (Swietenia mahogany Jacq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziiroh, E.; Harijono; Kamilia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Mahogany is frequently used for medicines for cancer, tumor, and diabetes, as it contains saponin and flavonoid. Saponin is a complex glycosydic compound consisted of triterpenoids or steroids. Saponin can be extracted from a plant by using a solvent extraction. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) is a non-conventional extraction method that use micro waves in the process. This research was conducted by a Complete Random Design with two factors which were extraction time (120, 150, and 180 seconds) and solvent ratio (10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 v/w). The best treatment of MAE were the solvent ratio 15:1 (v/w) for 180 seconds. The best treatment resulting crude saponin extract yield of 41.46%, containing 11.53% total saponins, and 49.17% of antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the treatment of maceration method were the solvent ratio 20:1 (v/w) for 48 hours resulting 39.86% yield of saponin crude extract, 9.26% total saponins and 56.23% of antioxidant activity. The results showed MAE was more efficient (less time of extraction and solvent amount) than maceration method.

  15. Simultaneous removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from contaminated soils by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Saisai; Zhu Lizhong; Zhou Wenjun

    2008-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant, for simultaneously removing phenanthrene and cadmium from the combined contaminated soils. Results showed that phenanthrene was desorbed from the contaminated soils by saponin with the partition of phenanthrene into surfactant micelle, meanwhile cadmium was effectively removed from the contaminated soils by the complexation of cadmium with the external carboxyl groups of saponin micelle. The efficiencies of saponin for the removal of phenanthrene and cadmium from the contaminated soils were greater than that of Triton X100 and citric acid, respectively. At concentration of 3750 mg/L, saponin has a removal rate of 87.7% and 76.2% of cadmium and phenanthrene, respectively, from the combined contaminated soil. The removals of cadmium and phenanthrene from the soils were not obviously constrained each other. Thus, saponin has the potential for the removal of heavy metal and PAHs from the combined contaminated soils. - Saponin has great potential for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and phenanthrene from the combined contaminated soils

  16. Complexation of phospholipids and cholesterol by triterpenic saponins in bulk and in monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Kamil; Orczyk, Marta; Gutberlet, Thomas; Geue, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The interactions between three triterpene saponins: α-hederin, hederacoside C and ammonium glycyrrhizate with model lipids: cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) are described. The oleanolic acid-type saponins (α-hederin and hederacoside C) were shown to form 1:1 complexes with lipids in bulk, characterized by stability constants in the range (4.0±0.2)·10(3)-(5.0±0.4)·10(4) M(-1). The complexes with cholesterol are generally stronger than those with DPPC. On the contrary, ammonium glycyrrhizate does not form complexes with any of the lipids in solution. The saponin-lipid interactions were also studied in a confined environment of Langmuir monolayers of DPPC and DPPC/cholesterol with the saponins present in the subphase. A combined monolayer relaxation, surface dilational rheology, fluorescence microscopy and neutron reflectivity (NR) study showed that all three saponins are able to penetrate pure DPPC and mixed DPPC/cholesterol monolayers. Overall, the effect of the saponins on the model lipid monolayers does not fully correlate with the lipid-saponin complex formation in the homogeneous solution. The best correlation was found for α-hederin, for which even the preference for cholesterol over DPPC observed in bulk is well reflected in the monolayer studies and the literature data on its membranolytic activity. Similarly, the lack of interaction of ammonium glycyrrhizate with both lipids is evident equally in bulk and monolayer experiments, as well as in its weak membranolytic activity. The combined bulk and monolayer results are discussed in view of the role of confinement in modulating the saponin-lipid interactions and possible mechanism of membranolytic activity of saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of a Panax notoginseng preparation using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Qing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xuesaitong (XST injection, consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, was widely used for the treatment of cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases in China. This study develops a simple and global quality evaluation method for the quality control of XST. Methods High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV was used to identify and quantify the chromatographic fingerprints of the XST injection. Characteristic common peaks were identified using HPLC with photo diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/ESI-MSn. Results Representative fingerprints from ten batches of samples showed 27 'common saponins' all of which were identified and quantified using ten reference saponins. Conclusion Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis identified most of the common saponins for the quality control of P. notoginseng products such as the XST injection.

  18. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity of Pulsatilla saponin A, D derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Duan, Huaqing; Wang, Minglei; Han, Li; Liu, Yanli; Zhu, Yongming; Yang, Shilin

    2015-06-15

    The strong haemolytic activity of Pulsatilla saponin A (PSA), D (PSD) hampered their clinical development of antitumor agents. In order to solve this problem, C-28 position modification derivatives of PSA/PSD were synthesized. The cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity of these compounds were evaluated. Structure-activity relationship and structure-toxicity relationship had been observed. The mice acute toxicity of compound 11 was reduced greatly than that of PSA. This study indicates that compound 11 may represent an interesting class of potent antitumor agents from triterpenoid saponins avoiding the haemolysis problem. The present study has important significance for the development of antitumor saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cuspidate A, new anti-fungal triterpenoid saponin from Lepidagathis cuspidata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Inder Fozdar, Bharat; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Upendra

    2017-04-01

    One new triterpenoid saponin named cuspidate A (1) along with a known oleanane-based triterpenoid saponin clemontanoside-C were isolated from the roots of Lepidagathis cuspidata. The structure of new compound (1) was established after detailed analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. This is the first report on clemontanoside-C from this genus. These saponins were found to be effective against the selected fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolinifer, Penicillum nodatum, Aspergillus fumigates. Compound 1 showed better activity, comparable to the synthetic drug, while compound 2 showed a moderate effect against all studied fungal strains.

  20. Structure revision of hupehensis saponin F and G and characterization of new trace triterpenoid saponins from Anemone hupehensis by tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu; Liu, Xin; Tang, Minghai; Chen, Bin; Ding, Lisheng; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Mingkui

    2012-05-15

    Electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was first employed for reinvestigating the structures of hupehensis saponin F and G previously isolated from Anemone hupehensis in our lab. Hupehensis saponin G was determined to contain one more trisaccharide unit (Rha-(1→4)-Glc-(1→6)-Glc-), not a glucose residue, than saponin F based on their molecular weights deduced from their [M+Na](+) ions in ESI-MS spectra. The (2,4)A(4α)-ion at m/z 551.3 formed by retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) rearrangement in positive mode illustrated that the C-28 sugar chains of the two saponins were composed of trisaccharide repeating moieties with (1→4) linkages rather than (1→3) linkages. The interpretation of 2D-NMR spectra of the two compounds also confirmed the results obtained by ESI-MS(n). Moreover, from the water soluble part of A. hupehensis, two novel triterpene saponins were tentatively characterized to contain 4 and 5 (1→4)-linked above trisaccharide repeating moieties at C-28 position according to their ESI-MS(n) behaviors, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  2. Saponin B, a novel cytostatic compound purified from Anemone taipaiensis, induces apoptosis in a human glioblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuangang; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yun; Li, Juan; Li, Bo; Gao, Zhenhui; Wang, Xiaoyang; Cheng, Guang; Fei, Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common malignant brain tumors. Saponin B, a novel compound isolated from the medicinal plant, Anemone taipaiensis, has been found to have a strong time- and dose-dependent cytostatic effect on human glioma cells and to suppress the growth of U87MG GBM cells. In this study, we investigated whether saponin B induces the apoptosis of glioblastoma cells and examined the underlying mechanism(s) of action of saponin B. Saponin B significantly suppressed U87MG cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA in the U87MG cells confirmed that saponin B blocked the cell cycle at the S phase. Furthermore, treatment of the U87MG cells with saponin B induced chromatin condensation and led to the formation of apoptotic bodies, as observed under a fluorescence microscope, and Annexin V/PI assay further suggested that phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization was apparent at higher drug concentrations. Treatment with saponin B activated the receptor-mediated pathway of apoptosis, as western blot analysis revealed the activation of Fas-l. Saponin B increased the Bax and caspase-3 ratio and decreased the protein expression of Bcl-2. The results from the present study demonstrate that the novel compound, saponin B, effectively induces the apoptosis of GBM cells and inhibits glioma cell growth and survival. Therefore, saponin B may be a potential candidate for the development of novel cancer therapeutics with antitumor activity against gliomas.

  3. Saponin 1 Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-κB-Mediated Survival Signaling in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chi; Li, Bo; Wang, Yuangang; Gao, Zhenhui; Luo, Peng; Yin, Anan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Cheng, Guang; Fei, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at 24 h of 7.4 µg/ml in U251MG cells and 8.6 µg/ml in U87MG cells, respectively. Nuclear fluorescent staining and electron microscopy showed that saponin 1 caused characteristic apoptotic morphological changes in the GBM cell lines. Saponin 1-induced apoptosis was also verified by DNA ladder electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Additionally, immunocytochemistry and western blotting analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in the expression and nuclear location of NF-κB following saponin 1 treatment. Western blotting data indicated a significant decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family members,(e.g., survivin and XIAP) by saponin 1. Moreover, saponin 1 caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the GBM cell lines. These findings indicate that saponin 1 inhibits cell growth of GBM cells at least partially by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival signaling mediated by NF-κB. In addition, in vivo study also demonstrated an obvious inhibition of saponin 1 treatment on the tumor growth of U251MG and U87MG cells-produced xenograft tumors in nude mice. Given the minimal toxicities of saponin 1 in non-neoplastic astrocytes, our results suggest that saponin 1 exhibits significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for GBM. PMID:24278406

  4. Saponin 1 induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-κB-mediated survival signaling in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells. Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at 24 h of 7.4 µg/ml in U251MG cells and 8.6 µg/ml in U87MG cells, respectively. Nuclear fluorescent staining and electron microscopy showed that saponin 1 caused characteristic apoptotic morphological changes in the GBM cell lines. Saponin 1-induced apoptosis was also verified by DNA ladder electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Additionally, immunocytochemistry and western blotting analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in the expression and nuclear location of NF-κB following saponin 1 treatment. Western blotting data indicated a significant decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP family members,(e.g., survivin and XIAP by saponin 1. Moreover, saponin 1 caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the GBM cell lines. These findings indicate that saponin 1 inhibits cell growth of GBM cells at least partially by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival signaling mediated by NF-κB. In addition, in vivo study also demonstrated an obvious inhibition of saponin 1 treatment on the tumor growth of U251MG and U87MG cells-produced xenograft tumors in nude mice. Given the minimal toxicities of saponin 1 in non-neoplastic astrocytes, our results suggest that saponin 1 exhibits significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for GBM.

  5. Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Mareni R.; Pertile, Roberto; Correa, Melissa M.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de; Palermo, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    Two saponins were isolated from the leaves of Lippia alba. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl -(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl)-16α, 23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named as Lippiasaponin I (2) and as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl- (1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-Larabinopyranosyl)-16α,23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named Lippiasaponin II (3). (author)

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Mareni R.; Pertile, Roberto; Correa, Melissa M.; Schenkel, Eloir P., E-mail: marenif@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Farmacia; Almeida, Maria Tereza R. de; Palermo, Jorge A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2010-07-01

    Two saponins were isolated from the leaves of Lippia alba. Their structures were established using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. These new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl -(1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-16alpha, 23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named as Lippiasaponin I (2) and as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)-alpha-Larabinopyranosyl)-16alpha,23-dihydroxy-olean -12-en-28-oic acid, named Lippiasaponin II (3). (author)

  7. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin, a food saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Mehta, Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a strategy taken to retard, regress, or resist the multistep process of carcinogenesis, including the blockage of its vital morphogenetic milestones viz. normal-preneoplasia-neoplasia-metastasis. For several reasons, including safety, minimal (or no) toxicity and side-effects, and better availability, alternatives such as naturally occurring phytochemicals that are found in foods are becoming increasingly popular over synthetic drugs. Food saponins have been used in complimentary and traditional medicine against a variety of diseases including several cancers. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin found abundantly in legumes and yams, is a well-known precursor of various synthetic steroidal drugs that are extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies have been conducted to understand the role of diosgenin as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent against several cancers. This review highlights the biological activity of diosgenin that contributes to cancer chemoprevention and control. The anticancer mode of action of diosgenin has been demonstrated via modulation of multiple cell signaling events involving critical molecular candidates associated with growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. Altogether, these preclinical and mechanistic findings strongly implicate the use of diosgenin as a novel, multitarget-based chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against several cancer types. Future research in this field will help to establish not only whether diosgenin is safe and efficacious as a chemopreventive agent against several human cancers, but also to develop and evaluate standards of evidence for health claims for diosgenin-containing foods as they become increasingly popular and enter the marketplace labeled as functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  8. Semi-quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the localization and neuropeptide content of gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals in the median eminence throughout the estrous cycle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, V; Dutoit, S; Croix, D; Tramu, G; Beauvillain, J C

    1998-05-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of gonadotropin releasing hormone-immunoreactive elements was studied in the external zone of the median eminence of adult female Wistar rats. On the one hand, the purpose of the study was to determine the distribution of gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals towards the parenchymatous basal lamina at the level of hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, throughout the estrous cycle. On the other hand, we have semi-quantified the gonadotropin releasing hormone content in nerve terminals or preterminals during this physiological condition. A morphometric study was coupled to a colloidal 15 mn gold postembedding immunocytochemistry procedure. Animals were killed at 09.00 on diestrus II, 0.900, 10.00, 13.00, 17.00 and 18.00 on proestrus and 09.00 on estrus (n = 4-8 rats/group). A preliminary light microscopic study was carried out to identify an antero-posterior part of median eminence strongly immunostained by anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone antibodies but which was, in addition, easily spotted. This last condition was necessary to make a good comparison between each animal. Contacts between gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals and the basal lamina were observed only the day of proestrus. Such contacts, however, were rare and in the great majority of cases, gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals are separated from basal lamina by tanycytic end feet. The morphometric analysis showed no significant variation in average distance between gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals and capillaries throughout the estrous cycle. Consequently, it did not appear that a large neuroglial plasticity exists during the estrous cycle. However, the observation of contacts only on proestrus together with some ultrastructural images evoke the possibility of a slight plasticity. The semi-quantitative results show that the content of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the nerve endings presented two peaks on proestrus: one at 09.00 (23 +/- 5

  9. Changes in content and synthesis of collagen types and proteoglycans in osteoarthritis of the knee joint and comparison of quantitative analysis with Photoshop-based image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Andreas; Mrosek, Eike; Spank, Heiko; Erggelet, Christoph; Kasch, Richard; Esser, Jan; Merk, Harry

    2010-04-01

    The different cartilage layers vary in synthesis of proteoglycan and of the distinct types of collagen with the predominant collagen Type II with its associated collagens, e.g. types IX and XI, produced by normal chondrocytes. It was demonstrated that proteoglycan decreases in degenerative tissue and a switch from collagen type II to type I occurs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of real-time (RT)-PCR and Photoshop-based image analysis in detecting such lesions and find new aspects about their distribution. We performed immunohistochemistry and histology with cartilage tissue samples from 20 patients suffering from osteoarthritis compared with 20 healthy biopsies. Furthermore, we quantified our results on the gene expression of collagen type I and II and aggrecan with the help of real-time (RT)-PCR. Proteoglycan content was measured colorimetrically. Using Adobe Photoshop the digitized images of histology and immunohistochemistry stains of collagen type I and II were stored on an external data storage device. The area occupied by any specific colour range can be specified and compared in a relative manner directly from the histogram using the "magic wand tool" in the select similar menu. In the image grow menu gray levels or luminosity (colour) of all pixels within the selected area, including mean, median and standard deviation, etc. are depicted. Statistical Analysis was performed using the t test. With the help of immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and quantitative RT- PCR we found that not only collagen type II, but also collagen type I is synthesized by the cells of the diseased cartilage tissue, shown by increasing amounts of collagen type I mRNA especially in the later stages of osteoarthritis. A decrease of collagen type II is visible especially in the upper fibrillated area of the advanced osteoarthritic samples, which leads to an overall decrease. Analysis of proteoglycan showed a loss of the overall content and a quite uniform staining in

  10. A survey of plants in Gujarat, India, for alkaloids, saponins, and tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalingappa L. Hungund; Chandravadan H. Pathak; Chandravadan H. Pathak

    1971-01-01

    A floristic and phytochemical survey of forests in Gujarat State, India, is being undertaken to identify sources of alkaloids, saponins, and tannins. This note is a report on the results of screening 105 plant species collected from that region.

  11. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  12. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique; Schenkel, Eloir P.

    2010-01-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and α-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  13. Triterpenes and new saponins from Ilex chamaedryfolia: chemotaxonomic tool to Ilex species differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencina, Claiton L.; Cardoso, Mariana C. de; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Gosmann, Grace, E-mail: grace.gosmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (FF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Pires, Viviane S.; Sonnet, Pascal; Guillaume, Dominique [UMR-CNRS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. des Glucides; Schenkel, Eloir P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2010-07-01

    Three saponins were isolated from leaves of Ilex chamaedryfolia. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data as the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, the new saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-20(S)-19alpha- hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and the known saponin 3beta-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-20(R)-19alpha-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Ursolic acid and {alpha}-amyrin were also isolated. (author)

  14. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  15. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2008-01-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1→3)-α-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22α-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  16. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-02

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  17. Solid-phase extraction NMR studies of chromatographic fractions of saponins from Quillaja saponaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Nils T; Baumann, Herbert; Kenne, Lennart

    2003-01-15

    The saponin mixture QH-B from the tree Quillaja saponaria var. Molina was fractionated by RP-HPLC in several steps. The fractions were analyzed by solid-phase extraction NMR (SPE-NMR), a technique combining the workup by solid-phase extraction with on-line coupling to an NMR flow probe. Together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and comparison with chemical shifts of similar saponins, the structures of both major and minor components in QH-B could be obtained. The procedure described is a simple method to determine the structure of components in a complex mixture. The two major fractions of the mixture were found to contain at least 28 saponins, differing in the carbohydrate substructures. Eight of these have not previously been determined. The 28 saponins formed 14 equilibrium pairs by the migration of an O-acyl group between two adjacent positions on a fucosyl residue.

