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Sample records for quantitative metabolomics reveals

  1. Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Metabolomics Revealed a Distinct Lipid Profile in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Yun Yen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer accounts for the largest number of newly diagnosed cases in female cancer patients. Although mammography is a powerful screening tool, about 20% of breast cancer cases cannot be detected by this method. New diagnostic biomarkers for breast cancer are necessary. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantitative metabolomics method to analyze plasma samples from 55 breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A number of 30 patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were used as a training dataset to establish a diagnostic model and to identify potential biomarkers. The remaining samples were used as a validation dataset to evaluate the predictive accuracy for the established model. Distinct separation was obtained from an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model with good prediction accuracy. Based on this analysis, 39 differentiating metabolites were identified, including significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines and higher levels of sphingomyelins in the plasma samples obtained from breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Using logical regression, a diagnostic equation based on three metabolites (lysoPC a C16:0, PC ae C42:5 and PC aa C34:2 successfully differentiated breast cancer patients from healthy controls, with a sensitivity of 98.1% and a specificity of 96.0%.

  2. Sample normalization methods in quantitative metabolomics.

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    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2016-01-22

    To reveal metabolomic changes caused by a biological event in quantitative metabolomics, it is critical to use an analytical tool that can perform accurate and precise quantification to examine the true concentration differences of individual metabolites found in different samples. A number of steps are involved in metabolomic analysis including pre-analytical work (e.g., sample collection and storage), analytical work (e.g., sample analysis) and data analysis (e.g., feature extraction and quantification). Each one of them can influence the quantitative results significantly and thus should be performed with great care. Among them, the total sample amount or concentration of metabolites can be significantly different from one sample to another. Thus, it is critical to reduce or eliminate the effect of total sample amount variation on quantification of individual metabolites. In this review, we describe the importance of sample normalization in the analytical workflow with a focus on mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, discuss a number of methods recently reported in the literature and comment on their applicability in real world metabolomics applications. Sample normalization has been sometimes ignored in metabolomics, partially due to the lack of a convenient means of performing sample normalization. We show that several methods are now available and sample normalization should be performed in quantitative metabolomics where the analyzed samples have significant variations in total sample amounts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional metabolomics reveals novel active products in the DHA metabolome

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    Masakazu eShinohara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous mechanisms for successful resolution of an acute inflammatory response and the local return to homeostasis are of interest because excessive inflammation underlies many human diseases. In this review, we provide an update and overview of functional metabolomics that identified a new bioactive metabolome of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Systematic studies revealed that DHA was converted to DHEA-derived novel bioactive products as well as aspirin-triggered (AT forms of protectins. The new oxygenated DHEA derived products blocked PMN chemotaxis, reduced P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte adhesion, and showed organ protection in ischemia/reperfusion injury. These products activated cannabinoid receptor (CB2 receptor and not CB1 receptors. The AT-PD1 reduced neutrophil (PMN recruitment in murine peritonitis. With human cells, AT-PD1 decreased transendothelial PMN migration as well as enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic human PMN by macrophages. The recent findings reviewed here indicate that DHEA oxidative metabolism and aspirin-triggered conversion of DHA produce potent novel molecules with anti-inflammatory and organ-protective properties, opening the DHA metabolome functional roles.

  4. Metabolomics

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    Kamstrup-Nielsen, Maja Hermann

    Metabolomics is the analysis of the whole metabolome and the focus in metabolomics studies is to measure as many metabolites as possible. The use of chemometrics in metabolomics studies is widespread, but there is a clear lack of validation in the developed models. The focus in this thesis has been...... how to properly handle complex metabolomics data, in order to achieve reliable and valid multivariate models. This has been illustrated by three case studies with examples of forecasting breast cancer and early detection of colorectal cancer based on data from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...... is a presentation of a core consistency diagnostic aiding in determining the number of components in a PARAFAC2 model. It is of great importance to validate especially PLS-DA models and if not done properly, the developed models might reveal spurious groupings. Furthermore, data from metabolomics studies contain...

  5. Quantitative metabolomics based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.M.; Jellema, R.H.; Greef, J. van der; Tas, A.C.; Hankemeier, T.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics involves the unbiased quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete set of metabolites present in cells, body fluids and tissues (the metabolome). By analyzing differences between metabolomes using biostatistics (multivariate data analysis; pattern recognition), metabolites

  6. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

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    Vogel Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which

  7. Mass spectrometry as a quantitative tool in plant metabolomics

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    Jorge, Tiago F.; Mata, Ana T.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is a research field used to acquire comprehensive information on the composition of a metabolite pool to provide a functional screen of the cellular state. Studies of the plant metabolome include the analysis of a wide range of chemical species with very diverse physico-chemical properties, and therefore powerful analytical tools are required for the separation, characterization and quantification of this vast compound diversity present in plant matrices. In this review, challenges in the use of mass spectrometry (MS) as a quantitative tool in plant metabolomics experiments are discussed, and important criteria for the development and validation of MS-based analytical methods provided. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644967

  8. Quantitative Metabolomics and Instationary 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis Reveals Impact of Recombinant Protein Production on Trehalose and Energy Metabolism in Pichia pastoris

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    Joel Jordà

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris has been recognized as an effective host for recombinant protein production. In this work, we combine metabolomics and instationary 13C metabolic flux analysis (INST 13C-MFA using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS to evaluate the potential impact of the production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol on P. pastoris central carbon metabolism. Higher oxygen uptake and CO2 production rates and slightly reduced biomass yield suggest an increased energy demand for the producing strain. This observation is further confirmed by 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. In particular, the flux through the methanol oxidation pathway and the TCA cycle was increased in the Rol-producing strain compared to the reference strain. Next to changes in the flux distribution, significant variations in intracellular metabolite concentrations were observed. Most notably, the pools of trehalose, which is related to cellular stress response, and xylose, which is linked to methanol assimilation, were significantly increased in the recombinant strain.

  9. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

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    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  10. Integration of metabolome data with metabolic networks reveals reporter reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çakir, Tunahan; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Önsan, Zeynep Ilsen

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting quantitative metabolome data is a difficult task owing to the high connectivity in metabolic networks and inherent interdependency between enzymatic regulation, metabolite levels and fluxes. Here we present a hypothesis-driven algorithm for the integration of such data with metabolic...... network topology. The algorithm thus enables identification of reporter reactions, which are reactions where there are significant coordinated changes in the level of surrounding metabolites following environmental/genetic perturbations. Applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated by using data from...... is measured. By combining the results with transcriptome data, we further show that it is possible to infer whether the reactions are hierarchically or metabolically regulated. Hereby, the reported approach represents an attempt to map different layers of regulation within metabolic networks through...

  11. Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination interferes with the metabolism of PANC-1 cells.

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    Yu, Tao; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Huizhen; Johnson, Caroline H; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Xiangjun; Wu, Zeming; Liu, Tian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Yu, Aiming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a common problem in cell culture and can alter cellular functions. Since cell metabolism is either directly or indirectly involved in every aspect of cell function, it is important to detect changes to the cellular metabolome after mycoplasma infection. In this study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on the cellular metabolism of human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mycoplasma contamination induced significant metabolic changes in PANC-1 cells. Twenty-three metabolites were identified and found to be involved in arginine and purine metabolism and energy supply. This study demonstrates that mycoplasma contamination significantly alters cellular metabolite levels, confirming the compelling need for routine checking of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination, particularly when used for metabolomics studies. Graphical abstract Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination changes the metabolome of PANC-1 cells.

  12. The Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Metabolome Signature in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals Dynamic Reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin Pathways

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    Finnegan, Tarryn; Steenkamp, Paul A.; Piater, Lizelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), as MAMP molecules, trigger the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in defence. Currently, plant metabolomics is providing new dimensions into understanding the intracellular adaptive responses to external stimuli. The effect of LPS on the metabolomes of Arabidopsis thaliana cells and leaf tissue was investigated over a 24 h period. Cellular metabolites and those secreted into the medium were extracted with methanol and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Multivariate statistical data analyses were used to extract interpretable information from the generated multidimensional LC-MS data. The results show that LPS perception triggered differential changes in the metabolomes of cells and leaves, leading to variation in the biosynthesis of specialised secondary metabolites. Time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles were observed and biomarkers associated with the LPS-induced response were tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indole—and other glucosinolates, indole derivatives, camalexin as well as cinnamic acid derivatives and other phenylpropanoids. These annotated metabolites indicate dynamic reprogramming of metabolic pathways that are functionally related towards creating an enhanced defensive capacity. The results reveal new insights into the mode of action of LPS as an activator of plant innate immunity, broadens knowledge about the defence metabolite pathways involved in Arabidopsis responses to LPS, and identifies specialised metabolites of functional importance that can be employed to enhance immunity against pathogen infection. PMID:27656890

  13. Metabolomics reveals distinct neurochemical profiles associated with stress resilience

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    Brooke N. Dulka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute social defeat represents a naturalistic form of conditioned fear and is an excellent model in which to investigate the biological basis of stress resilience. While there is growing interest in identifying biomarkers of stress resilience, until recently, it has not been feasible to associate levels of large numbers of neurochemicals and metabolites to stress-related phenotypes. The objective of the present study was to use an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify known and unknown neurochemicals in select brain regions that distinguish susceptible and resistant individuals in two rodent models of acute social defeat. In the first experiment, male mice were first phenotyped as resistant or susceptible. Then, mice were subjected to acute social defeat, and tissues were immediately collected from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, basolateral/central amygdala (BLA/CeA, nucleus accumbens (NAc, and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS was used for the detection of water-soluble neurochemicals. In the second experiment, male Syrian hamsters were paired in daily agonistic encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed stable dominant-subordinate relationships. Then, 24 h after the last dominance encounter, animals were exposed to acute social defeat stress. Immediately after social defeat, tissue was collected from the vmPFC, BLA/CeA, NAc, and dHPC for analysis using UPLC-HRMS. Although no single biomarker characterized stress-related phenotypes in both species, commonalities were found. For instance, in both model systems, animals resistant to social defeat stress also show increased concentration of molecules to protect against oxidative stress in the NAc and vmPFC. Additionally, in both mice and hamsters, unidentified spectral features were preliminarily annotated as potential targets for future experiments. Overall, these findings

  14. Quantitative analysis of relationships between fluxome and metabolome in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Taymaz Nikerel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic models, which predict the behaviour of metabolic reaction networks under different conditions, are indispensible to fully and quantitatively understand the relation between a product pathway and connected central metabolism. In this thesis the focus was to develop tools for future in vivo kinetic modeling in Escherichia coli. The relations between fluxome and metabolome at steady-state or transient state but where enzyme levels can be assumed constant are investigated. In addition, we...

  15. Establishment of quantitative severity evaluation model for spinal cord injury by metabolomic fingerprinting.

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    Jin Peng

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating event with a limited hope for recovery and represents an enormous public health issue. It is crucial to understand the disturbances in the metabolic network after SCI to identify injury mechanisms and opportunities for treatment intervention. Through plasma 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR screening, we identified 15 metabolites that made up an "Eigen-metabolome" capable of distinguishing rats with severe SCI from healthy control rats. Forty enzymes regulated these 15 metabolites in the metabolic network. We also found that 16 metabolites regulated by 130 enzymes in the metabolic network impacted neurobehavioral recovery. Using the Eigen-metabolome, we established a linear discrimination model to cluster rats with severe and mild SCI and control rats into separate groups and identify the interactive relationships between metabolic biomarkers in the global metabolic network. We identified 10 clusters in the global metabolic network and defined them as distinct metabolic disturbance domains of SCI. Metabolic paths such as retinal, glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid metabolism; NAD-NADPH conversion process, tyrosine metabolism, and cadaverine and putrescine metabolism were included. In summary, we presented a novel interdisciplinary method that integrates metabolomics and global metabolic network analysis to visualize metabolic network disturbances after SCI. Our study demonstrated the systems biological study paradigm that integration of 1H-NMR, metabolomics, and global metabolic network analysis is useful to visualize complex metabolic disturbances after severe SCI. Furthermore, our findings may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation model for clinical use.

  16. "Gear mechanism" of bariatric interventions revealed by untargeted metabolomics.

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    Samczuk, Paulina; Luba, Magdalena; Godzien, Joanna; Mastrangelo, Annalaura; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Barbas, Coral; Gorska, Maria; Kretowski, Adam; Ciborowski, Michal

    2018-03-20

    Mechanisms responsible for metabolic gains after bariatric surgery are not entirely clear. The purpose of this study was evaluation of metabolic changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in semi-annual follow up. The study participants were selected from obese patients with T2DM who underwent one of the mentioned bariatric procedures. Serum metabolic fingerprinting by use of liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was performed on samples obtained from studied patients before, one, and six months post-surgery. Performed analyses resulted in 49 significant and identified metabolites. Comparison of the two described procedures has allowed to detect metabolites linked with numerous pathways, processes and diseases. Based on the metabolites detected and pathways affected, we propose a "gear mechanism" showing molecular changes evoked by both bariatric procedures. Critical evaluation of clinical data and obtained metabolomics results enables us to conclude that both procedures are very similar in terms of general clinical outcome, but they strongly differ from each other in molecular mechanisms leading to the final effect. For the first time general metabolic effect of bariatric procedures is described. New hypotheses concerning molecular mechanisms induced by bariatric surgeries and new gut microbiota modulations are presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

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    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  18. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

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    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Metabolome Signature in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals Dynamic Reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn Finnegan

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, as MAMP molecules, trigger the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in defence. Currently, plant metabolomics is providing new dimensions into understanding the intracellular adaptive responses to external stimuli. The effect of LPS on the metabolomes of Arabidopsis thaliana cells and leaf tissue was investigated over a 24 h period. Cellular metabolites and those secreted into the medium were extracted with methanol and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Multivariate statistical data analyses were used to extract interpretable information from the generated multidimensional LC-MS data. The results show that LPS perception triggered differential changes in the metabolomes of cells and leaves, leading to variation in the biosynthesis of specialised secondary metabolites. Time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles were observed and biomarkers associated with the LPS-induced response were tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indole-and other glucosinolates, indole derivatives, camalexin as well as cinnamic acid derivatives and other phenylpropanoids. These annotated metabolites indicate dynamic reprogramming of metabolic pathways that are functionally related towards creating an enhanced defensive capacity. The results reveal new insights into the mode of action of LPS as an activator of plant innate immunity, broadens knowledge about the defence metabolite pathways involved in Arabidopsis responses to LPS, and identifies specialised metabolites of functional importance that can be employed to enhance immunity against pathogen infection.

  20. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

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    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  1. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    diagnosis. We applied this method to predict breast cancer occurrence, in combination with correlation feature selection (CFS) and classification methods. Results: The resulting all-stage and early-stage diagnosis models are highly accurate in two sets of testing blood samples, with average AUCs (Area Under.......993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study...... metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease...

  2. Metabolomics reveals metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease

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    Jansson, J.K.; Willing, B.; Lucio, M.; Fekete, A.; Dicksved, J.; Halfvarson, J.; Tysk, C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2009-06-01

    The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.

  3. Diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency by metabolomic profiling in plasma reveals a phenotypic spectrum

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    Taraka R. Donti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder that presents with a broad-spectrum of neurological and physiological symptoms. The ADSL gene produces an enzyme with binary molecular roles in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. The biochemical phenotype of ADSL deficiency, accumulation of SAICAr and succinyladenosine (S-Ado in biofluids of affected individuals, serves as the traditional target for diagnosis with targeted quantitative urine purine analysis employed as the predominate method of detection. In this study, we report the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency using an alternative method, untargeted metabolomic profiling, an analytical scheme capable of generating semi-quantitative z-score values for over 1000 unique compounds in a single analysis of a specimen. Using this method to analyze plasma, we diagnosed ADSL deficiency in four patients and confirmed these findings with targeted quantitative biochemical analysis and molecular genetic testing. ADSL deficiency is part of a large a group of neurometabolic disorders, with a wide range of severity and sharing a broad differential diagnosis. This phenotypic similarity among these many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs has classically stood as a hurdle in their initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The findings presented here demonstrate the clinical utility of metabolomic profiling in the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency and highlights the potential of this technology in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with neurologic phenotypes.

  4. Metabolomic Profiling of the Malaria Box Reveals Antimalarial Target Pathways

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    Allman, Erik L.; Painter, Heather J.; Samra, Jasmeet; Carrasquilla, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The threat of widespread drug resistance to frontline antimalarials has renewed the urgency for identifying inexpensive chemotherapeutic compounds that are effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite species responsible for the greatest number of malaria-related deaths worldwide. To aid in the fight against malaria, a recent extensive screening campaign has generated thousands of lead compounds with low micromolar activity against blood stage parasites. A subset of these leads has been compiled by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) into a collection of structurally diverse compounds known as the MMV Malaria Box. Currently, little is known regarding the activity of these Malaria Box compounds on parasite metabolism during intraerythrocytic development, and a majority of the targets for these drugs have yet to be defined. Here we interrogated the in vitro metabolic effects of 189 drugs (including 169 of the drug-like compounds from the Malaria Box) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The resulting metabolic fingerprints provide information on the parasite biochemical pathways affected by pharmacologic intervention and offer a critical blueprint for selecting and advancing lead compounds as next-generation antimalarial drugs. Our results reveal several major classes of metabolic disruption, which allow us to predict the mode of action (MoA) for many of the Malaria Box compounds. We anticipate that future combination therapies will be greatly informed by these results, allowing for the selection of appropriate drug combinations that simultaneously target multiple metabolic pathways, with the aim of eliminating malaria and forestalling the expansion of drug-resistant parasites in the field. PMID:27572391

  5. Combined metabolomic and correlation networks analyses reveal fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism.

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    Hou, Entai; Li, Xian; Liu, Zerong; Zhang, Fuchang; Tian, Zhongmin

    2018-04-01

    Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and l-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fumarase insufficiencies were associated with increased levels of fumarate, decreased levels of malate and exacerbated salt-induced hypertension. To gain insights into the metabolism profiles induced by fumarase insufficiency and identify key regulatory metabolites, we applied a GC-MS based metabolomics platform coupled with a network approach to analyze fumarase insufficient human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and negative controls. A total of 24 altered metabolites involved in seven metabolic pathways were identified as significantly altered, and enriched for the biological module of amino acids metabolism. In addition, Pearson correlation network analysis revealed that fumaric acid, l-malic acid, l-aspartic acid, glycine and l-glutamic acid were hub metabolites according to Pagerank based on their three centrality indices. Alanine aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities increased significantly in fumarase deficiency HUVEC. These results confirmed that fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism. The combination of metabolomics and network methods would provide another perspective on expounding the molecular mechanism at metabolomics level. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Deconstructing the pig sex metabolome: Targeted metabolomics in heavy pigs revealed sexual dimorphisms in plasma biomarkers and metabolic pathways.

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    Bovo, S; Mazzoni, G; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Schiavo, G; Scotti, E; Manisi, A; Samoré, A B; Bertolini, F; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P; Dall'Olio, S; Pagotto, U; Fontanesi, L

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomics has opened new possibilities to investigate metabolic differences among animals. In this study, we applied a targeted metabolomic approach to deconstruct the pig sex metabolome as defined by castrated males and entire gilts. Plasma from 545 performance-tested Italian Large White pigs (172 castrated males and 373 females) sampled at about 160 kg live weight were analyzed for 186 metabolites using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit. After filtering, 132 metabolites (20 AA, 11 biogenic amines, 1 hexose, 13 acylcarnitines, 11 sphingomyelins, 67 phosphatidylcholines, and 9 lysophosphatidylcholines) were retained for further analyses. The multivariate approach of the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied, together with a specifically designed statistical pipeline, that included a permutation test and a 10 cross-fold validation procedure that produced stability and effect size statistics for each metabolite. Using this approach, we identified 85 biomarkers (with metabolites from all analyzed chemical families) that contributed to the differences between the 2 groups of pigs ( metabolic shift in castrated males toward energy storage and lipid production. Similar general patterns were observed for most sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, and lysophosphatidylcholines. Metabolomic pathway analysis and pathway enrichment identified several differences between the 2 sexes. This metabolomic overview opened new clues on the biochemical mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism that, on one hand, might explain differences in terms of economic traits between castrated male pigs and entire gilts and, on the other hand, could strengthen the pig as a model to define metabolic mechanisms related to fat deposition.

  7. Relationships between drought, heat and air humidity responses revealed by transcriptome-metabolome co-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, Elisabeth; Jin, Ming; Zhao, Jin; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, J Barbro; Schäffner, Anton R

    2017-07-10

    Elevated temperature and reduced water availability are frequently linked abiotic stresses that may provoke distinct as well as interacting molecular responses. Based on non-targeted metabolomic and transcriptomic measurements from Arabidopsis rosettes, this study aims at a systematic elucidation of relevant components in different drought and heat scenarios as well as relationships between molecular players of stress response. In combined drought-heat stress, the majority of single stress responses are maintained. However, interaction effects between drought and heat can be discovered as well; these relate to protein folding, flavonoid biosynthesis and growth inhibition, which are enhanced, reduced or specifically induced in combined stress, respectively. Heat stress experiments with and without supplementation of air humidity for maintenance of vapor pressure deficit suggest that decreased relative air humidity due to elevated temperature is an important component of heat stress, specifically being responsible for hormone-related responses to water deprivation. Remarkably, this "dry air effect" is the primary trigger of the metabolomic response to heat. In contrast, the transcriptomic response has a substantial temperature component exceeding the dry air component and including up-regulation of many transcription factors and protein folding-related genes. Data level integration independent of prior knowledge on pathways and condition labels reveals shared drought and heat responses between transcriptome and metabolome, biomarker candidates and co-regulation between genes and metabolic compounds, suggesting novel players in abiotic stress response pathways. Drought and heat stress interact both at transcript and at metabolite response level. A comprehensive, non-targeted view of this interaction as well as non-interacting processes is important to be taken into account when improving tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programs. Transcriptome and metabolome

  8. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism.

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    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts.

  9. NMR-based metabolomics reveals urinary metabolome modifications in female Sprague-Dawley rats by cranberry procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Tayyari, Fariba; Edison, Arthur S; Su, Zhihua; Gu, Liwei

    2016-08-01

    A (1)H NMR global metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP). After collecting 24-h baseline urine, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and gavaged with PPCP or PPAP twice using a dose of 250 mg extracts per kilogram body weight. The 24-h urine samples were collected after the gavage. Urine samples were analyzed using (1)H NMR. Multivariate analyses showed that the urinary metabolome in rats was modified after administering PPCP or PPAP compared to baseline urine metabolic profiles. 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR was conducted to assist identification of discriminant metabolites. An increase of hippurate, lactate and succinate and a decrease of citrate and α-ketoglutarate were observed in rat urine after administering PPCP. Urinary levels of d-glucose, d-maltose, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, formate and phenol increased but citrate, α-ketoglutarate and creatinine decreased in rats after administering PPAP. Furthermore, the NMR analysis showed that the metabolome in the urine of rats administered with PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Compared to PPAP, PPCP caused an increase of urinary excretion of hippurate but a decrease of 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenol. These metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins may help to explain its reported health benefits and identify biomarkers of cranberry procyanidin intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Metabolomics Reveals that Insulin Primes the Adipocyte for Glucose Metabolism

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    James R. Krycer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin triggers an extensive signaling cascade to coordinate adipocyte glucose metabolism. It is considered that the major role of insulin is to provide anabolic substrates by activating GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake. However, insulin stimulates phosphorylation of many metabolic proteins. To examine the implications of this on glucose metabolism, we performed dynamic tracer metabolomics in cultured adipocytes treated with insulin. Temporal analysis of metabolite concentrations and tracer labeling revealed rapid and distinct changes in glucose metabolism, favoring specific glycolytic branch points and pyruvate anaplerosis. Integrating dynamic metabolomics and phosphoproteomics data revealed that insulin-dependent phosphorylation of anabolic enzymes occurred prior to substrate accumulation. Indeed, glycogen synthesis was activated independently of glucose supply. We refer to this phenomenon as metabolic priming, whereby insulin signaling creates a demand-driven system to “pull” glucose into specific anabolic pathways. This complements the supply-driven regulation of anabolism by substrate accumulation and highlights an additional role for insulin action in adipocyte glucose metabolism.

  11. Metabolomics reveals the heterogeneous secretome of two entomopathogenic fungi to ex vivo cultured insect tissues.

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    Charissa de Bekker

    Full Text Available Fungal entomopathogens rely on cellular heterogeneity during the different stages of insect host infection. Their pathogenicity is exhibited through the secretion of secondary metabolites, which implies that the infection life history of this group of environmentally important fungi can be revealed using metabolomics. Here metabolomic analysis in combination with ex vivo insect tissue culturing shows that two generalist isolates of the genus Metarhizium and Beauveria, commonly used as biological pesticides, employ significantly different arrays of secondary metabolites during infectious and saprophytic growth. It also reveals that both fungi exhibit tissue specific strategies by a distinguishable metabolite secretion on the insect tissues tested in this study. In addition to showing the important heterogeneous nature of these two entomopathogens, this study also resulted in the discovery of several novel destruxins and beauverolides that have not been described before, most likely because previous surveys did not use insect tissues as a culturing system. While Beauveria secreted these cyclic depsipeptides when encountering live insect tissues, Metarhizium employed them primarily on dead tissue. This implies that, while these fungi employ comparable strategies when it comes to entomopathogenesis, there are most certainly significant differences at the molecular level that deserve to be studied.

  12. TARGETED, LCMS-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF NAD+ METABOLITES

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    Samuel AJ Trammell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is a coenzyme for hydride transfer reactions and a substrate for sirtuins and other NAD+-consuming enzymes. The abundance of NAD+, NAD+ biosynthetic intermediates, and related nucleotides reflects the metabolic state of cells and tissues. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis of NAD+ metabolites does not offer the specificity and sensitivity necessary for robust quantification of complex samples. Thus, we developed a targeted, quantitative assay of the NAD+ metabolome with the use of HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. Here we discuss NAD+ metabolism as well as the technical challenges required for reliable quantification of the NAD+ metabolites. The new method incorporates new separations and improves upon a previously published method that suffered from the problem of ionization suppression for particular compounds.

  13. Metabolomics reveals metabolic alterations by intrauterine growth restriction in the fetal rabbit brain.

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    Erwin van Vliet

    Full Text Available Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development.At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR.IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress

  14. Metabolomic and Genome-wide Association Studies Reveal Potential Endogenous Biomarkers for OATP1B1.

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    Yee, S W; Giacomini, M M; Hsueh, C-H; Weitz, D; Liang, X; Goswami, S; Kinchen, J M; Coelho, A; Zur, A A; Mertsch, K; Brian, W; Kroetz, D L; Giacomini, K M

    2016-11-01

    Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major cause of drug toxicities. Using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the human metabolome, we identified 20 metabolites associated with genetic variants in organic anion transporter, OATP1B1 (P acids and fatty acid dicarboxylates were among the metabolites discovered using both GWAS and CSA administration. In vitro studies confirmed tetradecanedioate (TDA) and hexadecanedioate (HDA) were novel substrates of OATP1B1 as well as OAT1 and OAT3. This study highlights the use of multiple datasets for the discovery of endogenous metabolites that represent potential in vivo biomarkers for transporter-mediated DDIs. Future studies are needed to determine whether these metabolites can serve as qualified biomarkers for organic anion transporters. Quantitative relationships between metabolite levels and modulation of transporters should be established. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  17. Cartilaginous Metabolomic Study Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Osteophyte Formation in Osteoarthritis.

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    Xu, Zhongwei; Chen, Tingmei; Luo, Jiao; Ding, Shijia; Gao, Sichuan; Zhang, Jian

    2017-04-07

    Osteophyte is one of the inevitable consequences of progressive osteoarthritis with the main characteristics of cartilage degeneration and endochondral ossification. The pathogenesis of osteophyte formation is not fully understood to date. In this work, metabolomic approaches were employed to explore potential mechanisms of osteophyte formation by detecting metabolic variations between extracts of osteophyte cartilage tissues (n = 32) and uninvolved control cartilage tissues (n = 34), based on the platform of ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, as well as the use of multivariate statistic analysis and univariate statistic analysis. The osteophyte group was significantly separated from the control group by the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models, indicating that metabolic state of osteophyte cartilage had been changed. In total, 28 metabolic variations further validated by mass spectrum (MS) match, tandom mass spectrum (MS/MS) match, and standards match mainly included amino acids, sulfonic acids, glycerophospholipids, and fatty acyls. These metabolites were related to some specific physiological or pathological processes (collagen dissolution, boundary layers destroyed, self-restoration triggered, etc.) which might be associated with the procedure of osteophyte formation. Pathway analysis showed phenylalanine metabolism (PI = 0.168, p = 0.004) was highly correlative to this degenerative process. Our findings provided a direction for targeted metabolomic study and an insight into further reveal the molecular mechanisms of ostophyte formation.

  18. Revealing metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan from different root parts using HPLC-MS method.

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    Xiao, Chaoni; Wu, Man; Chen, Yongyong; Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metabolites in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan (the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is not well understood, therefore, scientific evidence is not available for quality assessment of Cortex Moutan. To reveal metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan in order to gain deeper insights to enable quality control. Metabolomic variations in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan were characterised using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and multivariate data analysis. The discriminating metabolites in different root parts were evaluated by the one-way analysis of variance and a fold change parameter. The metabolite profiles of Cortex Moutan were largely dominated by five primary and 41 secondary metabolites . Higher levels of malic acid, gallic acid and mudanoside-B were mainly observed in the second lateral roots, whereas dihydroxyacetophenone, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin, suffruticoside-A, kaempferol dihexoside, mudanpioside E and mudanpioside J accumulated in the first lateral and axial roots. The highest contents of paeonol, galloyloxypaeoniflorin and procyanidin B were detected in the axial roots. Accordingly, metabolite compositions of Cortex Moutan were found to vary among different root parts. The axial roots have higher quality than the lateral roots in Cortex Moutan due to the accumulation of bioactive secondary metabolites associated with plant physiology. These findings provided important scientific evidence for grading Cortex Moutan on the general market. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

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    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the “slender” and “stocky” forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the “slender” morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the “stocky” morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the “slender” morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link. PMID:25655432

  20. Serum and urine metabolomics study reveals a distinct diagnostic model for cancer cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan‐Jun; Zhao, Jiang‐Rong; Hao, Juan; Li, Bin; Huo, Yan; Han, Yong‐Long; Wan, Li‐Li; Li, Jie; Huang, Jinlu; Lu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome with high morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced cancer. The diagnosis of cancer cachexia depends on objective measures of clinical symptoms and a history of weight loss, which lag behind disease progression and have limited utility for the early diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In this study, we performed a nuclear magnetic resonance‐based metabolomics analysis to reveal the metabolic profile of cancer cachexia and establish a diagnostic model. Methods Eighty‐four cancer cachexia patients, 33 pre‐cachectic patients, 105 weight‐stable cancer patients, and 74 healthy controls were included in the training and validation sets. Comparative analysis was used to elucidate the distinct metabolites of cancer cachexia, while metabolic pathway analysis was employed to elucidate reprogramming pathways. Random forest, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to select and validate the biomarker metabolites and establish a diagnostic model. Results Forty‐six cancer cachexia patients, 22 pre‐cachectic patients, 68 weight‐stable cancer patients, and 48 healthy controls were included in the training set, and 38 cancer cachexia patients, 11 pre‐cachectic patients, 37 weight‐stable cancer patients, and 26 healthy controls were included in the validation set. All four groups were age‐matched and sex‐matched in the training set. Metabolomics analysis showed a clear separation of the four groups. Overall, 45 metabolites and 18 metabolic pathways were associated with cancer cachexia. Using random forest analysis, 15 of these metabolites were identified as highly discriminating between disease states. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to create a distinct diagnostic model with an area under the curve of 0.991 based on three metabolites. The diagnostic equation was Logit(P) = −400.53 – 481.88

  1. Proteome-metabolome profiling of ovarian cancer ascites reveals novel components involved in intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shender, Victoria O; Pavlyukov, Marat S; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Arapidi, Georgij P; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Anikanov, Nikolay A; Altukhov, Ilya A; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Butenko, Ivan O; Shavarda, Alexey L; Khomyakova, Elena B; Evtushenko, Evgeniy; Ashrafyan, Lev A; Antonova, Irina B; Kuznetcov, Igor N; Gorbachev, Alexey Yu; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I; Govorun, Vadim M

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian cancer ascites is a native medium for cancer cells that allows investigation of their secretome in a natural environment. This medium is of interest as a promising source of potential biomarkers, and also as a medium for cell-cell communication. The aim of this study was to elucidate specific features of the malignant ascites metabolome and proteome. In order to omit components of the systemic response to ascites formation, we compared malignant ascites with cirrhosis ascites. Metabolome analysis revealed 41 components that differed significantly between malignant and cirrhosis ascites. Most of the identified cancer-specific metabolites are known to be important signaling molecules. Proteomic analysis identified 2096 and 1855 proteins in the ovarian cancer and cirrhosis ascites, respectively; 424 proteins were specific for the malignant ascites. Functional analysis of the proteome demonstrated that the major differences between cirrhosis and malignant ascites were observed for the cluster of spliceosomal proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate that several splicing RNAs were exclusively detected in malignant ascites, where they probably existed within protein complexes. This result was confirmed in vitro using an ovarian cancer cell line. Identification of spliceosomal proteins and RNAs in an extracellular medium is of particular interest; the finding suggests that they might play a role in the communication between cancer cells. In addition, malignant ascites contains a high number of exosomes that are known to play an important role in signal transduction. Thus our study reveals the specific features of malignant ascites that are associated with its function as a medium of intercellular communication. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Integrated Metabolomics and Morphogenesis Reveal Volatile Signaling of the Nematode-Trapping Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Le; Chen, Yong-Hong; He, Jia-Ning; Xue, Hua-Xi; Yan, Ni; Zeng, Zhi-Jun; Bennett, Joan W; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Niu, Xue-Mei

    2018-05-01

    into contact with nematodes as a response to nutrient depletion. In this study, we investigated the metabolic response during the switch and the key types of metabolites involved in the interaction between fungi and nematodes. Our findings indicate that A. oligospora develops multiple and flexible metabolic tactics corresponding to different morphological responses to nematodes. A. oligospora can use similar volatile furanone and pyrone metabolites with different ecological functions to help capture nematodes in the fungal switch from the saprophytic to the pathogenic lifestyle. Furthermore, studies with A. oligospora mutants with increased furanone and pyrone metabolites confirmed the results. This investigation reveals the importance of volatile signaling in the comprehensive tactics used by nematode-trapping fungi, integrating both morphological and metabolomic mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  3. Nanoparticle-Assisted Metabolomics

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    Bo Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and harnessing the interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules is at the forefront of applications of nanotechnology to modern biology. Metabolomics has emerged as a prominent player in systems biology as a complement to genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Its focus is the systematic study of metabolite identities and concentration changes in living systems. Despite significant progress over the recent past, important challenges in metabolomics remain, such as the deconvolution of the spectra of complex mixtures with strong overlaps, the sensitive detection of metabolites at low abundance, unambiguous identification of known metabolites, structure determination of unknown metabolites and standardized sample preparation for quantitative comparisons. Recent research has demonstrated that some of these challenges can be substantially alleviated with the help of nanoscience. Nanoparticles in particular have found applications in various areas of bioanalytical chemistry and metabolomics. Their chemical surface properties and increased surface-to-volume ratio endows them with a broad range of binding affinities to biomacromolecules and metabolites. The specific interactions of nanoparticles with metabolites or biomacromolecules help, for example, simplify metabolomics spectra, improve the ionization efficiency for mass spectrometry or reveal relationships between spectral signals that belong to the same molecule. Lessons learned from nanoparticle-assisted metabolomics may also benefit other emerging areas, such as nanotoxicity and nanopharmaceutics.

  4. Plasma metabolomics reveal the correlation of metabolic pathways and Prakritis of humans

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    Amey Shirolkar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medicinal system, has categorized human body constitutions in three broad constitutional types (prakritis i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Objectives: Analysis of plasma metabolites and related pathways to classify Prakriti specific dominant marker metabolites and metabolic pathways. Materials and methods: 38 healthy male individuals were assessed for dominant Prakritis and their fasting blood samples were collected. The processed plasma samples were subjected to rapid resolution liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (RRLC–ESI–QTOFMS. Mass profiles were aligned and subjected to multivariate analysis. Results: Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model showed 97.87% recognition capability. List of PLS-DA metabolites was subjected to permutative Benjamini–Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR correction and final list of 76 metabolites with p  2.0 was identified. Pathway analysis using metascape and JEPETTO plugins in Cytoscape revealed that steroidal hormone biosynthesis, amino acid, and arachidonic acid metabolism are major pathways varying with different constitution. Biological Go processes analysis showed that aromatic amino acids, sphingolipids, and pyrimidine nucleotides metabolic processes were dominant in kapha type of body constitution. Fat soluble vitamins, cellular amino acid, and androgen biosynthesis process along with branched chain amino acid and glycerolipid catabolic processes were dominant in pitta type individuals. Vata Prakriti was found to have dominant catecholamine, arachidonic acid and hydrogen peroxide metabolomics processes. Conclusion: The neurotransmission and oxidative stress in vata, BCAA catabolic, androgen, xenobiotics metabolic processes in pitta, and aromatic amino acids, sphingolipid, and pyrimidine metabolic process in kapha Prakriti were the dominant marker pathways. Keywords: Ayurveda, Prakriti, Human

  5. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

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    Mariateresa Maldini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle. We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the

  6. Fusarium oxysporum mediates systems metabolic reprogramming of chickpea roots as revealed by a combination of proteomics and metabolomics.

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    Kumar, Yashwant; Zhang, Limin; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Dewangan, Veena; Chavan, Sachin G; Kunjir, Shrikant M; Wu, Xiangyu; Li, Ning; Rajmohanan, Pattuparambil R; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Tang, Huiru; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-07-01

    Molecular changes elicited by plants in response to fungal attack and how this affects plant-pathogen interaction, including susceptibility or resistance, remain elusive. We studied the dynamics in root metabolism during compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc), using quantitative label-free proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics. Results demonstrated differential expression of proteins and metabolites upon Foc inoculations in the resistant plants compared with the susceptible ones. Additionally, expression analysis of candidate genes supported the proteomic and metabolic variations in the chickpea roots upon Foc inoculation. In particular, we found that the resistant plants revealed significant increase in the carbon and nitrogen metabolism; generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lignification and phytoalexins. The levels of some of the pathogenesis-related proteins were significantly higher upon Foc inoculation in the resistant plant. Interestingly, results also exhibited the crucial role of altered Yang cycle, which contributed in different methylation reactions and unfolded protein response in the chickpea roots against Foc. Overall, the observed modulations in the metabolic flux as outcome of several orchestrated molecular events are determinant of plant's role in chickpea-Foc interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Emerging Field of Quantitative Blood Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery in Critical Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, Natalie J.; Standiford, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics, a science of systems biology, is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and represents a “snapshot” reading of gene function, enzyme activity, and the physiological landscape. Metabolite detection, either individual or grouped as a metabolomic profile, is usually performed in cells, tissues, or biofluids by either nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry followed by sophisticated multivariate data analysis. Because loss of metabolic homeostasis is common in critical illness, the metabolome could have many applications, including biomarker and drug target identification. Metabolomics could also significantly advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of acute illnesses, such as sepsis and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite this potential, the clinical community is largely unfamiliar with the field of metabolomics, including the methodologies involved, technical challenges, and, most importantly, clinical uses. Although there is evidence of successful preclinical applications, the clinical usefulness and application of metabolomics in critical illness is just beginning to emerge, the advancement of which hinges on linking metabolite data to known and validated clinically relevant indices. In addition, other important aspects, such as patient selection, sample collection, and processing, as well as the needed multivariate data analysis, have to be taken into consideration before this innovative approach to biomarker discovery can become a reliable tool in the intensive care unit. The purpose of this review is to begin to familiarize clinicians with the field of metabolomics and its application for biomarker discovery in critical illnesses such as sepsis. PMID:21680948

  8. Metabolomics reveals metabolic changes in male reproductive cells exposed to thirdhand smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Yao, Mengmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Mao, Zhilei; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Shanlei; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai

    2015-10-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Metabolomic analysis was performed on methanol extracts of GC-2 and TM-4 cells. Glutathione metabolism in GC-2 cells, and nucleic acid and ammonia metabolism in TM-4 cells, was changed significantly by THS treatment. RT-PCR analyses of mRNA for enzyme genes Gss and Ggt in GC-2 cells, and TK, SMS and Glna in TM-4 cells reinforced these findings, showing changes in the levels of enzymes involved in the relevant pathways. In conclusion, exposure to THS at very low concentrations caused distinct metabolic changes in two different types of male reproductive cell lines.

  9. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K. P. Lau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus. Among the 14 Mp1p homologs, only Mp1p is a virulence factor binding a variety of host proteins, fatty acids and lipids. There are 23 polyketide synthase genes, one for melanin and two for mitorubrinic acid/mitorubrinol biosynthesis, which are virulence factors. Another polyketide synthase is for biogenesis of the diffusible red pigment, which consists of amino acid conjugates of monascorubin and rubropunctatin. Novel microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs and processing proteins are present. The dicer protein, dcl-2, is required for biogenesis of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, which are more highly expressed in hyphal cells. Comparative transcriptomics showed that tandem repeat-containing genes were overexpressed in yeast phase, generating protein polymorphism among cells, evading host’s immunity. Comparative proteomics between yeast and hyphal cells revealed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, up-regulated in hyphal cells, is an adhesion factor for conidial attachment.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis - Mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis revealed enrichment of hypotaurine in rat glioma tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xueyan; Liu, Yingyang; Yu, Zhigang; Cao, Yunfeng; Sun, Aijun; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yong

    2017-11-15

    Glioma is one of the most lethal brain malignancies with unknown etiologies. Many metabolomics analysis aiming at diverse kinds of samples had been performed. Due to the varied adopted analytical platforms, the reported disease-related metabolites were not consistent across different studies. Comparable metabolomics results are more likely to be acquired by analyzing the same sample types with identical analytical platform. For tumor researches, tissue samples metabolomics analysis own the unique advantage that it can gain more direct insight into disease-specific pathological molecules. In this light, a previous reported capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry human tissues metabolomics analysis method was employed to profile the metabolome of rat C6 cell implantation gliomas and the corresponding precancerous tissues. It was found that 9 metabolites increased in the glioma tissues. Of them, hypotaurine was the only metabolite that enriched in the malignant tissues as what had been reported in the relevant human tissues metabolomics analysis. Furthermore, hypotaurine was also proved to inhibit α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-KDDs) through immunocytochemistry staining and in vitro enzymatic activity assays by using C6 cell cultures. This study reinforced the previous conclusion that hypotaurine acted as a competitive inhibitor of 2-KDDs and proved the value of metabolomics in oncology studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The metabolomic signature of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy reveals endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao de la Barca, Juan Manuel; Simard, Gilles; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Safiedeen, Zainab; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine; Chupin, Stéphanie; Gadras, Cédric; Tessier, Lydie; Gueguen, Naïg; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré, Marc; Bris, Céline; Kouassi Nzoughet, Judith; Bocca, Cinzia; Leruez, Stéphanie; Verny, Christophe; Miléa, Dan; Bonneau, Dominique; Lenaers, Guy; Martinez, M Carmen; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (MIM#535000), the commonest mitochondrial DNA-related disease, is caused by mutations affecting mitochondrial complex I. The clinical expression of the disorder, usually occurring in young adults, is typically characterized by subacute, usually sequential, bilateral visual loss, resulting from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As the precise action of mitochondrial DNA mutations on the overall cell metabolism in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is unknown, we investigated the metabolomic profile of the disease. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 188 metabolites in fibroblasts from 16 patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and eight healthy control subjects. Latent variable-based statistical methods were used to identify discriminating metabolites. One hundred and twenty-four of the metabolites were considered to be accurately quantified. A supervised orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis model separating patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from control subjects showed good predictive capability (Q 2cumulated = 0.57). Thirty-eight metabolites appeared to be the most significant variables, defining a Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy metabolic signature that revealed decreased concentrations of all proteinogenic amino acids, spermidine, putrescine, isovaleryl-carnitine, propionyl-carnitine and five sphingomyelin species, together with increased concentrations of 10 phosphatidylcholine species. This signature was not reproduced by the inhibition of complex I with rotenone or piericidin A in control fibroblasts. The importance of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines in the Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy signature, together with the decreased amino acid pool, suggested an involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum. This was confirmed by the significantly increased phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α, as well as

  13. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgoda-Pols, Joanna R.; Chowdhury, Swapan; Wirth, Mark; Milburn, Michael V.; Alexander, Danny C.; Alton, Kevin B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  14. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-03-20

    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  15. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W T; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, Candy C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-06-17

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  16. Metabolomics Reveals that Momordica charantia Attenuates Metabolic Changes in Experimental Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jianbing; Xu, Yong-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Momordica charantia L., also known as bitter melon, has been shown to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. However, metabolic changes regulated by M. charantia in obesity are not clearly understood. In this study, serums obtained from obese and M. charantia-treated mice were analyzed by using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed by Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results from this study indicated that body weight fat and insulin levels of obese mice are dramatically suppressed by 8 weeks of dietary supplementation of M. charantia. Metabolomic data revealed that overproductions of energy and nutrient metabolism in obese mice were restored by M. charantia treatment. The antiinflammatory and inhibition of insulin resistance effect of M. charantia in obesity was illustrated with the restoration of free fatty acids and eicosanoids. The findings achieved in this study further strengthen the therapeutic value of using M. charantia to treat obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metabolomics of dates (Phoenix dactylifera) reveals a highly dynamic ripening process accounting for major variation in fruit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diboun, Ilhame; Mathew, Sweety; Al-Rayyashi, Maryam; Elrayess, Mohamed; Torres, Maria; Halama, Anna; Méret, Michaël; Mohney, Robert P; Karoly, Edward D; Malek, Joel; Suhre, Karsten

    2015-12-16

    Dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. Previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. In this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome. Multivariate analysis revealed a first principal component (PC1) significantly associated with the dates' countries of production. The availability of a smaller dataset featuring immature dates from different development stages served to build a model of the ripening process in dates, which helped reveal a strong ripening signature in PC1. Analysis revealed enrichment in the dry type of dates amongst fruits with early ripening profiles at one end of PC1 as oppose to an overrepresentation of the soft type of dates with late ripening profiles at the other end of PC1. Dry dates are typical to the North African region whilst soft dates are more popular in the Gulf region, which partly explains the observed association between PC1 and geography. Analysis of the loading values, expressing metabolite correlation levels with PC1, revealed enrichment patterns of a comprehensive range of metabolite classes along PC1. Three distinct metabolic phases corresponding to known stages of date ripening were observed: An early phase enriched in regulatory hormones, amines and polyamines, energy production, tannins, sucrose and anti-oxidant activity, a second phase with on-going phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism, gene expression and phospholipid metabolism and a late phase with marked sugar dehydration activity and degradation reactions leading to increased volatile synthesis. These data indicate the importance of date ripening as a main driver of variation in the date metabolome responsible for their diverse nutritional and

  18. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication of estuaries and coastal seas is accelerating, increasing light stress on subtidal marine plants and changing their interactions with other species. To date, we have limited understanding of how such variations in environmental and biological stress modify the impact of interactions...... among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis....... Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy...

  19. MetabR: an R script for linear model analysis of quantitative metabolomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ben

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics is an emerging high-throughput approach to systems biology, but data analysis tools are lacking compared to other systems level disciplines such as transcriptomics and proteomics. Metabolomic data analysis requires a normalization step to remove systematic effects of confounding variables on metabolite measurements. Current tools may not correctly normalize every metabolite when the relationships between each metabolite quantity and fixed-effect confounding variables are different, or for the effects of random-effect confounding variables. Linear mixed models, an established methodology in the microarray literature, offer a standardized and flexible approach for removing the effects of fixed- and random-effect confounding variables from metabolomic data. Findings Here we present a simple menu-driven program, “MetabR”, designed to aid researchers with no programming background in statistical analysis of metabolomic data. Written in the open-source statistical programming language R, MetabR implements linear mixed models to normalize metabolomic data and analysis of variance (ANOVA to test treatment differences. MetabR exports normalized data, checks statistical model assumptions, identifies differentially abundant metabolites, and produces output files to help with data interpretation. Example data are provided to illustrate normalization for common confounding variables and to demonstrate the utility of the MetabR program. Conclusions We developed MetabR as a simple and user-friendly tool for implementing linear mixed model-based normalization and statistical analysis of targeted metabolomic data, which helps to fill a lack of available data analysis tools in this field. The program, user guide, example data, and any future news or updates related to the program may be found at http://metabr.r-forge.r-project.org/.

  20. Elucidating dynamic metabolic physiology through network integration of quantitative time-course metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Yurkovich, James T.; Paglia, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The increasing availability of metabolomics data necessitates novel methods for deeper data analysis and interpretation. We present a flux balance analysis method that allows for the computation of dynamic intracellular metabolic changes at the cellular scale through integration of time-course ab......The increasing availability of metabolomics data necessitates novel methods for deeper data analysis and interpretation. We present a flux balance analysis method that allows for the computation of dynamic intracellular metabolic changes at the cellular scale through integration of time...

  1. Unbiased plasma metabolomics reveal the correlation of metabolic pathways and Prakritis of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirolkar, Amey; Chakraborty, Sutapa; Mandal, Tusharkanti; Dabur, Rajesh

    2017-11-25

    Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medicinal system, has categorized human body constitutions in three broad constitutional types (prakritis) i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Analysis of plasma metabolites and related pathways to classify Prakriti specific dominant marker metabolites and metabolic pathways. 38 healthy male individuals were assessed for dominant Prakritis and their fasting blood samples were collected. The processed plasma samples were subjected to rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-QTOFMS). Mass profiles were aligned and subjected to multivariate analysis. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model showed 97.87% recognition capability. List of PLS-DA metabolites was subjected to permutative Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) correction and final list of 76 metabolites with p  2.0 was identified. Pathway analysis using metascape and JEPETTO plugins in Cytoscape revealed that steroidal hormone biosynthesis, amino acid, and arachidonic acid metabolism are major pathways varying with different constitution. Biological Go processes analysis showed that aromatic amino acids, sphingolipids, and pyrimidine nucleotides metabolic processes were dominant in kapha type of body constitution. Fat soluble vitamins, cellular amino acid, and androgen biosynthesis process along with branched chain amino acid and glycerolipid catabolic processes were dominant in pitta type individuals. Vata Prakriti was found to have dominant catecholamine, arachidonic acid and hydrogen peroxide metabolomics processes. The neurotransmission and oxidative stress in vata, BCAA catabolic, androgen, xenobiotics metabolic processes in pitta, and aromatic amino acids, sphingolipid, and pyrimidine metabolic process in kaphaPrakriti were the dominant marker pathways. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Neurochemical Metabolomics Reveals Disruption to Sphingolipid Metabolism Following Chronic Haloperidol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Crowley, James J; Vann, Robert E; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2015-09-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p < 0.05 level. Top compounds were robust to analytical method, also being identified via partial least squares discriminant analysis. Four compounds (sphinganine, N-acetylornithine, leucine and adenosine diphosphate) survived correction for multiple testing in a non-parametric analysis using false discovery rate threshold < 0.1. Pathway analysis of nominally significant compounds (p < 0.05) revealed significant findings for sphingolipid metabolism (p = 0.015) and protein biosynthesis (p = 0.024). Altered sphingolipid metabolism is suggestive of disruptions to myelin. This interpretation is supported by our observation of elevated N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate in the haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects.

  3. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis reveal the antiosteoporotic molecular mechanism of icariin from Epimedium brevicornu maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liming; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Ting; Zhang, Naidan; Qin, Luping; Xin, Hailiang; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2016-11-04

    Icariin, a principal flavonoid glycoside of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim, has been widely proved to possess antiosteoporotic activity with promoting bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. However, the involving mechanisms remain unclear. To clear a global insight of signal pathways involved in anti-osteoporotic mechanism of icariin at proteins and metabolites level by integrating the proteomics and NMR metabonomics, in a systems biology approach. Mice were divided into sham, OVX model and icariin-treated OVX group, after 90 days treatment, difference gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF proteomics analysis on bone femur and serum metabolomics were carried out for monitor intracellular processes and elucidate anti-osteoporotic mechanism of icariin. Osteoblast and osteoclast were applied to evaluate the potential signal pathways. Twenty three proteins in bone femur, and 8 metabolites in serum, were significantly altered and identified, involving in bone remodeling, energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, lipid metabolism, MAPK signaling, Ca 2+ signaling et, al. Furthermore, animal experiment show icariin could enhance the BMD and BMC, decrease CTX-I level in ovariectomized mice. The mitochondrial membrane potential and the intracellular ATP levels were increased significantly, and the cytoskeleton were improved in icariin-treatment osteoblast and osteoclast. Icariin also increased mRNA expression of Runx2 and osterix of OB, decreased CTR and CAII mRNA expression and protein expression of P38 and JNK. However, icariin did not reveal any inhibition of the collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K, mRNA expression of MMP-9 and protein expression of ERK in osteoclast. we consider icariin as multi-targeting compounds for treating with osteoporosis, involve initiating osteoblastogenesis, inhibiting adipogenesis, and preventing osteoclast differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brante P Sampey

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity

  5. Metabolomics of pulmonary exacerbations reveals the personalized nature of cystic fibrosis disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Quinn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic fibrosis (CF is a genetic disease that results in chronic infections of the lungs. CF patients experience intermittent pulmonary exacerbations (CFPE that are associated with poor clinical outcomes. CFPE involves an increase in disease symptoms requiring more aggressive therapy. Methods. Longitudinal sputum samples were collected from 11 patients (n = 44 samples to assess the effect of exacerbations on the sputum metabolome using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The data was analyzed with MS/MS molecular networking and multivariate statistics. Results. The individual patient source had a larger influence on the metabolome of sputum than the clinical state (exacerbation, treatment, post-treatment, or stable. Of the 4,369 metabolites detected, 12% were unique to CFPE samples; however, the only known metabolites significantly elevated at exacerbation across the dataset were platelet activating factor (PAF and a related monacylglycerophosphocholine lipid. Due to the personalized nature of the sputum metabolome, a single patient was followed for 4.2 years (capturing four separate exacerbation events as a case study for the detection of personalized biomarkers with metabolomics. PAF and related lipids were significantly elevated during CFPEs of this patient and ceramide was elevated during CFPE treatment. Correlating the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons to metabolomics data from the same samples during a CFPE demonstrated that antibiotics were positively correlated to Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas, while ceramides and other lipids were correlated with Streptococcus, Rothia, and anaerobes. Conclusions. This study identified PAF and other inflammatory lipids as potential biomarkers of CFPE, but overall, the metabolome of CF sputum was patient specific, supporting a personalized approach to molecular detection of CFPE onset.

  6. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: "1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of "1H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by changes in the

  7. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of {sup 1}H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma from Melioidosis Patients Using UHPLC-QTOF MS Reveals Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K. P. Lau

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify potential biomarkers for improving diagnosis of melioidosis, we compared plasma metabolome profiles of melioidosis patients compared to patients with other bacteremia and controls without active infection, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that the metabolomic profiles of melioidosis patients are distinguishable from bacteremia patients and controls. Using multivariate and univariate analysis, 12 significant metabolites from four lipid classes, acylcarnitine (n = 6, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE (n = 3, sphingomyelins (SM (n = 2 and phosphatidylcholine (PC (n = 1, with significantly higher levels in melioidosis patients than bacteremia patients and controls, were identified. Ten of the 12 metabolites showed area-under-receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC >0.80 when compared both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients, and between melioidosis patients and controls. SM(d18:2/16:0 possessed the largest AUC when compared, both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients (AUC 0.998, sensitivity 100% and specificity 91.7%, and between melioidosis patients and controls (AUC 1.000, sensitivity 96.7% and specificity 100%. Our results indicate that metabolome profiling might serve as a promising approach for diagnosis of melioidosis using patient plasma, with SM(d18:2/16:0 representing a potential biomarker. Since the 12 metabolites were related to various pathways for energy and lipid metabolism, further studies may reveal their possible role in the pathogenesis and host response in melioidosis.

  9. Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma from Melioidosis Patients Using UHPLC-QTOF MS Reveals Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lo, George C S; Ding, Vanessa S Y; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Ke, Tony Y H; Curreem, Shirly O T; To, Kelvin K W; Ho, Deborah T Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Hung, Ivan F N; Sze, Kong-Hung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-27

    To identify potential biomarkers for improving diagnosis of melioidosis, we compared plasma metabolome profiles of melioidosis patients compared to patients with other bacteremia and controls without active infection, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the metabolomic profiles of melioidosis patients are distinguishable from bacteremia patients and controls. Using multivariate and univariate analysis, 12 significant metabolites from four lipid classes, acylcarnitine (n = 6), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE) (n = 3), sphingomyelins (SM) (n = 2) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (n = 1), with significantly higher levels in melioidosis patients than bacteremia patients and controls, were identified. Ten of the 12 metabolites showed area-under-receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) >0.80 when compared both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients, and between melioidosis patients and controls. SM(d18:2/16:0) possessed the largest AUC when compared, both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients (AUC 0.998, sensitivity 100% and specificity 91.7%), and between melioidosis patients and controls (AUC 1.000, sensitivity 96.7% and specificity 100%). Our results indicate that metabolome profiling might serve as a promising approach for diagnosis of melioidosis using patient plasma, with SM(d18:2/16:0) representing a potential biomarker. Since the 12 metabolites were related to various pathways for energy and lipid metabolism, further studies may reveal their possible role in the pathogenesis and host response in melioidosis.