  18. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar; M. S. Maier; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  19. Chronic saponin treatment attenuates damage to the pancreas in chronic alcohol-treated diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ran Choi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Saponin may not only be helpful in alleviating the rapid progress of diabetes due to chronic alcohol consumption in diabetic patients, but may also show potential as an antidiabetic drug candidate for diabetic patients who chronically consume alcohol.

  20. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( saponin did not modify methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( saponin, whereas nitrate-containing diets increased acetate proportion and decreased butyrate proportion and ammonia concentration ( saponin alone included in pelleted concentrates failed to decrease enteric methane emissions in nonlactating dairy cows.

  1. Haemolytic and Antimicrobial Activites of Saponin-Rich Extracts from Guar Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponin-rich GM extract was prepared by refluxing 25 g of GM with 250 ml of EtOH/H2O (1:1, v/v) for 3 h then filtering and distilling EtOH at 50oC. The refluxed extract was partitioned with equal volume of BuOH obtaining crude saponin-rich GM extract with 4.8 ± 0.6% DM of GM that was purified by RP...

  2. [Minor components in food plants--II. Triterpenoid saponins from Ullucus tuberosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, A; Rastrelli, L; Saturnino, P; Schettino, O

    1991-12-01

    The present work deals with the isolation and characterization of triterpenoid saponins from Ullucus tuberosus. This class of natural products can account at least in part for unpalatability of the tubers of the plant. Two saponins were isolated 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-epihederagenine and 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1"-- 2')-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanoate.

  3. Influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on regioselectivity of glycosylation. Synthesis of lupane-type saponins bearing the OSW-1 saponin disaccharide unit and its isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Kinga; Cmoch, Piotr; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Korda, Anna; Pakulski, Zbigniew; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-03-24

    A series of lupane-type saponins bearing OSW-1 disaccharide unit as well as its regio- and stereoisomers were prepared and used for the structure-activity relationships (SAR) study. Unexpected preference for 1→4-linked regioisomers and an unusual inversion of the conformation of the sugar rings were noted. Cytotoxic activity of new lupane compounds was evaluated in vitro and revealed that some saponins exhibited an interesting bioactivity profile against human cancer cell lines. Influence of the protecting groups on the cytotoxicity was investigated. These results open the way to the synthesis of various lupane-type triterpene and saponin derivatives as potential anticancer compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sterol-recognition ability and membrane-disrupting activity of Ornithogalum saponin OSW-1 and usual 3-O-glycosyl saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabed, Raymond; Hanashima, Shinya; Murata, Michio; Sakurai, Kaori

    2017-12-01

    OSW-1 is a structurally unique steroidal saponin isolated from the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae, and has exhibited highly potent and selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism for the membrane-permeabilizing activity of OSW-1 in comparison with those of other saponins by using various spectroscopic approaches. The membrane effects and hemolytic activity of OSW-1 were markedly enhanced in the presence of membrane cholesterol. Binding affinity measurements using fluorescent cholestatrienol and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of a 3-d-cholesterol probe suggested that OSW-1 interacts with membrane cholesterol without forming large aggregates while 3-O-glycosyl saponin, digitonin, forms cholesterol-containing aggregates. The results suggest that OSW-1/cholesterol interaction is likely to cause membrane permeabilization and pore formation without destroying the whole membrane integrity, which could partly be responsible for its highly potent cell toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Multivariate Regression Statistics Strategy to Investigate Content-Effect Correlation of Multiple Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Partial Least Squares Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Li, Su-Ning; Pei, Xuexue; Hao, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. In example 2, firstly, 18 common peaks were identified in ten different batches of panax ginseng saponins extracts from different origins. Then, we investigated the anti-myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury effects of the ten different panax ginseng saponins extracts. Finally, the correlation between the fingerprints and the cardioprotective effects was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. Both in example 1 and 2, the relationship between the components content and pharmacological effect was modeled well by the partial least squares regression equations. Importantly, the predicted effect curve was close to the observed data of dot marked on the partial least squares regression model. This study has given evidences that themulti-component content is a promising information for predicting the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. The Multivariate Regression Statistics Strategy to Investigate Content-Effect Correlation of Multiple Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Partial Least Squares Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. In example 2, firstly, 18 common peaks were identified in ten different batches of panax ginseng saponins extracts from different origins. Then, we investigated the anti-myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury effects of the ten different panax ginseng saponins extracts. Finally, the correlation between the fingerprints and the cardioprotective effects was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. Both in example 1 and 2, the relationship between the components content and pharmacological effect was modeled well by the partial least squares regression equations. Importantly, the predicted effect curve was close to the observed data of dot marked on the partial least squares regression model. This study has given evidences that themulti-component content is a promising information for predicting the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. Metal (Cu, Cd and Zn) removal and stabilization during multiple soil washing by saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of multiple saponin washing on copper, cadmium and zinc removal and stability in three types of soils (loamy sand, loam, silty clay) was investigated. Distribution of metals and their mobility measured as the ratio of exchangeable form to the sum of all fractions in soils was differential. After single washing the highest efficiency of metal removal was obtained in loamy sand (82-90%) and loam (67-88%), whereas the lowest in silty clay (39-62%). In loamy sand and loam metals had higher mobility factors (44-61% Cu, 60-76% Cd, and 68-84% Zn) compared to silty clay (9% Cu, 28% Cd and 36% Zn). Triplicate washing led to increase both efficiency of metal removal and percentage content of their stable forms. In consequence, fractional patterns for metals before and after treatment changed visibly as a result of their redistribution. Based on the redistribution index, the most stable metal (mainly in residual and organic fractions) after triplicate washing was Cu in loamy sand and loam. For silty clay contaminated with Cd, effective metal removal and its stabilization required a higher number of washings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic and functional diversity of saponins, biosynthetic intermediates and semi-synthetic derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K.

    2014-01-01

    Saponins are widely distributed plant natural products with vast structural and functional diversity. They are typically composed of a hydrophobic aglycone, which is extensively decorated with functional groups prior to the addition of hydrophilic sugar moieties, to result in surface-active amphipathic compounds. The saponins are broadly classified as triterpenoids, steroids or steroidal glycoalkaloids, based on the aglycone structure from which they are derived. The saponins and their biosynthetic intermediates display a variety of biological activities of interest to the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food sectors. Although their relevance in industrial applications has long been recognized, their role in plants is underexplored. Recent research on modulating native pathway flux in saponin biosynthesis has demonstrated the roles of saponins and their biosynthetic intermediates in plant growth and development. Here, we review the literature on the effects of these molecules on plant physiology, which collectively implicate them in plant primary processes. The industrial uses and potential of saponins are discussed with respect to structure and activity, highlighting the undoubted value of these molecules as therapeutics. PMID:25286183

  9. The Antitumor Effects of Triterpenoid Saponins from the Anemone flaccida and the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Tao Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, a family of ancient hopanoids, have been used as traditional Asian herbs for the treatments of inflammation and convulsant diseases. Previous study on HeLa cells suggested that triterpenoid saponins from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt may have potential antitumor effect due to their apoptotic activities. Here, we confirmed the apoptotic activities of the following five triterpenoid saponins: glycoside St-I4a (1, glycoside St-J (2, anhuienoside E (3, hedera saponin B (4, and flaccidoside II (5 on human BEL-7402 and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines, as well as the model of HeLa cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway, which plays key roles in the development of cancer, is involved in the antitumor activities of these saponins. These data provide the evidence that triterpenoid saponins can induce apoptosis via COX-2/PGE2 pathway, implying a preventive role of saponins from Anemone flaccida in tumor.

  10. Industrial-scale preparation of akebia saponin D by a two-step macroporous resin column separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Ji, De; Liu, Yunfei; Zhang, Chunfeng; Yang, Zhonglin

    2012-06-26

    A simple and efficient procedure for the industrial preparation of akebia saponin D, one of the bioactive compounds commonly found in the well-known Chinese Medicinal herb Dipsaci Radix, was developed. First, HPD-722 was selected from among 10 kinds of macroporous absorption resins. Following this step, the purity of akebia saponin D was increased about 10 times from 6.27% to 59.41%. In order to achieve a higher purity, ADS-7 was chosen from among five kinds of macroporous absorption resins, and the purity of akebia saponin D was increased from 59.41% to 95.05%. The result indicated HPD-722 and ADS-7 were the most suitable resins to purify akebia saponin D from Dipsaci Radix. Under these conditions, large-scale preparation of akebia saponin D was carried out successfully. The preparation method is simple, efficient, and has been demonstrated to be effective for large scale preparations of akebia saponin D from Dipsaci Radix.

  11. Purification of an Immunoadjuvant Saponin Fraction from Quillaja brasiliensis Leaves by Reversed-Phase Silica Gel Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna C A; de Costa, Fernanda; Kauffmann, Carla; Fleck, Juliane D; Gosmann, Grace; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    Saponins include a large variety of molecules that find several applications in pharmacology. The use of Quillaja saponaria saponins as immunological adjuvants in vaccines is of interest due to their capacity to stimulate both humoral and cellular responses. The congener species Q. brasiliensis has saponins with chemical similarities and adjuvant activity comparable to that of Q. saponaria fraction Quil-A ® , with additional advantages of showing lower toxicity and reduced hemolytic activity. Here we describe in detail the methods for preparing the aqueous extract from Q. brasiliensis leaves, as well as the purification of the bioactive saponin fraction QB-90 using silica reversed-phase chromatography.

  12. [Analysis of saponins from panax notoginseng using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianbo; Li, Changming; Li, Shaopin; Kong, Lingyi; Wang, Yitao

    2005-10-01

    To establish a method for qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with LC-ESI-MS. The PSE technology was applied to the process of extraction for Panax notoginseng, and the negative ion detection and multiple reaction monitoring model were used. The saponins were investigated based on total ion chromatogram (TIC) and MRM chromatogram. According to the fragment character of saponins, the molecular weight and their structures could be identified. The method can be used for qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng.

  13. Effects of Saponin from Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds on Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saponins identified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds are reported effective on dyslipidemia. However, the definite mechanism is still not elucidated systematically. In this study, we evaluate the effects of saponin extract on cholesterol absorption, metabolism, synthesis, and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Methods: Saponin extract was prepared according to a craft established in our previous study. After the establishment of dyslipidemia model, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group (normal diet plus normal saline, HFD group (high fat diet plus normal saline, Lipitor group (high fat diet plus Lipitor (2 mg/kg, and L, M, and H-saponin groups (high fat diet plus saponin in dosages of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 9th week after treatment. Biochemical characteristics of rats were tested, histopathological sections of liver tissue were observed, and the protein and mRNA expression of related factors of cholesterol in the intestine and liver were determined. One-way ANOVA test (SPSS software version 11.5, Chicago, IL, USA was used to determine statistically significant differences between the HFD and other groups. Results: In saponin groups, the serum lipid, bile acid efflux, anti-peroxide activities, and lipid area of liver tissue improved. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and scavenger receptor class B type I elevated in the liver. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase levels were suppressed in both the serum and liver. However, significant cholesterol efflux was not found and Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 levels elevated in the intestine. Conclusion: The mechanisms of saponin in Fenugreek effect on ameliorating dyslipidemia are probably related to accelerated cholesterol metabolism, inhibited cholesterol synthesis, and facilitated reverse cholesterol transport, but not cholesterol absorption.

  14. Influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on regioselectivity of glycosylation. Synthesis of lupane-type saponins bearing the OSW-1 saponin disaccharide unit and its isomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuczynska, K.; Cmoch, P.; Rárová, L.; Oklešťková, Jana; Korda, A.; Pakulski, Z.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 423, MAR 24 (2016), s. 49-69 ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA14-19590S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : OSW-1 disaccharide * Glycosylation * Lupane saponins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.096, year: 2016

  15. New 30-Noroleanane Triterpenoid Saponins from Holboellia coriacea Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new 30-noroleanane triterpenoid saponins, akebonoic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1, akebonoic acid 28-O-(6′′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1′′→6′-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (Holboelliside A, 2 and 3β,20α,24-trihydroxy-29-norolean-12-en-28-oic acid 3-O-(6′-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Holboelliside B, 3 were isolated from the stems of Holboellia coriacea Diels, together with five known compounds, eupteleasaponin VIII (4, 3α-akebonoic acid (5, quinatic acid (6, 3β-hydroxy-30-norhederagenin (7 and quinatoside A (8. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against three human tumors HepG2, HCT116 and SGC-7901 cell lines in vitro.

  16. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Sg-1 Glycosyltransferase Locus Regulates Structural Diversity of Triterpenoid Saponins of Soybean[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar–dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1a allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1b encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1a and Gly-138 in Sg-1b proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-10 is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products. PMID:22611180

  18. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  19. Antimicrobial activity of saponins produced by two novel endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoxia; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Tianyi; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Zongshen; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Biying

    2017-11-01

    Endophytes in plants may be co-producer of the bioactive compounds of their hosts. We conducted a study to bioprospect for saponin-producing endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of saponins. Two novel fungal endophytes, Fusarium sp. PN8 and Aspergillus sp. PN17, were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb P. notoginseng. After eight days of fermentation, the total saponins produced in the culture broth of PN8 and PN17 were 1.061 and 0.583 mg mL -1 , respectively. The saponin extracts exhibited moderate to high (inhibition zone diameter 15.7-28.4 mm, MIC 1.6-12.5 mg mL -1 ) antimicrobial activity against pathogens tested. Further analysis showed that triterpenoid saponins produced by Fusarium PN8 were Rb 1 , Rd and 20(S)-Rg 3 , while Aspergillus PN17 had the ability to synthesise ginsenoside Re, Rd and 20(S)-Rg 3 . The isolated endophytes may be used as potential sources for microbial production of plant secondary metabolites and for antimicrobial agents.

  20. Enhanced removal of lead from contaminated soil by polyol-based deep eutectic solvents and saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hayyan, Adeeb; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.

  1. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use.

  2. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Saponin and Crude Extracts of Chlorophytum borivilianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Maheran; Stanslas, Johnson; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focused on antioxidant and cytotoxicity assessment of crude and total saponin fraction of Chlorophytum borivilianum as an important medicinal plant. In this study, three different antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity) of crude extract and total saponin fraction of C. borivilianum tubers were performed. Crude extract was found to possess higher free radical scavenging activity (ascorbic acid equivalents 2578 ± 111 mg AA/100 g) and bleaching activity (IC50 = 0.7 mg mL−1), while total saponin fraction displayed higher ferrous ion chelating (EC50 = 1 mg mL−1). Cytotoxicity evaluation of crude extract and total saponin fraction against MCF-7, PC3, and HCT-116 cancer cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay indicated a higher cytotoxicity activity of the crude extract than the total saponin fraction on all cell lines, being most effective and selective on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. PMID:24223502

  3. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC 50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  4. Effects of Tribulus terrestris saponins on exercise performance in overtraining rats and the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Liang-Nian

    2016-06-22

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) saponins on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms. A rat overtraining model was established and animals were treated with TT extracts (120 mg/kg body mass) 30 min before each training session. Serum levels of testosterone and corticosterone and levels of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the liver, gastrocnemius, and soleus were determined by ELISA and Western blot. Treatment of rats with TT saponins significantly improved the performance of the overtraining rats, reflected by the extension of time to exhaustion, with a concomitant increase in body mass, relative mass, and protein levels of gastrocnemius. Overtraining alone induced a significant decrease in the serum level of testosterone. In contrast, treatment with TT saponins dramatically increased the serum level of testosterone in overtraining rats to about 150% of control and 216% of overtraining groups, respectively. In addition, TT saponins resulted in a further significant increase in AR in gastrocnemius and significantly suppressed the overtraining-induced increase in IGF-1R in the liver. These results indicated that TT saponins increased performance, body mass, and gastrocnemius mass of rats undergoing overtraining, which might be attributed to the changes in androgen-AR axis and IGF-1R signaling.

  5. Saponins from Tribulus terrestris L. protect human keratinocytes from UVB-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Margherita; Lisi, Sabrina; D'Amore, Massimo; De Lucro, Raffaella; Carati, Davide; Castellana, Donatello; La Pesa, Velia; Zuccarello, Vincenzo; Lofrumento, Dario D

    2012-12-05

    Chronic exposure to solar UVB radiation damages skin, increasing the risk to develop cancer. Hence the identification of compounds with a photoprotective efficacy is essential. This study examined the role of saponins derived from Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on the modulation of apoptosis in normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) exposed to physiological doses of UVB and to evaluate their antitumoral properties. In NHEK, TT saponins attenuate UVB-induced programmed cell death through inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) TT saponins do not make the malignant keratinocytes more resistant to UVB and determine an enhanced apoptotic response. The photoprotective effect of TT saponins is tightly correlated to the enhancement of NER genes expression and the block of UVB-mediated NF-κB activation. Collectively, our study shows experimental evidence that TT has a preventive efficacy against UVB-induced carcinogenesis and the molecular knowledge on the mechanisms through which TT saponins regulate cell death suggests great potential for TT to be developed into a new medicine for cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  7. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wei Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30% or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1 of hypercholesterolemic rats (p<0.05, except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  8. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats (p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:29849908

  9. Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) saponins induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are naturally occurring metabolites present in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and other plant sources which have been associated with several health benefits. Mate saponins were extracted with methanol from dry leaves, partially purified and quantified. UV-HPLC analysis showed that the m...

  10. Application of saponin biosurfactant and its recovery in the MEUF process for removal of methyl violet from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Kulbhushan; Das, Chandan; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2017-12-01

    The potential of saponin, a biosurfactant, in the micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process was tested systematically for removal of methyl violet from wastewater. For this, the aqueous extract of reetha (Sapindus mukorossi) pericarp which contains saponin was used as the biosurfactant. First, the micellar solubilization of methyl violet in saponin micelles was investigated in terms of molar solubilization power (SP) of saponin. It was observed that the adsorption of methyl violet on the agglomerates of saponin micelles was mainly responsible for the enhanced solubilization. The Gibbs free energy of solubilization (calculated as -29.63 kJ mol -1 ) suggested that process was feasible and spontaneous. The MEUF experiments were performed in batch as well as continuous mode using saponin biosurfactant, and the effect of operating parameters on permeate flux and solute retention were evaluated. The removal of methyl violet in MEUF process was >99% achieved with 10 kDa polyethersulfone (PES) membrane for feed dye concentration of 250 mg L -1 at studied conditions. Finally, the saponin in permeate was recovered using n-heptane and n-butanol by solvent extraction process. The solvent n-butanol showed better extraction efficiency as compared to n-heptane for saponin extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  12. EFEK SENYAWA SAPONIN PADA SAPINDUS RARAK DENGAN PAKAN BERBASIS JERAMI PADI DALAM MITIGASI GAS METANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Krisnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study saponin in Sapindus rarak were added to the diet of rice straw ammoniation (20 & 40%, related to the effect in reducing methane emissions of ruminants and pattern of rumen fermentation were tested by in vitro. Completly randomized block design with four treatments and four replications was used. Variables measured were gas production total, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA total, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. The results showed that the addition saponins in S. rarak as a source of rice straw ammoniation significant effect (P<0.05 of the total gas production, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. S. rarak use as a source of saponins with a dose of 20% on rice straw ammoniation was able to reduce methane gas production drop in gas production total, concentration of N-ammonia, and protozoa population.

  13. A new saponin from Acanthopanax koreanum with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Le Duc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Tai, Bui Huu; Woo, Mi Hee; Manzoor, Zahid; Ali, Irshad; Koh, Young Sang; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-03-01

    Twelve saponins were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax koreanum, including one new lupane-type triterpene glycoside, named acankoreoside R (1), together with 11 known triterpenoid saponins (2-12). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectroscopic data (MS). All of the fractions and isolated saponins were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) by ELISA. Among them, compounds 1-5, 7, 10, and 12 showed strong inhibitions towards interleukin-12 (IL-12) production with IC 50 values ranging from 1.59 to 5.46 µM. Other compounds were weak or inactive toward IL-12 p40 production.

  14. Preparation and characterisation of quillaja saponin with less heterogeneity than Quil-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; San Martin, R.; Doberti, A.

    2000-01-01

    Immunisation against pathogens remains one of the most effective ways of preventing or reducing losses due to infectious diseases in animal husbandry. When inactivated vaccines are used, adjuvants are most often required to obtain satisfactory immune responses. One such type of adjuvant is saponin...... derived from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, a tree of the rose family. A few different commercial sources exist, but due to the structural complexity and heterogeneity of these saponin preparations, it has been difficult to establish exactly which components are responsible for the adjuvant...... activity. By carefully selecting the bark source, live have succeeded in preparing a much less heterogeneous preparation of quillaja saponin. In this report we describe the preparation, in terms of structural complexity, hemolytic activity, adjuvant activity, and its ability to form ISCOM matrix. This new...

  15. Distribution of soya-saponin in brain and peripheral tissue after peritoneal injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shigong; Wang Jianchun; Zhang Peiyin

    1997-01-01

    125 I-soya-saponin was prepared to study the distribution of soya-saponin in body of rat, as well as in different areas of brain when peritoneal injection. The results showed that the peak value of radioactive soya-saponin in all tissue appeared at 30 min after peritoneal injection. There were higher radioactivities in brain and suprarene comparing with other organs. The highest radioactivity was seen in hypothalamus among the every brain areas. It is a first report that soyasaponin can pass through the blood brain barrier when peripheral injection. The result also supported the opinion that soyasaponin might act on the hypothalamus and central regulation of cardiovascular system. Another finding was that soyasaponin also showed a higher affinity with adrenal gland, which indicated that the soyasaponin might possess of peripheral effect for regulation of cardiovascular system as well

  16. Cytotoxic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Minchang; Xu, Min; Wang, Yi; Tang, Haifeng; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-02-18

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-5, together with five known saponins 6-10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma). The monodesmosidic saponins 6-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25-22.38 μM range.

  17. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  18. New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Line Made; Noté, Olivier Placide; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Aouazou, Sarah Ali; Guillaume, Dominique; Muller, Christian Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-10-01

    As part of our search for new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D and E (1 and 2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J 8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) and HR-ESI-MS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1 - 3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1 - 3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Lei; Hao, Qian; Li, Rong-Tao; Li, Hai-Zhou

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Asparagaceae). The compounds were isolated with Diaion HP20, silica gel, and ODS chromatography, and their structures were determined on the basis of chemical methods, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Seven compounds were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of the roots of A. cochinchinensis, and their structures were elucidated as (25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5β-furostan-3β, 22α, 26-triol-12-one-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-22α-methoxy-5β-furostan-3β, 26-diol-12-one-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), (25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5β-furostan-3β, 22α, 26-triol (3), (25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5β-furstan-3β, 22α, 26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5β-furostan-3β, 22α, 26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1, 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)-5β-spirostan-3β-ol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), and (25S)-5β-spirostan-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1 and 2 were two new furostanol saponins. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Marie; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali; Lognay, Georges; Colinet, Gilles; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L -1 ). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g -1 ). CO 2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L -1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO 2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifungal activity of saponins originated from Medicago hybrida against some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of total saponins originated from roots of Medicago hybrida (Pourret Trautv. were evaluated in vitro against six pathogenic fungi and eight individual major saponin glycosides were tested against one of the most susceptible fungi. The total saponins showed fungitoxic effect at all investigated concentrations (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% but their potency was different for individual fungi. The highest saponin concentration (0.1% was the most effective and the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. callistephi, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. narcissi was 84.4%, 69.9%, 68.6%, 57.2%, 55.0%, respectively. While Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., a pathogen of Muscari armeniacum, was inhibited by 9.5% only. Eight major saponin glycosides isolated from the total saponins of M. hybrida roots were tested against the mycelium growth of Botrytis tulipae. The mycelium growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited by hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2-α-L-galactopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed low fungitoxic activity. Medicagenic acid 3-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl- 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hederagenin 3-O-[α-L- hamnopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]- 28-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D- lucopyranoside did not limit or only slightly inhibited growth of the tested pathogen. While 2β, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12 ene-23-al-28-oic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside slightly stimulated mycelium growth of B. tulipae.

  2. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  3. Soya-saponins induce intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Zhiyu; Bai, Nan; Xu, Xiaojie; Xu, Bingying

    2018-06-01

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine (DI) of several cultured fish species, but the exact cause is still unclear. The work on Atlantic salmon and zebrafish suggested soya-saponins, as heat-stable anti-nutritional factors in soybean meal, are the major causal agents. However, this conclusion was not supported by the research on some other fish, such as gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. Our previous work proved that soybean could induce SBMIE on turbot and the present work aimed to investigate whether soya-saponins alone could cause SBMIE and the effects of soya-saponins on the intestinal barrier function in juvenile turbot. Turbots with initial weight 11.4 ± 0.02 g were fed one of four fishmeal-based diets containing graded levels of soya-saponins (0, 2.5, 7.5, 15 g kg -1 ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the trial, all fish were weighed and plasma was obtained for diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and d-lactate level analysis and DI was sampled for histological evaluation and quantification of antioxidant parameters and inflammatory marker genes. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and intestinal glutathione level were selected to evaluated intestinal antioxidant system. The distal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation and apoptosis were investigated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. The results showed that soya-saponins caused significantly dose-dependent decrease in the growth performance and nutrient utilization (p soya-saponins. Significantly dose-dependent increases in severity of the inflammation concomitant with up-regulated expression of il-1β, il-8, and tnf-α, increased IEC proliferation and apoptosis, and decreases in selected antioxidant parameters were detected (p soya-saponins (p soya-saponins induced enteritis and compromised

  4. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  5. Selection of mutants of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in the generation M{sub 2}, quantification of saponins on the Islunga and Barandales varieties adapted to the Toluca Valley; Seleccion de mutantes de Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la generacion M{sub 2}, cuantificacion de saponinas en las variedades Isluga y Barandales adaptadas al Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S O

    1997-12-31

    The saponins and total lipids was measured in the variants of Barandales and Isluga of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and the mutants of both variants in the M{sub 2} lineage. These two variants were gamma radiated at different levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy in the M1 generation. At the same time the mutants with favorable agronomic characteristics were selected. The samples were growth on the field (cultivated) and the seeds were recovered (harvested), measuring the emergence agronomic variables, plant height, density and seed yield. Lipids totals and saponins were measured in the seeds. The samples of radiated seeds with gamma-ray at different levels, were dried and grinded until to obtain a powder. The lipids was extracted with diethyl-ether, and in this solution was measured the total lipid content. The saponins were extracted in a later step, concentrated and precipitated. After the precipitation step the sapogenins were hydrolized and extracted with methyl alcohol. The extracts were centifugated and the solid material was dried and weighted. Finally, the measurement of the oleanolic acid was carried out by high pressure liquid chromatography. One conversion factor permits to relate this acid with the total saponin content. (Author).

  6. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  7. [Concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, polyphenols and saponins in selected medicinal plants from Ecuador and their relationship with acute toxicity against Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Jaramillo, Carmita; Jaramillo Espinoza, Anyi; D'Armas, Haydelba; Troccoli, Luis; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (pplants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (pplant extracts

  8. Cell wall integrity, genotoxic injury and PCD dynamics in alfalfa saponin-treated white poplar cells highlight a complex link between molecule structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Stefania; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Macovei, Anca; Biggiogera, Marco; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, eleven saponins and three sapogenins purified from Medicago sativa were tested for their cytotoxicity against highly proliferating white poplar (Populus alba L.) cell suspension cultures. After preliminary screening, four saponins with different structural features in terms of aglycone moieties and sugar chains (saponin 3, a bidesmoside of hederagenin; saponins 4 and 5, monodesmoside and bidesmoside of medicagenic acid respectively, and saponin 10, a bidesmoside of zanhic acid) and different cytotoxicity were selected and used for further investigation on their structure-activity relationship. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses provided for the first time evidence of the effects exerted by saponins on plant cell wall integrity. Exposure to saponin 3 and saponin 10 resulted into disorganization of the outer wall layer and the effect was even more pronounced in white poplar cells treated with the two medicagenic acid derivatives, saponins 4 and 5. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide accumulation were common hallmarks of the response of white poplar cells to saponins. When DNA damage accumulation and DNA repair profiles were evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, induction of single and double strand breaks followed by effective repair was observed within 24h. The reported data are discussed in view of the current issues dealing with saponin structure-activity relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical profiles and anticancer effects of saponin fractions of different polarity from the leaves of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mao; Yi, Li; Song-Lin, Li; Jie, Yang; Ping-Hu, Zhang; Qiang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the chemical profiles and cytotoxic effects among the total saponin fraction (TSF), 25% ethanol fraction (25EF), 50% ethanol fraction (50EF), and 85% ethanol fraction (85EF) prepared by macroporous resin from the leaves of Panax notoginseng. The simultaneous determination of thirteen main saponins, as well as the chemical profiles of saponin fractions of different polarity, was made by HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. The cytotoxic effects were determined against KP4 cells (human pancreatic cancer), NCI-H727 cells (human lung cancer), HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular cancer), and SGC-7901 cells (human gastric adenocarcinoma). Chemical analysis indicated that 85EF possessed the most abundant cytotoxic protopanaxadiol saponins, including the marker saponins F2, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rg3, and Rh2. The MTT assay showed that 85EF also had the strongest cytotoxic effects among the four fractions. 25EF showed no anti-proliferative effects, while 50EF and TSF exhibited weak anti-proliferative activity. From the aspect of comprehensive utilization of resources, 85EF, enriched with low polarity PPD group saponins, is a new alternative source of anticancer saponins, and a promising botanical preparation for further anticancer studies. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Investigation on the process of sapindus saponin purified with macroporous adsorption resin and screening of its bacteriostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Lei, Peng; Han, Yu-mei; Yan, Dan

    2010-02-01

    To study the technological parameters of the purification process of saponins with macroporous adsorption resin. The adsorptive characteristics and elutive parameters of the process were studied by taking the elutive and purified ratio of saponins as markers. Bacteriostasis activity of each parts eluted was evaluated by the mean of cup-plate method. 13.6 mL of the extraction of sapindus saponin (crude drugs 0.01 g/mL) was purified with a column of macroporous adsorption resin (phi15 mm x H90 mm, dry weight 2.5 g) and washed with 3BV of distilled water, then eluted with 3BV of 30% ethanol and 3BV of 70% ethanol, most of saponins were collected in the 70% ethanol. With macroporous adsorption resin adsorbing and purifying, the elutive ratio of saponins was 93.8% and the purity reached 250.1%. So this process of applying macroporous adsorption resin to adsorb and purify saponins is feasible, and supplies reference to the purification of other types of saponin.

  11. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramos-Morales

    Full Text Available The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS. The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001. The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39% and lower butyrate (-32% and lower ammonia concentration (-64% than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45% and an increase in propionate (+43% molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42% observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05. It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an

  12. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in the non-model Crucifer Plant Barbares Vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye

    ratios were identified In vivo results suggest the rate limiting step for saponin biosynthesis in B. vulgaris to be the expression levels of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase. To support these findings, an in vivo knock-out of the OSC via CRISPER/Cas was desired. To achieve this, stable transformants of B...

  13. Haemolytic effect of saponin extract from Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) on human erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.

    2001-09-01

    Leaves of Veronia amygdalina were extracted using ethanol and aqueous extraction respectively. The physico-chemical analysis of the extracts revealed that both extracts had darkish brown colour, sweetish bitter taste, pungent smell, positive froth and haemolytic test, this indicated the presence of saponin in both extracts. The result of the haemolytic assay revealed that blood group-O had the highest susceptibility to the saponin-induced haemolysis, while blood group-A had the least susceptibility to haemolysis among the blood groups tested. Genotype-AA had the highest resistant to haemolysis by Vernonia amygdalina saponin induced haemolysis, while genotype-SS had the least resistant to haemolysis among the genotype tested. Furthermore the ethanol extract had a higher haemolytic activity than the aqueous extract on the various human erythrocyte analysed. This study revealed that Vernonia amygdalina had haemolytic substance, this substance had a high haemolytic effect on blood group-O and genotype-SS. The active haemolytic substance in both extracts was identified to be saponin. (author)

  14. Role of surface properties for the kinetics of bubble Ostwald ripening in saponin-stabilized foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Mustan, Fatmegul; Pagureva, Nevena; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Pelan, Edward G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.

    2017-01-01

    Bubble Ostwald ripening (OR) leads to a gradual increase of the mean bubble size in foams with time. The rate of OR can be reduced significantly or even arrested completely using appropriate solid particles and/or surfactants as foam stabilizers. In the current paper, we show that saponins, a

  15. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  16. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  17. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  18. Saponin-based adjuvants induce cross-presentation in dendritic cells by intracellular lipid body formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H. den; Bull, C.; Wassink, M.; Graaf, A.M.A. de; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Minderman, M.; Thakur, M.; Amigorena, S.; Rijke, E.O.; Schrier, C.C.; Adema, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Saponin-based adjuvants (SBAs) are being used in animal and human (cancer) vaccines, as they induce protective cellular immunity. Their adjuvant potency is a factor of inflammasome activation and enhanced antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), but how antigen cross-presentation is

  19. Use of antifungal Saponin SC-2 of Solanum chrysotrichum for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of saponin SC-2 on Candida albicans and other Candida species, fluconazole and ketoconazole resistaent strains was demostrated. SC-2-associated ultrastructural alterations in several Candida species were observed. An exploratory clinical, randomized, double-blind, and controlled ...

  20. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  1. Separation and structural analysis of saponins in a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, L I; Kenne, L

    1999-07-20

    Six major saponins were isolated from a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Solid-phase extraction, followed by a two-step reversed-phase HPLC separation procedure with phosphate and ammonium acetate buffers of different pH values, was used. The compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods.

  2. Labidiasteroside A, a Novel Saponin from the Antartic Starfish Labidiaster Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Díaz de Vivar

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Purification of the ethanolic extract of the starfish L. annulatus led to the isolation of two sulfated glycosides and a pentahydroxylated steroid. One of the saponins contains a novel pentasaccharide chain attached to C-6 of the steroidal aglycone.

  3. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. saponin extract in mice

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    Sumana Sarkhel

    Full Text Available Objective: Quillaja saponaria bark contains a high percentage of triterpene saponins and has been used for centuries as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in Chilean folk medicine.In the Present study the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of commercially partially purified saponin from Quillaja saponaria Mol. in in vivo animal models. Methods & materials:: Aqueous extract of the plant material was prepared by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory activity of a commercial Quillaja saponaria Mol. (QS saponin extract was investigated by carragenan induced mice paw edema model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962 [16]. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan in paw edema model in swiss albino mice (18–20 g. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carragenan induced paw edema. QS was found to significantly (p < 0.05 reduce the carragenan induced mice paw edema (38.59%; 20 mg/kg bw as compared to carragenan control. The percentage inhibition of standard anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was (55%; 10 mg/kg, bw. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria saponins (QS possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory activity, Aqueous extract, Paw edema

  4. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

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    Ivona Strug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  5. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

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    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  6. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  7. Triterpenoid saponins from Polaskia chichipe Backbg. and their inhibitory or promotional effects on the melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Koji; Takahashi, Kunio; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Kinoshita, Kaoru

    2017-10-01

    Five new oleanane-type saponins 1-5 together with a known saponin 6 and a steroidal glycoside 7 were isolated from Polaskia chichipe Backbg., and their structures were determined from their 1D and 2D NMR and HRFABMS spectral data. The six isolated saponins 1-6 were tested for their effects on the melanogenesis of B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Compound 1 exerted an inhibitory effect at 100 μM whereas compound 3 promoted melanogenesis at the same concentration, even though these two compounds contain the same aglycon structure. The dose-dependent activities of compounds 1 and 3 on melanin synthesis were investigated.