  10. Metabolomics approach reveals metabolic disorders and potential biomarkers associated with the developmental toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guozhu; Chen, Yajie; Wang, Hong-Ou; Ye, Ting; Lin, Yi; Huang, Qiansheng; Chi, Yulang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A are halogenated bisphenol A (H-BPA), and has raised concerns about their adverse effects on the development of fetuses and infants, however, the molecular mechanisms are unclear, and related metabolomics studies are limited. Accordingly, a metabolomics study based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to elucidate the molecular developmental toxicology of H-BPA using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigmas) embryo model. Here, we revealed decreased synthesis of nucleosides, amino acids and lipids, and disruptions in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, glycolysis and lipid metabolism, thus inhibiting the developmental processes of embryos exposed to H-BPA. Unexpectedly, we observed enhanced neural activity accompanied by lactate accumulation and accelerated heart rates due to an increase in dopamine pathway and a decrease in inhibitory neurotransmitters following H-BPA exposure. Notably, disorders of the neural system, and disruptions in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, nucleoside metabolism, lipid metabolism, glutamate and aspartate metabolism induced by H-BPA exposure were heritable. Furthermore, lactate and dopa were identified as potential biomarkers of the developmental toxicity of H-BPA and related genetic effects. This study has demonstrated that the metabolomics approach is a useful tool for obtaining comprehensive and novel insights into the molecular developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants.

  11. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    Purpose: To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesisfree metabolomics approach. Design: Cross-sectional association study. Participants: A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean

  12. Canonical correlation analysis of multiple sensory directed metabolomics data blocks reveals corresponding parts between data blocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T. G.; Hageman, J.A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Tikunov, Y.; Bovy, A.; van Eeuwijk, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple analytical platforms are frequently used in metabolomics studies. The resulting multiple data blocks contain, in general, similar parts of information which can be disclosed by chemometric methods. The metabolites of interest, however, are usually just a minor part of the complete data

  13. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic Y; Jennings, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to

  14. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  15. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G; Hammond, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesis-free metabolomics approach. Cross-sectional association study. A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean age of 57 years (range, 17-82 years). We tested associations between 222 known serum metabolites and DED. All subjects underwent nontargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples using gas and liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (Metabolon Inc., Durham, NC). Dry eye disease was defined from the validated Short Questionnaire for Dry Eye Syndrome (SQDES) as a previous diagnosis of DED by a clinician or "often" or "constant" symptoms of dryness and irritation. Analyses were performed with linear mixed effect models that included age, BMI, and sex as covariates, corrected for multiple testing. Primary outcome was DED as defined by the SQDES, and secondary outcomes were symptom score of DED and a clinical diagnosis of DED. Prevalence of DED as defined by the SQDES was 15.5% (n = 436). A strong and metabolome-wide significant association with DED was found with decreased levels of the metabolites androsterone sulfate (P = 0.00030) and epiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.00036). Three other metabolites involved in androgen metabolism, 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1 and 2, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, were the next most strongly associated of the 222 metabolites, but did not reach metabolome-wide significance. Dryness and irritation symptoms, as opposed to a clinical diagnosis, were particularly strongly associated with decreased androgen steroid metabolites, with all reaching metabolome-wide significance (androsterone sulfate, P = 0.000000029; epiandrosterone sulfate, P = 0.0000040; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1, P = 0.000016; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 2, P = 0.000064; and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, P = 0.00011). Of these 5

  16. Comparative metabolomics in vegans and omnivores reveal constraints on diet-dependent gut microbiota metabolite production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Compher, Charlene; Chen, Eric Z; Smith, Sarah A; Shah, Rachana D; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Albenberg, Lindsey G; Nessel, Lisa; Gilroy, Erin; Star, Julie; Weljie, Aalim M; Flint, Harry J; Metz, David C; Bennett, Michael J; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The consumption of an agrarian diet is associated with a reduced risk for many diseases associated with a ‘Westernised’ lifestyle. Studies suggest that diet affects the gut microbiota, which subsequently influences the metabolome, thereby connecting diet, microbiota and health. However, the degree to which diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota is controversial. Murine models and studies comparing the gut microbiota in humans residing in agrarian versus Western societies suggest that the influence is large. To separate global environmental influences from dietary influences, we characterised the gut microbiota and the host metabolome of individuals consuming an agrarian diet in Western society. Design and results Using 16S rRNA-tagged sequencing as well as plasma and urinary metabolomic platforms, we compared measures of dietary intake, gut microbiota composition and the plasma metabolome between healthy human vegans and omnivores, sampled in an urban USA environment. Plasma metabolome of vegans differed markedly from omnivores but the gut microbiota was surprisingly similar. Unlike prior studies of individuals living in agrarian societies, higher consumption of fermentable substrate in vegans was not associated with higher levels of faecal short chain fatty acids, a finding confirmed in a 10-day controlled feeding experiment. Similarly, the proportion of vegans capable of producing equol, a soy-based gut microbiota metabolite, was less than that was reported in Asian societies despite the high consumption of soy-based products. Conclusions Evidently, residence in globally distinct societies helps determine the composition of the gut microbiota that, in turn, influences the production of diet-dependent gut microbial metabolites. PMID:25431456

  17. Comparative metabolomics in vegans and omnivores reveal constraints on diet-dependent gut microbiota metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Compher, Charlene; Chen, Eric Z; Smith, Sarah A; Shah, Rachana D; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Albenberg, Lindsey G; Nessel, Lisa; Gilroy, Erin; Star, Julie; Weljie, Aalim M; Flint, Harry J; Metz, David C; Bennett, Michael J; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of an agrarian diet is associated with a reduced risk for many diseases associated with a 'Westernised' lifestyle. Studies suggest that diet affects the gut microbiota, which subsequently influences the metabolome, thereby connecting diet, microbiota and health. However, the degree to which diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota is controversial. Murine models and studies comparing the gut microbiota in humans residing in agrarian versus Western societies suggest that the influence is large. To separate global environmental influences from dietary influences, we characterised the gut microbiota and the host metabolome of individuals consuming an agrarian diet in Western society. Using 16S rRNA-tagged sequencing as well as plasma and urinary metabolomic platforms, we compared measures of dietary intake, gut microbiota composition and the plasma metabolome between healthy human vegans and omnivores, sampled in an urban USA environment. Plasma metabolome of vegans differed markedly from omnivores but the gut microbiota was surprisingly similar. Unlike prior studies of individuals living in agrarian societies, higher consumption of fermentable substrate in vegans was not associated with higher levels of faecal short chain fatty acids, a finding confirmed in a 10-day controlled feeding experiment. Similarly, the proportion of vegans capable of producing equol, a soy-based gut microbiota metabolite, was less than that was reported in Asian societies despite the high consumption of soy-based products. Evidently, residence in globally distinct societies helps determine the composition of the gut microbiota that, in turn, influences the production of diet-dependent gut microbial metabolites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Targeted metabolomics reveals reduced levels of polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and a smaller dimethylarginine/arginine ratio in the follicular fluid of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barca, J M Chao; Boueilh, T; Simard, G; Boucret, L; Ferré-L'Hotellier, V; Tessier, L; Gadras, C; Bouet, P E; Descamps, P; Procaccio, V; Reynier, P; May-Panloup, P

    2017-11-01

    Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence. Studies of the FF have allowed identification of biomarkers and metabolic pathways involved in various pathologies affecting oocyte quality, but no large metabolomic analysis in the context of ovarian ageing and DOR has been undertaken so far. This was an observational study of the FF retrieved from 57 women undergoing in vitro fertilization at the University Hospital of Angers, France, from November 2015 to September 2016. The women were classified in two groups: one including 28 DOR patients, and the other including 29 NOR patients, serving as controls. Patients were enrolled in the morning of oocyte retrieval after ovarian stimulation. Once the oocytes were isolated for fertilization and culture, the FF was pooled and centrifuged for analysis. A targeted quantitative metabolomic analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit. The FF levels of 188 metabolites and several sums and ratios of metabolic significance were assessed by multivariate and univariate analyses. A total of 136 metabolites were accurately quantified and used for calculating 23 sums and ratios. Samples were randomly divided into training and validation sets. The training set, allowed the construction of multivariate statistical models with a projection-supervised method, i.e. orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), applied to the full set of metabolites, or the penalized

  19. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  20. A synbiotic improves the immunity of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Metabolomic analysis reveal compelling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truong-Giang; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chi, Chia-Chun; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2018-05-18

    In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. To unravel the regulatory role of the synbiotic in activating the immune system of shrimp, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis were used to investigate hepatopancreas metabolites, then significantly altered metabolites were confirmed in both the hepatopancreas and plasma by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrophotometric analysis. Shrimp were fed four experimental diets for 60 days, including a basal diet with no GOS or probiotic (control), 0.4% GOS (PRE), probiotic (PRO), and 0.4% GOS in combination with the probiotic (SYN). Results showed that the SYN diet significantly increased survival of L. vannamei 24 h after a V. alginolyticus injection. Immune parameters such as phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, phagocytic activity and gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase I, serine proteinase, and peroxinectin, of shrimp fed the SYN diet significantly increased, compared to the other treatments and control. In addition, results from the 1 H NMR analysis revealed that 22 hepatopancreas metabolites were matched and identified between the SYN and control groups, among which three metabolites, i.e., inosine monophosphate (IMP), valine, and betaine, significantly increased in the SYN group. Confirmation using RP-HPLC and spectrophotometric methods showed that IMP presented high amounts in the hepatopancreas, but not in the plasma of shrimp; in contrast, valine and betaine metabolites were in high concentrations in both the hepatopancreas and plasma. Our results suggested that GOS and the probiotic had a synergistic effect on enhancing immunity and disease resistance of L. vannamei against

  1. NMR metabolomics of human lung tumours reveals distinct metabolic signatures for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, CM; Barros, AS; Goodfellow, BJ; Carreira, IM; Gomes, AA; Sousa, V; Bernardo, J; Carvalho, L; Gil, AM; Duarte, IF

    2015-01-01

    Lung tumour subtyping, particularly the distinction between adenocarcinoma (AdC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), is a critical diagnostic requirement. In this work, the metabolic signatures of lung carcinomas were investigated through (1)H NMR metabolomics, with a view to provide additional criteria for improved diagnosis and treatment planning. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse matched tumour and adjacent control tissue...

  2. Comprehensive transcriptome analyses correlated with untargeted metabolome reveal differentially expressed pathways in response to cell wall alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Nathan T; Chen, Han-Yi; Hur, Manhoi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Li, Xu; Li, Ling; Zabotina, Olga

    2018-03-01

    This research provides new insights into plant response to cell wall perturbations through correlation of transcriptome and metabolome datasets obtained from transgenic plants expressing cell wall-modifying enzymes. Plants respond to changes in their cell walls in order to protect themselves from pathogens and other stresses. Cell wall modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana have profound effects on gene expression and defense response, but the cell signaling mechanisms underlying these responses are not well understood. Three transgenic Arabidopsis lines, two with reduced cell wall acetylation (AnAXE and AnRAE) and one with reduced feruloylation (AnFAE), were used in this study to investigate the plant responses to cell wall modifications. RNA-Seq in combination with untargeted metabolome was employed to assess differential gene expression and metabolite abundance. RNA-Seq results were correlated with metabolite abundances to determine the pathways involved in response to cell wall modifications introduced in each line. The resulting pathway enrichments revealed the deacetylation events in AnAXE and AnRAE plants induced similar responses, notably, upregulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and changes in regulation of primary metabolic pathways that supply substrates to specialized metabolism, particularly those related to defense responses. In contrast, genes and metabolites of lipid biosynthetic pathways and peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization were downregulated in AnFAE plants. These results elucidate how primary metabolism responds to extracellular stimuli. Combining the transcriptomics and metabolomics datasets increased the power of pathway prediction, and demonstrated the complexity of pathways involved in cell wall-mediated signaling.

  3. Metabolomics reveals the metabolic shifts following an intervention with rye bread in postmenopausal women- a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzami Ali A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that whole grain (WG cereals can protect against the development of chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Among WG products, WG rye is considered even more potent because of its unique discrepancy in postprandial insulin and glucose responses known as the rye factor. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to study the metabolic effects of WG rye as a tool to determine the beneficial effects of WG rye on human health. Methods Thirty-three postmenopausal Finnish women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L and BMI of 20–33 kg/m2 consumed a minimum of 20% of their daily energy intake as high fiber WG rye bread (RB or refined wheat bread (WB in a randomized, controlled, crossover design with two 8-wk intervention periods separated by an 8-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, fasting serum was collected for NMR-based metabolomics and the analysis of cholesterol fractions. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. Results The metabolomics analysis of serum showed lower leucine and isoleucine and higher betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine levels after RB than WB intake. To further investigate the metabolic effects of RB, the serum cholesterol fractions were measured. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher after RB intake than after WB (p Conclusions This study revealed favorable shifts in branched amino acid and single carbon metabolism and an unfavorable shift in serum cholesterol levels after RB intake in postmenopausal women, which should be considered for evaluating health beneficial effects of rye products.

  4. Informatics for Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusonmano, Kanthida; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Chumnanpuen, Pramote

    2016-01-01

    Metabolome profiling of biological systems has the powerful ability to provide the biological understanding of their metabolic functional states responding to the environmental factors or other perturbations. Tons of accumulative metabolomics data have thus been established since pre-metabolomics era. This is directly influenced by the high-throughput analytical techniques, especially mass spectrometry (MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based techniques. Continuously, the significant numbers of informatics techniques for data processing, statistical analysis, and data mining have been developed. The following tools and databases are advanced for the metabolomics society which provide the useful metabolomics information, e.g., the chemical structures, mass spectrum patterns for peak identification, metabolite profiles, biological functions, dynamic metabolite changes, and biochemical transformations of thousands of small molecules. In this chapter, we aim to introduce overall metabolomics studies from pre- to post-metabolomics era and their impact on society. Directing on post-metabolomics era, we provide a conceptual framework of informatics techniques for metabolomics and show useful examples of techniques, tools, and databases for metabolomics data analysis starting from preprocessing toward functional interpretation. Throughout the framework of informatics techniques for metabolomics provided, it can be further used as a scaffold for translational biomedical research which can thus lead to reveal new metabolite biomarkers, potential metabolic targets, or key metabolic pathways for future disease therapy.

  5. Retinal metabolic events in preconditioning light stress as revealed by wide-spectrum targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barca, Juan Manuel Chao; Huang, Nuan-Ting; Jiao, Haihan; Tessier, Lydie; Gadras, Cédric; Simard, Gilles; Natoli, Riccardo; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Reynier, Pascal; Valter, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Light is the primary stimulus for vision, but may also cause damage to the retina. Pre-exposing the retina to sub-lethal amount of light (or preconditioning) improves chances for retinal cells to survive acute damaging light stress. This study aims at exploring the changes in retinal metabolome after mild light stress and identifying mechanisms that may be involved in preconditioning. Retinas from 12 rats exposed to mild light stress (1000 lux × for 12 h) and 12 controls were collected one and seven days after light stress (LS). One retina was used for targeted metabolomics analysis using the Biocrates p180 kit while the fellow retina was used for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that in this experiment, a mild LS with retinal immune response and minimal photoreceptor loss occurred. Compared to controls, LS induced an increased concentration in phosphatidylcholines. The concentration in some amino acids and biogenic amines, particularly those related to the nitric oxide pathway (like asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), arginine and citrulline) also increased 1 day after LS. 7 days after LS, the concentration in two sphingomyelins and phenylethylamine was found to be higher. We further found that in controls, retina metabolome was different between males and females: male retinas had an increased concentration in tyrosine, acetyl-ornithine, phosphatidylcholines and (acyl)-carnitines. Besides retinal sexual metabolic dimorphism, this study shows that preconditioning is mostly associated with re-organisation of lipid metabolism and changes in amino acid composition, likely reflecting the involvement of arginine-dependent NO signalling.

  6. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum-polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large-scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen-depleted petroleum-polluted sediments. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum‐polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian‐Alexander; Martínez‐Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi‐enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large‐scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro‐aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen‐depleted petroleum‐polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  8. Transcriptome and metabolome of synthetic Solanum autotetraploids reveal key genomic stress events following polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Carlo; Diretto, Gianfranco; Aversano, Riccardo; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Di Matteo, Antonio; Frusciante, Luigi; Giuliano, Giovanni; Carputo, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    Polyploids are generally classified as autopolyploids, derived from a single species, and allopolyploids, arising from interspecific hybridization. The former represent ideal materials with which to study the consequences of genome doubling and ascertain whether there are molecular and functional rules operating following polyploidization events. To investigate whether the effects of autopolyploidization are common to different species, or if species-specific or stochastic events are prevalent, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolomic characterization of diploids and autotetraploids of Solanum commersonii and Solanum bulbocastanum. Autopolyploidization remodelled the transcriptome and the metabolome of both species. In S. commersonii, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in pericentromeric regions. Most changes were stochastic, suggesting a strong genotypic response. However, a set of robustly regulated transcripts and metabolites was also detected, including purine bases and nucleosides, which are likely to underlie a common response to polyploidization. We hypothesize that autopolyploidization results in nucleotide pool imbalance, which in turn triggers a genomic shock responsible for the stochastic events observed. The more extensive genomic stress and the higher number of stochastic events observed in S. commersonii with respect to S. bulbocastanum could be the result of the higher nucleoside depletion observed in this species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Global metabolomics reveals potential urinary biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for diagnosis and staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruiping; He, Jiuming; Song, Yongmei; Wang, Jingbo; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Luhua; Zhan, Qimin; Abliz, Zeper

    2016-10-01

    We performed a metabolomics study using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) to discriminate global urine profiles in urine samples from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and healthy controls (NC). Our work evaluated the feasibility of employing urine metabolomics for the diagnosis and staging of ESCC. The satisfactory classification between the healthy controls and ESCC patients was obtained using the MVDA model, and obvious classification of early-stage and advanced-stage patients was also observed. The results suggest that the combination of LC-MS analysis and MVDA may have potential applications for ESCC diagnosis and staging. We then conducted LC-MS/MS experiments to identify the potential biomarkers with large contributions to the discrimination. A total of 83 potential diagnostic biomarkers for ESCC were screened out, and 19 potential biomarkers were identified; the variations between the differences in staging using these potential biomarkers were further analyzed. These biomarkers may not be unique to ESCCs, but instead result from any malignant disease. To further elucidate the pathophysiology of ESCC, we studied related metabolic pathways and found that ESCC is associated with perturbations of fatty acid β-oxidation and the metabolism of amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.

  10. Quantitative Clinical Diagnostic Analysis of Acetone in Human Blood by HPLC: A Metabolomic Search for Acetone as Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Akgul Kalkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH as a derivatizing reagent, an analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone in human blood. The determination was carried out at 365 nm using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis diode array detector (DAD. For acetone as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative, a good separation was achieved with a ThermoAcclaim C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm × 3 μm at retention time (tR 12.10 min and flowrate of 1 mL min−1 using a (methanol/acetonitrile water elution gradient. The methodology is simple, rapid, sensitive, and of low cost, exhibits good reproducibility, and allows the analysis of acetone in biological fluids. A calibration curve was obtained for acetone using its standard solutions in acetonitrile. Quantitative analysis of acetone in human blood was successfully carried out using this calibration graph. The applied method was validated in parameters of linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, and precision. We also present acetone as a useful tool for the HPLC-based metabolomic investigation of endogenous metabolism and quantitative clinical diagnostic analysis.

  11. Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung, Dorothea; Li, Liang

    2018-02-25

    There is an increasing demand for donor human milk to feed infants for various reasons including that a mother may be unable to provide sufficient amounts of milk for their child or the milk is considered unsafe for the baby. Selling and buying human milk via the Internet has gained popularity. However, there is a risk of human milk sold containing other adulterants such as animal or plant milk. Analytical tools for rapid detection of adulterants in human milk are needed. We report a quantitative metabolomics method for detecting potential milk adulterants (soy, almond, cow, goat and infant formula milk) in human milk. It is based on the use of a high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS platform to profile the metabolome of an unknown milk sample, followed by multivariate or univariate comparison of the resultant metabolomic profile with that of human milk to determine the differences. Using dansylation LC-MS to profile the amine/phenol submetabolome, we could detect an average of 4129 ± 297 (n = 9) soy metabolites, 3080 ± 470 (n = 9) almond metabolites, 4256 ± 136 (n = 18) cow metabolites, 4318 ± 198 (n = 9) goat metabolites, 4444 ± 563 (n = 9) infant formula metabolites, and 4020 ± 375 (n = 30) human metabolites. This high level of coverage allowed us to readily differentiate the six different types of samples. From the analysis of binary mixtures of human milk containing 5, 10, 25, 50 and 75% other type of milk, we demonstrated that this method could be used to detect the presence of as low as 5% adulterant in human milk. We envisage that this method could be applied to detect contaminant or adulterant in other types of food or drinks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined Analysis of the Fruit Metabolome and Transcriptome Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Actinidia arguta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yukuo; Fang, Jinbao; Qi, Xiujuan; Lin, Miaomiao; Zhong, Yunpeng; Sun, Leiming; Cui, Wen

    2018-05-15

    To assess the interrelation between the change of metabolites and the change of fruit color, we performed a combined metabolome and transcriptome analysis of the flesh in two different Actinidia arguta cultivars: "HB" ("Hongbaoshixing") and "YF" ("Yongfengyihao") at two different fruit developmental stages: 70d (days after full bloom) and 100d (days after full bloom). Metabolite and transcript profiling was obtained by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer and high-throughput RNA sequencing, respectively. The identification and quantification results of metabolites showed that a total of 28,837 metabolites had been obtained, of which 13,715 were annotated. In comparison of HB100 vs. HB70, 41 metabolites were identified as being flavonoids, 7 of which, with significant difference, were identified as bracteatin, luteolin, dihydromyricetin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin and (-)-epigallocatechin. Association analysis between metabolome and transcriptome revealed that there were two metabolic pathways presenting significant differences during fruit development, one of which was flavonoid biosynthesis, in which 14 structural genes were selected to conduct expression analysis, as well as 5 transcription factor genes obtained by transcriptome analysis. RT-qPCR results and cluster analysis revealed that AaF3H , AaLDOX , AaUFGT , AaMYB , AabHLH , and AaHB2 showed the best possibility of being candidate genes. A regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis was established to illustrate differentially expressed candidate genes involved in accumulation of metabolites with significant differences, inducing red coloring during fruit development. Such a regulatory network linking genes and flavonoids revealed a system involved in the pigmentation of all-red-fleshed and all-green-fleshed A. arguta , suggesting this conjunct analysis approach is not only useful in understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype

  13. Quantitative Metabolomic Analysis of Urinary Citrulline and Calcitroic Acid in Mice after Exposure to Various Types of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Goudarzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; X-ray irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR of 3.0 mGy/min and a high dose rate (HDR of 1.1 Gy/min, and internal exposure to Cesium-137 (137Cs and Strontium-90 (90Sr. The multiple reaction monitoring analysis showed that, while exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr induced a statistically significant and persistent decrease, similar doses of X-ray beam at the HDR had the opposite effect, and the LDR had no effect on the urinary levels of these two metabolites. This suggests that the source of exposure and the dose rate strongly modulate the in vivo metabolomic injury responses, which may have utility in clinical biodosimetry assays for the assessment of exposure in an affected population. This study complements our previous investigations into the metabolomic profile of urine from mice internally exposed to 90Sr and 137Cs and to X-ray beam radiation.

  14. Quantitative Metabolomic Analysis of Urinary Citrulline and Calcitroic Acid in Mice after Exposure to Various Types of Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Chauthe, Siddheshwar; Strawn, Steven J; Weber, Waylon M; Brenner, David J; Fornace, Albert J

    2016-05-20

    With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; external γ irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR) of 3.0 mGy/min and a high dose rate (HDR) of 1.1 Gy/min, and internal exposure to Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and Strontium-90 ((90)Sr). The multiple reaction monitoring analysis showed that, while exposure to (137)Cs and (90)Sr induced a statistically significant and persistent decrease, similar doses of external γ beam at the HDR had the opposite effect, and the LDR had no effect on the urinary levels of these two metabolites. This suggests that the source of exposure and the dose rate strongly modulate the in vivo metabolomic injury responses, which may have utility in clinical biodosimetry assays for the assessment of exposure in an affected population. This study complements our previous investigations into the metabolomic profile of urine from mice internally exposed to (90)Sr and (137)Cs and to external γ beam radiation.

  15. Metabolomics reveals impaired maturation of HDL particles in adolescents with hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samino, Sara; Vinaixa, Maria; Díaz, Marta; Beltran, Antoni; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Mallol, Roger; Heras, Mercedes; Cabre, Anna; Garcia, Lorena; Canela, Nuria; de Zegher, Francis; Correig, Xavier; Ibáñez, Lourdes; Yanes, Oscar

    2015-06-23

    Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess (HIAE) in prepubertal and pubertal girls usually precedes a broader pathological phenotype in adulthood that is associated with anovulatory infertility, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The metabolic derangements that determine these long-term health risks remain to be clarified. Here we use NMR and MS-based metabolomics to show that serum levels of methionine sulfoxide in HIAE girls are an indicator of the degree of oxidation of methionine-148 residue in apolipoprotein-A1. Oxidation of apo-A1 in methionine-148, in turn, leads to an impaired maturation of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that is reflected in a decline of large HDL particles. Notably, such metabolic alterations occur in the absence of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and were partially restored after 18 months of treatment with a low-dose combination of pioglitazone, metformin and flutamide.

  16. Metabolomic profiling reveals a role for CPT1c in neuronal oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2012-10-25

    Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c (CPT1c) is a neuron specific homologue of the carnitine acyltransferase family of enzymes. CPT1 isoenzymes transfer long chain acyl groups to carnitine. This constitutes a rate setting step for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by facilitating the initial step in acyl transfer to the mitochondrial matrix. In general, neurons do not heavily utilize fatty acids for bioenergetic needs and definitive enzymatic activity has been unable to be demonstrated for CPT1c. Although there are studies suggesting an enzymatic role of CPT1c, its role in neurochemistry remains elusive. In order to better understand how CPT1c functions in neural metabolism, we performed unbiased metabolomic profiling on wild-type (WT) and CPT1c knockout (KO) mouse brains. Consistent with the notion that CPT1c is not involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, there were no changes in metabolites associated with fatty acid oxidation. Endocannabinoids were suppressed in the CPT1c KO, which may explain the suppression of food intake seen in CPT1c KO mice. Although products of beta-oxidation were unchanged, small changes in carnitine and carnitine metabolites were observed. Finally, we observed changes in redox homeostasis including a greater than 2-fold increase in oxidized glutathione. This indicates that CPT1c may play a role in neural oxidative metabolism. Steady-state metabolomic analysis of CPT1c WT and KO mouse brains identified a small number of metabolites that differed between CPT1c WT and KO mice. The subtle changes in a broad range of metabolites in vivo indicate that CPT1c does not play a significant or required role in fatty acid oxidation; however, it could play an alternative role in neuronal oxidative metabolism.