  8. Immunoaffinity Knockout of Saponin Glycosides from Asparagus racemosus to Assess Anti-lipid Peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onlom, Churanya; Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Putalun, Waraporn; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-07-01

    Asparagus racemosus Willd (Asparagaceae family), known as Shatavari, is important in Ayurveda and traditional Thai medicines. The saponin glycosides, shatavarin I and IV are major constituents in its roots and may be responsible for their actions including protection against lipid peroxidation and carcinogenesis. To develop an immunoaffinity column for isolating compounds with structures related to shatavarin IV from crude extracts of A. racemosus root. The monoclonal antibody recognising shatavarin IV (mAbShavIV) was coupled to an Affi-Gel Hz gel to isolate compounds with structures related to shatavarin IV from the other components of crude extracts of A. racemosus root. The saponin glycosides in each fraction were analysed by mAbShavIV ELISA and LC-MS/MS. The pooled wash-through fractions contained 3% of loaded mAbShavIV reactive saponin glycosides, while eluted fractions released ~ 90% of shatavarin saponin glycosides in a single step. Using thiobarbiturate (TBARs) to measure lipid-peroxidation, the extract, and the pooled wash-through fractions showed moderate protection against Cu + -induced oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) (IC 50 11.3 ± 1.4 and 12.6 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively). In contrast, the saponin glycosides eluted from the mAbShavIV-column had weaker protectant (IC 50 29.7 ± 1.8 μg/mL) suggesting that A. racemosus shatavarins do not inhibit carcinogenesis through preventing lipid peroxidation. The strategy described here demonstrates its utility for isolating a group of related compounds from the rest of the extract with selectivity and recovery rate. Pharmacological efficacy and synergistic effects of the components obtained can be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Extraction, Identification and Biological Activities of Saponins in Sea Cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rafat Afifi; Elbandy, Mohamed; Lawrence, Andrew; Paget, Tim; Rae-Rho, Jung; Binnaser, Yaser S; Ali, Imran

    2018-01-01

    Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produces a diversity of biologically important natural compounds that are not present in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. The structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR (1H, 13C, TOCSY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) experiments and acid hydrolysis. The crude and purified fractions was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. Partially purified fraction, mainly containing compounds 1 and 2, was screened for its antifungal activity against three clinical isolates of Candida albicans (Candida 580 (1), Candida 581(2) and Candida MEO47228. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major and toxicity on colon cell-line were also evaluated. Two lanostane type sulfated triterpene monoglycosides were isolated from the Holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. Holothurin A (1) and echinoside A (2) triterpene saponins were separated by reversed phase semi-preparative HPLC. LC50 values (µg/mL); calculated for the fraction containing saponins 1 and 2 as major constituents; against Candida albicans, Leishmania major and colon cell-line were 10, 20 and 0.50, respectively. Consequently, this study demonstrated the potential use of sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei not only as appreciated functional food or nutraceuticals but also as the source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical products with antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties

  10. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

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    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  11. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    hypothesized that metformin intake influences the protein composition. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We analyzed non-atherosclerotic repair arteries gathered at coronary by-pass operations from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as from 30 age- and gender-matched non-diabetic individuals. Quantitative proteome......BACKGROUND: -The increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in type 2 diabetes has been extensively documented, but the origins of the association remain largely unknown. We sought to determine changes in protein expressions in arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes and moreover...... analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...

  12. A facile one-step fluorescence method for the quantitation of low-content single base deamination impurity in synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoye; Liang, Ruiting; Stolee, Jessica A

    2018-06-05

    Oligonucleotides are being researched and developed as potential drug candidates for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. The characterization of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) impurities caused by base mutations (e.g. deamination) which are closely related to the target ASO is a significant analytical challenge. Herein, we describe a novel one-step method, utilizing a strategy that combines fluorescence-ON detection with competitive hybridization, to achieve single base mutation quantitation in extensively modified synthetic ASOs. Given that this method is highly specific and sensitive (LoQ = 4 nM), we envision that it will find utility for screening other impurities as well as sequencing modified oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new multi-wavelength optical-plethysmograph for quantitative determination of pulpal hemoglobin content and oxygen level using green and near-infrared LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakino, S.; Miwa, Z.; Kirimoto, A.; Ohuchi, K.; Takatani, S.; Takagi, Y.

    2007-02-01

    A new multi-wavelength optical-plethysmograph has been designed to study the relation between the transmitted optical density (OD) of the tooth vs. hemoglobin (Hb) content and oxygen saturation (SO II) of the pulpal blood using the 467, 506, 522 and 810 nm light emitting diodes (LEDs). The experimental model utilized the extracted human upper incisor where the pulp cavity was filled with the blood having various values of Hb and SO II. A resin cap was made to fit the tooth crown and optical fibers for transmission measurement. The LEDs were pulsed sequentially at 520 Hz with the pulse duration of 240 μs. The OD as a function of Hb for the isosbestic wavelengths of 506 and 522 nm increased almost linearly from 8.0 to 11.0 for Hb changing from 0.0 (saline control) to 2.5 g/dL, but beyond 2.5 g/dL no change was observed. At 810 nm, the OD increased linearly till Hb of 13.4 g/dL, but its change was much smaller with 1.0 OD per 13.4 g/dL. As for SO II, the OD at 467 nm with Hb of 1.0 g/dL that simulated the mean pulpal Hb content in vivo varied by about 1.0 for SO II changing from 100 to 40%. The OD change with respect to Hb change at 506 and 522 nm showed better sensitivity than that at 810 nm. The combination of 467 and 506 or 522 nm wavelengths can provide a noninvasive measurement of both pulpal Hb content and SO II to diagnose pulp vitality of teeth in vivo.

  14. Comparative studies of saponins in 1-3-year-old main roots, fibrous roots, and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, and identification of different parts and growth-year samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xuan; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2013-04-01

    Notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa, and K (N-R1, N-R4, N-Fa, and N-K), as well as ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2 and Rh1 (G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rf, G-Rg2 and G-Rh1) in 47 Notoginseng samples including 1-, 2- and 3-year-old main roots, rhizomes and fibrous roots of Panax notoginseng were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method. Total contents (%) of the 11 saponins were 9.82-14.57 for 2-year old and 14.20-16.00 for 3-year-old rhizomes; 2.72-4.50 for 2-year-old and 1.98-4.92 for 3-year-old fibrous roots; 1.75-3.05 for 1-year-old whole roots; and 3.71-8.98 for 2-year-old and 7.03-11.23 for 3-year-old main roots. Contents of most saponins and total content of 11 saponins were in the order 3- >2- >1-year-old main root samples. G-Rf content, sum of G-Rf and G-Rh1 were, respectively, 0.08-0.18 and 0.14-0.32 for 2- or 3-year-old rhizomes, and 0.01-0.07 and 0.03-0.10 for 2- or 3-year-old main roots. Combined contents of N-R1, G-Rg1 and G-Rb1 were 5.78-9.37 in 3-year-old main roots, and 2.99-7.13 in 2-year-old main roots, of which nearly one-third of samples were lower than the limit (5 %) in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Those of 2- or 3-year-old fibrous roots (1.47-3.83) and 1-year-old whole roots (1.41-2.44) were much lower than the limit, and were considered not suitable for use as Notoginseng. Two-year-old main roots are not appropriate for collection as Notoginseng. Different parts and growth years of P. notoginseng can be identified from each another according to differences in saponin content.

  15. Beef quality with different intramuscular fat content and proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation of differentially expressed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanwei; Hopkins, David L; Zhang, Yimin; Li, Peng; Zhu, Lixian; Dong, Pengcheng; Liang, Rongrong; Dai, Jin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Luo, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is an important trait for beef eating quality. The mechanism of how IMF is deposited in beef cattle muscle is not clear at the molecular level. The muscle (M. longissimus lumborum: LL) of a group of Xiangxi yellow×Angus cattle with high fat levels (HF), was compared to the muscle of a low fat group (LF). The meat quality and the expressed protein patterns were compared. It was shown that LL from the HF animals had a greater fat content (P<0.05) and lower moisture content (P<0.05) than LL from LF animals. Forty seven sarcoplasmic proteins were differentially expressed and identified between the two groups. These proteins are involved in 6 molecular functions and 16 biological processes, and affect the Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway, insulin pathway and c-Jun N-terminal kinases leading to greater IMF deposition. Cattle in the HF group had greater oxidative capacity and lower glycolytic levels suggesting a greater energetic efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  17. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengquan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT; Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca2+ was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2 was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting. Results: TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

  18. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells by which total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris protects against artherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengquan; Guan, Yue; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhai, Fengguo; Zhang, Xiuping; Guan, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  20. The assessment of cortical and spongy bone mineral content with quantitative computed tomography; A comparison of measurement sites in relation to certain diseases with metabolic bone disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Aritomi, Hiroshi; Iwanami, Shigeru; Kusano, Shouichi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine); Marumo, Fumiaki

    1991-12-01

    The CT numbers of cortex at the level of 20 cm (CT20) and spongiosa in the lateral condyle at the level of 2 cm (CT02) proximal from the distal end of the femur, and the bone mineral density of spongiosa in the L3 body (BMD), were obtained by QCT. The study included 43 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 female patients with primary osteoporosis (OP), 20 female nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF: nonHD), 37 hemodialyzed patients (CRF: HD),including 13 parathyroidectomized patients (CRF: HD, PTX), and 10 healthy volunteers. CT20 correlated closely with age in RA. CT02 and BMD correlated closely with age in RA and OP. CT20 and CT02 correlated closely with the duration of hemodialysis in CRF:HD, but not with the duration of disease in RA. The values of CT20 and CT02 in the CRF: HD. PTX group was significantly lower than those in the other CRF groups. BMD in the RA group was not different from that of healthy volunteers. The CT20 values of the one-third of RA patients older than 60 years were extremely low compared with those of the other two-thirds. The results indicated that BMD was useful in assessing bone mineral content in OP, but not in RA. CT02 and CT20 were useful in assessing bone mineral content in these three diseases, CT20 was especially useful for patients in the CRF: HD group and those with RA older than 60 years, but it was not useful in the CRF: nonHD group. (author).

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction and a new determination method for total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yao; Chen, Yu; Hu, Bohan; Wu, Hui; Lai, Furao; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was applied to isolate total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW). The optimal extracting conditions were established as 75% ethanol as solvent, ratio of solid/liquid 1:20 (g/ml), temperature 75 °C, irradiation power 600 W and three extraction cycles of 6 min each. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of DZW processed by four different extractions provided visual evidence of the disruption effect on DZW. Diosgenin was quantified by HPLC and examined further by LC-ESI/MS after acid hydrolysis. Total steroid saponins were calculated using diosgenin from total steroid saponins. The MAE procedure was optimized, validated and compared with other conventional extraction processes. This report provides a convenient technology for the extraction and quantification of total saponins of DZW combining MAE with HPLC and LC-ESI/MS for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous determination of triterpenoid saponins in dog plasma by a validated UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after administration of total saponin of licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiwei; Duan, Jinao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Jianping; Tang, Yuping; Liu, Pei; Yang, Nianyun

    2013-03-05

    A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight constituents, uralsaponin C, uralsaponin F, 22β-acetoxyl-glycyrrhizin, 24-hydroxy-licorice-saponin E2, licorice-saponin G2, licorice-saponin E2, glycyrrhizin, and licorice-saponin J2, from total saponin of licorice (TSL) in dog plasma. Ardisiacrispin A was used as the internal standard (IS). The separation was performed on Thermo Syncronic C₁₈ column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min⁻¹, and acetonitrile/methanol (3:1, v/v)-0.1% formic acid was used as mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via electrospray ionization (ESI) source with negative ionization mode. All calibration curves had good linearity (r>0.991) over the concentration range from 2.03-405 ng mL⁻¹ to 2.63-2625 ng mL⁻¹ for all components. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 15% and the accuracy ranged from -14.08% to 13.8%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of eight triterpenoid saponins in dog plasma after oral administration of TSL. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core, and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.

  4. Structure Elucidation of New Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and Non-Acetylated Saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core), and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A–E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins. PMID:25603350

  5. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  6. The Cytotoxicity of Dacarbazine Potentiated by Sea Cucumber Saponin in Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells through Apoptosis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Nikdel, Najme; Salek-Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line. The B16F10 cell line was treated with different concentrations of saponin (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 μg/ml), dacarbazine (0, 1200, 1400, 1600, 18000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 μg/ml) and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine (1200 da+8 sp, 1200 da+4 sp) for 24 and 48 hr and the cytotoxic effect was examined by MTT, DAPI, acridine orange/propodium iodide, flow cytometry and caspase colorimetric assay. The results exhibited that sea cucumber saponin, dacarbazine, and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in a dose and time dependent manner with IC50 values of 10, 1400 and 4+1200 μg/ml, respectively. Morphological observation of DAPI and acridine orange/propodium iodide staining documented typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry assay indicated accumulation of IC50 treated cells in sub-G1 peak. Additionally, saponin extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results revealed that the saponin extracted from sea cucumber as a natural anti-cancer compound may be a new treatment modality for metastatic melanoma and the application of sea cucumber saponin in combination with dacarbazine demonstrated the strongest anti-cancer activity as compared with the drug alone.

  7. The protective activity of Conyza blinii saponin against acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Liu, Jiangguang

    2014-12-02

    Conyza blinii H.Lév., is a type of natural plant. Its dried overground section is used to treat infections and inflammations in traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoidal saponins have a wide range of bioactivities, for instance, anti-cancer, anti-virus and anti-anaphylaxis. Conyza blinii saponin (CBS), mainly composed of triterpenoidal saponins, is the total saponin of Conyza blinii H.Lév. It has been reported that CBS also has gastric mucous membrane protection activity. This study aims to test CBS׳s protective activity of gastric׳s mucous membrane against ethanol. This investigation may lead to the development of novel drug from natural products as anti-ulcer agent, or as gastric mucous protective against chemical damage. CBS (Conyza blinii saponin) is the total saponin of Conyza blinii H.Lév., which was obtained as described previously. We tested the protective activity of CBS against ethanol-induced ulcer. Thirty six rats were grouped randomly as 'NORMAL', 'CONTROL', 'MODEL', 'LOW DOSE', 'MEDIUM DOSE' and 'HIGH DOSE'. The 'NORMAL' group were rats with no pathological model established within it. The 'CONTROL' group was administrated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate, while 'MODEL' group was not given any active agents apart from absolute ethanol in order to obtain gastric ulcer model. The three 'DOSE' groups were treated with different concentrations of CBS (5, 10, 20mg/mL) before administration followed by absolute ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after the experiment to acquire the gastric tissue. The ulcer index (UI), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured to monitor the activity of CBS. Besides, the rat gastric tissue was made to paraffin section and stained using the Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) method. The histopathology examination was carried out to examine CBS efficacy in terms of gastric mucous protection. We found that CBS had a profound protection activity against acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol and this

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying seed protein content of soybean including main, epistatic, and QTL × environment effects in different regions of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weili; Li, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Depeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Haiyan; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin

    2017-08-01

    The objective here was to identify QTL underlying soybean protein content (PC), and to evaluate the additive and epistatic effects of the QTLs. A mapping population, consisting of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was created by crossing 'Dongnong 46' and 'L-100'. Phenotypic data of the parents and RILs were collected for 4 years in three locations of Heilongjiang Province of China. A total of 213 SSR markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. Eight QTLs, located on seven chromosomes (Chr), were identified to be associated with PC among the 10 tested environments. Of the seven QTLs, five QTLs, qPR-2 (Satt710, on Chr9), qPR-3 (Sat_122, on Chr12), qPR-5 (Satt543, on Chr17), qPR-7 (Satt163, on Chr18), and qPR-8 (Satt614, on Chr20), were detected in six, seven, seven, six, and seven environments, respectively, implying relatively stable QTLs. qPR-3 could explain 3.33%-11.26% of the phenotypic variation across eight tested environments. qPR-5 and qPR-8 explained 3.64%-10.1% and 11.86%-18.40% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, across seven tested environments. Eight QTLs associated with PC exhibited additive and (or) additive × environment interaction effects. The results showed that environment-independent QTLs often had higher additive effects. Moreover, five epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in the 10 environments.

  9. Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh K; Verma, Suresh K; Dobhal, M P

    2005-01-04

    Oral administration of saponins isolated from Albizia lebbeck bark at the dose level of 50 mg/kg/b.w. per day for 60 days to male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. The production of round spermatid was reduced by 73.04% in Albizia lebbeck treated rats. The population of preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatogonia were reduced by 65.07% and 47.48% and secondary spermatocytes by 73.41%, respectively. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as the cell counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 57.47% and 54.42%, respectively. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly. Albizia lebbeck reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. There were no significant changes in RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol contents of the testes, fructose in the seminal vesicle and protein in epididymides were significantly decreased. Histoarchitecture of the testes showed vacuolization at primary spermatocytes stage. Highly reduced seminiferous tubular diameter and increased intertubular space were also observed when compared to controls.

  10. Paris saponin-induced autophagy promotes breast cancer cell apoptosis via the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhan-Zhi; Li, Man-Mei; Deng, Peng-Fei; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Lei; Lu, Xue-Ping; Hu, Liu-Bing; Chen, Zui; Jie, Hui-Yang; Wang, Yi-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Zhong

    2017-02-25

    Paris saponins possess anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. However, the anticancer effect of Paris saponins has not been well elucidated and the mechanisms underlying the potential function of Paris saponins in cancer therapy are needed to be further identify. In this study, we report that saponin compounds isolated from Paris polyphylla exhibited antitumor activity against breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Paris saponin XA-2 induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as evidenced by the activation of caspases and cleavage of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The ability of XA-2 to induce autophagy was confirmed by acridine orange staining, accumulation of autophagosome-bound Long chain 3 (LC3)-II, and measurement of autophagic flux. XA-2-induced autophagy was observed to promote apoptosis by the combined treatment of breast cancer cell lines with XA-2 and autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, respectively. Moreover, we report a decrease in the levels of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway proteins, such as the phosphorylated forms of Akt, mTOR, P70S6K, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). Taken together, these results provide important insights explaining the anticancer activity of Paris saponins and the potential development of XA-2 as a new therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Han, Xiuqing; Dong, Ping; Li, Zhaojie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-21

    Obesity has become a worldwide concern in recent years, which may cause many diseases. Much attention has been paid to food components that are considered to be beneficial in preventing chronic metabolic diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of sea cucumber saponin liposomes on certain metabolic markers associated with obesity. C57/BL6 mice fed with high-fat diet were treated with different forms of sea cucumber saponins for eight weeks. The results showed that liposomes exhibited better effects on anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemia activities than the common form of sea cucumber saponins. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes could also effectively alleviate adipose tissue inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine releases and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, sea cucumber saponin liposomes improved insulin resistance by altering the uptake and utilization of glucose. Taken together, our results indicated that the intake of sea cucumber saponin liposomes might be able to ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

  12. Site-specific 13C content by quantitative isotopic 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometry: A pilot inter-laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaintreau, Alain; Fieber, Wolfgang; Sommer, Horst; Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Pagelot, Alain; Moskau, Detlef; Moreno, Aitor; Schleucher, Jürgen; Reniero, Fabiano; Holland, Margaret; Guillou, Claude; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First ring test on isotopic 13 C NMR spectrometry. •Evaluation of the intra- and inter-variability of the NMR spectrometers used. •Definition of a protocol for qualification of the performance of the spectrometer. -- Abstract: Isotopic 13 C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular 13 C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the 13 C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic 13 C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular 13 C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic 13 C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ 13 C i profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ 13 C i in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results

  13. Site-specific {sup 13}C content by quantitative isotopic {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometry: A pilot inter-laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaintreau, Alain; Fieber, Wolfgang; Sommer, Horst [Firmenich SA, Corporate R and D Division, P.O. Box 239, 1211 Geneva 8 (Switzerland); Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Pagelot, Alain [Bruker Biospin SAS, 34 rue de l‘Industrie, 67166 Wissembourg Cedex (France); Moskau, Detlef; Moreno, Aitor [Bruker Biospin AG, Industriestrasse 26, 8117 Fällanden (Switzerland); Schleucher, Jürgen [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, S-90187 Umeå (Sweden); Reniero, Fabiano; Holland, Margaret; Guillou, Claude [European Commission, Joint Research Centre – Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, via E. Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Remaud, Gérald S., E-mail: gerald.remaud@univ-nantes.fr [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First ring test on isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry. •Evaluation of the intra- and inter-variability of the NMR spectrometers used. •Definition of a protocol for qualification of the performance of the spectrometer. -- Abstract: Isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the {sup 13}C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic {sup 13}C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic {sup 13}C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ{sup 13}C{sub i} profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ{sup 13}C{sub i} in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results.

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Content Determination of Macro-Minor Elements in Bryonia Alba L. Roots using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Kislichenko, Viktoria; Naddaf, Ahmad; Cholak, Irina; Yemelianova, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88.000 for P, 7.800 for Al, 0.130 for Mn, 105.000 for Mg, 0.030 for Pb, 0.052 for Ni, 0.030 for Mo, 210.000 for Ca, 0.130 for Cu, 5.200 for Zn, 13.000 for Na, 1170.000 for K, 0.780 for Sr, 0.030 for Co, 0.010 for Cd, 0.010 for As, and 0.010 for Hg. Toxic elements such as Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Among the analyzed elements, K was the most abundant followed by Ca, Mg, P, Si, Fe, Na, and Zn, whereas Hg, As, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb were found in low concentration. The results suggest that the roots of Bryonia alba L. plant has potential medicinal property through their high element contents present. Moreover, it showed that the AAS method is a simple, fast, and reliable for the determination of elements in plant materials. The obtained results of the current study provide justification for the usage of such fruit in daily diet for nutrition and for medicinal usage in the treatment of various diseases.

  15. Digital gene-expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, so people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol [1]. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol [2]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol metabolism effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE in liver and ovary tissues using digital gene-expression (DGE profiling analysis. The liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study to identify digital gene expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens and analysis pipeline published by Singh and colleagues in the PLOS ONE [3]. The data generated in our work provide meaningful information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE.

  16. Characterization of two minor saponins from Cordia piauhiensis by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata P; Silveira, Edilberto R; Lemos, Telma Leda G; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2005-06-01

    A careful NMR analysis with full assignment of the 1H and 13C spectral data for two minor saponins isolated from stems of Cordia piauhiensis is reported. These saponins were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized as 3beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]pomolic acid 28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1) and 3beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oleanolic acid 28-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2). Their structures were established using a combination of 1D and 2D (1H, 1H-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, gs-HMQC and gs-HMBC) NMR techniques, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemical evidence. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Protective effects of panax notoginseng saponins on cardiovascular diseases: a comprehensive overview of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Heran; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Kandungan Saponin Buah, Daun dan Tangkai Daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrunnida, Fahrunnida

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, belimbing wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) has been used for traditional medicine, especially to heal stiff, mumps, rheumatism, ulcers, acne, tinea versicolor, high blood pressure, and dental pain and cough. This property is predicted comes from its secondary metabolites. Saponin is a compound group of secondary metabolites which is known to have antitussives and expectorants effect, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity for cancer therapy. However, scientific infor...

  20. Triterpenoidal saponins from the fruits of Gleditsia caspica with proapoptotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Usama; Ragab, Ehab A; Abdalla, Ashraf N; Bader, Ammar

    2018-01-01

    Three previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoidal saponins named caspicaosides L-N were isolated from the fruits of Gleditsia caspica Desf. The aglycons of these saponins were echinocystic acid, erythrodiol and 12-oleanene-3,28,30-triol. Caspicaoside L is a bisdesmosidic saponin acylated with two monoterpenic acids. It has a disaccharide moiety made up of glucose and arabinose attached to C-3 and pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 made up of one glucose, 2 xyloses, one inner rhamnose and one terminal rhamnose which was acylated with two identical monoterpenic acids. Caspicaoside M is a monodesmosidic saponin with a trisaccharide moiety at C-3 made up of glucose, xylose and arabinose, while caspicaoside N has a disaccharide moiety at C-3 made up of glucose and arabinose. Their structures were determined by extensive 1D and 2D (DQF-COSY, HSQC, TOCSY, 1 H- 13 C-HSQC-TOCSY, HMBC, ROESY, NOESY) NMR, HRESIMS analyses and chemical degradation. The cytotoxicity MTT-based assay showed that caspicaosides M, N and L, respectively, exhibited high cytotoxic activity with IC 50  ≤ 10 μM (72 h) at least against one of the three used cancer cell lines, MCF 7, A2780 and HT 29; and were 2-34 folds selective against the normal fibroblasts (MRC 5). All compounds also induced apoptosis and caused G 2 /M arrest in MCF 7 cells (24 h); thus showing pro-apoptotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of aspirin on the pharmacokinetics and absorption of panax notoginseng saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihao; Pang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Bai, Jie; Li, Pengyue; Li, Danqi; Zhao, Mengdi; Chen, Xiaonan

    2018-02-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins, a traditional Chinese medicine extraction, and aspirin are both widely used to treat cerebral infarction in China. Good results in clinical practice have been achieved, when Panax notoginseng saponins was taken together with aspirin. To investigate the interaction of the two drugs in vivo, the concentration of notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Rb 1 , Re and Rd. in blood were simultaneously measured by UPLC/MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal standard saikosaponin A standard. The separation of six components was achieved by using an ACQUITY UPLC ®BEH C18 column (1.7μm 2.1×100mm) by gradient elution using water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.2% formic acid) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The transport of notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Rb 1 , Re and Rd. in MDCK -MDR1 cell monolayer was also used to verify the conclusion of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and study the mechanism of drug interaction. The concentrations of the five components increased in a certain extent when the two drugs administered together in rats. The values of apparent permeability coefficients were significantly increased when the two drugs were used together. Aspirin and salicylic acid could destroy the tight junction protein and open the intercellular space to increase the absorption of Panax notoginseng saponins. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction in vivo existed between Panax notoginseng saponins and aspirin. The drug-drug interaction mainly occurred in the process of absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Saponin production in root cultures of .I.Panax ginseng./I. C. A. Meyer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, Supl. 1 (2002), s. 333 ISSN 1576-0952. [Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research /50./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : saponin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. Preparation and characterization of PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafaghodi, M.; Tabasi, S. Abolghasem Sajadi; Kharazizdeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several antigens, adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for induction of protective immune responses against leishmaniasis, but have mostly been inefficient. In this study, poly (d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as an immunoadjuvant have been used to increase the immune responses against Autoclaved Lieshmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared using a double emulsion (W/O/W) technique. The internal aqueous phase contained ALM and saponin, while the oily phase contained the solution of PLGA in dichloromethane and the external aqueous phase was polyvinylacohol (PVA) 7.5% (W/V) solution. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by Lowry method and the release profile of antigen and saponin from nanospheres was evaluated for one week. Nanospheres were spherical in shape having smooth surfaces. Mean diameters for nanospheres loaded with ALM and ALM+QS were 300+-123 nm and 294+-106 nm respectively. Encapsulation efficiencies for ALM and QS were found 71+-14.8% and 55.8+- 23.1% respectively. Evaluation of the release profiles of ALM and QS from nanospheres in one week showed that 44.8 +-0.8% of ALM and 29.5+- 0.21% of QS had been released from naospheres. In conclusion, the prepared nanospheres with desirable size, encapsulation efficiency, and slow rate of release, had acceptable features for future in vivo studies. (author)

  4. Functional and structural characterization of a β-glucosidase involved in saponin metabolism from intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shan; Wei, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Qiao; Chen, Xin; Wang, Shi-Cheng; Li, Jia-Ru; Gao, Chuan

    2018-02-19

    Saponins are natural glycosides widely used in medicine and the food industry. Although saponin metabolism in human is dependent on intestinal microbes, few involving bacteria enzymes have been identified. We cloned BlBG3, a GH3 β-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium longum, from human stool. We found that BlBG3 catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycoside furostanol and ginsenoside Rb1 at higher efficiency than other microbial β-glucosidases. Structural analysis of BlBG3 in complex with d-glucose revealed its three unique loops, which form a deep pocket and participate in substrate binding. To understand how substrate is bound to the pocket, molecular docking was performed and the binding interactions of protobioside with BlBG3 were revealed. Mutational study suggested that R484 and H642 are critical for enzymatic activity. Our study presents the first structural and functional analysis of a saponin-processing enzyme from human microbiota. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of inositol trisphosphate on calcium mobilization in high-voltage and saponin-permeabilized platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.R.L.; Hallam, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in phosphatidylinositol metabolism has been greatly stimulated by the findings that diglyceride and inositol phosphates may serve as second messengers in modulating cellular function. Formation of 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ), in particular, has been linked to mobilization of intracellular calcium in a number of cell types. The authors have examined the ability of IP 3 to mobilize calcium in human platelets permeabilized by either saponin or high-voltage discharge. Saponin at 15 μg/ml effectively permeabilized platelets to exogenous inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate which released bound [ 45 Ca] within 1 min and with a Ka of 7.4 +/- 4.1 μM. A small (25%) azide-sensitive pool was also responsive to inositol trisphosphate. The calcium pools were completely discharged by A-23187 and the ATP-dependent uptake was prevented by dinitrophenol. In contrast to the result with saponin, platelets accessed by high-voltage discharge were insensitive to challenge by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The data suggest that while inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate can rapidly mobilize platelet calcium, the ability to demonstrate this depends on the method of permeabilization

  6. Susceptibility of multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic escherichia coli to saponin extract from phyllanthus niruri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibade, V.A.; Famurewa, O.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli were isolated from 140 samples of blood, urine, stool and water made up of 15.7%, 42.9% and 30.0% and 25.7% respectively. From the samples, 71.9% enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), 14.3% enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 7.1% enterohemorrhagic E. coil (EHEC) and 7.1% enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) occurred as diarrheagenic E. coli. Of the ETEC (240) isolates tested for susceptibility to eight conventional antibiotics. 110 (46.0%) showed resistance to all the tested antimicrobial agents. However, of the resistant strains; 24 (22.0%) were multidrug resistant. These were tested against 3.0 mg/mL of saponin extract from phyllanthus niruri and 13 (55.0%) of these were susceptible to the saponin. The antimicrobial activities of saponin from P. niruri are of interest since the crude extract was effective at concentration of 3.0 mg/ml to multiple resistant isolates of EEC. (author)

  7. Preclinical Evaluation of the Synthetic Adjuvant SQS-21 and its Constituent Isomeric Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathi, Govind; Damani, Payal; Deng, Kai; Adams, Michelle M.; Hang, Jianfeng; George, Constantine; Livingston, Philip O.; Gin, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    The saponin fraction QS-21 from Quillaja saponaria has been demonstrated to be a potent immunological adjuvant when mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines, as well as with other classes of subunit antigen vaccines. QS-21 adjuvant is composed of two isomers that include the apiose and xylose forms in a ratio of 65:35, respectively. The chemical syntheses of these two isomers in pure form have recently been disclosed. Herein we describe detailed in vivo immunological evaluations of these synthetic QS-21 isomeric constituents, employing the GD3-KLH melanoma antigen. With this vaccine construct, high antibody titers against GD3 ganglioside and KLH were elicited when GD3-KLH was co-administered with adjuvant, either as the individual separate synthetic QS-21 isomers (SQS-21-Api or SQS-21-Xyl), or as its reconstituted 65:35 isomeric mixture (SQS-21). These antibody titer levels were comparable to that elicited by vaccinations employing naturally derived QS-21 (PQS-21). Moreover, toxicities of the synthetic saponin adjuvants were also found to be comparable to that of naturally derived PQS-21. These findings demonstrate unequivocally that the adjuvant activity of QS-21 resides in these two principal isomeric forms, and not in trace contaminants within the natural extracts. This lays the foundation for future exploration of structure-function correlations to enable the discovery of novel saponins with increased potency, enhanced stability, and attenuated toxicity. PMID:20450868

  8. Quillaja saponaria Saponins with Potential to Enhance the Effectiveness of Disinfection Processes in the Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the in vitro effect of Quillaja saponaria extracts on Asaia spp. planktonic cells and biofilms, in comparison and combination with two disinfectants: peracetic acid and N-ethyl-N,N-dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide. The growth of six bacterial strains was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Biofilm eradication was determined using the plate count method and luminometry. The planktonic cells were characterized by relatively high resistance to peracetic acid and higher sensitivity to N-ethylo-N,N-dimethylohexadecylioamonium bromide. In almost all the tested strains, growth was inhibited by 0.125% (v/v peracetic acid and 0.0313% (w/v quaternary ammonium compound. However, combinations of cell pretreatment using saponin and peracetic acid action were the most efficient against both planktonic and biofilm cells. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for peracetic acid were 4–8 times lower than those for bacterial strains without preliminary saponin action. Eradication of Asaia spp. biofilms reduced the number of living cells by 4–5 logarithmic units. These results demonstrate the synergetic action of saponin extract and disinfectant, and could be useful in the development of industrial strategies against Asaia spp. biofilms.

  9. Triterpenoid Saponins from Anemone rivularis var. Flore-Minore and Their Anti-Proliferative Activity on HSC-T6 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Gao, Hui; Xie, Xiao-Jie; Jurhiin, Jirimubatu; Zhang, Mu-Zi-He; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Liu, Rui; Ning, Meng; Han, Jin; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2018-02-23

    Five previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins ( 1 - 5 ), along with eight known ones ( 6 - 13 ), were isolated from the whole plants of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore . Their structures were clarified by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. For the first time, the lupane-type saponins ( 3 and 12 ) were reported from the Anemone genus. The anti-proliferative activity of all isolated saponins was evaluated on hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). Saponins 12 and 13 , which possess more monosaccharides than the others, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity, with IC 50 values of 18.21 and 15.56 μM, respectively.