  17. Metabolomic profiling reveals a role for CPT1c in neuronal oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jieun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c (CPT1c is a neuron specific homologue of the carnitine acyltransferase family of enzymes. CPT1 isoenzymes transfer long chain acyl groups to carnitine. This constitutes a rate setting step for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by facilitating the initial step in acyl transfer to the mitochondrial matrix. In general, neurons do not heavily utilize fatty acids for bioenergetic needs and definitive enzymatic activity has been unable to be demonstrated for CPT1c. Although there are studies suggesting an enzymatic role of CPT1c, its role in neurochemistry remains elusive. Results In order to better understand how CPT1c functions in neural metabolism, we performed unbiased metabolomic profiling on wild-type (WT and CPT1c knockout (KO mouse brains. Consistent with the notion that CPT1c is not involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, there were no changes in metabolites associated with fatty acid oxidation. Endocannabinoids were suppressed in the CPT1c KO, which may explain the suppression of food intake seen in CPT1c KO mice. Although products of beta-oxidation were unchanged, small changes in carnitine and carnitine metabolites were observed. Finally, we observed changes in redox homeostasis including a greater than 2-fold increase in oxidized glutathione. This indicates that CPT1c may play a role in neural oxidative metabolism. Conclusions Steady-state metabolomic analysis of CPT1c WT and KO mouse brains identified a small number of metabolites that differed between CPT1c WT and KO mice. The subtle changes in a broad range of metabolites in vivo indicate that CPT1c does not play a significant or required role in fatty acid oxidation; however, it could play an alternative role in neuronal oxidative metabolism.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics reveals altered waste clearance and accelerated aging in HIV patients with neurocognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Edana; Misra, Vikas; Dutta, Anupriya; Morgello, Susan; Gabuzda, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Some features of HAND resemble those of age-associated cognitive decline in the absence of HIV, suggesting that overlapping mechanisms may contribute to neurocognitive impairment. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 100 individuals (46 HIV-positive patients and 54 HIV-negative controls). Methods: Untargeted CSF metabolite profiling was performed using liquid/gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. Cytokine profiling was performed by Bioplex. Bioinformatic analyses were performed in Metaboanalyst and R. Results: Alterations in the CSF metabolome of HIV patients on ART mapped to pathways associated with neurotransmitter production, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic waste. Many CSF metabolites altered in HIV overlapped with those altered with advanced age in HIV-negative controls, suggesting a pattern indicative of accelerated aging. Machine learning models identified neurotransmitters (glutamate, N-acetylaspartate), markers of glial activation (myo-inositol), and ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyric acid, 1,2-propanediol) as top-ranked classifiers of HAND. These CSF metabolites correlated with worse neurocognitive test scores, plasma inflammatory biomarkers [interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2Ra], and intrathecal IFN responses (IFN-γ and kynurenine : tryptophan ratio), suggesting inter-relationships between systemic and intrathecal inflammation and metabolic alterations in CSF. Conclusions: Alterations in the CSF metabolome of HIV patients on ART suggest that persistent inflammation, glial responses, glutamate neurotoxicity, and altered brain waste disposal systems contribute to mechanisms involved in HAND that may be augmented with aging. PMID:24752083

  19. Untargeted GC-MS Metabolomics Reveals Changes in the Metabolite Dynamics of Industrial Scale Batch Fermentations of Streptoccoccus thermophilus Broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Christiansen, Lene D.; Heins, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    An industrial scale biomass production using batch or fed-batch fermentations usually optimized by selection of bacterial strains, tuning fermentation media, feeding strategy, and temperature. However, in-depth investigation of the biomass metabolome during the production may reveal new knowledge...... shows that in-depth metabolic analysis of fermentation broth provides a new tool for advanced optimization of high-volume-low-cost biomass production by lowering the cost, increase the yield, and augment the product quality....... for better optimization. In this study, for the first time, the authors investigated seven fermentation batches performed on five Streptoccoccus thermophilus strains during the biomass production at Chr. Hansen (Denmark) in a real life large scale fermentation process. The study is designed to investigate...

  20. Untargeted metabolomics reveals specific withanolides and fatty acyl glycoside as tentative metabolites to differentiate organic and conventional Physalis peruviana fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano, Sandra M; Muñoz-Jiménez, Ana M; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Londoño-Londoño, Julián; Medina, Sonia

    2018-04-01

    The agronomic production systems may affect the levels of food metabolites. Metabolomics approaches have been applied as useful tool for the characterization of fruit metabolome. In this study, metabolomics techniques were used to assess the differences in phytochemical composition between goldenberry samples produced by organic and conventional systems. To verify that the organic samples were free of pesticides, individual pesticides were analyzed. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation of goldenberry samples from two different farming systems. Via targeted metabolomics assays, whereby carotenoids and ascorbic acid were analyzed, not statistical differences between both crops were found. Conversely, untargeted metabolomics allowed us to identify two withanolides and one fatty acyl glycoside as tentative metabolites to differentiate goldenberry fruits, recording organic fruits higher amounts of these compounds than conventional samples. Hence, untargeted metabolomics technology could be suitable to research differences on phytochemicals under different agricultural management practices and to authenticate organic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted Metabolomics Reveals Early Dominant Optic Atrophy Signature in Optic Nerves of Opa1delTTAG/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao de la Barca, Juan Manuel; Simard, Gilles; Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Chaumette, Tanguy; Rousseau, Guillaume; Chupin, Stéphanie; Gadras, Cédric; Tessier, Lydie; Ferré, Marc; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Gueguen, Naïg; Leruez, Stéphanie; Verny, Christophe; Miléa, Dan; Bonneau, Dominique; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Hamel, Christian; Lenaers, Guy; Reynier, Pascal; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine

    2017-02-01

    Dominant optic atrophy (MIM No. 165500) is a blinding condition related to mutations in OPA1, a gene encoding a large GTPase involved in mitochondrial inner membrane dynamics. Although several mouse models mimicking the disease have been developed, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for retinal ganglion cell degeneration remain poorly understood. Using a targeted metabolomic approach, we measured the concentrations of 188 metabolites in nine tissues, that is, brain, three types of skeletal muscle, heart, liver, retina, optic nerve, and plasma in symptomatic 11-month-old Opa1delTTAG/+ mice. Significant metabolic signatures were found only in the optic nerve and plasma of female mice. The optic nerve signature was characterized by altered concentrations of phospholipids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, and carnosine, whereas the plasma signature showed decreased concentrations of amino acids and sarcosine associated with increased concentrations of several phospholipids. In contrast, the investigation of 3-month-old presymptomatic Opa1delTTAG/+ mice showed no specific plasma signature but revealed a significant optic nerve signature in both sexes, although with a sex effect. The Opa1delTTAG/+ versus wild-type optic nerve signature was characterized by the decreased concentrations of 10 sphingomyelins and 10 lysophosphatidylcholines, suggestive of myelin sheath alteration, and by alteration in the concentrations of metabolites involved in neuroprotection, such as dimethylarginine, carnitine, spermine, spermidine, carnosine, and glutamate, suggesting a concomitant axonal metabolic dysfunction. Our comprehensive metabolomic investigations revealed in symptomatic as well as in presymptomatic Opa1delTTAG/+ mice, a specific sensitiveness of the optic nerve to Opa1 insufficiency, opening new routes for protective therapeutic strategies.

  3. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff

    Full Text Available Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510 were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2 or those driven by single outliers (3 were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  4. Serum metabolomics reveals betaine and phosphatidylcholine as potential biomarkers for the toxic responses of processed Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong; Ko, Joshua; Liu, Xinru; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jian; Xiao, Cheng; Li, Li; Niu, Xuyan; Jiang, Miao; He, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Weidong; Lu, Aiping

    2014-07-29

    We recently reported that processed Aconitum carmichaelii Debx (Bai-Fu-Pian in Chinese, BFP) elicits differential toxic responses in rats under various health conditions. The present study aimed to determine the graded toxicity of BFP so as to derive a safe therapeutic rationale in clinical practice. Sensitive and reliable biomarkers of toxicity were also identified, with the corresponding metabolic pathways being unveiled. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 6) and received oral administration of BFP extract (0.32, 0.64, 1.28 or 2.56 g kg(-1) per day) or an equal volume of drinking water (control) for 15 days. The metabolomic profiles of rat serum were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Linear regression analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were used to elucidate the differentiated altered metabolites and associated network relationships. Results from biochemical and histopathological examinations revealed that BFP could induce prominent toxicity in the heart, liver and kidneys at a dose of 2.56 g kg(-1) per day. Betaine up-regulation and phosphatidylcholine down-regulation were detected in the serum samples of drug-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, betaine and phosphatidylcholine could be regarded as sensitive biomarkers for the toxic responses of BFP. Perturbations of RhoA signaling, choline metabolism and free radical scavenging were found to be partly responsible for the toxic effects of the herbal drug. Based on the metabolomics findings, we could establish a safe therapeutic range in the clinical use of BFP, with promising predictions of possible drug toxicity.

  5. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  6. Benznidazole biotransformation and multiple targets in Trypanosoma cruzi revealed by metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trochine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first line treatment for Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, involves administration of benznidazole (Bzn. Bzn is a 2-nitroimidazole pro-drug which requires nitroreduction to become active, although its mode of action is not fully understood. In the present work we used a non-targeted MS-based metabolomics approach to study the metabolic response of T. cruzi to Bzn.Parasites treated with Bzn were minimally altered compared to untreated trypanosomes, although the redox active thiols trypanothione, homotrypanothione and cysteine were significantly diminished in abundance post-treatment. In addition, multiple Bzn-derived metabolites were detected after treatment. These metabolites included reduction products, fragments and covalent adducts of reduced Bzn linked to each of the major low molecular weight thiols: trypanothione, glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteine, glutathionylspermidine, cysteine and ovothiol A. Bzn products known to be generated in vitro by the unusual trypanosomal nitroreductase, TcNTRI, were found within the parasites, but low molecular weight adducts of glyoxal, a proposed toxic end-product of NTRI Bzn metabolism, were not detected.Our data is indicative of a major role of the thiol binding capacity of Bzn reduction products in the mechanism of Bzn toxicity against T. cruzi.

  7. Metabolomics reveals biotic and abiotic elicitor effects on the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi terpenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Meyer, Achim; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-04-05

    The effects of six biotic and abiotic elicitors, i.e. MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA (salicylic acid), ZnCl 2 , glutathione and β-glucan BG (fungal elicitor), and wounding, on the secondary metabolite accumulation in the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi were assessed. Upon elicitation, metabolites were extracted and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Except for MeJA, no differences in photosynthetic efficiency were observed after treatments, suggesting the absence of a remarkable stress on primary production. Chemometric analyses of UPLC-MS data showed clear segregation of SA and ZnCl 2 elicited samples at 24 and 48 h post elicitation. Levels of acetylated diterpene and sterol viz., sarcophytonolide I and cholesteryl acetate, was increased in ZnCl 2 and SA groups, respectively, suggesting an activation of specific acetyl transferases. Post elicitation, sarcophytonolide I level increased 132 and 17-folds at 48 h in 0.1 mM SA and 1 mM ZnCl 2 groups, respectively. Interestingly, decrease in sarcophine, a major diterpene was observed only in response to ZnCl 2 , whereas no change was observed in sesquiterpene content following treatments. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first documentation for elicitation effects on a soft corals secondary metabolome and suggests that SA could be applied to increase diterpenoid levels in corals.

  8. Neurochemical metabolomics reveals disruption to sphingolipid metabolism following chronic haloperidol administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Crowley, James J.; Vann, Robert E.; Beardsley, Patrick M.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2015-01-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects. PMID:25850894

  9. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Perry, George H; Shahbaz, Sevini; Fiehn, Oliver; Clark, Andrew G; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-07-28

    Human diets differ from those of non-human primates. Among few obvious differences, humans consume more meat than most non-human primates and regularly cook their food. It is hypothesized that a dietary shift during human evolution has been accompanied by molecular adaptations in metabolic pathways. Consistent with this notion, comparative studies of gene expression levels in primates have found that the regulation of genes with metabolic functions tend to evolve rapidly in the human lineage. The metabolic consequences of these regulatory differences, however, remained unknown. To address this gap, we performed a comparative study using a combination of gene expression and metabolomic profiling in livers from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. We show that dietary differences between species have a strong effect on metabolic concentrations. In addition, we found that differences in metabolic concentration across species are correlated with inter-species differences in the expression of the corresponding enzymes, which control the same metabolic reaction. We identified a number of metabolic compounds with lineage-specific profiles, including examples of human-species metabolic differences that may be directly related to dietary differences.

  10. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to biokinetics to identify cell stress response pathways induced by cisplatin. The human renal proximal tubular cell line RPTEC/TERT1 was treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin (0.5 and 2 μM) in a daily repeat dose treating regime for up to 14 days. Biokinetic analysis showed that cisplatin was taken up from the basolateral compartment, transported to the apical compartment, and accumulated in cells over time. This is in line with basolateral uptake of cisplatin via organic cation transporter 2 and bioactivation via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase located on the apical side of proximal tubular cells. Cisplatin affected several pathways including, p53 signalling, Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response, mitochondrial processes, mTOR and AMPK signalling. In addition, we identified novel pathways changed by cisplatin, including eIF2 signalling, actin nucleation via the ARP/WASP complex and regulation of cell polarization. In conclusion, using an integrated omic approach together with biokinetics we have identified both novel and established mechanisms of cisplatin toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell metabolomics reveals the neurotoxicity mechanism of cadmium in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Li; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl 2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC 15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies. After PC-12 cells incubated with CdCl 2 at a dose of IC 15 for 48h, the intracellular and extracellular metabolites were profiled using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based cell metabolomics approach. As found, the effects of the heavy metal Cd produced on the PC-12 cell viability were dose-dependent. The metabolic changes were involved in the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, biopterin metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acids beta-oxidation. These could cause the perturbation of cell membrane, redox balance, energy supply, cellular detoxification, further affecting the cellular proliferation and apoptosis and other cellular activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Whole Blood Reveals More Metabolic Detail of the Human Metabolome than Serum as Measured by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy: Implications for Sepsis Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Kathleen A.; Younger, John G.; McHugh, Cora; Yeomans, Larisa; Finkel, Michael A.; Puskarich, Michael A.; Jones, Alan E.; Trexel, Julie; Karnovsky, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Serum is a common sample of convenience for metabolomics studies. Its processing time can be lengthy and may result in the loss of metabolites including those of red blood cells (RBC). Unlike serum, whole blood (WB) is quickly processed, minimizing the influence of variable hemolysis while including RBC metabolites. To determine differences between serum and WB metabolomes, both sample types, collected from healthy volunteers, were assayed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A total of 34 and 50 aqueous metabolites were quantified from serum and WB, respectively. Free hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in serum were measured and the correlation between Hgb and metabolite concentrations was determined. All metabolites detected in serum were at higher concentrations in WB with the exception of acetoacetate and propylene glycol. The 18 unique metabolites of WB included adenosine, AMP, ADP and ATP, which are associated with RBC metabolism. The use of serum results in the underrepresentation of a number of metabolic pathways including branched chain amino acid degradation and glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The range of free Hgb in serum was 0.03-0.01 g/dL and 8 metabolites were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with free Hgb. The range of free Hgb in serum samples from 18 sepsis patients was 0.02-0.46 g/dL. WB and serum have unique aqueous metabolite profiles but the use of serum may introduce potential pathway bias. Use of WB for metabolomics may be particularly important for studies in diseases like sepsis in which RBC metabolism is altered and mechanical and sepsis-induced hemolysis contributes to variance in the metabolome. PMID:26009817

  13. Global metabolomic profiling reveals an association of metal fume exposure and plasma unsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyue Wei

    Full Text Available Welding-associated air pollutants negatively affect the health of exposed workers; however, their molecular mechanisms in causing disease remain largely unclear. Few studies have systematically investigated the systemic toxic effects of welding fumes on humans.To explore the effects of welding fumes on the plasma metabolome, and to identify biomarkers for risk assessment of welding fume exposure.The two-stage, self-controlled exploratory study included 11 boilermakers from a 2011 discovery panel and 8 boilermakers from a 2012 validation panel. Plasma samples were collected pre- and post-welding fume exposure and analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry.Eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid metabolic changes post-welding were significantly associated with particulate (PM2.5 exposure (p<0.05. The combined analysis by linear mixed-effects model showed that exposure was associated with a statistically significant decline in metabolite change of eicosapentaenoic acid [β(95% CI = -0.013(-0.022 ≈ -0.004; p = 0.005], docosapentaenoic acid n3 [β(95% CI = -0.010(-0.018 ≈ -0.002; p = 0.017], and docosapentaenoic acid n6 [β(95% CI = -0.007(-0.013 ≈ -0.001; p = 0.021]. Pathway analysis identified an association of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway with exposure (p Study-2011 = 0.025; p Study-2012 = 0.021; p Combined = 0.009. The functional network built by these fatty acids and their interactive genes contained significant enrichment of genes associated with various diseases, including neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders.High-dose exposure of metal welding fumes decreases unsaturated fatty acids with an exposure-response relationship. This alteration in fatty acids is a potential biological mediator and biomarker for exposure-related health disorders.

  14. Causal Genetic Variation Underlying Metabolome Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain-Lenz, Devjanee; Nikolskiy, Igor; Cheng, Jiye; Sudarsanam, Priya; Nayler, Darcy; Staller, Max V; Cohen, Barak A

    2017-08-01

    An ongoing challenge in biology is to predict the phenotypes of individuals from their genotypes. Genetic variants that cause disease often change an individual's total metabolite profile, or metabolome. In light of our extensive knowledge of metabolic pathways, genetic variants that alter the metabolome may help predict novel phenotypes. To link genetic variants to changes in the metabolome, we studied natural variation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We used an untargeted mass spectrometry method to identify dozens of metabolite Quantitative Trait Loci (mQTL), genomic regions containing genetic variation that control differences in metabolite levels between individuals. We mapped differences in urea cycle metabolites to genetic variation in specific genes known to regulate amino acid biosynthesis. Our functional assays reveal that genetic variation in two genes, AUA1 and ARG81 , cause the differences in the abundance of several urea cycle metabolites. Based on knowledge of the urea cycle, we predicted and then validated a new phenotype: sensitivity to a particular class of amino acid isomers. Our results are a proof-of-concept that untargeted mass spectrometry can reveal links between natural genetic variants and metabolome diversity. The interpretability of our results demonstrates the promise of using genetic variants underlying natural differences in the metabolome to predict novel phenotypes from genotype. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Metabolomics Reveals Relationship between Plasma Inositols and Birth Weight: Possible Markers for Fetal Programming of Type 2 Diabetes

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    Pia Marlene Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies in man and with experimental animal models have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR resulting in low birth weight is associated with higher risk of programming welfare diseases in later life. In the pig, severe IUGR occurs naturally and contribute substantially to a large intralitter variation in birth weight and may therefore be a good model for man. In the present paper the natural form of IUGR in pigs was studied close to term by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The NMR-based investigations revealed different metabolic profiles of plasma samples from low-birth weight (LW and high-birth weight (HW piglets, respectively, and differences were assigned to levels of glucose and myo-inositol. Further studies by GC-MS revealed that LW piglets had a significant higher concentration of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in plasma compared to larger littermates. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been coupled with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in adults, and the present paper therefore suggests that IUGR is related to impaired glucose metabolism during fetal development, which may cause type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  16. An integrated lipidomics and metabolomics reveal nephroprotective effect and biochemical mechanism of Rheum officinale in chronic renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Wei, Feng; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major public health problem worldwide. Earlier studies have revealed salutary effects of rhubarb extracts in CRF. In this study, we employed lipidomic and metabolomic approaches to identify the plasma biomarkers and to determine the effect of treatment with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of rhubarb in a rat model of CRF with adenine-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. In addition, clinical biochemistry, histological evaluation and pro-fibrotic protein expression were analyzed. Significant changes were found between the CRF and control groups representing characteristic phenotypes of rats with CRF. Treatment with the three rhubarb extracts improved renal injury and dysfunction, either fully or partially reversed the plasma metabolites abnormalities and attenuated upregulation of pro-fibrotic proteins including TGF-β1, α-SMA, PAI-1, CTGF, FN and collagen-1. The nephroprotective effect of ethyl acetate extract was better than other extracts. The differential metabolites were closely associated with glycerophospholipid, fatty acid and amino acid metabolisms. The results revealed a strong link between renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glycerophospholipid metabolism and L-carnitine metabolism in the development of CRF. Amelioration of CRF with the three rhubarb extracts was associated with the delayed development and/or reversal the disorders in key metabolites associated with adenine-induced CRF. PMID:26903149

  17. Untargeted metabolomics studies employing NMR and LC-MS reveal metabolic coupling between Nanoarcheum equitans and its archaeal host Ignicoccus hospitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerly, Timothy; Tripet, Brian P; Tigges, Michelle; Giannone, Richard J; Wurch, Louie; Hettich, Robert L; Podar, Mircea; Copié, Valerie; Bothner, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Interspecies interactions are the basis of microbial community formation and infectious diseases. Systems biology enables the construction of complex models describing such interactions, leading to a better understanding of disease states and communities. However, before interactions between complex organisms can be understood, metabolic and energetic implications of simpler real-world host-microbe systems must be worked out. To this effect, untargeted metabolomics experiments were conducted and integrated with proteomics data to characterize key molecular-level interactions between two hyperthermophilic microbial species, both of which have reduced genomes. Metabolic changes and transfer of metabolites between the archaea Ignicoccus hospitalis and Nanoarcheum equitans were investigated using integrated LC-MS and NMR metabolomics. The study of such a system is challenging, as no genetic tools are available, growth in the laboratory is challenging, and mechanisms by which they interact are unknown. Together with information about relative enzyme levels obtained from shotgun proteomics, the metabolomics data provided useful insights into metabolic pathways and cellular networks of I. hospitalis that are impacted by the presence of N. equitans , including arginine, isoleucine, and CTP biosynthesis. On the organismal level, the data indicate that N. equitans exploits metabolites generated by I. hospitalis to satisfy its own metabolic needs. This finding is based on N. equitans 's consumption of a significant fraction of the metabolite pool in I. hospitalis that cannot solely be attributed to increased biomass production for N. equitans . Combining LC-MS and NMR metabolomics datasets improved coverage of the metabolome and enhanced the identification and quantitation of cellular metabolites.

  18. Quantitative analysis of relationships between fluxome and metabolome in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taymaz Nikerel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic models, which predict the behaviour of metabolic reaction networks under different conditions, are indispensible to fully and quantitatively understand the relation between a product pathway and connected central metabolism. In this thesis the focus was to develop tools for future in vivo

  19. Identification and Quantitation of Malonic Acid Biomarkers of In-Born Error Metabolism by Targeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Chandra Shekar R.; Yuan, Furong; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.; Zhang, Yiqing; Shetty, Vivekananda

    2017-05-01

    Malonic acid (MA), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and ethylmalonic acid (EMA) metabolites are implicated in various non-cancer disorders that are associated with inborn-error metabolism. In this study, we have slightly modified the published 3-nitrophenylhydrazine (3NPH) derivatization method and applied it to derivatize MA, MMA, and EMA to their hydrazone derivatives, which were amenable for liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantitation. 3NPH was used to derivatize MA, MMA, and EMA, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of the corresponding derivatives were determined by product-ion experiments. Data normalization and absolute quantitation were achieved by using 3NPH derivatized isotopic labeled compounds 13C2-MA, MMA-D3, and EMA-D3. The detection limits were found to be at nanomolar concentrations and a good linearity was achieved from nanomolar to millimolar concentrations. As a proof of concept study, we have investigated the levels of malonic acids in mouse plasma with malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency (MCD-D), and we have successfully applied 3NPH method to identify and quantitate all three malonic acids in wild type (WT) and MCD-D plasma with high accuracy. The results of this method were compared with that of underivatized malonic acid standards experiments that were performed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-MRM. Compared with HILIC method, 3NPH derivatization strategy was found to be very efficient to identify these molecules as it greatly improved the sensitivity, quantitation accuracy, as well as peak shape and resolution. Furthermore, there was no matrix effect in LC-MS analysis and the derivatized metabolites were found to be very stable for longer time.

  20. Metabolomics reveals metabolic targets and biphasic responses in breast cancer cells treated by curcumin alone and in association with docetaxel.

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    Mathilde Bayet-Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX. In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l(-1-28 µM- (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01, but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l(-1 -70 µM- (-49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and -56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025. At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (-60 to -80%, all, P<0.05. Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025, and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about -60%, P<0.025. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l(-1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  1. Comparative metabolome analysis of wheat embryo and endosperm reveals the dynamic changes of metabolites during seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Caixia; Zhen, Shoumin; Zhu, Gengrui; Bian, Yanwei; Yan, Yueming

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we performed the first comparative metabolomic analysis of the wheat embryo and endosperm during seed germination using GC-MS/MS. In total, 82 metabolites were identified in the embryo and endosperm. Principal component analysis (PCA), metabolite-metabolite correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed distinct dynamic changes in metabolites between the embryo and endosperm during seed germination. Generally, the metabolite changes in the embryo were much greater than those in the endosperm, suggesting that the embryo is more active than the endosperm during seed germination. Most amino acids were upregulated in both embryo and endosperm, while polysaccharides and organic acids associated with sugars were mainly downregulated in the embryo. Most of the sugars showed an upregulated trend in the endosperm, but significant changes in lipids occurred only in the embryo. Our results suggest that the embryo mobilises mainly protein and lipid metabolism, while the endosperm mobilises storage starch and minor protein metabolism during seed germination. The primary energy was generated mainly in the embryo by glycolysis during seed imbibition. The embryo containing most of the genetic information showed increased nucleotides during seed germination process, indicating more active transcription and translation metabolisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabarcoding and metabolome analyses of copepod grazing reveal feeding preference and linkage to metabolite classes in dynamic microbial plankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jessica L; Althammer, Julia; Skaar, Katrine S; Simonelli, Paolo; Larsen, Aud; Stoecker, Diane; Sazhin, Andrey; Ijaz, Umer Z; Quince, Christopher; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Frischer, Marc; Pohnert, Georg; Troedsson, Christofer

    2016-11-01

    In order to characterize copepod feeding in relation to microbial plankton community dynamics, we combined metabarcoding and metabolome analyses during a 22-day seawater mesocosm experiment. Nutrient amendment of mesocosms promoted the development of haptophyte (Phaeocystis pouchetii)- and diatom (Skeletonema marinoi)-dominated plankton communities in mesocosms, in which Calanus sp. copepods were incubated for 24 h in flow-through chambers to allow access to prey particles (<500 μm). Copepods and mesocosm water sampled six times spanning the experiment were analysed using metabarcoding, while intracellular metabolite profiles of mesocosm plankton communities were generated for all experimental days. Taxon-specific metabarcoding ratios (ratio of consumed prey to available prey in the surrounding seawater) revealed diverse and dynamic copepod feeding selection, with positive selection on large diatoms, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and fungi, while smaller phytoplankton, including P. pouchetii, were passively consumed or even negatively selected according to our indicator. Our analysis of the relationship between Calanus grazing ratios and intracellular metabolite profiles indicates the importance of carbohydrates and lipids in plankton succession and copepod-prey interactions. This molecular characterization of Calanus sp. grazing therefore provides new evidence for selective feeding in mixed plankton assemblages and corroborates previous findings that copepod grazing may be coupled to the developmental and metabolic stage of the entire prey community rather than to individual prey abundances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. In situ proteo-metabolomics reveals metabolite secretion by the acid mine drainage bio-indicator, Euglena mutabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, David; Goulhen-Chollet, Florence; Gallien, Sébastien; Casiot, Corinne; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gilard, Françoise; Heintz, Dimitri; Schaeffer, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Bertin, Philippe N

    2012-01-01

    Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protist found in acidic aquatic environments such as peat bogs, volcanic lakes and acid mine drainages (AMDs). Through its photosynthetic metabolism, this protist is supposed to have an important role in primary production in such oligotrophic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the exact contribution of E. mutabilis in organic matter synthesis remains unclear and no evidence of metabolite secretion by this protist has been established so far. Here we combined in situ proteo-metabolomic approaches to determine the nature of the metabolites accumulated by this protist or potentially secreted into an AMD. Our results revealed that the secreted metabolites are represented by a large number of amino acids, polyamine compounds, urea and some sugars but no fatty acids, suggesting a selective organic matter contribution in this ecosystem. Such a production may have a crucial impact on the bacterial community present on the study site, as it has been suggested previously that prokaryotes transport and recycle in situ most of the metabolites secreted by E. mutabilis. Consequently, this protist may have an indirect but important role in AMD ecosystems but also in other ecological niches often described as nitrogen-limited. PMID:22237547

  4. Comparative Metabolomic Profiling Reveals That Dysregulated Glycolysis Stemming from Lack of Salvage NAD+ Biosynthesis Impairs Reproductive Development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqing; McReynolds, Melanie R; Goncalves, Jimmy F; Shu, Muya; Dhondt, Ineke; Braeckman, Bart P; Lange, Stephanie E; Kho, Kelvin; Detwiler, Ariana C; Pacella, Marisa J; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2015-10-23

    Temporal developmental progression is highly coordinated in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, loss of nicotinamidase PNC-1 activity slows reproductive development, uncoupling it from its typical progression relative to the soma. Using LC/MS we demonstrate that pnc-1 mutants do not salvage the nicotinamide released by NAD(+) consumers to resynthesize NAD(+), resulting in a reduction in global NAD(+) bioavailability. We manipulate NAD(+) levels to demonstrate that a minor deficit in NAD(+) availability is incompatible with a normal pace of gonad development. The NAD(+) deficit compromises NAD(+) consumer activity, but we surprisingly found no functional link between consumer activity and reproductive development. As a result we turned to a comparative metabolomics approach to identify the cause of the developmental phenotype. We reveal widespread metabolic perturbations, and using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that a glycolytic block accounts for the slow pace of reproductive development. Interestingly, mitochondria are protected from both the deficiency in NAD(+) biosynthesis and the effects of reduced glycolytic output. We suggest that compensatory metabolic processes that maintain mitochondrial activity in the absence of efficient glycolysis are incompatible with the requirements for reproductive development, which requires high levels of cell division. In addition to demonstrating metabolic requirements for reproductive development, this work also has implications for understanding the mechanisms behind therapeutic interventions that target NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis for the purposes of inhibiting tumor growth. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Comparative Metabolomic Profiling Reveals That Dysregulated Glycolysis Stemming from Lack of Salvage NAD+ Biosynthesis Impairs Reproductive Development in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqing; McReynolds, Melanie R.; Goncalves, Jimmy F.; Shu, Muya; Dhondt, Ineke; Braeckman, Bart P.; Lange, Stephanie E.; Kho, Kelvin; Detwiler, Ariana C.; Pacella, Marisa J.; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Temporal developmental progression is highly coordinated in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, loss of nicotinamidase PNC-1 activity slows reproductive development, uncoupling it from its typical progression relative to the soma. Using LC/MS we demonstrate that pnc-1 mutants do not salvage the nicotinamide released by NAD+ consumers to resynthesize NAD+, resulting in a reduction in global NAD+ bioavailability. We manipulate NAD+ levels to demonstrate that a minor deficit in NAD+ availability is incompatible with a normal pace of gonad development. The NAD+ deficit compromises NAD+ consumer activity, but we surprisingly found no functional link between consumer activity and reproductive development. As a result we turned to a comparative metabolomics approach to identify the cause of the developmental phenotype. We reveal widespread metabolic perturbations, and using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that a glycolytic block accounts for the slow pace of reproductive development. Interestingly, mitochondria are protected from both the deficiency in NAD+ biosynthesis and the effects of reduced glycolytic output. We suggest that compensatory metabolic processes that maintain mitochondrial activity in the absence of efficient glycolysis are incompatible with the requirements for reproductive development, which requires high levels of cell division. In addition to demonstrating metabolic requirements for reproductive development, this work also has implications for understanding the mechanisms behind therapeutic interventions that target NAD+ salvage biosynthesis for the purposes of inhibiting tumor growth. PMID:26350462

  6. Metabolic regulation of trisporic acid on Blakeslea trispora revealed by a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach.

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    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available The zygomycete Blakeslea trispora is used commercially as natural source of â-carotene. Trisporic acid (TA is secreted from the mycelium of B. trispora during mating between heterothallic strains and is considered as a mediator of the regulation of mating processes and an enhancer of carotene biosynthesis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate TA-associated intracellular biochemical changes in B. trispora. By principal component analysis, the differential metabolites discriminating the control groups from the TA-treated groups were found, which were also confirmed by the subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis. The results indicate that TA is a global regulator and its main effects at the metabolic level are reflected on the content changes in several fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The carbon metabolism and fatty acids synthesis are sensitive to TA addition. Glycerol, glutamine, and ã-aminobutyrate might play important roles in the regulation of TA. Complemented by two-dimensional electrophoresis, the results indicate that the actions of TA at the metabolic level involve multiple metabolic processes, such as glycolysis and the bypass of the classical tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results reveal that the metabolomics strategy is a powerful tool to gain insight into the mechanism of a microorganism's cellular response to signal inducers at the metabolic level.

  7. Metabolomic Quantitative Trait Loci (mQTL Mapping Implicates the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis.

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    William E Kraus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Levels of certain circulating short-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (SCDA, long-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitine (LCDA and medium chain acylcarnitine (MCA metabolites are heritable and predict cardiovascular disease (CVD events. Little is known about the biological pathways that influence levels of most of these metabolites. Here, we analyzed genetics, epigenetics, and transcriptomics with metabolomics in samples from a large CVD cohort to identify novel genetic markers for CVD and to better understand the role of metabolites in CVD pathogenesis. Using genomewide association in the CATHGEN cohort (N = 1490, we observed associations of several metabolites with genetic loci. Our strongest findings were for SCDA metabolite levels with variants in genes that regulate components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (USP3, HERC1, STIM1, SEL1L, FBXO25, SUGT1 These findings were validated in a second cohort of CATHGEN subjects (N = 2022, combined p = 8.4x10-6-2.3x10-10. Importantly, variants in these genes independently predicted CVD events. Association of genomewide methylation profiles with SCDA metabolites identified two ER stress genes as differentially methylated (BRSK2 and HOOK2. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL pathway analyses driven by gene variants and SCDA metabolites corroborated perturbations in ER stress and highlighted the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS arm. Moreover, culture of human kidney cells in the presence of levels of fatty acids found in individuals with cardiometabolic disease, induced accumulation of SCDA metabolites in parallel with increases in the ER stress marker BiP. Thus, our integrative strategy implicates the UPS arm of the ER stress pathway in CVD pathogenesis, and identifies novel genetic loci associated with CVD event risk.

  8. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

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    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  9. Metabolomics reveals reduction of metabolic oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome after pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin polytherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vinaixa

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a variable disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, body adiposity, low-grade inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease risks. Recently, a new polytherapy consisting of low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen resulted in the regulation of endocrine clinical markers in young and non-obese PCOS women. However, the metabolic processes involved in this phenotypic amelioration remain unidentified. In this work, we used NMR and MS-based untargeted metabolomics to study serum samples of young non-obese PCOS women prior to and at the end of a 30 months polytherapy receiving low-dose flutamide, metformin and pioglitazone in combination with an estro-progestagen. Our results reveal that the treatment decreased the levels of oxidized LDL particles in serum, as well as downstream metabolic oxidation products of LDL particles such as 9- and 13-HODE, azelaic acid and glutaric acid. In contrast, the radiuses of small dense LDL and large HDL particles were substantially increased after the treatment. Clinical and endocrine-metabolic markers were also monitored, showing that the level of HDL cholesterol was increased after the treatment, whereas the level of androgens and the carotid intima-media thickness were reduced. Significantly, the abundance of azelaic acid and the carotid intima-media thickness resulted in a high degree of correlation. Altogether, our results reveal that this new polytherapy markedly reverts the oxidant status of untreated PCOS women, and potentially improves the pro-atherosclerosis condition in these patients.

  10. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  11. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, Peter; Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  12. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, Peter [Eckerd College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel, E-mail: raftery@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  13. Metabolome analysis reveals the effect of carbon catabolite control on the poly(γ-glutamic acid) biosynthesis of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Meissner, Lena; Palmen, Thomas; Bamba, Takeshi; Büchs, Jochen; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a polymer composed of L- and/or D-glutamic acids that is produced by Bacillus sp. Because the polymer has various features as water soluble, edible, non-toxic and so on, it has attracted attention as a candidate for many applications such as foods, cosmetics and so on. However, although it is well known that the intracellular metabolism of Bacillus sp. is mainly regulated by catabolite control, the effect of the catabolite control on the PGA producing Bacillus sp. is largely unknown. This study is the first report of metabolome analysis on the PGA producing Bacillus sp. that reveals the effect of carbon catabolite control on the metabolism of PGA producing Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945. Results showed that the cells cultivated in glycerol-containing medium showed higher PGA production than the cells in glucose-containing medium. Furthermore, metabolome analysis revealed that the activators of CcpA and CodY, global regulatory proteins of the intracellular metabolism, accumulated in the cells cultivated in glycerol-containing and glucose-containing medium, respectively, with CodY apparently inhibiting PGA production. Moreover, the cells seemed to produce glutamate from citrate and ammonium using glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase. Pulsed addition of di-ammonium hydrogen citrate, as suggested by the metabolome result, was able to achieve the highest value so far for PGA production in B. licheniformis. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Current metabolomics: technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Sastia P; Yamamoto, Shinya; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2013-07-01

    Metabolomics, the global quantitative assessment of metabolites in a biological system, has played a pivotal role in various fields of science in the post-genomic era. Metabolites are the result of the interaction of the system's genome with its environment and are not merely the end product of gene expression, but also form part of the regulatory system in an integrated manner. Therefore, metabolomics is often considered a powerful tool to provide an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of a cell. The power of metabolomics lies on the acquisition of analytical data in which metabolites in a cellular system are quantified, and the extraction of the most meaningful elements of the data by using various data analysis tool. In this review, we discuss the latest development of analytical techniques and data analyses methods in metabolomics study. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic transformation of rare Verbascum eriophorum Godr. plants and metabolic alterations revealed by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchev, Andrey; Yordanova, Zhenya; Alipieva, Kalina; Zahmanov, Georgi; Rusinova-Videva, Snezhana; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Simova, Svetlana; Popova, Milena; Georgiev, Milen I

    2016-09-01

    To develop a protocol to transform Verbascum eriophorum and to study the metabolic differences between mother plants and hairy root culture by applying NMR and processing the datasets with chemometric tools. Verbascum eriophorum is a rare species with restricted distribution, which is poorly studied. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation of V. eriophorum and hairy root culture induction are reported for the first time. To determine metabolic alterations, V. eriophorum mother plants and relevant hairy root culture were subjected to comprehensive metabolomic analyses, using NMR (1D and 2D). Metabolomics data, processed using chemometric tools (and principal component analysis in particular) allowed exploration of V. eriophorum metabolome and have enabled identification of verbascoside (by means of 2D-TOCSY NMR) as the most abundant compound in hairy root culture. Metabolomics data contribute to the elucidation of metabolic alterations after T-DNA transfer to the host V. eriophorum genome and the development of hairy root culture for sustainable bioproduction of high value verbascoside.

  16. Metabolomics through the lens of precision cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sin Man; Wang, Yuan; Li, Bowen; Du, Jie; Shui, Guanghou

    2017-03-20

    Metabolomics, which targets at the extensive characterization and quantitation of global metabolites from both endogenous and exogenous sources, has emerged as a novel technological avenue to advance the field of precision medicine principally driven by genomics-oriented approaches. In particular, metabolomics has revealed the cardinal roles that the environment exerts in driving the progression of major diseases threatening public health. Herein, the existent and potential applications of metabolomics in two key areas of precision cardiovascular medicine will be critically discussed: 1) the use of metabolomics in unveiling novel disease biomarkers and pathological pathways; 2) the contribution of metabolomics in cardiovascular drug development. Major issues concerning the statistical handling of big data generated by metabolomics, as well as its interpretation, will be briefly addressed. Finally, the need for integration of various omics branches and adopting a multi-omics approach to precision medicine will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative metabolomics in vanilla pod and vanilla bean revealing the biosynthesis of vanillin during the curing process of vanilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Hong, Yinghua; Fang, Yiming; Tan, Lehe

    2017-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting of vanilla fruits prepared from the curing process. In this study, the metabolic changes of vanilla pods and vanilla beans were characterized using MS-based metabolomics to elucidate the biosynthesis of vanillin. The vanilla pods were significantly different from vanilla beans. Seven pathways of vanillin biosynthesis were constructed, namely, glucovanillin, glucose, cresol, capsaicin, vanillyl alcohol, tyrosine, and phenylalanine pathways. Investigations demonstrated that glucose, cresol, capsaicin, and vanillyl alcohol pathway were detected in a wide range of distribution in microbial metabolism. Thus, microorganisms might have participated in vanillin biosynthesis during vanilla curing. Furthermore, the ion strength of glucovanillin was stable, which indicated that glucovanillin only participated in the vanillin biosynthesis during the curing of vanilla.

  18. CE-MS-based metabolomics reveals the metabolic profile of maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) strains with different cultivation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mayumi; Miyagi, Atsuko; Yoneyama, Shozo; Gisusi, Seiki; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2017-12-01

    Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa [Dicks.] Gray) is generally cultured using the sawdust of broadleaf trees. The maitake strain Gf433 has high production efficiency, with high-quality of fruiting bodies even when 30% of the birch sawdust on the basal substrate is replaced with conifer sawdust. We performed metabolome analysis to investigate the effect of different cultivation components on the metabolism of Gf433 and Mori52 by performing CE-MS on their fruiting bodies in different cultivation conditions to quantify the levels of amino acids, organic acids, and phosphorylated organic acids. We found that amino acid and organic acid content in Gf433 were not affected by the kind of sawdust. However, Gf433 contained more organic acids and less amino acids than Mori52, and Gf433 also contained more chitin compared with Mori52. We believe that these differences in the metabolome contents of the two strains are related to the high production efficiency of Gf433.

  19. Integration of metabolomic and transcriptomic networks in pregnant women reveals biological pathways and predictive signatures associated with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rachel S; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Dahlin, Amber; Mirzakhani, Hooman; Wu, Ann C; Wan, Emily S; McGeachie, Michael J; Qiu, Weiliang; Sordillo, Joanne E; Al-Garawi, Amal; Gray, Kathryn J; McElrath, Thomas F; Carey, Vincent J; Clish, Clary B; Litonjua, Augusto A; Weiss, Scott T; Lasky-Su, Jessica A

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, yet its exact pathogenesis remains elusive. This study, nested within the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), aimed to develop integrated omics models of preeclampsia that have utility in both prediction and in the elucidation of underlying biological mechanisms. Metabolomic profiling was performed on first trimester plasma samples of 47 pregnant women from VDAART who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 62 controls with healthy pregnancies, using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Metabolomic profiles were generated based on logistic regression models and assessed using Received Operator Characteristic Curve analysis. These profiles were compared to profiles from generated using third trimester samples. The first trimester metabolite profile was then integrated with a pre-existing transcriptomic profile using network methods. In total, 72 (0.9%) metabolite features were associated (pIntegration with the transcriptomic signature refined these results suggesting a particular role for lipid imbalance, immune function and the circulatory system. These findings suggest it is possible to develop a predictive metabolomic profile of preeclampsia. This profile is characterized by changes in lipid and amino acid metabolism and dysregulation of immune response and can be refined through interaction with transcriptomic data. However validation in larger and more diverse populations is required.

  20. Metabolome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster during embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Phan Nguyen Thuy; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster embryo has been widely utilized as a model for genetics and developmental biology due to its small size, short generation time, and large brood size. Information on embryonic metabolism during developmental progression is important for further understanding the mechanisms of Drosophila embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the changes in embryos' metabolome that occur at different stages of the Drosophila embryonic development. Time course samples of Drosophila embryos were subjected to GC/MS-based metabolome analysis for profiling of low molecular weight hydrophilic metabolites, including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of Drosophila embryo varied during the course of development and there was a strong correlation between the metabolome and different embryonic stages. Using the metabolome information, we were able to establish a prediction model for developmental stages of embryos starting from their high-resolution quantitative metabolite composition. Among the important metabolites revealed from our model, we suggest that different amino acids appear to play distinct roles in different developmental stages and an appropriate balance in trehalose-glucose ratio is crucial to supply the carbohydrate source for the development of Drosophila embryo.

  1. Metabolomics by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the response to chloroethylnitrosourea reveals drug efficacy and tumor adaptive metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aicha

    2007-03-01

    Metabolomics of tumors may allow discovery of tumor biomarkers and metabolic therapeutic targets. Metabolomics by two-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to investigate metabolite disorders following treatment by chloroethylnitrosourea of murine B16 melanoma (n = 33) and 3LL pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31) in vivo. Treated tumors of both types resumed growth after a delay. Nitrosoureas provoke DNA damage but the metabolic consequences of genotoxic stress are little known yet. Although some differences were observed in the metabolite profile of untreated tumor types, the prominent metabolic features of the response to nitrosourea were common to both. During the growth inhibition phase, there was an accumulation of glucose (more than x10; P < 0.05), glutamine (x3 to 4; P < 0.01), and aspartate (x2 to 5; P < 0.01). This response testified to nucleoside de novo synthesis down-regulation and drug efficacy. However, this phase also involved the increase in alanine (P < 0.001 in B16 melanoma), the decrease in succinate (P < 0.001), and the accumulation of serine-derived metabolites (glycine, phosphoethanolamine, and formate; P < 0.01). This response witnessed the activation of pathways implicated in energy production and resumption of nucleotide de novo synthesis, thus metabolic pathways of DNA repair and adaptation to treatment. During the growth recovery phase, it remained polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation (x1.5 to 2; P < 0.05) and reduced utilization of glucose compared with glutamine (P < 0.05), a metabolic fingerprint of adaptation. Thus, this study provides the proof of principle that metabolomics of tumor response to an anticancer agent may help discover metabolic pathways of drug efficacy and adaptation to treatment.

  2. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Streptomyces tsukubaensis reveals the metabolic mechanism of FK506 overproduction by feeding soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Jin, Lina; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that possesses powerful immunosuppressant activity. In this study, feeding soybean oil into the fermentation culture of Streptomyces tsukubaensis improved FK506 production by 88.8%. To decipher the overproduction mechanism, comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis was carried out. A total of 72 protein spots with differential expression in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 66 intracellular metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analysis of proteome and metabolome indicated that feeding soybean oil as a supplementary carbon source could not only strengthen the FK506 precursor metabolism and energy metabolism but also tune the pathways related to transcriptional regulation, translation, and stress response, suggesting a better intracellular metabolic environment for the synthesis of FK506. Based on these analyses, 20 key metabolites and precursors of FK506 were supplemented into the soybean oil medium. Among them, lysine, citric acid, shikimic acid, and malonic acid performed excellently for promoting the FK506 production and biomass. Especially, the addition of malonic acid achieved the highest FK506 production, which was 1.56-fold of that in soybean oil medium and 3.05-fold of that in initial medium. This report represented the first comprehensive study on the comparative proteomics and metabolomics applied in S. tsukubaensis, and it would be a rational guidance to further strengthen the FK506 production.

  3. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects.

  4. Untargeted metabolomics of colonic digests reveals kynurenine pathway metabolites, dityrosine and 3-dehydroxycarnitine as red versus white meat discriminating metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Caroline; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y.; Van Hecke, Thomas; De Smet, Stefaan; De Vos, Winnok H.; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that the consumption of red meat is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there is no holistic insight in the (by-) products of meat digestion that may contribute to disease development. To address this hiatus, an untargeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to create red versus white meat associated metabolic fingerprints following in vitro colonic digestion using the fecal inocula of ten healthy volunteers. Twenty-two metabolites were unequivocally associated with simulated colonic digestion of red meat. Several of these metabolites could mechanistically be linked to red meat-associated pathways including N’-formylkynurenine, kynurenine and kynurenic acid (all involved in tryptophan metabolism), the oxidative stress marker dityrosine, and 3-dehydroxycarnitine. In conclusion, the used MS-based metabolomics platform proved to be a powerful platform for detection of specific metabolites that improve the understanding of the causal relationship between red meat consumption and associated diseases. PMID:28195169

  5. Comparative metabolomics reveals endogenous ligands of DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor regulating C. elegans development and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, Parag; Bose, Neelanjan; Bethke, Axel; Judkins, Joshua C.; Wollam, Joshua; Dumas, Kathleen J.; Zimmerman, Anna M.; Campbell, Sydney L.; Hu, Patrick J.; Antebi, Adam; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Small-molecule ligands of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) govern the transcriptional regulation of metazoan development, cell differentiation, and metabolism. However, the physiological ligands of many NHRs remain poorly characterized primarily due to lack of robust analytical techniques. Using comparative metabolomics, we identified endogenous steroids that act as ligands of the C. elegans NHR, DAF-12, a vitamin-D and liver-X receptor homolog regulating larval development, fat metabolism, and lifespan. The identified molecules feature unexpected chemical modifications and include only one of two DAF-12 ligands reported earlier, necessitating a revision of previously proposed ligand biosynthetic pathways. We further show that ligand profiles are regulated by a complex enzymatic network including the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36, the short-chain dehydrogenase DHS-16, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, HSD-1. Our results demonstrate the advantages of comparative metabolomics over traditional candidate-based approaches and provide a blueprint for the identification of ligands for other C. elegans and mammalian NHRs. PMID:24411940

  6. Combined Metabonomic and Quantitative RT-PCR Analyses Revealed Metabolic Reprogramming Associated with Fusarium graminearum Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight disease resulting from Fusarium graminearum (FG infection causes huge losses in global production of cereals and development of FG-resistant plants is urgently needed. To understand biochemistry mechanisms for FG resistance, here, we have systematically investigated the plant metabolomic phenotypes associated with FG resistance for transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a class-I chitinase (Chi, a Fusarium-specific recombinant antibody gene (CWP2 and fused Chi-CWP2. Plant disease indices, mycotoxin levels, metabonomic characteristics, and expression levels of several key genes were measured together with their correlations. We found that A. thaliana expressing Chi-CWP2 showed higher FG resistance with much lower disease indices and mycotoxin levels than the wild-type and the plants expressing Chi or CWP2 alone. The combined metabonomic and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that such FG-resistance was closely associated with the promoted biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoids, alkanoids and organic osmolytes (proline, betaine, glucose, myo-inositol together with enhanced TCA cycle and GABA shunt. These suggest that the concurrently enhanced biosyntheses of the shikimate-mediated secondary metabolites and organic osmolytes be an important strategy for A. thaliana to develop and improve FG resistance. These findings provide essential biochemical information related to FG resistance which is important for developing FG-resistant cereals.

  7. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  8. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  9. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  10. Combined Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma and Urine Reveals AHBA, Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as Potential Risk Factors in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Leitner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has severe implications for the health of the mother and the fetus. Therefore, early prediction and an understanding of the physiology are an important part of prenatal care. Metabolite profiling is a long established method for the analysis and prediction of metabolic diseases. Here, we applied untargeted and targeted metabolomic protocols to analyze plasma and urine samples of pregnant women with and without GDM. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of metabolomic profiles revealed markers such as 2-hydroxybutanoic acid (AHBA, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid (BHBA, amino acids valine and alanine, the glucose-alanine-cycle, but also plant-derived compounds like sitosterin as different between control and GDM patients. PLS-DA and VIP analysis revealed tryptophan as a strong variable separating control and GDM. As tryptophan is biotransformed to serotonin we hypothesized whether serotonin metabolism might also be altered in GDM. To test this hypothesis we applied a method for the analysis of serotonin, metabolic intermediates and dopamine in urine by stable isotope dilution direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SID-MS. Indeed, serotonin and related metabolites differ significantly between control and GDM patients confirming the involvement of serotonin metabolism in GDM. Clustered correlation coefficient visualization of metabolite correlation networks revealed the different metabolic signatures between control and GDM patients. Eventually, the combination of selected blood plasma and urine sample metabolites improved the AUC prediction accuracy to 0.99. The detected GDM candidate biomarkers and the related systemic metabolic signatures are discussed in their pathophysiological context. Further studies with larger cohorts are necessary to underpin these observations.

  11. Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma from Patients with Tuberculosis by Use of Untargeted Mass Spectrometry Reveals Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Lee, Kim-Chung; Curreem, Shirly O T; Chow, Wang-Ngai; To, Kelvin K W; Hung, Ivan F N; Ho, Deborah T Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Li, Iris W S; Ding, Vanessa S Y; Koo, Eleanor W F; Wong, Chi-Fong; Tam, Sidney; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-12-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a reemerging disease that affects people in developing countries and immunocompromised populations in developed countries, the current diagnostic methods are far from optimal. Metabolomics is increasingly being used for studies on infectious diseases. We performed metabolome profiling of plasma samples to identify potential biomarkers for diagnosing TB. We compared the plasma metabolome profiles of TB patients (n = 46) with those of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients (n = 30) and controls without active infection (n = 30) using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOFMS). Using multivariate and univariate analyses, four metabolites, 12R-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid [12(R)-HETE], ceramide (d18:1/16:0), cholesterol sulfate, and 4α-formyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol, were identified and found to have significantly higher levels in TB patients than those in CAP patients and controls. In a comparison of TB patients and controls, the four metabolites demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.914, 0.912, 0.905, and 0.856, sensitivities of 84.8%, 84.8%, 87.0%, and 89.1%, specificities of 90.0%, 86.7%, 86.7%, and 80.0%, and fold changes of 4.19, 26.15, 6.09, and 1.83, respectively. In a comparison of TB and CAP patients, the four metabolites demonstrated AUC values of 0.793, 0.717, 0.802, and 0.894, sensitivities of 89.1%, 71.7%, 80.4%, and 84.8%, specificities of 63.3%, 66.7%, 70.0%, and 83.3%, and fold changes of 4.69, 3.82, 3.75, and 2.16, respectively. 4α-Formyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol combined with 12(R)-HETE or cholesterol sulfate offered ≥70% sensitivity and ≥90% specificity for differentiating TB patients from controls or CAP patients. These novel plasma biomarkers, especially 12(R)-HETE and 4α-formyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholesta-8-en-3β-ol, alone or in

  12. Customized Consensus Spectral Library Building for Untargeted Quantitative Metabolomics Analysis with Data Independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry and MetaboDIA Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengbo; Walmsley, Scott; Cheung, Gemmy C M; Chen, Liyan; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Beuerman, Roger W; Wong, Tien Yin; Zhou, Lei; Choi, Hyungwon

    2017-05-02

    Data independent acquisition-mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) coupled with liquid chromatography is a promising approach for rapid, automatic sampling of MS/MS data in untargeted metabolomics. However, wide isolation windows in DIA-MS generate MS/MS spectra containing a mixed population of fragment ions together with their precursor ions. This precursor-fragment ion map in a comprehensive MS/MS spectral library is crucial for relative quantification of fragment ions uniquely representative of each precursor ion. However, existing reference libraries are not sufficient for this purpose since the fragmentation patterns of small molecules can vary in different instrument setups. Here we developed a bioinformatics workflow called MetaboDIA to build customized MS/MS spectral libraries using a user's own data dependent acquisition (DDA) data and to perform MS/MS-based quantification with DIA data, thus complementing conventional MS1-based quantification. MetaboDIA also allows users to build a spectral library directly from DIA data in studies of a large sample size. Using a marine algae data set, we show that quantification of fragment ions extracted with a customized MS/MS library can provide as reliable quantitative data as the direct quantification of precursor ions based on MS1 data. To test its applicability in complex samples, we applied MetaboDIA to a clinical serum metabolomics data set, where we built a DDA-based spectral library containing consensus spectra for 1829 compounds. We performed fragment ion quantification using DIA data using this library, yielding sensitive differential expression analysis.

  13. Quantitative metagenomics reveals unique gut microbiome biomarkers in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chengping; Zheng, Zhijun; Shao, Tiejuan; Liu, Lin; Xie, Zhijun; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; He, Zhixing; Zhong, Wendi; Fan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Linshuang; Li, Haichang; Wu, Chunyan; Hu, Changfeng; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Jia; Cai, Shunfeng; Wang, Dawei; Huang, Yun; Breban, Maxime; Qin, Nan; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko

    2017-07-27

    The assessment and characterization of the gut microbiome has become a focus of research in the area of human autoimmune diseases. Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory autoimmune disease and evidence showed that ankylosing spondylitis may be a microbiome-driven disease. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and ankylosing spondylitis, a quantitative metagenomics study based on deep shotgun sequencing was performed, using gut microbial DNA from 211 Chinese individuals. A total of 23,709 genes and 12 metagenomic species were shown to be differentially abundant between ankylosing spondylitis patients and healthy controls. Patients were characterized by a form of gut microbial dysbiosis that is more prominent than previously reported cases with inflammatory bowel disease. Specifically, the ankylosing spondylitis patients demonstrated increases in the abundance of Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella copri, and Prevotella sp. C561 and decreases in Bacteroides spp. It is noteworthy that the Bifidobacterium genus, which is commonly used in probiotics, accumulated in the ankylosing spondylitis patients. Diagnostic algorithms were established using a subset of these gut microbial biomarkers. Alterations of the gut microbiome are associated with development of ankylosing spondylitis. Our data suggest biomarkers identified in this study might participate in the pathogenesis or development process of ankylosing spondylitis, providing new leads for the development of new diagnostic tools and potential treatments.