  10. Antioxidant activities of saponins extracted from Radix Trichosanthis: an in vivo and in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Radix Trichosanthis (RT), the dry root tuber of Trichosanthis kirilowii Maxim (Cucurbitaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine. Although a wide range of saponin pharmacological properties has been identified, to our knowledge, this may be the first report to investigate the crude saponins from RT. The purpose of this study was to delineate the antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo by using ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and the mixture of n-butanol and EtOAc fractions. Methods In vitro antioxidant activity was detected by using DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and reducing power assays. After pretreatment with different fractions saponins at 2 mg/kg/d and 3 mg/kg/d of crude drug, respectively, an established CCl4 induced acute cytotoxicity model was used to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant potential by detection of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels. Results The in vitro assay showed that the antioxidant activity of all the three fractions was promising. The reducing power of the EtOAc and the mixture of n-butanol and EtOAc extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. However, both the n-butanol and the mixture of n-butanol and EtOAc fractions in low dose exhibited in a time dependent manner with prolonged reaction time. As for hydrogen peroxide scavenging capability, the n-butanol fraction mainly demonstrated a time dependent manner, whereas EtOAc fraction showed a dose dependent manner. However, in case of in vivo assay, an increase of SOD and T-AOC and decrease of MDA and LDH levels were only observed in n-butanol (2 mg/kg/d of crude drug) extracts pretreatment group. Conclusions RT saponins in n-butanol fraction might be a potential antioxidant candidate, as CCl4-induced oxidative stress has been found to be alleviated, which may be associated with the time dependent manner of n-butanol saponins in a low dose. Further studies

  11. Activity of Saponins from Medicago species Against HeLa and MCF-7 Cell Lines and their Capacity to Potentiate Cisplatin Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avato, Pinarosa; Migoni, Danilo; Argentieri, Mariapia; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Tava, Aldo

    2017-11-24

    Saponins from Medicago species display several biological activities, among them apoptotic effects against plant cells have been evidenced. In contrast, their cytotoxic and antitumor activity against animal cells have not been studied in great details. To explore the cytotoxic properties of saponin from Medicago species against animal cells and their effect in combination with the antitumoral drug cisplatin. Cytotoxic activity of saponin mixtures from M. arabica (tops and roots), M. arborea (tops) and M. sativa (tops, roots and seeds) and related prosapogenins from M. arborea and M. sativa (tops) against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines is described. In addition, cytotoxicity of soyasaponin I and purified saponins (1-8) of hederagenin, medicagenic and zanhic acid is also presented. Combination experiments with cisplatin have been also conducted. Saponins from M. arabica tops and roots (mainly monodesmosides of hederagenin and bayogenin) were the most effective to reduce proliferation of HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Among the purified saponins, the most cytotoxic was saponin 1, 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin. When saponins, derived prosapogenins and pure saponins were used in combination with cisplatin, they all, to different extent, were able to potentiate cisplatin activity against HeLa cells but not against MCF-7 cell lines. Moreover uptake of cisplatin in these cell lines was significantly reduced. Overall results showed that specific molecular types of saponins (hederagenin glycosides) have potential as anti-cancer agents or as leads for anti-cancer agents. Moreover saponins from Medicago species have evidenced interesting properties to mediate cisplatin effects in tumor cell lines. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Evaluation of Fermentability Process of a Ration Consist of Different Levels of Saponin and Tannic Acid According to in vitro Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moheghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted for evaluation the effect of different levels of saponin (0, 30 and 60 g per kg DM and tannic acid (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 g per kg DM on rumen fermentability parameters. In the first stage, gas production at 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after incubation was measured. Constant rate of gas production decreased with increasing of saponin and tannic acid to the batch culture Compared the to control treatment, although this value increased in the saponin treatment alone. Cumulative gas production with tannic acid with or without saponin at 24, 48 and 96 hours after incubation increased in comparison with the to control treatment additon low levels of saponin (30 g per kg DM with tannic acid had the most cumulative gas production at this times. In the second stage, according to batch culture pH, Nitrogen-ammonia and degradability potential of dry matter was determined. The pH was the less for all of the treatments than control treatment but there wasn’t a significant difference between treatments. Nitrogen-ammonia concentration with increasing of saponin and tannic acid levels was decreased compare to control group and saponin with tannic acid treatments had the most concentration. Degradability potential of DM in all of the treatments was higher than control group, but this higher value was specific for saponin with tannic acid treatments. Short chain fatty acids, metabolism energy and organic matter digestibility concentrations for all of the treatments was higher than control group, but this values at the different levels of saponin with tannic acid together was higher than tannic acid or saponin alone. The obtained results indicated that combination of saponin and tannic acid at low level could affect rumen fermentation pattern and nutrient digestibility positively.

  13. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  14. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  15. UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach to compare the saponin compositions of Xueshuantong injection and Xuesaitong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changliang; Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jingxian; Qiu, Shi; Chen, Ming; Shi, Xiaojian; Pan, Huiqin; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-02-01

    Various traditional Chinese medicine preparations developed from Notoginseng total saponins, including Xueshuantong injection and Xuesaitong injection, are extensively used in China to treat cardiocerebrovascular diseases. However, the difference of their saponin compositions remains unknown. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was developed to probe the saponin discrimination between Xueshuantong and Xuesaitong and the related factors by large sample analysis. A highly efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an HSS T3 column within 20 min with the holistic metabolites information recorded in the negative MS E mode. A six-step data pretreatment procedure mainly based on Progenesis QI and mass defect filtering was established. Pattern recognition chemometrics was used to discover the potential saponin markers. The saponin composition of Wuzhou Xueshuantong showed distinct discrimination from the other products. Wuzhou Xueshuantong contains more abundant protopanaxatriol-type noto-R 1 , Rg 1 , Re, and protopanaxadiol-type Rb 1 , but less Rd and other low-polarity protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides. These differences could not directly correlate to the use of different parts of Panax notoginseng, but possibly to the different preparation techniques employed by different manufacturers. These results are beneficial to the establishment of pharmacopoeia standards and the assessment of the efficacy and adverse drug reactions for these homologous products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effects of Triton X-100 and Quillaya Saponin on the ex situ bioremediation of a chronically polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fava, F.; Di Gioia, D. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Material Science

    1998-12-31

    The possibility of enhancing the ex situ bioremediation of a chronically polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil by using Triton X-100 or Quillaya Saponin, a synthetic and a biogenic surfactant, respectively, was studied. The soil, which contained about 350 mg/kg of PCBs and indigenous aerobic bacteria capable of growing on biphenyl or on monochlorobenzoic acids, was amended with inorganic nutrients and biphenyl, saturated with water and treated in aerobic batch slurry- and fixed-phase reactors. Triton X-100 and Quillays Saponin were added to the reactors at a final concentration of 10 g/l at the 42nd day of treatment, and at the 43rd and 100th day, respectively. Triton X-100 was not metabolised by the soil microflora and it exerted inhibitory effects on the indigenous bacteria. Quillaya Saponin, on the contrary, was readily metabolised by the soil microflora. Under slurry-phase conditions, Triton X-100 negatively influenced the soil bioremediation process by affecting the availability of the chlorobenzoic acid degrading indigenous bacteria, wheres Quillays Saponin slightly enhanced the biological degradation and dechlorination of the soil PCBs. In the fixed-phase reactors, where both the surfactant availability and the mixing of the soil were lower, Triton X-100 did not exert inhibitory effects on the soil biomass and enhanced significantly the soil PCB depletion, whereas Quillays Saponin did not influence the bioremediation process. (orig.)

  17. Application of foam column as green technology for concentration of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana and Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saponins, molecules classified as triterpenic or steroidal glycosides, are metabolites distributed in all the plant kingdom that can be used for the production of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in soil bioremediation. Saponins are normally extracted from natural resources with water, ethanol and/or methanol, and then concentrated by liquid-liquid partitioning with n-butanol. An alternative concentration method is with a foam column, by which the saponins can be concentrated via preferential adsorption at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the objective of this work was the use of a foam column for the concentration of saponins from juá and sisal, evaluating parameters such as: initial working volume in the column, saponin concentration in the extracts from juá and sisal, air flow rate, pH, Raschig rings loading and operation time. When a gradient air flow rate and 25 g of Raschig rings were used, 82.6% of the jua saponins loaded onto the system were recovered in a 3.46-fold concentrated solution after 9 h of operation. Regarding sisal saponins, a concentration factor of 1.98 was observed with 90.5% of saponin recovery during 4.5 h of operation.

  18. Characterization of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea villosa and D Cayennensis using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroidal saponins were reported to be the major physiologically active constituents in yams. The structural characteristics of steroidal saponins in methanolic extracts from dried rhizomes of two Dioscorea species (D. villosa L. and D. cayenensis Lam.) and dietary supplements have analyzed using U...

  19. Certification of the Cu and Cd amount contents in artificial food digest using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Pilot Study 13 of the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, E.; Quetel, C.R.; Petrov, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) launched the Pilot Study 13, an interlaboratory comparison between the metrological organizations worldwide on the determination of Ca, Cu and Cd in artificial food digests. These samples (available in 7% HNO 3 and with a salinity evaluated around 370 mg kg -1 , including approx. 30 mg Na kg -1 ) were prepared by gravimetrical mixing, and thus reference values traceable to the Kg for the three elements were available eventually. This paper describes the contribution of IRMM for the certification of the Cu and the Cd amount contents. The analytical protocol developed was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The Cu measurements required 125-fold dilution of the initial sample solution. An interference of 23 Na 40 Ar + on 63 Cu + was identified but, since the ratio between both species was over 1000, it was successfully overcome by the calculation of a correction factor for its effect on the Cu amount content directly. Dilution of the sample was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g -1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This is rarely shown. As similar results could be obtained either way after the necessary corrections, the direct measurements approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the CCQM-P13 sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. SI traceable values were obtained for Cu and Cd with less than 1 and 1.5% combined uncertainty, respectively (6 995±55 (k=2) nmol kg -1 and 45.53±0.64 (k=2) nmol kg -1 ). The excellent agreement between these results and the reference values (less than 0.6 and 0.08% difference) further validated the analytical protocols developed

  20. Synthesis, Formulation, and Adjuvanticity of Monodesmosidic Saponins with Olenanolic Acid, Hederagenin and Gypsogenin Aglycones, and some C-28 Ester Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greatrex, Ben W.; Daines, Alison M.; Hook, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to discover a new synthetic vaccine adjuvant, the glycosylation of hederagenin, gypsogenin, and oleanolic acid acceptors with di- and trisaccharide donors to generate a range of mimics of natural product QS-21 was carried out. The saponins were formulated with phosphatidylcholine...... of cholesterol and phospholipid, the choline ester derivatives produced nanocrystalline rods or helical micelles. The effects of modifying sugar stereochemistry and the aglycone on the immunostimulatory effects of the saponins was then evaluated using the activation markers MHC class II and CD86 in murine bone...... marrow dendritic cells. The most active saponin, 3-O-(Manp(13)Glcp)hederagenin, was stimulatory at high concentrations in cell culture, but this did not translate to strong responses in vivo....

  1. Effect of Panax ginseng saponins and Eleutherococcus senticosus on survival of cultured mammalian cells after ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, E; Fulder, S

    1981-01-01

    Panax ginseng saponin and Eleutherococcus senticosus extract were applied to cells in culture in order to assess the effect of these substances on resistance to gamma-irradiation. Eleutherococcus was slightly radio protective. However, ginseng saponin at a dose of 10 microgram/ml was significantly radioprotective (Do = 2.25 Gy) compared to control (Do = 1.80 Gy) when it was present prior to gamma-irradiation. It enhanced radiation response if it was also present for 4-6 hours after gamma-irradiation (Do = 1.10 Gy). Ginseng-treated cells made 30% less RNA and 14% more protein during a 1 hour pulse of labeled intermediates. The cells were morphologically altered. It is concluded that ginseng saponin can increase radiation resistance. The effect is indirect, due to alterations in cell physiology rather than DNA repair processes.

  2. Saponins from soy bean and mung bean inhibit the antigen specific activation of helper T cells by blocking cell cycle progression.

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    Lee, Suk Jun; Bae, Joonbeom; Kim, Sunhee; Jeong, Seonah; Choi, Chang-Yong; Choi, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Jung, Woon-Won; Imm, Jee-Young; Kim, Sae Hun; Chun, Taehoon

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of helper T (Th) cells with saponins from soy bean and mung bean prevented their activation by inhibiting cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. However, the saponins did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (A(b)) and co-stimulatory molecule (CD86) on professional antigen-presenting cells. Instead, the saponins directly inhibited Th cell proliferation by blocking the G(1) to S phase cell cycle transition. Moreover, blocking of the cell cycle by the saponins was achieved by decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and constitutive expression of p27(KIP1). Saponins also increased stability of p27(KIP1) in Th cells after antigenic stimulation.

  3. Metabolites profiling of Pulsatilla saponin D in rat by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS).

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    Ouyang, Hui; Zhou, Maofu; Guo, Yicheng; He, Mingzhen; Huang, Hesong; Ye, Xide; Feng, Yulin; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Shilin

    2014-07-01

    Pulsatilla saponin D, an antitumor substance isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel, is a promising candidate for new drug development. The purpose of the present study is to establish a simple and practical strategy for the metabolite profiling of Pulsatilla saponin D in vivo. A total of 18 metabolites were identified in rat plasma, urine and feces samples based on MS and MS/MS data by using ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS, and eight of them (M11-M18) were reported for the first time. The results indicated that deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and sulfation were the major metabolic transformations of Pulsatilla saponin D in vivo. This study has improved our understanding of the metabolic fate of Pulsatilla saponin D in vivo, and the information gained from the current study is relevant to the pharmacological activity of Pulsatilla saponin D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An improved facile method for extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by focused microwave-assisted extraction coupled with GC-MS.

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    Li, Tianlin; Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Xinjian; Lin, Junwei; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    An improved fast method for extraction of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris based on the use of focus microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) is proposed. Under optimized conditions, four steroidal saponins were extracted from Tribulus terrestris and identified by GC-MS, which are Tigogenin (TG), Gitogenin (GG), Hecogenin (HG) and Neohecogenin (NG). One of the most important steroidal saponins, namely TG was quantified finally. The recovery of TG was in the range of 86.7-91.9% with RSDTribulus terrestris from different areas of occurrence. The difference in chromatographic characteristics of steroidal saponins was proved to be related to the different areas of occurrence. The results showed that FMAE-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-saving method for the extraction and determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris.

  5. Effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf as saponin sources on fermentation characteristic, protozoa defaunated, gas and methane production of ruminal fluid in vitro

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    Hendra Herdian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported that the Morinda citrifolia (pace plant was a useful material for human health. However the exploration of this plant on rumen fermentation is still needed. Therefore, a research was done to study the effect of M. citrifolia leaf on fermentation characteristics of rumen fluid consisted of protozoa defaunated process, VFA composition, NH3 content, rumen microbial protein content, gas and methane production using in vitro techniques. Rumen fluid obtained from two fistulated Ongole crossbreed cattle fed with forage and concentrate feed ration (70 : 30. The fluid was incubated at 39ºC for 48 hours. The treatment on the rumen fluid consisted of control treatment: 100% (200 mg DM kolonjono forage substrate (Penisetum purpureum and M. citrifolia treatments: kolonjono forage plus M. citrifolia (equivalent saponin 3; 6; 9; and 12 mg DM, respectively. The treatment of M. citrifolia leaf addition showed declined patterns in the number of protozoa population (P 0.05. Microbial protein content in rumen fluid increased (P 0.05 compared to control, while M. citrifolia treatments reduced the methane gas production of (P < 0.05 compared to control. It was concluded that M. citrifolia leaf has potential as a limiting agent of protozoa population and methane gas production in rumen.

  6. Ingasaponin, a complex triterpenoid saponin with immunological adjuvant activity from Inga laurina.

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    Cruz, Maria de Fátima Simão Jucá; Pereira, Gabriela Moysés; Ribeiro, Marcela Gonçalves; da Silva, Ari Miranda; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2016-02-01

    As part of our search of bioactive saponins from Brazilian plants, phytochemical study of the seeds of Inga laurina led to the isolation of a new complex triterpenoid saponin, named ingasaponin. It is the first saponin isolated from a species of Inga genus. It was isolated by using chromatographic methods and its structural elucidation was performed using detailed analyses of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques and chemical conversions. Its structure was established as 21-[[(2E,6S)-6-[[6-deoxy-4-O-[(2E,6S)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]oxy]-16-hydroxy-3-[[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β,16α,21β)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1). The hemolytic potential of 1 was evaluated using in vitro assays, and its adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen was investigated using in vivo models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of QS-21 as an Inflammasome-activating Molecular Component of Saponin Adjuvants.