  14. Recent breakthroughs in metabolomics promise to reveal the cryptic chemical traits that mediate plant community composition, character evolution and lineage diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedio, Brian E

    2017-05-01

    Contents 952 I. 952 II. 953 III. 955 IV. 956 V. 957 957 References 957 SUMMARY: Much of our understanding of the mechanisms by which biotic interactions shape plant communities has been constrained by the methods available to study the diverse secondary chemistry that defines plant relationships with other organisms. Recent innovations in analytical chemistry and bioinformatics promise to reveal the cryptic chemical traits that mediate plant ecology and evolution by facilitating simultaneous structural comparisons of hundreds of unknown molecules to each other and to libraries of known compounds. Here, I explore the potential for mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics to enable unprecedented tests of seminal, but largely untested hypotheses that propose a fundamental role for plant chemical defenses against herbivores and pathogens in the evolutionary origins and ecological coexistence of plant species diversity. © 2017 The Author. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Lysosomal metabolomics reveals V-ATPase- and mTOR-dependent regulation of amino acid efflux from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Wyant, Gregory A; Kim, Choah; Laqtom, Nouf N; Abbasi, Maria; Chan, Sze Ham; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Sabatini, David M

    2017-11-10

    The lysosome degrades and recycles macromolecules, signals to the cytosol and nucleus, and is implicated in many diseases. Here, we describe a method for the rapid isolation of mammalian lysosomes and use it to quantitatively profile lysosomal metabolites under various cell states. Under nutrient-replete conditions, many lysosomal amino acids are in rapid exchange with those in the cytosol. Loss of lysosomal acidification through inhibition of the vacuolar H + -adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) increased the luminal concentrations of most metabolites but had no effect on those of the majority of essential amino acids. Instead, nutrient starvation regulates the lysosomal concentrations of these amino acids, an effect we traced to regulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Inhibition of mTOR strongly reduced the lysosomal efflux of most essential amino acids, converting the lysosome into a cellular depot for them. These results reveal the dynamic nature of lysosomal metabolites and that V-ATPase- and mTOR-dependent mechanisms exist for controlling lysosomal amino acid efflux. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-06-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  17. Metabolomics reveals dose effects of low-dose chronic exposure to uranium in rats: identification of candidate biomarkers in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Éric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bohand, Sandra; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    Data are sparse about the potential health risks of chronic low-dose contamination of humans by uranium (natural or anthropogenic) in drinking water. Previous studies report some molecular imbalances but no clinical signs due to uranium intake. In a proof-of-principle study, we reported that metabolomics is an appropriate method for addressing this chronic low-dose exposure in a rat model (uranium dose: 40 mg L -1 ; duration: 9 months, n = 10). In the present study, our aim was to investigate the dose-effect pattern and identify additional potential biomarkers in urine samples. Compared to our previous protocol, we doubled the number of rats per group (n = 20), added additional sampling time points (3 and 6 months) and included several lower doses of natural uranium (doses used: 40, 1.5, 0.15 and 0.015 mg L -1 ). LC-MS metabolomics was performed on urine samples and statistical analyses were made with SIMCA-P+ and R packages. The data confirmed our previous results and showed that discrimination was both dose and time related. Uranium exposure was revealed in rats contaminated for 9 months at a dose as low as 0.15 mg L -1 . Eleven features, including the confidently identified N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and 4-hydroxyphenylacetylglycine, discriminated control from contaminated rats with a specificity and a sensitivity ranging from 83 to 96 %, when combined into a composite score. These findings show promise for the elucidation of underlying radiotoxicologic mechanisms and the design of a diagnostic test to assess exposure in urine, in a dose range experimentally estimated to be above a threshold between 0.015 and 0.15 mg L -1 .

  18. Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Contrasting Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Mucor Racemosus Secondary Metabolites Compared to Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Samuel M; Muqaku, Besnik; Ullmann, Ronald; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mader, Johanna C; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Gerner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Classical drug assays are often confined to single molecules and targeting single pathways. However, it is also desirable to investigate the effects of complex mixtures on complex systems such as living cells including the natural multitude of signalling pathways. Evidence based on herbal medicine has motivated us to investigate potential beneficial health effects of Mucor racemosus (M rac) extracts. Secondary metabolites of M rac were collected using a good-manufacturing process (GMP) approved production line and a validated manufacturing process, in order to obtain a stable product termed SyCircue (National Drug Code USA: 10424-102). Toxicological studies confirmed that this product does not contain mycotoxins and is non-genotoxic. Potential effects on inflammatory processes were investigated by treating stimulated cells with M rac extracts and the effects were compared to the standard anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone on the levels of the proteome and metabolome. Using 2D-PAGE, slight anti-inflammatory effects were observed in primary white blood mononuclear cells, which were more pronounced in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Proteome profiling based on nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests revealed inhibitory effects of M rac extracts on pro-inflammatory cytoplasmic mediators and secreted cytokines and chemokines in these endothelial cells. This finding was confirmed using targeted proteomics, here treatment of stimulated cells with M rac extracts down-regulated the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, CXCL5 and GROA significantly. Finally, the modulating effects of M rac on HUVECs were also confirmed on the level of the metabolome. Several metabolites displayed significant concentration changes upon treatment of inflammatory activated HUVECs with the M rac extract, including spermine and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C18:0 and sphingomyelin C26:1, while the bulk of measured metabolites remained unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of M rac

  19. Endocrinology Meets Metabolomics: Achievements, Pitfalls, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Janina; Haid, Mark; Cecil, Alexander; Prehn, Cornelia; Artati, Anna; Möller, Gabriele; Adamski, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    The metabolome, although very dynamic, is sufficiently stable to provide specific quantitative traits related to health and disease. Metabolomics requires balanced use of state-of-the-art study design, chemical analytics, biostatistics, and bioinformatics to deliver meaningful answers to contemporary questions in human disease research. The technology is now frequently employed for biomarker discovery and for elucidating the mechanisms underlying endocrine-related diseases. Metabolomics has also enriched genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in this area by providing functional data. The contributions of rare genetic variants to metabolome variance and to the human phenotype have been underestimated until now. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolomics and transcriptomics reveal the toxicity of difenoconazole to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Miaomiao; Zhu, Wentao; Wang, Dezhen; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Yao; Yan, Jin; Dong, Kai; Zheng, Mingqi; Wang, Chengju

    2018-01-01

    Difenoconazole is widely used to inhibit the growth of fungi, but its residue in the water environment may threaten ecosystem and human health. Here, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and LC-MS/MS based metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches were used to assess the response of zebrafish to difenoconazole exposure. Early life stages of zebrafish were exposed to difenoconazole at environmentally relevant concentrations for 168h. Their comparison with the control group suggested an adverse development and disturbance of steroid hormones and VTG. KEGG pathway analysis identified five biological processes on the basis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), as well as altered metabolites and amino acids in zebrafish following difenoconazole exposure. These affected processes included energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and an immune-related pathway. Collectively, these results bring us closer to an incremental understanding of the toxic effects of difenoconazole on zebrafish in its early development, and lend support to the continued use of the early life stages of zebrafish as a classical model to evaluate underlying environmental risks of xenobiotics in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CE-TOF MS-based metabolomic profiling revealed characteristic metabolic pathways in postmortem porcine fast and slow type muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Ojima, Koichi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    To determine key compounds and metabolic pathways associated with meat quality, we profiled metabolites in postmortem porcine longissimus lumborum (LL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles with different aging times by global metabolomics using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. Loading analyses of the principal component analysis showed that hydrophilic amino acids and β-alanine-related compounds contributed to the muscle type positively and negatively, respectively, whereas glycolytic and ATP degradation products contributed to aging time. At 168h postmortem, LL samples were characterized by abundance of combinations of amino acids, dipeptides, and glycolytic products, whereas the VI samples were characterized by abundance of both sulfur-containing compounds and amino acids. The AMP and inosine contents in the VI were approx. 10 times higher than those in the LL at 4h postmortem, suggesting different rates of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) accumulation by adenylate kinase 7 and 5'-nucleotidase, and subsequent different production levels of IMP and hypoxanthine between these two porcine muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomics reveals the mechanisms for the cardiotoxicity of Pinelliae Rhizoma and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Tan, Yong; Tsui, Man-Shan; Yi, Hua; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Li, Ting; Chan, Chi Leung; Guo, Hui; Li, Ya-Xi; Zhu, Pei-Li; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Cao, Hui; Lu, Ai-Ping; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Pinelliae Rhizoma (PR) is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb, but it has been frequently reported about its toxicity. According to the traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can reduce the toxicity of the herbs. Here, we aim to determine if processing reduces the toxicity of raw PR, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of raw PR-induced toxicities and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. Biochemical and histopathological approaches were used to evaluate the toxicities of raw and processed PR. Rat serum metabolites were analyzed by LC-TOF-MS. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the metabolomics data highlighted the biological pathways and network functions involved in raw PR-induced toxicities and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing, which were verified by molecular approaches. Results showed that raw PR caused cardiotoxicity, and processing reduced the toxicity. Inhibition of mTOR signaling and activation of the TGF-β pathway contributed to raw PR-induced cardiotoxicity, and free radical scavenging might be responsible for the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. Our data shed new light on the mechanisms of raw PR-induced cardiotoxicity and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. This study provides scientific justifications for the traditional processing theory of PR, and should help in optimizing the processing protocol and clinical combinational application of PR.

  3. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2018-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Metabolomic profiling reveals distinct patterns of tricarboxylic acid disorders in blood stasis syndrome associated with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Chang, Hong; Lu, Ling-Hui; Qiu, Qi; Ouyang, Yu-Lin; Yu, Jun-da; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the underlying metabolomic profifiling of coronary heart disease (CHD) with blood stasis syndrome (BSS). CHD model was induced by a nameroid constrictor in Chinese miniature swine. Fifteen miniature swine were randomly divided into a model group (n=9) and a control group (n=6), respectively according to arandom number table. After 4 weeks, plasma hemorheology was detected by automatic hemorheological analyzer, indices including hematocrit, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity, rigidity index and erythrocyte sedimentation rate; cardiac function was assessed by echocardiograph to detect left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVED), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and other indicators. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and bioinformatics were applied to analyze spectra of CHD plasma with BSS. The results of hemorheology analysis showed signifificant changes in viscosity, with low shear whole blood viscosity being lower and plasma viscosity higher in the model group compared with the control group. Moreover, whole blood reduction viscosity at high shear rate and whole blood reduction viscosity at low shear rate increased signifificantly (P patterns involved were associated with dysfunction of energy metabolism including glucose and lipid disorders, especially in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, galactose metabolism and adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. Glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism disorders were the major contributors to the syndrome classifification of CHD with BSS.

  5. 1H NMR-based serum metabolomics reveals erythromycin-induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Rawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythromycin (ERY is known to induce hepatic toxicity which mimics other liver diseases. Thus, ERY is often used to produce experimental models of drug-induced liver-toxicity. The serum metabolic profiles can be used to evaluate the liver-toxicity and to further improve the understanding of underlying mechanism. Objective: To establish the serum metabolic patterns of Erythromycin induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats using 1H NMR based serum metabolomics. Experimental: Fourteen male rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group: control and ERY treated. After 28 days of intervention, the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from ERY and control groups were analyzed using high-resolution 1D 1H CPMG and diffusion-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. The histopathological and SEM examinations were employed to evaluate the liver toxicity in ERY treated group. Results: The serum metabolic profiles of control and ERY treated rats were compared using multivariate statistical analysis and the metabolic patterns specific to ERY-induced liver toxicity were established. The toxic response of ERY was characterized with: (a increased serum levels of Glucose, glutamine, dimethylamine, malonate, choline, phosphocholine and phospholipids and (b decreased levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, citrate, glycerol, lactate, threonine, circulating lipoproteins, N-acetyl glycoproteins, and poly-unsaturated lipids. These metabolic alterations were found to be associated with (a decreased TCA cycle activity and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, (b dysfunction of lipid and amino acid metabolism and (c oxidative stress. Conclusion and Recommendations: Erythromycin is often used to produce experimental models of liver toxicity; therefore, the established NMR-based metabolic patterns will form the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate the efficacy of anti-hepatotoxic agents or the hepatotoxicity of new

  6. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Chaparro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS and ionomics (ICP-MS analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds, nutrients (42, lipids (76, and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%, however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation, bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation, medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation, and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation. Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class. Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.

  7. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Holm, David G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Heuberger, Adam L.

    2018-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits. PMID:29876353

  8. Biological effect of aqueous C60 aggregates on Scenedesmus obliquus revealed by transcriptomics and non-targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunlei; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Hu, Chaoyang; Ng, Qin Xiang; Zhang, Hui; Ong, Choon Nam; ZhifenLin

    2017-02-15

    This work evaluated biological effect of nC 60 on Scenedesmus obliquus. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of nC 60 for 7days. Low-dose of nC 60 was found to have a minor growth inhibitory effect. The transcriptomics and metabolomics were integrated to examine intricate molecular and cellular effects of nC 60 on Scenedesmus obliquus. We found that Scenedesmus obliquus cells exposed to nC 60 had several significant alterations in cellular transcription and biochemical processes. During the 7-day exposure to nC 60 , 2234 and 2,448 unigenes were differentially expressed by 0.1mg/L and 1mg/L nC 60 -treated groups compared with the control, including 2085 or 2247 up-regulated genes and 149 or 201 down-regulated genes, respectively. We successfully identified 22 metabolites, including 6 significantly changed metabolites, such as sucrose, d-glucose, and malic acid. The citrate cycle (TCA cycle) (ko00020) was the main target of both differentially expressed genes and metabolic change. However, accumulation of sucrose (end-product) could have induced feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in Scenedesmus obliquus, explaining the slight growth inhibition observed. The results provided a mechanistic understanding of the growth inhibition of nC 60 toxicity. These genes and metabolites are useful biomarkers for future studies and offer new insights into the early detectable changes in Scenedesmus obliquus with nC 60 exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  10. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  11. NMR-based metabolomics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaccarino, Nunzia

    Metabolomics is the scientific discipline that identifies and quantifies endogenous and exogenous metabolites in different biological samples. Metabolites are crucial components of a biological system and they are highly informative about its functional state, due to their closeness to the organism...... focused on the analysis of various samples covering a wide range of fields, namely, food and nutraceutical sciences, cell metabolomics and medicine using a metabolomics approach. Indeed, the first part of the thesis describes two exploratory studies performed on Algerian extra virgin olive oil and apple...... juice from ancient Danish apple cultivars. Both studies revealed variety-related peculiarities that would have been difficult to detect by means of traditional analysis. The second part of the project includes four metabolomics studies performed on samples of biological origin. In particular, the first...

  12. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates As Revealed by Metabolomics Studies: An Underlying Mechanism to Reduce Lipid Accretion by Whey Protein Ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by 1H NMR and LC–MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC–MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC–MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice. PMID:24702026

  14. Quantitative Clinical Diagnostic Analysis of Acetone in Human Blood by HPLC: A Metabolomic Search for Acetone as Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Akgul Kalkan, Esin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Ulker Cakir, Dilek; Alpaslan, Duygu; Yilmaz, Selehattin

    2016-01-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) as a derivatizing reagent, an analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone in human blood. The determination was carried out at 365?nm using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diode array detector (DAD). For acetone as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative, a good separation was achieved with a ThermoAcclaim C18 column (15?cm ? 4.6?mm ? 3??m) at retention time (t R) ...

  15. RapidRIP quantifies the intracellular metabolome of 7 industrial strains of E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Xu, Julia; Schrübbers, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Fast metabolite quantification methods are required for high throughput screening of microbial strains obtained by combinatorial or evolutionary engineering approaches. In this study, a rapid RIP-LC-MS/MS (RapidRIP) method for high-throughput quantitative metabolomics was developed and validated...... to quantify the metabolome of seven industrial strains of E. coli revealing significant differences in glycolytic, pentose phosphate, TCA cycle, amino acid, and energy and cofactor metabolites were found. These differences translated to statistically and biologically significant differences in thermodynamics...

  16. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  17. Protein catabolism and high lipid metabolism associated with long-distance exercise are revealed by plasma NMR metabolomics in endurance horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Le Moyec

    Full Text Available During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and statistical multivariate analysis. The advantage of this method is to investigate several metabolomic pathways at the same time in a single sample. The plasmas were obtained before exercise (BE and post exercise (PE from 69 horses competing in three endurance races at national level (130-160 km. Biochemical assays were also performed on the samples taken at PE. The proton NMR spectra were compared using the supervised orthogonal projection on latent structure method according to several factors. Among these factors, the race location was not significant whereas the effect of the race exercise (sample BE vs PE of same horse was highly discriminating. This result was confirmed by the projection of unpaired samples (only BE or PE sample of different horses. The metabolomic profiles proved that protein, energetic and lipid metabolisms as well as glycoproteins content are highly affected by the long endurance exercise. The BE samples from finisher horses could be discriminated according to the racing speed based on their metabolomic lipid content. The PE samples could be discriminated according to the horse ranking position at the end of the race with lactate as unique correlated metabolite. As a conclusion, the metabolomic profiles of plasmas taken before and after the race provided a better understanding of the high energy demand and protein catabolism pathway that could expose the horses to metabolic disorders.

  18. Metabolomics Reveals New Mechanisms for Pathogenesis in Barth Syndrome and Introduces Novel Roles for Cardiolipin in Cellular Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Sandlers

    Full Text Available Barth Syndrome is the only known Mendelian disorder of cardiolipin remodeling, with characteristic clinical features of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and neutropenia. While the primary biochemical defects of reduced mature cardiolipin and increased monolysocardiolipin are well-described, much of the downstream biochemical dysregulation has not been uncovered, and biomarkers are limited. In order to further expand upon the knowledge of the biochemical abnormalities in Barth Syndrome, we analyzed metabolite profiles in plasma from a cohort of individuals with Barth Syndrome compared to age-matched controls via 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A clear distinction between metabolite profiles of individuals with Barth Syndrome and controls was observed, and was defined by an array of metabolite classes including amino acids and lipids. Pathway analysis of these discriminating metabolites revealed involvement of mitochondrial and extra-mitochondrial biochemical pathways including: insulin regulation of fatty acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, biogenic amine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, and tRNA biosynthesis. Taken together, this data indicates broad metabolic dysregulation in Barth Syndrome with wide cellular effects.

  19. A Metabolomic Perspective on Coeliac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics is an “omic” science that is now emerging with the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive analysis of the metabolome, which is the complete set of metabolites (i.e., small molecules intermediates) in an organism, tissue, cell, or biofluid. In the past decade, metabolomics has already proved to be useful for the characterization of several pathological conditions and offers promises as a clinical tool. A metabolomics investigation of coeliac disease (CD) revealed that a metabolic fingerprint for CD can be defined, which accounts for three different but complementary components: malabsorption, energy metabolism, and alterations in gut microflora and/or intestinal permeability. In this review, we will discuss the major advancements in metabolomics of CD, in particular with respect to the role of gut microbiome and energy metabolism. PMID:24665364

  20. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolomics reveals sub-lethal toxicity of a mixture of diabetic and lipid-regulating pharmaceuticals on amphibian larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melvin, Steven D., E-mail: s.melvin@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia); Habener, Leesa J. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia); Leusch, Frederic D.L. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia); Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia); Carroll, Anthony R. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical pollutants are a concern for eliciting adverse effects in wildlife. • Diabetes and lipid regulating drugs are widely used and poorly removed from sewage. • We explored the toxicity of a mixture of metformin, atorvastatin and bezafibrate on tadpoles. • Exposure caused increased growth and development but no effects on lipids or cholesterol. • {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolomics reveal increased lactic acid and BCAAs in exposed animals. - Abstract: Pharmaceuticals are widely used for the treatment of various physical and psychological ailments. Due to incomplete removal during sewage treatment many pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in aquatic waterways at trace concentrations. The diversity of pharmaceutical contaminants and potential for complex mixtures to occur makes it very difficult to predict the toxicity of these compounds on wildlife, and robust methods are therefore needed to explore sub-lethal effects. Metabolic syndrome is one of the most widespread health concerns currently facing the human population, and various drugs, including anti-diabetic medications and lipid- and cholesterol-lowering fibrates and statins, are widely prescribed as treatment. In this study, we exposed striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles to a mixture of the drugs metformin, atorvastatin and bezafibrate at 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L to explore possible effects on growth and development, energy reserves (triglycerides and cholesterol), and profiles of small polar metabolites extracted from hepatic tissues. It was hypothesised that exposure would result in a general reduction in energy reserves, and that this would subsequently correspond with reduced growth and development. Responses differed from expected outcomes based on the known mechanisms of these compounds in humans, with no changes to hepatic triglycerides or cholesterol and a general increase in mass and condition with increasing exposure concentration. Deviation from the

  1. "1H NMR-based metabolomics reveals sub-lethal toxicity of a mixture of diabetic and lipid-regulating pharmaceuticals on amphibian larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, Steven D.; Habener, Leesa J.; Leusch, Frederic D.L.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical pollutants are a concern for eliciting adverse effects in wildlife. • Diabetes and lipid regulating drugs are widely used and poorly removed from sewage. • We explored the toxicity of a mixture of metformin, atorvastatin and bezafibrate on tadpoles. • Exposure caused increased growth and development but no effects on lipids or cholesterol. • "1H NMR-based metabolomics reveal increased lactic acid and BCAAs in exposed animals. - Abstract: Pharmaceuticals are widely used for the treatment of various physical and psychological ailments. Due to incomplete removal during sewage treatment many pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in aquatic waterways at trace concentrations. The diversity of pharmaceutical contaminants and potential for complex mixtures to occur makes it very difficult to predict the toxicity of these compounds on wildlife, and robust methods are therefore needed to explore sub-lethal effects. Metabolic syndrome is one of the most widespread health concerns currently facing the human population, and various drugs, including anti-diabetic medications and lipid- and cholesterol-lowering fibrates and statins, are widely prescribed as treatment. In this study, we exposed striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles to a mixture of the drugs metformin, atorvastatin and bezafibrate at 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L to explore possible effects on growth and development, energy reserves (triglycerides and cholesterol), and profiles of small polar metabolites extracted from hepatic tissues. It was hypothesised that exposure would result in a general reduction in energy reserves, and that this would subsequently correspond with reduced growth and development. Responses differed from expected outcomes based on the known mechanisms of these compounds in humans, with no changes to hepatic triglycerides or cholesterol and a general increase in mass and condition with increasing exposure concentration. Deviation from the

  2. A model‐driven quantitative metabolomics analysis of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in E. coli K‐12 MG1655 that is biochemically and thermodynamically consistent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A.; King, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    in metabolomes between anaerobic and aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. Constraint‐based modeling was utilized to deduce a target list of compounds for downstream method development. An analytical and experimental methodology was developed and tailored to the compound chemistry and growth conditions of interest....... This included the construction of a rapid sampling apparatus for use with anaerobic cultures. The resulting genome‐scale data sets for anaerobic and aerobic growth were validated by comparison to previous small‐scale studies comparing growth of E. coli under the same conditions. The metabolomics data were......‐oxidation pathway for synthesis of fatty acids. This analysis also identified enzyme promiscuity for the pykA gene, that is critical for anaerobic growth, and which has not been previously incorporated into metabolic models of E coli. Biotechnol....

  3. 1D-¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics reveals age-related changes in metabolites associated with experimental venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Andrea T; Stringer, Kathleen A; Diaz, Jose A; Finkel, Michael A; Farris, Diana M; Yeomans, Larisa; Wakefield, Thomas; Myers, Daniel D

    2016-04-01

    Age is a significant risk factor for the development of venous thrombosis (VT), but the mechanism(s) that underlie this risk remain(s) undefined and poorly understood. Aging is known to adversely influence inflammation and affect metabolism. Untargeted metabolomics permits an agnostic assessment of the physiological landscape and lends insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of clinical phenotypes. The objective of this exploratory study was to test the feasibility of a metabolomics approach for identifying potential metabolic mechanisms of age-related VT. We subjected whole blood samples collected from young and old nonthrombosed controls and VT mice 2 days after thrombus induction using the electrolytic inferior vena cava, to a methanol:chloroform extraction and assayed the resulting aqueous fractions using 1D-(1)H- nuclear magnetic resonance. Normalized mouse metabolite data were compared across groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Holm-Sidak post-testing. In addition, associations between metabolite concentrations and parameters of thrombosis such as thrombus and vein wall weights, and markers of inflammation, vein wall P- and E-selectin levels, were assessed using linear regression. The relatedness of the found significant metabolites was visually assessed using a bioinformatics tool, Metscape, which generates compound-reaction-enzyme-gene networks to aid in the interpretation of metabolomics data. Old mice with VT had a greater mean vein wall weight compared with young mice with VT (P metabolomics as a new approach to furthering knowledge about the mechanisms of age-related VT. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma and Urine Reveals AHBA, Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as Potential Risk Factors in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Miriam; Fragner, Lena; Danner, Sarah; Holeschofsky, Nastassja; Leitner, Karoline; Tischler, Sonja; Doerfler, Hannes; Bachmann, Gert; Sun, Xiaoliang; Jaeger, Walter; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has severe implications for the health of the mother and the fetus. Therefore, early prediction and an understanding of the physiology are an important part of prenatal care. Metabolite profiling is a long established method for the analysis and prediction of metabolic diseases. Here, we applied untargeted and targeted metabolomic protocols to analyze plasma and urine samples of pregnant women with and without GDM. Univariate and multivariate sta...

  5. Urinary 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomic Fingerprinting Reveals Biomarkers of Pulse Consumption Related to Energy-Metabolism Modulation in a Subcohort from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Gambin, Francisco; Llorach, Rafael; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Almanza-Aguilera, Enrique; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2017-04-07

    Little is known about the metabolome fingerprint of pulse consumption. The study of robust and accurate biomarkers for pulse dietary assessment has great value for nutritional epidemiology regarding health benefits and their mechanisms. To characterize the fingerprinting of dietary pulses (chickpeas, lentils, and beans), spot urine samples from a subcohort from the PREDIMED study were stratified using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Urine samples of nonpulse consumers (≤4 g/day of pulse intake) and habitual pulse consumers (≥25 g/day of pulse intake) were analyzed using a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach combined with multi- and univariate data analysis. Pulse consumption showed differences through 16 metabolites coming from (i) choline metabolism, (ii) protein-related compounds, and (iii) energy metabolism (including lower urinary glucose). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to design a combined model of pulse exposure, which resulted in glutamine, dimethylamine, and 3-methylhistidine. This model was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 90% in both training and validation sets). The application of NMR-based metabolomics to reported pulse exposure highlighted new candidates for biomarkers of pulse consumption and the impact on energy metabolism, generating new hypotheses on energy modulation. Further intervention studies will confirm these findings.

  6. The Chemistry of Plant–Microbe Interactions in the Rhizosphere and the Potential for Metabolomics to Reveal Signaling Related to Defense Priming and Induced Systemic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, Msizi I.; Piater, Lizelle A.; Madala, Ntakadzeni E.; Labuschagne, Nico; Dubery, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Plant roots communicate with microbes in a sophisticated manner through chemical communication within the rhizosphere, thereby leading to biofilm formation of beneficial microbes and, in the case of plant growth-promoting rhizomicrobes/-bacteria (PGPR), resulting in priming of defense, or induced resistance in the plant host. The knowledge of plant–plant and plant–microbe interactions have been greatly extended over recent years; however, the chemical communication leading to priming is far from being well understood. Furthermore, linkage between below- and above-ground plant physiological processes adds to the complexity. In metabolomics studies, the main aim is to profile and annotate all exo- and endo-metabolites in a biological system that drive and participate in physiological processes. Recent advances in this field has enabled researchers to analyze 100s of compounds in one sample over a short time period. Here, from a metabolomics viewpoint, we review the interactions within the rhizosphere and subsequent above-ground ‘signalomics’, and emphasize the contributions that mass spectrometric-based metabolomic approaches can bring to the study of plant-beneficial – and priming events. PMID:29479360

  7. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry : key technology in metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, Maud Marijtje

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics involves the unbiased quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete set of metabolites present in cells, body fluids and tissues. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is very suitable for metabolomics analysis, as it combines high separation power with

  8. Quantitative proteomic study of Aspergillus Fumigatus secretome revealed deamidation of secretory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-04-24

    Aspergillus sp. plays an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and is also exploited as cell factories for the production of industrial enzymes. This study profiled the secretome of Aspergillus fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch by high throughput quantitative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Post translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a critical role in protein functions. However, our understanding of the PTMs in secretory proteins is limited. Here, we present the identification of PTMs such as deamidation of secreted proteins of A. fumigatus. This study quantified diverse groups of extracellular secreted enzymes and their functional classification revealed cellulases and glycoside hydrolases (32.9%), amylases (0.9%), hemicellulases (16.2%), lignin degrading enzymes (8.1%), peptidases and proteases (11.7%), chitinases, lipases and phosphatases (7.6%), and proteins with unknown function (22.5%). The comparison of quantitative iTRAQ results revealed that cellulose and xylan stimulates expression of specific cellulases and hemicellulases, and their abundance level as a function of substrate. In-depth data analysis revealed deamidation as a major PTM of key cellulose hydrolyzing enzymes like endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and glucosidases. Hemicellulose degrading endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, monosidases, xylosidases, lignin degrading laccase, isoamyl alcohol oxidase and oxidoreductases were also found to be deamidated. The filamentous fungi play an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus were also exploited as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. In this study, extracellular proteins secreted by thermophilic A. fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch were profiled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) by

  9. Quantitative protein localization signatures reveal an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Laksameethanasan, Danai; Tung, Yi-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Protein subcellular localization is a major determinant of protein function. However, this important protein feature is often described in terms of discrete and qualitative categories of subcellular compartments, and therefore it has limited applications in quantitative protein function analyses. Here, we present Protein Localization Analysis and Search Tools (PLAST), an automated analysis framework for constructing and comparing quantitative signatures of protein subcellular localization patterns based on microscopy images. PLAST produces human-interpretable protein localization maps that quantitatively describe the similarities in the localization patterns of proteins and major subcellular compartments, without requiring manual assignment or supervised learning of these compartments. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we show that PLAST is more accurate than existing, qualitative protein localization annotations in identifying known co-localized proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLAST can reveal protein localization-function relationships that are not obvious from these annotations. First, we identified proteins that have similar localization patterns and participate in closely-related biological processes, but do not necessarily form stable complexes with each other or localize at the same organelles. Second, we found an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins during evolution. Surprisingly, as proteins with common ancestors evolve, they tend to develop more diverged subcellular localization patterns, but still occupy similar numbers of compartments. This suggests that divergence of protein localization might be more frequently due to the development of more specific localization patterns over ancestral compartments than the occupation of new compartments. PLAST enables systematic and quantitative analyses of protein localization-function relationships, and will be useful to elucidate protein

  10. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2015-09-10

    Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  12. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Elena; Schifano, Emily; Motta, Sara; Sciubba, Fabio; Palleschi, Claudio; Mauri, Pierluigi; Perozzi, Giuditta; Uccelletti, Daniela; Devirgiliis, Chiara; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus , lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans , with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis . Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  13. Serum metabolomics analysis of patients with chikungunya and dengue mono/co-infections reveals distinct metabolite signatures in the three disease conditions

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    Shrinet, Jatin; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Gaind, Rajni; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-11-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are arboviral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. A subset of chikungunya infection occurs also as co-infections with dengue, resulting in complications during diagnosis and patient management. The present study was undertaken to identify the global metabolome of patient sera infected with chikungunya as mono infections and with dengue as co-infections. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the metabolome of sera of three disease conditions, namely, chikungunya and dengue as mono-infections and when co-infected were ascertained and compared with healthy individuals. Further, the cohorts were analyzed on the basis of age, onset of fever and joint involvement. Here we show that many metabolites in the serum are significantly differentially regulated during chikungunya mono-infection as well as during chikungunya co-infection with dengue. We observed that glycine, serine, threonine, galactose and pyrimidine metabolisms are the most perturbed pathways in both mono and co-infection conditions. The affected pathways in our study correlate well with the clinical manifestation like fever, inflammation, energy deprivation and joint pain during the infections. These results may serve as a starting point for validations and identification of distinct biomolecules that could be exploited as biomarker candidates thereby helping in better patient management.