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    Marty-Roix, Robyn; Vladimer, Gregory I; Pouliot, Kimberly; Weng, Dan; Buglione-Corbett, Rachel; West, Kim; MacMicking, John D; Chee, Jonathan D; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Lien, Egil

    2016-01-15

    Many immunostimulants act as vaccine adjuvants via activation of the innate immune system, although in many cases it is unclear which specific molecules contribute to the stimulatory activity. QS-21 is a defined, highly purified, and soluble saponin adjuvant currently used in licensed and exploratory vaccines, including vaccines against malaria, cancer, and HIV-1. However, little is known about the mechanisms of cellular activation induced by QS-21. We observed QS-21 to elicit caspase-1-dependent IL-1β and IL-18 release in antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells when co-stimulated with the TLR4-agonist adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A. Furthermore, our data suggest that the ASC-NLRP3 inflammasome is responsible for QS-21-induced IL-1β/IL-18 release. At higher concentrations, QS-21 induced macrophage and dendritic cell death in a caspase-1-, ASC-, and NLRP3-independent manner, whereas the presence of cholesterol rescued cell viability. A nanoparticulate adjuvant that contains QS-21 as part of a heterogeneous mixture of saponins also induced IL-1β in an NLRP3-dependent manner. Interestingly, despite the role NLRP3 plays for cellular activation in vitro, NLRP3-deficient mice immunized with HIV-1 gp120 and QS-21 showed significantly higher levels of Th1 and Th2 antigen-specific T cell responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2c compared with wild type controls. Thus, we have identified QS-21 as a nonparticulate single molecular saponin that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, but this signaling pathway may contribute to decreased antigen-specific responses in vivo. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Identification of QS-21 as an Inflammasome-activating Molecular Component of Saponin Adjuvants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Roix, Robyn; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Pouliot, Kimberly; Weng, Dan; Buglione-Corbett, Rachel; West, Kim; MacMicking, John D.; Chee, Jonathan D.; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Lien, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Many immunostimulants act as vaccine adjuvants via activation of the innate immune system, although in many cases it is unclear which specific molecules contribute to the stimulatory activity. QS-21 is a defined, highly purified, and soluble saponin adjuvant currently used in licensed and exploratory vaccines, including vaccines against malaria, cancer, and HIV-1. However, little is known about the mechanisms of cellular activation induced by QS-21. We observed QS-21 to elicit caspase-1-dependent IL-1β and IL-18 release in antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells when co-stimulated with the TLR4-agonist adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A. Furthermore, our data suggest that the ASC-NLRP3 inflammasome is responsible for QS-21-induced IL-1β/IL-18 release. At higher concentrations, QS-21 induced macrophage and dendritic cell death in a caspase-1-, ASC-, and NLRP3-independent manner, whereas the presence of cholesterol rescued cell viability. A nanoparticulate adjuvant that contains QS-21 as part of a heterogeneous mixture of saponins also induced IL-1β in an NLRP3-dependent manner. Interestingly, despite the role NLRP3 plays for cellular activation in vitro, NLRP3-deficient mice immunized with HIV-1 gp120 and QS-21 showed significantly higher levels of Th1 and Th2 antigen-specific T cell responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2c compared with wild type controls. Thus, we have identified QS-21 as a nonparticulate single molecular saponin that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, but this signaling pathway may contribute to decreased antigen-specific responses in vivo. PMID:26555265

  9. Panax Notoginseng Saponins Promote Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Attenuate Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

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    Ya Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from the bone marrow (BM play a key role in the homeostasis of vascular repair by enhanced reendothelialization. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS, a highly valued traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease. The present research was designed to explore the contribution of progenitor cells to the progression of atherosclerotic plaques and the possible modulatory role of PNS in this process. Methods: PNS (60 or 120 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection was administered over 8 weeks in apolipoprotein E knockout mice on an atherogenic diet. The sizes and histochemical alteration of atherosclerotic lesions and numbers of EPCs in BM and peripheral blood were analyzed. The expression of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α and its receptor, CXCR4, was monitored as well. Results: PNS significantly reduced the lesion area and intima-to-media ratio compared to vehicle treatment. PNS also augmented endothelialization and reduced the smooth muscle cell (SMCs content of the lesions. The number of c-kit and sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells and flk-1 and sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in the BM and the peripheral blood of the PNS-treated groups. PNS treatment increased the plasma levels of SDF-1α and SCF as well as the BM levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Moreover, the mRNA levels of SDF-1α and protein levels of CXCR4 were both increased in the BM of mice treated with PNS, while SDF-1α expression decreased. Conclusion: PNS reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilization. SDF-1α-CXCR4 interactions and the possible modulatory role of PNS in this process may contribute to the increased progenitor cell mobilization.

  10. Quality control and identification of steroid saponins in crude extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright by fingerprint with HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-ESI-Quadrupole/Time-of-fight tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liang, Jinru; Liu, Jianli; Zhao, Ye; Gao, Juan; Sun, Wenji; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a fingerprint of steroid saponins, the major bioactive constituents in the crude extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (DZW), has been established for the first time by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) and the simultaneous characterization of the steroid saponins by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and quadrupole tandem time-of-fight mass analyzers detection (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF). These HPLC analyses were both carried out on a Welchrom C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm) with a mobile phase composed of water and acetonitrile under gradient elution. There were 68 common characteristic peaks in the fingerprints, in which 12 of them were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention times with those of the reference compounds. In order to identify the other unknown peaks, their fragmentation behaviors characteristic for the major groups of steroid saponins from DZW with six types of aglycone skeletons were discussed in detail, and possible MS/MS fragmentation pathways were proposed for aiding the structural identification of these components. According to the summarized fragmentation patterns, these peaks were tentatively assigned by matching their empirical molecular formula with those of the published compounds, or by elucidating their quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to available literature information when the reference standards were unavailable. As a result, 22 steroid saponins were found in DZW for the first time. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the 12 known peaks was accomplished at the same time which indicated that there was a great variability in the amount of these active compounds in different batches in the crude extracts. This approach could demonstrate that the fingerprint could be considered to be a suitable tool to comprehensively improve the quality control

  11. The bHLH Transcription Factors TSAR1 and TSAR2 Regulate Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.

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    Mertens, Jan; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Goossens, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stresses by producing a broad spectrum of bioactive specialized metabolites. Hormonal elicitors, such as jasmonates, trigger a complex signaling circuit leading to the concerted activation of specific metabolic pathways. However, for many specialized metabolic pathways, the transcription factors involved remain unknown. Here, we report on two homologous jasmonate-inducible transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family, TRITERPENE SAPONIN BIOSYNTHESIS ACTIVATING REGULATOR1 (TSAR1) and TSAR2, which direct triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. TSAR1 and TSAR2 are coregulated with and transactivate the genes encoding 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1 (HMGR1) and MAKIBISHI1, the rate-limiting enzyme for triterpene biosynthesis and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls HMGR1 levels, respectively. Transactivation is mediated by direct binding of TSARs to the N-box in the promoter of HMGR1. In transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts, TSAR1 and TSAR2 exhibit different patterns of transactivation of downstream triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes, hinting at distinct functionalities within the regulation of the pathway. Correspondingly, overexpression of TSAR1 or TSAR2 in M. truncatula hairy roots resulted in elevated transcript levels of known triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes and strongly increased the accumulation of triterpene saponins. TSAR2 overexpression specifically boosted hemolytic saponin biosynthesis, whereas TSAR1 overexpression primarily stimulated nonhemolytic soyasaponin biosynthesis. Both TSARs also activated all genes of the precursor mevalonate pathway but did not affect sterol biosynthetic genes, pointing to their specific role as regulators of specialized triterpene metabolism in M. truncatula. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Relationship between the v2PO4/amide III ratio assessed by Raman spectroscopy and the calcium content measured by quantitative backscattered electron microscopy in healthy human osteonal bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschger, Andreas; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hofstetter, Birgit; Masic, Admir; Blouin, Stéphane; Messmer, Phaedra; Berzlanovich, Andrea; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Raman microspectroscopy and quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) of bone are powerful tools to investigate bone material properties. Both methods provide information on the degree of bone matrix mineralization. However, a head-to-head comparison of these outcomes from identical bone areas has not been performed to date. In femoral midshaft cross sections of three women, 99 regions (20×20 μ) were selected inside osteons and interstitial bone covering a wide range of matrix mineralization. As the focus of this study was only on regions undergoing secondary mineralization, zones exhibiting a distinct gradient in mineral content close to the mineralization front were excluded. The same regions were measured by both methods. We found a linear correlation (R2=0.75) between mineral/matrix as measured by Raman spectroscopy and the wt. %Mineral/(100-wt. %Mineral) as obtained by qBEI, in good agreement with theoretical estimations. The observed deviations of single values from the linear regression line were determined to reflect biological heterogeneities. The data of this study demonstrate the good correspondence between Raman and qBEI outcomes in describing tissue mineralization. The obtained correlation is likely sensitive to changes in bone tissue composition, providing an approach to detect potential deviations from normal bone.

  13. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

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    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  14. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

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    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  15. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of new saponins from Cordia piauhiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata P; Silveira, Edilberto R; Uchôa, Daniel Esdras de A; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-08-01

    Two new bidesmoside triterpenoid saponins were isolated from stems of Cordia piauhiensis. Their structures, characterized as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl pomolic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), were unequivocally established after extensive NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135 degrees, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY, and NOESY) studies. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

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    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (ptea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  17. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

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    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  19. Anticonvulsant mechanism of saponins fraction from adventitious roots of Ficus religiosa: possible modulation of GABAergic, calcium and sodium channel functions

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    Damanpreet Singh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In our previous studies, quantified saponins-rich fraction from adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L., Moraceae, showed anticonvulsant effect in acute, as well as chronic mice models of epilepsy. The present study was designed to reveal putative anticonvulsant mechanism of quantified saponins-rich fraction using target specific animal models. The anticonvulsant effect of quantified saponins-rich fraction was initially studied in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol test at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p. doses. Based on the results of initial anticonvulsant testing, different groups of mice were injected with vehicle or quantified saponins-rich fraction (4 mg/kg; i.p., 30 min prior to an injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (100 mg/kg; s.c., bicuculline (5 mg/kg; i.p., strychnine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg; i.p., BAY k-8644 (37.5 µg; i.c.v., veratridine (500 µg/kg; i.p. and the convulsive episodes were studied. Treatment with the extract (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg showed significant protection in maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion tests, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, quantified saponins-rich fraction at 4 mg/kg dose showed significant increase in latency to clonic convulsions, decrease in seizure severity and increase in average wave amplitude in bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine tests, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. However, SRF treatment failed to abolish N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and strychnine-induced convulsions, indicated by insignificant change in the appearance of turning behavior and onset of tonic extension, respectively, as compared to vehicle control. From the results of present study, it is concluded that quantified saponins-rich fraction suppress maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, BAY k-8644 and veratridine-induced convulsions, indicating its GABAergic, Na+ and Ca2+ channel modulatory effects. Further it can be correlated that quantified saponins

  20. Determination and fingerprint analysis of steroidal saponins in roots of Liriope muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Wei; Qi, Jin; Wen-Zhang; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Yan-Wu; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2014-07-01

    Liriope muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used for treating cough and insomnia. There are few reports on the quality evaluation of this herb partly because the major steroid saponins are not readily identified by UV detectors and are not easily isolated due to the existence of many similar isomers. In this study, a qualitative and quantitative method was developed to analyze the major components in L. muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey roots. Sixteen components were deduced and identified primarily by the information obtained from ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The method demonstrated the desired specificity, linearity, stability, precision, and accuracy for simultaneous determination of 15 constituents (13 steroidal glycosides, 25(R)-ruscogenin, and pentylbenzoate) in 26 samples from different origins. The fingerprint was established, and the evaluation was achieved using similarity analysis and principal component analysis of 15 fingerprint peaks from 26 samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The results from similarity analysis were consistent with those of principal component analysis. All results suggest that the established method could be applied effectively to the determination of multi-ingredients and fingerprint analysis of steroid saponins for quality assessment and control of L. muscari (Decne.) L. H. Bailey. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. In vitro study of effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as methanogenesis inhibitor on ruminal digestion system

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    Amlius Thalib

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced in the rumen system causes the lost of ingested chemical energy, and the methane emitted contributes the greenhouse effect to the atmosphere environment. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as an inhibitor of ruminal methanogenesis was conducted. The method conducted in this study was a fermentation of a substrate by in vitro technique using rumen fluid (obtained from fistulated sheep as inoculum. Substrate (king grass was fermented in anaerobic incubator system at pH of medium 6.9 and temperature of 39°C for 48 hours. Inoculum was supplemented with an ingredient obtained by extraction of Sapindus rarak fruit with methanol (Aksapon SR and the ones without extraction (lerak powder, and further, these treatments were compared to other methanogenesis inhibitors (i.e. Fe3+, SO4 2– and poly unsaturated longchain fatty acids: PULCFA.The treatments were 1. Inoculum without treatment (K; 2. K + Aksapon SR (80 mg/100 ml; 3. K + lerak powder (160 mg/100 ml; 4. K + Fe3+ (0.8 mg/100 ml; 5. K + SO4 2- (96 mg/100 ml; 6. K + PULCFA (24 mg/100 ml. Measurements conducted were portion of methane, dry matter digestibility (DMD, NH3-N content, microbial population, and volatile fatty acids (VFA. The data measured were analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results of the experiment showed that Aksapon SR was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenesis compared to the others, that is when compared to control, Aksapon SR lowered methane production by 31% (P0.05 and SO4 2–(10% (P>0.05. All additive treatments did not affect the DMD value of the substrate fermented by control inoculum. Compared to control, all treatments lowered the protozoal population where the Aksapon SR gave the strongest effect (1.91 x 105 vs 9.94 x 105 cell/ml, and the decrease of protozoal number in Aksapon SR treatment was followed by the increase of bacterial (4.13 x 109 vs 2.56 x 109 colony/ml. Aksapon SR and SO4 2

  2. Gymnemagenin-a triterpene saponin prevents γ-radiation induced cellular DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Hari, Shanmugasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre an ethno-medicinally important plant was investigated for its protecting activity against radiation induced DNA damage. The major bioactive component present in Gymnema sylvestre such as gymnemic acid and gymnemagenin a triterpene saponin, were tested for its radioprotective effects against 60 Co irradiation induced DNA damage in fish model using fresh water fish Pangasius sutchi. Fishes subjected to a dose of 133 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for eight days. The genotoxic assessment by micronucleus assay showed us that that the plant extract helped in reducing the frequency of micronucleated and binucleated erythrocytes compared to the irradiated control group. The genotoxic assessment by alkaline comet assay by single gel electrophoresis shows that pretreatment with the plant extract appreciably decreased the percentage of tail DNA towards the levels close to those of normal control group. The gradual increase in the level of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the course of the experiment indicates that the antioxidant enzyme activities play an important role in protecting organisms against gamma radiation-induced cellular oxidative stress. In conclusion the leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvstre exerts its radio protective potential by suppressing the toxic assault of ROS generated by the ionizing radiation through its ability to boost the levels of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) due to the presence of its phytochemicals like gymnemgenenin- a Triterpene Saponin. (author)

  3. Poecillastrosides, Steroidal Saponins from the Mediterranean Deep-Sea Sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Calabro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866 led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A–G (1–7. All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A–D (1–4 all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2′, poecillastrosides E–G (5–7 are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3′ between both sugar units. The chemical structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis (High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR and the absolute configurations of the sugar residues were assigned after acidic hydrolysis and cysteine derivatization followed by LC-HRMS analyses. Poecillastrosides D and E, bearing a carboxylic acid at C-18, were shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  4. Characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Roner, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of these extracts against rhesus rotavirus (RRV) using a mouse model. We established that at a dosage of 0.015 mg/mouse of saponin extract, RRV induced diarrhea can be significantly reduced from 79% to 11% when mice are exposed to 500 plaque-forming-units (PFU) for each of five consecutive days. Additionally, while a reduction of RRV induced diarrhea depended both on the concentration of virus introduced and on the amount of Quillaja extract given to each mouse, the severity and interval of diarrhea under a variety of conditions tested, in all the treated mice were greatly reduced when compared to those that did not receive the Quillaja extracts. Mechanistically, there is strong evidence that the Quillaja extracts are able to “block” rotavirus infection by inhibiting virus-host attachment through disruption of cellular membrane proteins and/or virus receptors. We believe that Quillaja extracts have promise as antivirals to reduce rotavirus infection and the severity of the disease in humans. PMID:21549151

  5. Saponins isolated from roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum reduce acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Anirudha A; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Swami, Uma S; Adkar, Prafulla P; Ambavade, Prashant D; Waghamare, Arun B

    2015-01-01

    The roots of Chlorophytum borivilanum are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of arthritis and inflammation. The aim of the work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of isolated saponins from Chlorophytum borivilianum (ISCB). The ISCB was screened using the carrageenan-induced paw edema, histamine-induced paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma, and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats at orally administered doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg. Effect of ISCB on histone deacetylase (HDAC) level was measured by the HDAC assay at the highest dose (30 mg/kg). The results showed that the ISCB significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation, histamine-induced inflammation, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The ISCB at a dose of 30 mg/kg significantly inhibited HDAC level in rat paw tissue. It is concluded that saponins isolated from roots of C. borivilianum possess anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties. ISCB may act by inhibiting histamine, prostaglandin and HDAC. This suggests that ISCBs have potential for therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammation and arthritis.

  6. Poecillastrosides, Steroidal Saponins from the Mediterranean Deep-Sea Sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, Kevin; Kalahroodi, Elaheh Lotfi; Rodrigues, Daniel; Díaz, Caridad; Cruz, Mercedes de la; Cautain, Bastien; Laville, Rémi; Reyes, Fernando; Pérez, Thierry; Soussi, Bassam; Thomas, Olivier P

    2017-06-26

    The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866) led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A-G ( 1 - 7 ). All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A-D ( 1 - 4 ) all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2', poecillastrosides E-G ( 5 - 7 ) are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3' between both sugar units. The chemical structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis (High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1D and 2D NMR) and the absolute configurations of the sugar residues were assigned after acidic hydrolysis and cysteine derivatization followed by LC-HRMS analyses. Poecillastrosides D and E, bearing a carboxylic acid at C-18, were shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus .

  7. Steroidal saponin from Chlorophytum nimonii (Grah with lipid-lowering and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since drugs used these days to lower the lipids are all synthetic drugs, they have some or the other side effects, therefore in search of cheaper lipid-lowering drugs with no side effects, we have conducted a study on Chlorophytum nimonii for its lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: Chloragin and Gemfibrozil both caused a significant decrease in the serum level of lipids in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and this model has been successfully used for the evaluation of lipid-lowering activity of chloragin in the rats. Results and Discussion: The lipid-lowering action of steroidal saponin and chloragin of the C. nimonii has been studied in triton model (in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rats in vivo and antioxidant activity in vitro model. Serum lipids were found to be lowered by the steroidal saponin (100 mg/kg body weight in triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia. Chronic feeding of this compound (50 mg/kg in animals simultaneously fed with high-fat diet for 30 days caused lowering in the lipid and lipoproteins levels of low-density lipoproteins in experimental animals. Conclusion: Chloragin activates lipolytic enzymes in plasma and liver. Chloragin is mediated through inhibition of hepatic lipids, increased fecal bile acid excretion, and enhanced plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activities. Chloragin from the C. nimonii showed potent antioxidant activity as well.