  14. New quantitative approaches reveal the spatial preference of nuclear compartments in mammalian fibroblasts.

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    Weston, David J; Russell, Richard A; Batty, Elizabeth; Jensen, Kirsten; Stephens, David A; Adams, Niall M; Freemont, Paul S

    2015-03-06

    The nuclei of higher eukaryotic cells display compartmentalization and certain nuclear compartments have been shown to follow a degree of spatial organization. To date, the study of nuclear organization has often involved simple quantitative procedures that struggle with both the irregularity of the nuclear boundary and the problem of handling replicate images. Such studies typically focus on inter-object distance, rather than spatial location within the nucleus. The concern of this paper is the spatial preference of nuclear compartments, for which we have developed statistical tools to quantitatively study and explore nuclear organization. These tools combine replicate images to generate 'aggregate maps' which represent the spatial preferences of nuclear compartments. We present two examples of different compartments in mammalian fibroblasts (WI-38 and MRC-5) that demonstrate new knowledge of spatial preference within the cell nucleus. Specifically, the spatial preference of RNA polymerase II is preserved across normal and immortalized cells, whereas PML nuclear bodies exhibit a change in spatial preference from avoiding the centre in normal cells to exhibiting a preference for the centre in immortalized cells. In addition, we show that SC35 splicing speckles are excluded from the nuclear boundary and localize throughout the nucleoplasm and in the interchromatin space in non-transformed WI-38 cells. This new methodology is thus able to reveal the effect of large-scale perturbation on spatial architecture and preferences that would not be obvious from single cell imaging.

  15. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

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    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  16. Lipid quantitation and metabolomics data from vitamin E-deficient and -sufficient zebrafish embryos from 0 to 120 hours-post-fertilization

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    Melissa McDougall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data herein is in support of our research article by McDougall et al. (2017 [1], in which we used our zebrafish model of embryonic vitamin E (VitE deficiency to study the consequences of VitE deficiency during development. Adult 5D wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio, fed defined diets without (E– or with VitE (E+, 500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet, were spawned to obtain E– and E+ embryos that we evaluated using metabolomics and specific lipid analyses (each measure at 24, 48, 72, 120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf, neurobehavioral development (locomotor responses at 96 hpf, and rescue strategies. Rescues were attempted using micro-injection into the yolksac using VitE (as a phospholipid emulsion containing d6-α-tocopherol at 0 hpf or D-glucose (in saline at 24 hpf.

  17. Quantitative proteomics of the tonoplast reveals a role for glycolytic enzymes in salt tolerance.

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    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Pantoja, Omar

    2009-12-01

    To examine the role of the tonoplast in plant salt tolerance and identify proteins involved in the regulation of transporters for vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, we exploited a targeted quantitative proteomics approach. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis of free flow zonal electrophoresis separated tonoplast fractions from control, and salt-treated Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants revealed the membrane association of glycolytic enzymes aldolase and enolase, along with subunits of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase V-ATPase. Protein blot analysis confirmed coordinated salt regulation of these proteins, and chaotrope treatment indicated a strong tonoplast association. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that the glycolytic enzymes interacted with the V-ATPase subunit B VHA-B, and aldolase was shown to stimulate V-ATPase activity in vitro by increasing the affinity for ATP. To investigate a physiological role for this association, the Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic enolase mutant, los2, was characterized. These plants were salt sensitive, and there was a specific reduction in enolase abundance in the tonoplast from salt-treated plants. Moreover, tonoplast isolated from mutant plants showed an impaired ability for aldolase stimulation of V-ATPase hydrolytic activity. The association of glycolytic proteins with the tonoplast may not only channel ATP to the V-ATPase, but also directly upregulate H(+)-pump activity.

  18. Metabolic pathways of lung inflammation revealed by high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) of H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Joshua D; Hu, Xin; Ko, Eun-Ju; Park, Soojin; Lee, Young-Tae; Orr, Michael; Fernandes, Jolyn; Uppal, Karan; Kang, Sang-Moo; Jones, Dean P; Go, Young-Mi

    2016-11-01

    Influenza is a significant health concern worldwide. Viral infection induces local and systemic activation of the immune system causing attendant changes in metabolism. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) uses advanced mass spectrometry and computational methods to measure thousands of metabolites inclusive of most metabolic pathways. We used HRM to identify metabolic pathways and clusters of association related to inflammatory cytokines in lungs of mice with H1N1 influenza virus infection. Infected mice showed progressive weight loss, decreased lung function, and severe lung inflammation with elevated cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ] and increased oxidative stress via cysteine oxidation. HRM showed prominent effects of influenza virus infection on tryptophan and other amino acids, and widespread effects on pathways including purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and glycerophospholipids. A metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) of the aforementioned inflammatory cytokines was used to determine the relationship of metabolic responses to inflammation during infection. This cytokine-MWAS (cMWAS) showed that metabolic associations consisted of distinct and shared clusters of 396 metabolites highly correlated with inflammatory cytokines. Strong negative associations of selected glycosphingolipid, linoleate, and tryptophan metabolites with IFN-γ contrasted strong positive associations of glycosphingolipid and bile acid metabolites with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 had strong positive associations with vitamin D, purine, and vitamin E metabolism. The detailed metabolic interactions with cytokines indicate that targeted metabolic interventions may be useful during life-threatening crises related to severe acute infection and inflammation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Metabolomics reveals that vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata prevents high-fat-diet-induced metabolism disorder by improving glucose homeostasis in rats.

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    Wenting Wan

    Full Text Available Vine tea (VT, derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz. W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved.Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into five groups: a group given normal rat chow and water (control group; a group given an HFD and water (HFD group; a group given an HFD and Pioglitazone (PIO group, 5 mg /kg; and groups given an HFD and one of two doses of VT: 500 mg/L or 2000 mg/L. After 8 weeks, changes in food intake, tea consumption, body weight, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were determined. Moreover, liver samples were isolated for pathology histology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based metabolomic research.VT reduced the serum levels of glucose and total cholesterol, decreased glucose area under the curve in the insulin tolerance test and visibly impaired hepatic lipid accumulation. Metabolomics showed that VT treatment modulated the contents of metabolic intermediates linked to glucose metabolism (including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, the TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism.The current results demonstrate that VT may prevent metabolic impairments induced by the consumption of an HFD. These effects may be caused by improved energy-related metabolism (including gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and reduced lipid levels in the HFD-fed rats.

  20. Impact of a western diet on the ovarian and serum metabolome.

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    Dhungana, Suraj; Carlson, James E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; McRitchie, Susan; Davis, Matt; Sumner, Susan; Appt, Susan E

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine differences in the profiles of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) among ovaries and serum derived from Old World nonhuman primates fed prudent or Western diets. A retrospective, observational study was done using archived ovarian tissue and serum from midlife cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasicularis). Targeted and broad spectrum metabolomics analysis was used to compare ovarian tissue and serum from monkeys that had been exposed to a prudent diet or a Western diet. Monkeys in the prudent diet group (n=13) were research naïve and had been exposed only to a commercial monkey chow diet (low in cholesterol and saturated fats, high in complex carbohydrates). Western diet monkeys (n=8) had consumed a diet that was high in cholesterol, saturated animal fats and soluble carbohydrates for 2 years prior to ovarian tissue and serum collection. Metabolomic analyses were done on extracts of homogenized ovary tissue samples, and extracts of serum. Targeted analysis was conducted using the Biocrates p180 kit and broad spectrum analysis was conducted using UPLC-TOF-MS, resulting in the detection of 3500 compound ions. Using metabolomics methods, which capture thousands of signals for metabolites, 64 metabolites were identified in serum and 47 metabolites were identified in ovarian tissue that differed by diet. Quantitative targeted analysis revealed 13 amino acids, 6 acrylcarnitines, and 2 biogenic amines that were significantly (pmetabolome, and demonstrated perturbation in carnitine, lipids/fatty acid, and amino acid metabolic pathways. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Metabolomic Studies in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James E; Thummel, Carl S; Tennessen, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Metabolomic analysis provides a powerful new tool for studies of Drosophila physiology. This approach allows investigators to detect thousands of chemical compounds in a single sample, representing the combined contributions of gene expression, enzyme activity, and environmental context. Metabolomics has been used for a wide range of studies in Drosophila , often providing new insights into gene function and metabolic state that could not be obtained using any other approach. In this review, we survey the uses of metabolomic analysis since its entry into the field. We also cover the major methods used for metabolomic studies in Drosophila and highlight new directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Metabolomics window into diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Qiao, Shuxuan; Shi, Chenze; Wang, Shuya; Ji, Guang

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes has become a major global health problem. The elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during the diabetic progression is critical for better understanding its pathogenesis, and identifying potential biomarkers and drug targets. Metabolomics is a promising tool to reveal the metabolic changes and the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The present review provides an update on the application of metabolomics in diabetic complications, including diabetic coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy, and this review provides notes on the prevention and prediction of diabetic complications. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

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    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Regulatory Networks of Circular RNA CDR1as in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Ying; Li, Siting; Ge, Feng

    2017-10-06

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of widespread endogenous RNAs, play crucial roles in diverse biological processes and are potential biomarkers in diverse human diseases and cancers. Cerebellar-degeneration-related protein 1 antisense RNA (CDR1as), an oncogenic circRNA, is involved in human tumorigenesis and is dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CDR1as functions in HCC remain unclear. Here we explored the functions of CDR1as and searched for CDR1as-regulated proteins in HCC cells. A quantitative proteomics strategy was employed to globally identify CDR1as-regulated proteins in HCC cells. In total, we identified 330 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) upon enhanced CDR1as expression in HepG2 cells, indicating that they could be proteins regulated by CDR1as. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many DEPs were involved in cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Further functional studies of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) found that CDR1as exerts its effects on cell proliferation at least in part through the regulation of EGFR expression. We further confirmed that CDR1as could inhibit the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7). EGFR is a validated target of miR-7; therefore, CDR1as may exert its function by regulating EGFR expression via targeting miR-7 in HCC cells. Taken together, we revealed novel functions and underlying mechanisms of CDR1as in HCC cells. This study serves as the first proteome-wide analysis of a circRNA-regulated protein in cells and provides a reliable and highly efficient method for globally identifying circRNA-regulated proteins.

  5. Quantitative proteomics reveals dynamic responses of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to next-generation biofuel butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-01-14

    Butanol is a promising biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of photosynthetic cyanobacterial hosts for its production. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to butanol, limiting the economic viability of butanol production from these renewable producing systems. The existing knowledge of molecular mechanism involved in butanol tolerance in cyanobacteria is very limited. To build a foundation necessary to engineer robust butanol-producing cyanobacterial hosts, in this study, the responses of Synechocystis PCC 6803 to butanol were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ - LC-MS/MS technologies. The resulting high-quality dataset consisted of 25,347 peptides corresponding to 1452 unique proteins, a coverage of approximately 40% of the predicted proteins in Synechocystis. Comparative quantification of protein abundances led to the identification of 303 differentially regulated proteins by butanol. Annotation and GO term enrichment analysis showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that Synechocystis probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with butanol stress. Notably, the analysis revealed the induction of heat-shock protein and transporters, along with modification of cell membrane and envelope were the major protection mechanisms against butanol. A conceptual cellular model of Synechocystis PCC 6803 responses to butanol stress was constructed to illustrate the putative molecular mechanisms employed to defend against butanol stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals new roles for the protein phosphatase PP6 in mitotic cells.

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    Rusin, Scott F; Schlosser, Kate A; Adamo, Mark E; Kettenbach, Arminja N

    2015-10-13

    Protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism controlling mitotic progression. Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is an essential enzyme with conserved roles in chromosome segregation and spindle assembly from yeast to humans. We applied a baculovirus-mediated gene silencing approach to deplete HeLa cells of the catalytic subunit of PP6 (PP6c) and analyzed changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome in mitotic cells by quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We identified 408 phosphopeptides on 272 proteins that increased and 298 phosphopeptides on 220 proteins that decreased in phosphorylation upon PP6c depletion in mitotic cells. Motif analysis of the phosphorylated sites combined with bioinformatics pathway analysis revealed previously unknown PP6c-dependent regulatory pathways. Biochemical assays demonstrated that PP6c opposed casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of the condensin I subunit NCAP-G, and cellular analysis showed that depletion of PP6c resulted in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation in anaphase, consistent with dysregulation of condensin I function in the absence of PP6 activity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Quantitative isotope incorporation reveals substrate partitioning in a coastal microbial community.

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    Mayali, Xavier; Weber, Peter K

    2018-05-01

    To quantitatively link microbial identity with biogeochemical function, we carried out 14 simultaneous stable isotope probing experiments with organic and inorganic C and N substrates to measure the isotope incorporation by over one hundred co-occurring eukaryotic and prokaryotic populations in a coastal community. We found that nitrate was the most commonly incorporated substrate, and that light-driven carbon fixation was carried out by some bacterial taxa from the Flavobacteriales and OM60 (NOR5) clade, in addition to photoautotrophic phytoplankton. We found that organisms that incorporated starch, maltose, glucose, lactose and bicarbonate were phylogenetically clustered, suggesting that specific bacterial lineages specialized in the incorporation of these substrates. The data further revealed that coastal microorganisms spanned a range of resource utilization strategies from generalists to specialists and demonstrated a high level of substrate partitioning, with two thirds of taxa exhibiting unique substrate incorporation patterns and the remaining third shared by no more than three OTUs each. Specialists exhibited more extreme incorporation levels (high or low), whereas generalists displayed more intermediate activity levels. These results shed valuable insights into the bottom-up ecological strategies enabling the persistence of high microbial diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Stochasticity in the enterococcal sex pheromone response revealed by quantitative analysis of transcription in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Rebecca J; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie A; Barnes, Aaron M T; Hunter, Ryan C; Hu, Wei-Shou; Dunny, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, sex pheromone-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can occur under unfavorable conditions, for example, when inducing pheromone concentrations are low and inhibiting pheromone concentrations are high. To better understand this paradox, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction (HCR) methodology for simultaneous quantification of multiple E. faecalis transcripts at the single cell level. We present direct evidence for variability in the minimum period, maximum response level, and duration of response of individual cells to a specific inducing condition. Tracking of induction patterns of single cells temporally using a fluorescent reporter supported HCR findings. It also revealed subpopulations of rapid responders, even under low inducing pheromone concentrations where the overall response of the entire population was slow. The strong, rapid induction of small numbers of cells in cultures exposed to low pheromone concentrations is in agreement with predictions of a stochastic model of the enterococcal pheromone response. The previously documented complex regulatory circuitry controlling the pheromone response likely contributes to stochastic variation in this system. In addition to increasing our basic understanding of the biology of a horizontal gene transfer system regulated by cell-cell signaling, demonstration of the stochastic nature of the pheromone response also impacts any future efforts to develop therapeutic agents targeting the system. Quantitative single cell analysis using HCR also has great potential to elucidate important bacterial regulatory mechanisms not previously amenable to study at the single cell level, and to accelerate the pace of functional genomic studies.

  9. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Du, Guankui; Zhong, Guobing; Yan, Dongjing; Zeng, Huazong; Cai, Wangwei

    2016-01-01

    Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx) mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C)- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB) mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C)- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB) mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  10. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Alterations in Mouse Plasma and Liver in Response to Fava Beans.

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    Man Xiao

    Full Text Available Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic anemia resulting from the intake of fava beans by susceptible individuals with low erythrocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity. However, little is known about the metabolomic changes in plasma and liver after the intake of fava beans in G6PD normal and deficient states. In this study, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasma and liver metabolic alterations underlying the effects of fava beans in C3H- and G6PD-deficient (G6PDx mice, and to find potential biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with favism. Our results showed that fava beans induced oxidative stress in both C3H and G6PDx mice. Significantly, metabolomic differences were observed in plasma and liver between the control and fava bean treated groups of both C3H and G6PDx mice. The levels of 7 and 21 metabolites in plasma showed significant differences between C3H-control (C3H-C- and C3H fava beans-treated (C3H-FB mice, and G6PDx-control (G6PDx-C- and G6PDx fava beans-treated (G6PDx-FB mice, respectively. Similarly, the levels of 7 and 25 metabolites in the liver showed significant differences between C3H and C3H-FB, and G6PDx and G6PDx-FB, respectively. The levels of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine were significantly increased in the plasma of both C3H-FB and G6PDx-FB mice. In the liver, more metabolic alterations were observed in G6PDx-FB mice than in C3H-FB mice, and were involved in a sugar, fatty acids, amino acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, the urea cycle, and the nucleotide metabolic pathway. These findings suggest that oleic acid, linoleic acid, and creatinine may be potential biomarkers of the response to fava beans in C3H and G6PDx mice and therefore that oleic acid and linoleic acid may be involved in oxidative stress induced by fava beans. This study demonstrates that G6PD activity in mice can affect their metabolic pathways in response to fava beans.

  11. Plasma metabolomics reveals membrane lipids, aspartate/asparagine and nucleotide metabolism pathway differences associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Val, Fernando; Cordy, Regina J.; Liu, Ken; Melo, Gisely C.; Siqueira, Andre M.; Magalhaes, Belisa; Galinski, Mary R.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Jones, Dean P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ) is the main anti-schizontocidal drug used in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax. Chloroquine resistant P. vivax (PvCR) malaria in the Western Pacific region, Asia and in the Americas indicates a need for biomarkers of resistance to improve therapy and enhance understanding of the mechanisms associated with PvCR. In this study, we compared plasma metabolic profiles of P. vivax malaria patients with PvCR and chloroquine sensitive parasites before treatment to identify potential molecular markers of chloroquine resistance. Methods An untargeted high-resolution metabolomics analysis was performed on plasma samples collected in a malaria clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Male and female patients with Plasmodium vivax were included (n = 46); samples were collected before CQ treatment and followed for 28 days to determine PvCR, defined as the recurrence of parasitemia with detectable plasma concentrations of CQ ≥100 ng/dL. Differentially expressed metabolic features between CQ-Resistant (CQ-R) and CQ-Sensitive (CQ-S) patients were identified using partial least squares discriminant analysis and linear regression after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing correction. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed using Mummichog. Results Linear regression and PLS-DA methods yielded 69 discriminatory features between CQ-R and CQ-S groups, with 10-fold cross-validation classification accuracy of 89.6% using a SVM classifier. Pathway enrichment analysis showed significant enrichment (p<0.05) of glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycosphingolipid metabolism, aspartate and asparagine metabolism, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and xenobiotics metabolism. Glycerophosphocholines levels were significantly lower in the CQ-R group as compared to CQ-S patients and also to independent control samples. Conclusions The results show differences in lipid, amino acids, and nucleotide metabolism pathways in the plasma of CQ-R versus

  12. Metabolomic analysis reveals key metabolites related to the rapid adaptation of Saccharomyce cerevisiae to multiple inhibitors of furfural, acetic acid, and phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Bing-Zhi; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Zhang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    During hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, a broad range of inhibitors are generated, which interfere with yeast growth and bioethanol production. In order to improve the strain tolerance to multiple inhibitors--acetic acid, furfural, and phenol (three representative lignocellulose-derived inhibitors) and uncover the underlying tolerant mechanism, an adaptation experiment was performed in which the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated repeatedly in a medium containing multiple inhibitors. The adaptation occurred quickly, accompanied with distinct increase in growth rate, glucose utilization rate, furfural metabolism rate, and ethanol yield, only after the first transfer. A similar rapid adaptation was also observed for the lab strains of BY4742 and BY4743. The metabolomic analysis was employed to investigate the responses of the industrial S. cereviaise to three inhibitors during the adaptation. The results showed that higher levels of 2-furoic acid, 2, 3-butanediol, intermediates in glycolytic pathway, and amino acids derived from glycolysis, were discovered in the adapted strains, suggesting that enhanced metabolic activity in these pathways may relate to resistance against inhibitors. Additionally, through single-gene knockouts, several genes related to alanine metabolism, GABA shunt, and glycerol metabolism were verified to be crucial for the resistance to multiple inhibitors. This study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism against multiple inhibitors, and guides for the improvement of tolerant ethanologenic yeast strains for lignocellulose-bioethanol fermentation.

  13. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB, diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024. The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087. There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB.

  14. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Pchange in palmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all Presistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomics: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W

    2017-04-01

    Metabolomics generates a profile of small molecules that are derived from cellular metabolism and can directly reflect the outcome of complex networks of biochemical reactions, thus providing insights into multiple aspects of cellular physiology. Technological advances have enabled rapid and increasingly expansive data acquisition with samples as small as single cells; however, substantial challenges in the field remain. In this primer we provide an overview of metabolomics, especially mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, which uses liquid chromatography (LC) for separation, and discuss its utilities and limitations. We identify and discuss several areas at the frontier of metabolomics. Our goal is to give the reader a sense of what might be accomplished when conducting a metabolomics experiment, now and in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Wee1 Kinase as a Therapeutic Target in a Model of Proneural Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescarbeau, Rebecca S; Lei, Liang; Bakken, Katrina K; Sims, Peter A; Sarkaria, Jann N; Canoll, Peter; White, Forest M

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain cancer. With a median survival of about a year, new approaches to treating this disease are necessary. To identify signaling molecules regulating GBM progression in a genetically engineered murine model of proneural GBM, we quantified phosphotyrosine-mediated signaling using mass spectrometry. Oncogenic signals, including phosphorylated ERK MAPK, PI3K, and PDGFR, were found to be increased in the murine tumors relative to brain. Phosphorylation of CDK1 pY15, associated with the G2 arrest checkpoint, was identified as the most differentially phosphorylated site, with a 14-fold increase in phosphorylation in the tumors. To assess the role of this checkpoint as a potential therapeutic target, syngeneic primary cell lines derived from these tumors were treated with MK-1775, an inhibitor of Wee1, the kinase responsible for CDK1 Y15 phosphorylation. MK-1775 treatment led to mitotic catastrophe, as defined by increased DNA damage and cell death by apoptosis. To assess the extensibility of targeting Wee1/CDK1 in GBM, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cell lines were also treated with MK-1775. Although the response was more heterogeneous, on-target Wee1 inhibition led to decreased CDK1 Y15 phosphorylation and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in each line. These results were also validated in vivo, where single-agent MK-1775 demonstrated an antitumor effect on a flank PDX tumor model, increasing mouse survival by 1.74-fold. This study highlights the ability of unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomics to reveal therapeutic targets in tumor models, and the potential for Wee1 inhibition as a treatment approach in preclinical models of GBM. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1332-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis for revealing thermal transformations of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Zeng, Lingmin; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a worldwide environmental problem, and many authorities are trying to find an economic solution for its beneficial application or/and safe disposal. Ceramic production is one of the potential waste-to-resource strategies for using red mud as a raw material. Before implementing such a strategy, an unambiguous understanding of the reaction behavior of red mud under thermal conditions is essential. In this study, the phase compositions and transformation processes were revealed for the Pingguo red mud (PRM) heat-treated at different sintering temperatures. Hematite, perovskite, andradite, cancrinite, kaolinite, diaspore, gibbsite and calcite phases were observed in the samples. However, unlike those red mud samples from the other regions, no TiO2 (rutile or anatase) or quartz were observed. Titanium was found to exist mainly in perovskite and andradite while the iron mainly existed in hematite and andradite. A new silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) phase was found in samples treated at temperatures above 1100°C, and two possible formation pathways for SFCA were suggested. This is the first SFCA phase to be reported in thermally treated red mud, and this finding may turn PRM waste into a material resource for the iron-making industry. Titanium was found to be enriched in the perovskite phase after 1200°C thermal treatment, and this observation indicated a potential strategy for the recovery of titanium from PRM. In addition to noting these various resource recovery opportunities, this is also the first study to quantitatively summarize the reaction details of PRM phase transformations at various temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagen Li

    Full Text Available Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR, expressed sequence tag (EST derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS, and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age and wood density (56 months were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa.

  20. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10–56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  1. What Is "Good" Research? Revealing the Paradigmatic Tensions in Quantitative Criticalist Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2014-01-01

    If quantitative criticalism is thought to be a bridge between positivist epistemologies prevalent in quantitative work and social constructionism often found in critical qualitative work, then this bridge is fraught with challenges and tensions. This chapter examines the methodological issues, questions, and tensions that emerged from a research…

  2. Introduction to metabolomics and its applications in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Z; Begley, P; Mullard, G; Hollywood, K A; Bishop, P N

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is the study of endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological systems, which aims to provide comparative semi-quantitative information about all metabolites in the system. Metabolomics is an emerging and potentially powerful tool in ophthalmology research. It is therefore important for health professionals and researchers involved in the speciality to understand the basic principles of metabolomics experiments. This article provides an overview of the experimental workflow and examples of its use in ophthalmology research from the study of disease metabolism and pathogenesis to identification of biomarkers. PMID:26987591

  3. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics has become interesting in marine ecological studies. One example is the revealing of new insights in stress response of Zostera marina. This is essential to understand how, at which level and to what extend aquatic plants adapt, tolerate and react to environmental...... stressors. We exposed Z. marina to water column anoxia and assessed the diurnal metabolomic response by GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics identifying 109 known and 217 unknown metabolites. During day time photosynthetic oxygen production prevents severe effects of anoxia on the metabolome (complete set of small...... the applicability of metabolomics to assess environmental stress responses of Zostera marina....

  4. Plasma metabolomics reveal alterations of sphingo- and glycerophospholipid levels in non-diabetic carriers of the transcription factor 7-like 2 polymorphism rs7903146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Cornelia; Wahl, Simone; Kirchhofer, Anna; Grallert, Harald; Krug, Susanne; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Claussnitzer, Melina; Illig, Thomas; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Adamski, Jerzy; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Peters, Annette; Prehn, Cornelia; Heukamp, Ina; Laumen, Helmut; Lechner, Andreas; Hauner, Hans; Seissler, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been shown to display a powerful association with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate metabolic alterations in carriers of a common TCF7L2 risk variant. Seventeen non-diabetic subjects carrying the T risk allele at the rs7903146 TCF7L2 locus and 24 subjects carrying no risk allele were submitted to intravenous glucose tolerance test and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Plasma samples were analysed for concentrations of 163 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry. TCF7L2 risk allele carriers had a reduced first-phase insulin response and normal insulin sensitivity. Under fasting conditions, carriers of TCF7L2 rs7903146 exhibited a non-significant increase of plasma sphingomyelins (SMs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) species. A significant genotype effect was detected in response to challenge tests in 6 SMs (C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C24:0, C24:1), 5 hydroxy-SMs (C14:1, C16:1, C22:1, C22:2, C24:1), 4 lysoPCs (C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0), 3 diacyl-PCs (C28:1, C36:6, C40:4) and 4 long-chain acyl-alkyl-PCs (C40:2, C40:5, C44:5, C44:6). Plasma metabolomic profiling identified alterations of phospholipid metabolism in response to challenge tests in subjects with TCF7L2 rs7903146 genotype. This may reflect a genotype-mediated link to early metabolic abnormalities prior to the development of disturbed glucose tolerance.