  8. Akebia saponin PA induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-Ying; Lee, Dong Hwa; Joo, Eun Ji; Son, Kun Ho; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanism of akebia saponin PA (AS), a natural product isolated from Dipsacus asperoides in human gastric cancer cell lines. It was shown that AS-induced cell death is caused by autophagy and apoptosis in AGS cells. The apoptosis-inducing effect of AS was characterized by annexin V/propidium (PI) staining, increase of sub-G1 phase and caspase-3 activation, while the autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3 II (LC3-II) conversion. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BaF1) decreased AS-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation, but caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO did not affect LC3-II accumulation or AS-induced cell viability, suggesting that AS induces autophagic cell death and autophagy contributes to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, AS activated p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which could be inhibited by BaF1, and caspase-3 activation was attenuated by both SB202190 and SP600125, indicating that AS-induced autophagy promotes mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AS induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death and autophagy plays the main role in akebia saponin PA-induced cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R.; Stintzing, Florian C.; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. PMID:28098796

  10. Paris Saponin I Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cell Lines to Cisplatin via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuichuan; Du, Leiwen; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Xinhai; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji

    2016-10-18

    BACKGROUND Dose-related toxicity is the major restriction of cisplatin and cisplatin-combination chemotherapy, and is a challenge for advanced gastric cancer treatment. We explored the possibility of using Paris saponin I as an agent to sensitize gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, and examined the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry and Annexin V/PI staining. The P21waf1/cip1, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results revealed that PSI sensitized gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, with low toxicity. The IC50 value of cisplatin in SGC-7901 cell lines was decreased when combined with PSI. PSI promoted cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in a cisplatin concentration-dependent manner. Bcl-2 protein expression decreased, but Bax, caspase-3, and P21waf1/cip1 protein expression increased with PSI treatment. CONCLUSIONS The underlying mechanism of Paris saponin I may be related to targeting the apoptosis pathway and cell cycle blocking, which suggests that PSI is a potential therapeutic sensitizer for cisplatin in treating gastric cancer.

  11. Phytochemical content of hot and cold water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habboo, Maysam Dahham; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2018-04-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with ethnobotanical applications including antifungal and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves water extract prepared in cold and hot distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals components such as a flavonoid, terpenoid and steroid in both extracts. Cold water extract has two extra components: saponin and alkaloid that may be destroyed by the exposure to heat.

  12. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-11-01

    To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min(-1) at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants.

  13. Superiority of SDS lysis over saponin lysis for direct bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottle by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Garnaud, Cécile; Raykova, Mariya; Bailly, Sébastien; Bidart, Marie; Maubon, Danièle

    2017-05-01

    Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here, a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures is proposed. Four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by MS directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating two lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and two protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP) are compared. One hundred and sixty-eight identification tests are carried out on 42 strains. Overall, there are correct identifications to the species level in 90% samples for the SDS-LP, 60% for the SDS-FP, 48% for the saponin LP, and 43% for the saponin FP. Adapted scores allowed 92, 86, 72, and 53% identification for SDS-LP, SDS-FP, saponin LP, and saponin FP, respectively. Saponin lysis is associated with a significantly lower score compared to SDS (0.87 [0.83-0.92], p-value saponin lysis and the application of this rapid and cost-effective protocol in daily routine for microbiological agents implicated in septicemia. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  15. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  16. RNA-Seq mediated root transcriptome analysis of Chlorophytum borivilianum for identification of genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kalra, Shikha; Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Avneesh; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important species of liliaceae family, owing to its vital medicinal properties. Plant roots are used for aphrodisiac, adaptogen, anti-aging, health-restorative and health-promoting purposes. Saponins, are considered to be the principal bioactive components responsible for the wide variety of pharmacological properties of this plant. In the present study, we have performed de novo root transcriptome sequencing of C. borivilianum using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform, to gain molecular insight into saponins biosynthesis. A total of 33,963,356 high-quality reads were obtained after quality filtration. Sequences were assembled using various programs which generated 97,344 transcripts with a size range of 100-5,216 bp and N50 value of 342. Data was analyzed against non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), and enzyme commission (EC) databases. All the genes involved in saponins biosynthesis along with five full-length genes namely farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, cycloartenol synthase, β-amyrin synthase, cytochrome p450, and sterol-3-glucosyltransferase were identified. Read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)-based comparative expression profiling was done to study the differential regulation of the genes. In silico expression analysis of seven selected genes of saponin biosynthetic pathway was validated by qRT-PCR.

  17. Weather and plant age affect the levels of steroidal saponin and Pithomyces chartarum spores in Brachiaria grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachiaria species are cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical climates as the main forage source for ruminants. Numerous tropical and warm-season grasses cause hepatogenous photosensitization, among them several species of Brachiaria. Steroidal saponins present in these plants may be respo...

  18. Alkaloids and Saponins as Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors from Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) in an In Vitro Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue cohosh, Caulophyllum thalictriodes is a popular herb, roots and rhizomes of which have been extensively used for women’s health. Alkaloids and saponins are considered to be responsible for its pharmacological effects. In this investigation the methanolic extract of the roots of blue cohosh, alk...

  19. Verbesinosides A-F, Novel 15,27-Cyclooleanane Saponins from the American Native Plant Verbesina virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesinosides A-F (1-6), six novel 15,27-cyclooleanane-type triterpenoid saponins carrying different aromatic acyl moieties on the aglycone, were isolated from the leaf and flower of Verbesina virginica. Their structures were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical methods....

  20. Enhancement of the Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Mucosal Influenza Subunit Vaccine by the Saponin Adjuvant GPI-0100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Identification of safe and effective adjuvants remains an urgent need for the development of inactivated influenza vaccines for mucosal administration. Here, we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the adjuvant activity of GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, on influenza subunit vaccine

  1. The effect of ensiling and haymaking on the concentrations of steroidal saponin in two Brachiaria grass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachiaria (signalgrass) is now the most widely used tropical grass genus in Central and South America. However, Brachiaria spp. can cause hepatogenous photosensitization in livestock. Steroidal saponins, specifically protodioscin, present in Brachiaria spp. may be responsible for liver injury and s...

  2. Analytical methods for determination of alkaloids and saponins from roots of Caulophyllum thalictroids (L) Michx using UPLC HPLC and HPTLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparison study of analytical methods including HPLC, UPLC and HPTLC are presented in this paper for the determination of major alkaloid and triterpene saponins from the roots of Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. (blue cohosh) and dietary supplements claiming to contain blue cohosh. The meth...

  3. Preclinical evaluation of the saponin derivative GPI-0100 as an immunostimulating and dose-sparing adjuvant for pandemic influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Bungener, Laura; ter Veer, Wouter; Coller, Beth-Ann; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2011-01-01

    With the current global influenza vaccine production capacity the large demand for vaccines in case of a pandemic can only be fulfilled when antigen dose sparing strategies are employed. Here we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the potential of GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic saponin derivative,

  4. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Antibacterial activity of saponin and alkaloidal extracts of whole plant of phyllanthus niruri L., (Syn. P. franternus webster)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibade, V.A.; Famurewa, O.

    2011-01-01

    Saponins identified as phylagenin-13-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and phylangenin-25-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside and alkaloid, extracted from the whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri, were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) against Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus pyrogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. MIC of saponin against S. aureus SSH22 and SSH23 ranged from 5-15 mu g/mL, and against E. coli OAUTH71 and K. pneumoniae OAUTH 54, from 15-60 mu g/mL. MICs increased with the increase in concentration of cells used in the inoculum. S. aureus SSH22 exhibited a paradoxical biphasic response to saponin in nutrient broth, whereas bacterial activity against E. coli SSH31 increased with concentration up to the highest concentration of saponin tested. Activity against E. coli OAUTH71 was more pronounced in the phosphate-buffered saline than in the nutrient broth. The other active compound extracted (alkaloid) gave MIC values between 200 and 600 mu g/mL. (author)

  6. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  7. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  8. Preparation of progenin III from total steroidal saponins of Dioscorea nipponica Makino using a crude enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqiang; Yu, Hongshan; Liu, Chunying; Bao, Yongming; Hu, Xiangchun; Wang, Yuanhao; Liu, Bing; Fu, Yaoyao; Tang, Sihui; Jin, Fengxie

    2013-05-01

    Progenin III, one of the most active spirostanol saponins, is a potential candidate for anti-cancer therapy due to its strong antitumor activity and low hemolytic activity. However, the concentration of progenin III is extremely low in natural Dioscorea plants. In this paper, the progenin III production from total steroidal saponins of Dioscorea nipponica Makino was studied using the crude enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae DLFCC-38. The crude enzyme converting total steroidal saponins into progenin III was obtained from the A. oryzae DLFCC-38 culture. For enzyme production, the strain was cultured for 72 h at 30 °C with shaking at 150 rpm in 5 % (w/v) malt extract medium containing 2 % (v/v) extract of D. nipponica as the enzyme inducer. The crude enzyme converted total steroidal saponins into major progenin III with a high yield when the reaction was carried out for 9 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with the 20 mg/ml of substrate. In the preparation of progenin III, 117 g of crude progenin III was obtained from 160 g of substrate, and the crude product was purified with silica gel column to obtain 60.3 g progenin III of 93.4 % purity.

  9. Localization of Secondary Metabolites in Marine Invertebrates: Contribution of MALDI MSI for the Study of Saponins in Cuvierian Tubules of H. forskali

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    Meriaux, Céline; Bonnel, David; Salzet, Michel; Fournier, Isabelle; Wisztorski, Maxence

    2010-01-01

    Background Several species of sea cucumbers of the family Holothuriidae possess a particular mechanical defense system called the Cuvierian tubules (Ct). It is also a chemical defense system as triterpene glycosides (saponins) appear to be particularly concentrated in Ct. In the present study, the precise localization of saponins in the Ct of Holothuria forskali is investigated. Classical histochemical labeling using lectin was firstly performed but did not generate any conclusive results. Thus, MALDI mass spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) was directly applied and completed by statistical multivariate tests. A comparison between the tubules of relaxed and stressed animals was realized. Results These analyses allowed the detection of three groups of ions, corresponding to the isomeric saponins of the tubules. Saponins detected at m/z 1287 and 1303 were the most abundant and were apparently localized in the connective tissue of the tubules of both relaxed and stressed individuals. Saponins at m/z 1125 and 1141 were detected in lower amount and were present in tissues of relaxed animals. Finally, saponin ions at 1433, 1449, 1463 and 1479 were observed in some Ct of stressed holothuroids in the outer part of the connective tissue. The saponin group m/z 14xx seems therefore to be stress-specific and could originate from modifications of the saponins with m/z of 11xx. Conclusions All the results taken together indicate a complex chemical defense mechanism with, for a single organ, different sets of saponins originating from different cell populations and presenting different responses to stress. The present study also reflects that MALDI-MSI is a valuable tool for chemical ecology studies in which specific chemical signalling molecules like allelochemicals or pheromones have to be tracked. This report represents one of the very first studies using these tools to provide a functional and ecological understanding of the role of natural products from marine invertebrates

  10. A tandem array of UDP-glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C subfamily glycosylate sapogenins, forming a spectrum of mono- and bisdesmosidic saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels; Bak, Søren

    2018-05-01

    This study identifies six UGT73Cs all able to glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and/or 28 which demonstrates that B. vulgaris has a much richer arsenal of UGTs involved in saponin biosynthesis than initially anticipated. The wild cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris is resistant to some insects due to accumulation of two monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponins, oleanolic acid 3-O-β-cellobioside and hederagenin 3-O-β-cellobioside. Insect resistance depends on the structure of the sapogenin aglycone and the glycosylation pattern. The B. vulgaris saponin profile is complex with at least 49 saponin-like metabolites, derived from eight sapogenins and including up to five monosaccharide units. Two B. vulgaris UDP-glycosyltransferases, UGT73C11 and UGT73C13, O-glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and 28, forming mainly 3-O-β-D-glucosides. The aim of this study was to identify UGTs responsible for the diverse saponin oligoglycoside moieties observed in B. vulgaris. Twenty UGT genes from the insect resistant genotype were selected and heterologously expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and/or Escherichia coli. The extracts were screened for their ability to glycosylate sapogenins (oleanolic acid, hederagenin), the hormone 24-epibrassinolide and sapogenin monoglucosides (hederagenin and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucosides). Six UGTs from the UGT73C subfamily were able to glucosylate both sapogenins and both monoglucosides at positions 3 and/or 28. Some UGTs formed bisdesmosidic saponins efficiently. At least four UGT73C genes were localized in a tandem array with UGT73C11 and possibly UGT73C13. This organization most likely reflects duplication events followed by sub- and neofunctionalization. Indeed, signs of positive selection on several amino acid sites were identified and modelled to be localized on the UGT protein surface. This tandem array is proposed to initiate higher order bisdesmosidic glycosylation of B. vulgaris saponins, leading to the recently discovered

  11. Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus

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    Anwar Zeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on the ethnomedicinal uses and the effective outcomes of natural products in various diseases, this study was designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus as possible remedy in oxidative stress, alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Acetylecholinestrase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, resultant fractions (n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Cf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq, flavonoids (Ir.Flv and crude saponins (Ir.Sp of I. rugosus were investigated using Ellman's spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant potential of I. rugosus was determined using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radicals scavenging assays. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g of dry sample respectively. RESULTS: Among different fractions Ir.Flv and Ir.Cf exhibited highest inhibitory activity against AChE (87.44 ± 0.51, 83.73 ± 0.64% and BChE (82.53 ± 0.71, 88.55 ± 0.77% enzymes at 1 mg/ml with IC50 values of 45, 50 for AChE and 40, 70 μg/ml for BChE respectively. Activity of these fractions were comparable to galanthamine causing 96.00 ± 0.30 and 88.61 ± 0.43% inhibition of AChE and BChE at 1 mg/ml concentration with IC50 values of 20 and 47 μg/ml respectively. In antioxidant assays, Ir.Flv, Ir.Cf, and Ir.EtAc demonstrated highest radicals scavenging activities in DPPH and H2O2 assays which were comparable to ascorbic acid. Ir.Flv was found most potent with IC50 of 19 and 24 μg/ml against DPPH and H2O2 radicals respectively. Whereas antioxidant activates of plant samples against ABTS free radicals was moderate. Ir.Cf, Ir.EtAc and Ir.Cr showed high phenolic and flavonoid contents and concentrations of these compounds in different fractions correlated well to their antioxidant and anticholinestrase activities. CONCLUSION: It may be inferred from the current investigations that the

  12. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Goel, Navneet; Singh, Nasib

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer.

  13. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

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    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  14. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-01

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy reported in this

  15. In vitro and in vivo antidiabetic potential of extracts and a furostanol saponin from Balanites aegyptiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shahira Mohammed; Abdel Motaal, Amira; El Awdan, Sally Abdel Wanees

    2017-12-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits are well-known antidiabetic drug in Egyptian folk medicine. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action is still unclear. Searching for the possible mechanisms of action of the plant and identification of its bioactive compounds. A bio-guided protocol based on the evaluation of α-glucosidase (AG) and aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activities was adopted to isolate the biologically active compounds from the methanol extract (MeEx). An in vivo antidiabetic study was conducted for the active extract, fraction and compound using streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino Wistar rats at two dose levels (100 and 200 mg/kg.b/wt) for 2 weeks. Three compounds were isolated and identified: a sterol, (1) stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside; a pregnane glucoside, (2) pregn-5-ene-3β,16β,20(R)-trio1-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside; a furostanol saponin, (3) 26-(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-22-O-methylfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside. Only compound 3 possessed significant AG and AR inhibitory activities (IC 50  = 3.12 ± 0.17 and 1.04 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively), while compounds 1 and 2 were inactive. The in vivo antidiabetic study revealed that MeEx and furostanol saponin 3 possessed significant activities at a dose of 200 mg/kg through reducing the fasting plasma glucose level by 46.14% and 51.39%, respectively, as well as reducing the total cholesterol by 24.44% and 31.90%, respectively. Compound 3 also caused increment in insulin and C-peptide levels by 63.56% and 65%, respectively. We presented a scientific base for using Balanites aegyptiaca, and shed the light on one of its saponins, as an antidiabetic agent in fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia along with the improvement of diabetic complications.

  16. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-17

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy

  17. Extraction of saponins and toxicological profile of Teucrium stocksianum boiss extracts collected from District Swat, Pakistan

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    Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current era is facing challenges in the management of neoplasia and weeds control. The currently available anti-cancer and herbicidal drugs are associated with some serious side effects. Therefore numerous researchers are trying to discover and develop plant based alternative particularly for the rational management of cancer and weed control. Teucrium stocksianum possess antioxidant and analgesic activities. The current study was designed to evaluate crude saponins (CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum for cytotoxic and phytotoxic potentials. CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions were extracted from powdered plant material using different solvents. Cytotoxic potential of the extracts at a dose of 10, 100 and 1000 μg/ml were evaluated against Brine shrimp's nauplii. Phytotoxic assay also performed at the same concentration against Lemna minor. Etoposide and Paraquat were used as positive controls in cytotoxic and phytotoxic assays respectively. RESULTS: The percent yield of crude saponins was (5%. CS demonstrated tremendous brine shrimp lethality showing < 10 μg/ml LC50. The n-hexane (HF and chloroform fractions (CF demonstrated excellent cytotoxicity with 80 and 55 μg/ml LC50 respectively. Whereas the methanolic extract (TSME, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous fractions (AF revealed moderate cytotoxicity showing 620, 860 and 1000 μg/ml LC50 values respectively. In phytotoxic assay profound inhibition was displayed by HF (96.67% and TSME (95.56%, 30 μg/ml LC50 against the growth of Lemna minor a