  5. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  6. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Yang, Qiaoling; Yin, Ying; Li, Ruihua; Qian, Mengying; Zhao, Taoran; Li, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host. An investigation into the differential proteome expression patterns of Brucella grown under the relevant stress conditions may contribute toward a better understanding of its pathogenesis and adaptive response. Here, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based label-free relative quantitative proteomics approach to investigate and compare global proteomic changes in B. abortus in response to eight different stress treatments. The 3 h short-term in vitro single-stress and multi-stress conditions mimicked the in vivo conditions of B. abortus under intracellular infection, with survival rates ranging from 3.17 to 73.17%. The proteomic analysis identified and quantified a total of 2,272 proteins and 74% of the theoretical proteome, thereby providing wide coverage of the B. abortus proteome. By including eight distinct growth conditions and comparing these with a control condition, we identified a total of 1,221 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were significantly changed under the stress treatments. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, ABC transporters, two-component systems, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the citrate cycle, thiamine metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; constituting major response mechanisms toward the reconstruction of cellular homeostasis and metabolic

  7. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host. An investigation into the differential proteome expression patterns of Brucella grown under the relevant stress conditions may contribute toward a better understanding of its pathogenesis and adaptive response. Here, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based label-free relative quantitative proteomics approach to investigate and compare global proteomic changes in B. abortus in response to eight different stress treatments. The 3 h short-term in vitro single-stress and multi-stress conditions mimicked the in vivo conditions of B. abortus under intracellular infection, with survival rates ranging from 3.17 to 73.17%. The proteomic analysis identified and quantified a total of 2,272 proteins and 74% of the theoretical proteome, thereby providing wide coverage of the B. abortus proteome. By including eight distinct growth conditions and comparing these with a control condition, we identified a total of 1,221 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs that were significantly changed under the stress treatments. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, ABC transporters, two-component systems, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the citrate cycle, thiamine metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; constituting major response mechanisms toward the reconstruction of cellular

  8. Metabolomic studies in pulmonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Furina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the results of metabolomic studies in pulmonology. The key idea of metabolomics is to detect specific biomarkers in a biological sample for the diagnosis of diseases of the bronchi and lung. Main methods for the separation and identification of volatile organic substances as biomarkers (gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry used in metabolomics are given. A solid-phase microextraction method used to pre-prepare a sample is also covered. The results of laboratory tests for biomarkers for lung cancer, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic infections, and pulmonary tuberculosis are presented. In addition, emphasis is placed on the possibilities of metabolomics used in experimental medicine, including to the study of asthma. The information is of interest to both theorists and practitioners.

  9. The food metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalbert, Augustin; Brennan, Lorraine; Manach, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    to the diet. By its very nature it represents a considerable and still largely unexploited source of novel dietary biomarkers that could be used to measure dietary exposures with a high level of detail and precision. Most dietary biomarkers currently have been identified on the basis of our knowledge of food......The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according...... by the recent identification of novel biomarkers of intakes for fruit, vegetables, beverages, meats, or complex diets. Moreover, examples also show how the scrutiny of the food metabolome can lead to the discovery of bioactive molecules and dietary factors associated with diseases. However, researchers still...

  10. Metabolomics er fremtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersern, Birger

    2010-01-01

    Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet......Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet...

  11. Quality assurance of metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Beger, Richard; Flynn, Thomas; Guo, Lining; Harris, Georgina; Hogberg, Helena; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Kamp, Hennicke; Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Odwin-DaCosta, Shelly; Pamies, David; Robertson, Donald; Smirnova, Lena; Sun, Jinchun; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics promises a holistic phenotypic characterization of biological responses to toxicants. This technology is based on advanced chemical analytical tools with reasonable throughput, including mass-spectroscopy and NMR. Quality assurance, however - from experimental design, sample preparation, metabolite identification, to bioinformatics data-mining - is urgently needed to assure both quality of metabolomics data and reproducibility of biological models. In contrast to microarray-based transcriptomics, where consensus on quality assurance and reporting standards has been fostered over the last two decades, quality assurance of metabolomics is only now emerging. Regulatory use in safety sciences, and even proper scientific use of these technologies, demand quality assurance. In an effort to promote this discussion, an expert workshop discussed the quality assurance needs of metabolomics. The goals for this workshop were 1) to consider the challenges associated with metabolomics as an emerging science, with an emphasis on its application in toxicology and 2) to identify the key issues to be addressed in order to establish and implement quality assurance procedures in metabolomics-based toxicology. Consensus has still to be achieved regarding best practices to make sure sound, useful, and relevant information is derived from these new tools.

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals the mechanism and consequence of gliotoxin-mediated dysregulation of the methionine cycle in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares-Miralles, Lara; Bayram, Ozgur; Sarikaya-Bayram, Ozlem; Smith, Elizabeth B.; Dolan, Stephen K.; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Gliotoxin (GT) is a redox-active metabolite, produced by Aspergillus fumigatus,which inhibits the growth of other fungi. Here we demonstrate how Aspergillus niger responds to GT exposure. Quantitative proteomics revealed that GT dysregulated the abundance of 378 proteins including those involved in methionine metabolism and induced de novo abundance of two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. Increased abundance of enzymes S-adenosylhomocysteinase (p = 0.0018) ...

  13. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A.; van Weeren, René; Helminen, Heikki J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-11-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation.

  14. Circadian Metabolomics in Time and Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Dyar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are widely known to govern human health and disease, but specific pathogenic mechanisms linking circadian disruption to metabolic diseases are just beginning to come to light. This is thanks in part to the development and application of various “omics”-based tools in biology and medicine. Current high-throughput technologies allow for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple dynamic cellular events over time, ranging from gene expression to metabolite abundance and sub-cellular localization. These fundamental temporal and spatial perspectives have allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of how various dynamic cellular events and biochemical processes are related in health and disease. With advances in technology, metabolomics has become a more routine “omics” approach for studying metabolism, and “circadian metabolomics” (i.e., studying the 24-h metabolome has recently been undertaken by several groups. To date, circadian metabolomes have been reported for human serum, saliva, breath, and urine, as well as tissues from several species under specific disease or mutagenesis conditions. Importantly, these studies have consistently revealed that 24-h rhythms are prevalent in almost every tissue and metabolic pathway. Furthermore, these circadian rhythms in tissue metabolism are ultimately linked to and directed by internal 24-h biological clocks. In this review, we will attempt to put these data-rich circadian metabolomics experiments into perspective to find out what they can tell us about metabolic health and disease, and what additional biomarker potential they may reveal.

  15. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-03

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.

  16. Quantitative iTRAQ secretome analysis of Aspergillus niger reveals novel hydrolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Li, An A; Manavalan, Arulmani; Punt, Peter; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2010-08-06

    The natural lifestyle of Aspergillus niger made them more effective secretors of hydrolytic proteins and becomes critical when this species were exploited as hosts for the commercial secretion of heterologous proteins. The protein secretion profile of A. niger and its mutant at different pH was explored using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This study characterized 102 highly confident unique proteins in the secretome with zero false discovery rate based on decoy strategy. The iTRAQ technique identified and relatively quantified many hydrolyzing enzymes such as cellulases, hemicellulases, glycoside hydrolases, proteases, peroxidases, and protein translocating transporter proteins during fermentation. The enzymes have potential application in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis for biofuel production, for example, the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, alpha-glucosidase C, endoglucanase, alpha l-arabinofuranosidase, beta-mannosidase, glycosyl hydrolase; proteases such as tripeptidyl-peptidase, aspergillopepsin, and other enzymes including cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome c oxidase, glucose oxidase were highly expressed in A. niger and its mutant secretion. In addition, specific enzyme production can be stimulated by controlling pH of the culture medium. Our results showed comprehensive unique secretory protein profile of A. niger, its regulation at different pH, and the potential application of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics for the microbial secretome analysis.

  17. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Araneda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, various quantitative trait loci (QTL that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002 were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10 with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035 mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map.

  18. Clinical Metabolomics and Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Breda, João; Himmelreich, Uwe; Ghesquière, Bart; Rocha-Sousa, Amândio; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2018-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. However, there are no biomarkers that accurately help clinicians perform an early diagnosis or detect patients with a high risk of progression. Metabolomics is the study of all metabolites in an organism, and it has the potential to provide a biomarker. This review summarizes the findings of metabolomics in glaucoma patients and explains why this field is promising for new research. We identified published studies that focused on metabolomics and ophthalmology. After providing an overview of metabolomics in ophthalmology, we focused on human glaucoma studies. Five studies have been conducted in glaucoma patients and all compared patients to healthy controls. Using mass spectrometry, significant differences were found in blood plasma in the metabolic pathways that involve palmitoylcarnitine, sphingolipids, vitamin D-related compounds, and steroid precursors. For nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a high glutamine-glutamate/creatine ratio was found in the vitreous and lateral geniculate body; no differences were detected in the optic radiations, and a lower N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was observed in the geniculocalcarine and striate areas. Metabolomics can move glaucoma care towards a personalized approach and provide new knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of glaucoma, which can lead to new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

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    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  20. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  1. Short overview on metabolomics approach to study pathophysiology of oxidative stress in cancer

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    Luka Andrisic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Association of oxidative stress with carcinogenesis is well known, but not understood well, as is pathophysiology of oxidative stress generated during different types of anti-cancer treatments. Moreover, recent findings indicate that cancer associated lipid peroxidation might eventually help defending adjacent nonmalignant cells from cancer invasion. Therefore, untargeted metabolomics studies designed for advanced translational and clinical studies are needed to understand the existing paradoxes in oncology, including those related to controversial usage of antioxidants aiming to prevent or treat cancer. In this short review we have tried to put emphasis on the importance of pathophysiology of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in cancer development in relation to metabolic adaptation of particular types of cancer allowing us to conclude that adaptation to oxidative stress is one of the main driving forces of cancer pathophysiology. With the help of metabolomics many novel findings are being achieved thus encouraging further scientific breakthroughs. Combined with targeted qualitative and quantitative methods, especially immunochemistry, further research might reveal bio-signatures of individual patients and respective malignant diseases, leading to individualized treatment approach, according to the concepts of modern integrative medicine. Keywords: Carcinogenesis, Cancer, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal, Glutathione, Metabolomics, Immunochemistry, Biomarkers, Omics science

  2. Strigolactone-Regulated Proteins Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhou [ORNL; Czarnecki, Olaf [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones. In addition to acting as a key inhibitor of shoot branching, SLs stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and promote hyphal branching and root colonization of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They also regulate many other aspects of plant growth and development. At the transcription level, SL-regulated genes have been reported. However, nothing is known about the proteome regulated by this new class of plant hormones. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach using an isobaric chemical labeling reagent, iTRAQ, to identify the proteome regulated by SLs in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. It was found SLs regulate the expression of about three dozens of proteins that have not been previously assigned to SL pathways. These findings provide a new tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of SLs.

  3. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Ecophysiological Effects of Light and Silver Stress on the Mixotrophic Protist Poterioochromonas malhamensis.

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    Daniela Beisser

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments are heavily impacted by human activities including climate warming and the introduction of xenobiotics. Due to the application of silver nanoparticles as bactericidal agent the introduction of silver into the environment strongly has increased during the past years. Silver ions affect the primary metabolism of algae, in particular photosynthesis. Mixotrophic algae are an interesting test case as they do not exclusively rely on photosynthesis which may attenuate the harmful effect of silver. In order to study the effect of silver ions on mixotrophs, cultures of the chrysophyte Poterioochromonas malhamensis were treated in a replicate design in light and darkness with silver nitrate at a sub-lethal concentration. At five time points samples were taken for the identification and quantitation of proteins by mass spectrometry. In our analysis, relative quantitative protein mass spectrometry has shown to be a useful tool for functional analyses in conjunction with transcriptome reference sequences. A total of 3,952 proteins in 63 samples were identified and quantified, mapping to 4,829 transcripts of the sequenced and assembled transcriptome. Among them, 720 and 104 proteins performing various cellular functions were differentially expressed after eight days in light versus darkness and after three days of silver treatment, respectively. Specifically pathways of the energy and primary carbon metabolism were differentially affected by light and the utilization of expensive reactions hints to an energy surplus of P. malhamensis under light conditions. The excess energy is not invested in growth, but in the synthesis of storage metabolites. The effects of silver were less explicit, observable especially in the dark treatments where the light effect could not mask coinciding but weaker effects of silver. Photosynthesis, particularly the light harvesting complexes, and several sulphur containing enzymes were affected presumably due to

  4. Quantitative Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Reveals Myeloid-Inflamed Tumor-Immune Complexity Associated with Poor Prognosis

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    Takahiro Tsujikawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe a multiplexed immunohistochemical platform with computational image processing workflows, including image cytometry, enabling simultaneous evaluation of 12 biomarkers in one formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue section. To validate this platform, we used tissue microarrays containing 38 archival head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and revealed differential immune profiles based on lymphoid and myeloid cell densities, correlating with human papilloma virus status and prognosis. Based on these results, we investigated 24 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas from patients who received neoadjuvant GVAX vaccination and revealed that response to therapy correlated with degree of mono-myelocytic cell density and percentages of CD8+ T cells expressing T cell exhaustion markers. These data highlight the utility of in situ immune monitoring for patient stratification and provide digital image processing pipelines to the community for examining immune complexity in precious tissue sections, where phenotype and tissue architecture are preserved to improve biomarker discovery and assessment.

  5. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Zulak, Katherine G; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the al...

  6. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, G.A. Nagana; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact biospecimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory. PMID:26476597

  7. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory.

  8. Quantitative transcription dynamic analysis reveals candidate genes and key regulators for ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Menggen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Derived from our lignocellulosic conversion inhibitor-tolerant yeast, we generated an ethanol-tolerant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-50316 by enforced evolutionary adaptation. Using a newly developed robust mRNA reference and a master equation unifying gene expression data analyses, we investigated comparative quantitative transcription dynamics of 175 genes selected from previous studies for an ethanol-tolerant yeast and its closely related parental strain. Results A highly fitted master equation was established and applied for quantitative gene expression analyses using pathway-based qRT-PCR array assays. The ethanol-tolerant Y-50316 displayed significantly enriched background of mRNA abundance for at least 35 genes without ethanol challenge compared with its parental strain Y-50049. Under the ethanol challenge, the tolerant Y-50316 responded in consistent expressions over time for numerous genes belonging to groups of heat shock proteins, trehalose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, pleiotropic drug resistance gene family and transcription factors. The parental strain showed repressed expressions for many genes and was unable to withstand the ethanol stress and establish a viable culture and fermentation. The distinct expression dynamics between the two strains and their close association with cell growth, viability and ethanol fermentation profiles distinguished the tolerance-response from the stress-response in yeast under the ethanol challenge. At least 82 genes were identified as candidate and key genes for ethanol-tolerance and subsequent fermentation under the stress. Among which, 36 genes were newly recognized by the present study. Most of the ethanol-tolerance candidate genes were found to share protein binding motifs of transcription factors Msn4p/Msn2p, Yap1p, Hsf1p and Pdr1p/Pdr3p. Conclusion Enriched background of transcription abundance

  9. Quantitative proteomics reveals the central changes of wheat in response to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Mandal, Siddikun Nabi; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Pm), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most important crop diseases, causing severe economic losses to wheat production worldwide. However, there are few reports about the proteomic response to Bgt infection in resistant wheat. Hence, quantitative proteomic analysis of N9134, a resistant wheat line, was performed to explore the molecular mechanism of wheat in defense against Bgt. Comparing the leaf proteins of Bgt-inoculated N9134 with that of mock-inoculated controls, a total of 2182 protein-species were quantified by iTRAQ at 24, 48 and 72h postinoculation (hpi) with Bgt, of which 394 showed differential accumulation. These differentially accumulated protein-species (DAPs) mainly included pathogenesis-related (PR) polypeptides, oxidative stress responsive proteins and components involved in primary metabolic pathways. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism and photosynthesis-antenna proteins were the key pathways in response to Bgt infection. InterProScan 5 and the Gibbs Motif Sampler cluster 394 DAPs into eight conserved motifs, which shared leucine repeats and histidine sites in the sequence motifs. Moreover, eight separate protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were predicted from STRING database. This study provides a powerful platform for further exploration of the molecular mechanism underlying resistant wheat responding to Bgt. Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive pathogenic disease in wheat-producing regions worldwide, resulting in severe yield reductions. Although many resistant wheat varieties have been cultivated, there are few reports about the proteomic response to Bgt infection in resistant wheat. Therefore, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of a resistant wheat line (N9134) in response to Bgt infection has been performed. This paper provides new insights into the underlying molecular

  10. Gut metabolome meets microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Santosh; Sen, Partho; Dickens, Alex M

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that gut microbes and their metabolic products regulate host metabolism. The interactions between the host and its gut microbiota are highly dynamic and complex. In this review we present and discuss the metabolomic strategies to study the gut microbial ecosystem. We...... highlight the metabolic profiling approaches to study faecal samples aimed at deciphering the metabolic product derived from gut microbiota. We also discuss how metabolomics data can be integrated with metagenomics data derived from gut microbiota and how such approaches may lead to better understanding...

  11. Assigning Quantitative Function to Post-Translational Modifications Reveals Multiple Sites of Phosphorylation That Tune Yeast Pheromone Signaling Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincus, David; Ryan, Christopher J.; Smith, Richard D.; Brent, Roger; Resnekov, Orna; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali

    2013-03-12

    Cell signaling systems transmit information by post-­translationally modifying signaling proteins, often via phosphorylation. While thousands of sites of phosphorylation have been identified in proteomic studies, the vast majority of sites have no known function. Assigning functional roles to the catalog of uncharacterized phosphorylation sites is a key research challenge. Here we present a general approach to address this challenge and apply it to a prototypical signaling pathway, the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pheromone pathway includes a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activated by a G-­protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify sites whose phosphorylation changed when the system was active, and evolutionary conservation to assign priority to a list of candidate MAPK regulatory sites. We made targeted alterations in those sites, and measured the effects of the mutations on pheromone pathway output in single cells. Our work identified six new sites that quantitatively tuned system output. We developed simple computational models to find system architectures that recapitulated the quantitative phenotypes of the mutants. Our results identify a number of regulated phosphorylation events that contribute to adjust the input-­output relationship of this model eukaryotic signaling system. We believe this combined approach constitutes a general means not only to reveal modification sites required to turn a pathway on and off, but also those required for more subtle quantitative effects that tune pathway output. Our results further suggest that relatively small quantitative influences from individual regulatory phosphorylation events endow signaling systems with plasticity that evolution may exploit to quantitatively tailor signaling outcomes.

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanbo; Cheng, Kai; Mao, Jiawei; Liu, Fangjie; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-10-01

    Trypsin is the popular protease to digest proteins into peptides in shotgun proteomics, but few studies have attempted to systematically investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion in proteome samples. In this study, we applied quantitative proteomics via triplex stable isotope dimethyl labeling to investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed cleavage. It was found that trypsin cleaves the C-terminal to lysine (K) and arginine (R) residues with higher rates for R. And the cleavage sites surrounded by neutral residues could be quickly cut, while those with neighboring charged residues (D/E/K/R) or proline residue (P) could be slowly cut. In a proteome sample, a huge number of proteins with different physical chemical properties coexists. If any type of protein could be preferably digested, then limited digestion could be applied to reduce the sample complexity. However, we found that protein abundance and other physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (Mw), grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY), aliphatic index, and isoelectric point (pI) have no notable correlation with digestion priority of proteins.

  13. Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Huang, Shuning; Chen, Howard H; Dai, Guangping; Reese, Timothy G; Kostis, William J; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Hoffmann, Udo; Jackowski, Marcel P; Sosnovik, David E

    2012-10-12

    The study of myofiber reorganization in the remote zone after myocardial infarction has been performed in 2D. Microstructural reorganization in remodeled hearts, however, can only be fully appreciated by considering myofibers as continuous 3D entities. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a technique for quantitative 3D diffusion CMR tractography of the heart, and to apply this method to quantify fiber architecture in the remote zone of remodeled hearts. Diffusion Tensor CMR of normal human, sheep, and rat hearts, as well as infarcted sheep hearts was performed ex vivo. Fiber tracts were generated with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and classified statistically by the median, mean, maximum, or minimum helix angle (HA) along the tract. An index of tract coherence was derived from the relationship between these HA statistics. Histological validation was performed using phase-contrast microscopy. In normal hearts, the subendocardial and subepicardial myofibers had a positive and negative HA, respectively, forming a symmetric distribution around the midmyocardium. However, in the remote zone of the infarcted hearts, a significant positive shift in HA was observed. The ratio between negative and positive HA variance was reduced from 0.96 ± 0.16 in normal hearts to 0.22 ± 0.08 in the remote zone of the remodeled hearts (p layers of the myocardium. Tractography-based quantification, performed here for the first time in remodeled hearts, may provide a framework for assessing regional changes in the left ventricle following infarction.

  14. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Reveals an Association between Brain Iron Load and Depression Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Yao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have detected abnormal serum ferritin levels in patients with depression; however, the results have been inconsistent. This study used quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM for the first time to examine brain iron concentration in depressed patients and evaluated whether it is related to severity. We included three groups of age- and gender-matched participants: 30 patients with mild-moderate depression (MD, 14 patients with major depression disorder (MDD and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent MR scans with a 3D gradient-echo sequence reconstructing for QSM and performed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS test. In MDD, the susceptibility value in the bilateral putamen was significantly increased compared with MD or control subjects. In addition, a significant difference was also observed in the left thalamus in MDD patients compared with controls. However, the susceptibility values did not differ between MD patients and controls. The susceptibility values positively correlated with the severity of depression as indicated by the HDRS scores. Our results provide evidence that brain iron deposition may be associated with depression and may even be a biomarker for investigating the pathophysiological mechanism of depression.

  15. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-04

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress.

  16. Context influences on TALE-DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Julia M; Barrera, Luis A; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L

    2015-06-11

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE-DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000-20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE-DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design.

  17. Context influences on TALE–DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Julia M.; Barrera, Luis A.; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D.; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE–DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000–20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE–DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design. PMID:26067805

  18. Quantitative proteome analysis reveals the correlation between endocytosis-associated proteins and hepatocellular carcinoma dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboulsi, Wael; Bracht, Thilo; Megger, Dominik A; Reis, Henning; Ahrens, Maike; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Tautges, Stephanie; Canbay, Ali E; Meyer, Helmut E; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    The majority of poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) develop from well-differentiated tumors. Endocytosis is a cellular function which is likely to take part in this development due to its important role in regulating the abundances of vital signaling receptors. Here, we aimed to investigate the abundance of endocytosis-associated proteins in HCCs with various differentiation grades. Therefore, we analyzed 36 tissue specimens from HCC patients via LC-MS/MS-based label-free quantitative proteomics including 19 HCC tissue samples with different degrees of histological grades and corresponding non-tumorous tissue controls. As a result, 277 proteins were differentially regulated between well-differentiated tumors and controls. In moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, 278 and 1181 proteins, respectively, were significantly differentially regulated compared to non-tumorous tissue. We explored the regulated proteins based on their functions and identified thirty endocytosis-associated proteins, mostly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumors. These included proteins that have been shown to be up-regulated in HCC like clathrin heavy chain-1 (CLTC) as well as unknown proteins, such as secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3 (SCAMP3). The abundances of SCAMP3 and CLTC were immunohistochemically examined in tissue sections of 84 HCC patients. We demonstrate the novel association of several endocytosis-associated proteins, in particular, SCAMP3 with HCC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative ChIP-Seq Normalization Reveals Global Modulation of the Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenomic profiling by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq is a prevailing methodology used to investigate chromatin-based regulation in biological systems such as human disease, but the lack of an empirical methodology to enable normalization among experiments has limited the precision and usefulness of this technique. Here, we describe a method called ChIP with reference exogenous genome (ChIP-Rx that allows one to perform genome-wide quantitative comparisons of histone modification status across cell populations using defined quantities of a reference epigenome. ChIP-Rx enables the discovery and quantification of dynamic epigenomic profiles across mammalian cells that would otherwise remain hidden using traditional normalization methods. We demonstrate the utility of this method for measuring epigenomic changes following chemical perturbations and show how reference normalization of ChIP-seq experiments enables the discovery of disease-relevant changes in histone modification occupancy.

  20. Quantitative mass spectrometry reveals changes in SNAP-25 isoforms in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakauskas, Vilte E; Moradian, Annie; Barr, Alasdair M.; Beasley, Clare L; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Mann, J John; Ilievski, Boro; Stankov, Aleksandar; Dwork, Andrew J; Falkai, Peter; Morin, Gregg B; Honer, William G

    2016-01-01

    SNAP-25 and syntaxin are presynaptic terminal SNARE proteins altered in amount and function in schizophrenia. In the ventral caudate, we observed 32% lower SNAP-25 and 26% lower syntaxin, but greater interaction between the two proteins using an in vitro assay. SNAP-25 has two isoforms, SNAP-25A and B, differing by only 9 amino acids, but with different effects on neurotransmission. A quantitative mass spectrometry assay was developed to measure total SNAP-25, and proportions of SNAP-25A and B. The assay had a good linear range (50- to 150-fold) and coefficient of variation (4.5%). We studied ventral caudate samples from patients with schizophrenia (n=15) previously reported to have lower total SNAP-25 than controls (n=13). We confirmed 27% lower total SNAP-25 in schizophrenia, and observed 31% lower SNAP-25A (P = 0.002) with 20% lower SNAP-25B amounts (P = 0.10). Lower SNAP-25A amount correlated with greater SNAP-25-syntaxin protein-protein interactions (r = -0.41, P = 0.03); the level of SNAP-25B did not. Administration of haloperidol or clozapine to rats did not mimic the changes found in schizophrenia. The findings suggest that lower levels of SNAP-25 in schizophrenia may represent a greater effect of the illness on the SNAP-25A isoform. This in turn could contribute to the greater interaction between SNAP25 and syntaxin, and possibly disturb neurotransmission in the illness. PMID:26971072

  1. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josiah; Iser, Wendy B; Chow, David K; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2008-07-30

    Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  2. Nucleophosmin in the pathogenesis of arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis revealed by quantitative proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuhui; Wang Yiwen; Hsu Jueliang; Chang Hongyi; Wang Chiyun; Shen Potsun; Chiang Chiwu; Chuang Jingjing; Tsai Hungwen; Gu Powen; Chang Fangchih; Liu Hsiaosheng; Chow Nanhaw

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of arsenic (As)-associated carcinogenesis, we performed proteomic analysis on E7 immortalized human uroepithelial cells after treatment with As in vitro. Quantitative proteomics was performed using stable isotope dimethyl labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography peptide separation and mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis. Among 285 proteins, a total of 26 proteins were upregulated (ratio > 2.0) and 18 proteins were downregulated (ratio < 0.65) by As treatment, which are related to nucleotide binding, lipid metabolism, protein folding, protein biosynthesis, transcription, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and signal transduction. This study reports the potential significance of nucleophosmin (NPM) in the As-related bladder carcinogenesis. NPM was universally expressed in all of uroepithelial cell lines examined, implying that NPM may play a role in human bladder carcinogenesis. Upregulation of NPM tends to be dose- and time-dependent after As treatment. Expression of NPM was associated with cell proliferation, migration and anti-apoptosis. On the contrary, soy isoflavones inhibited the expression of NPM in vitro. The results suggest that NPM may play a role in the As-related bladder carcinogenesis, and soybean-based foods may have potential in the suppression of As/NPM-related tumorigenesis.

  3. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of protein arginine phosphorylation in the bacterial stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response.

  4. Data-Independent Acquisition-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers of Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yimeng; Zhong, Lijun; Zhou, Juntuo; Lu, Min; Xing, Tianying; Ma, Lulin; Shen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant and metastatic cancer with 95% mortality, and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is the most observed among the five major subtypes of RCC. Specific biomarkers that can distinguish cancer tissues from adjacent normal tissues should be developed to diagnose this disease in early stages and conduct a reliable prognostic evaluation. Data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategy has been widely employed in proteomic analysis because of various advantages, including enhanced protein coverage and reliable data acquisition. In this study, a DIA workflow is constructed on a quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS platform to reveal dysregulated proteins between ccRCC and adjacent normal tissues. More than 4000 proteins are identified, 436 of these proteins are dysregulated in ccRCC tissues. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that multiple pathways and Gene Ontology items are strongly associated with ccRCC. The expression levels of L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, annexin A4, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, and perilipin-2 examined through RT-qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry confirm the validity of the proteomic analysis results. The proposed DIA workflow yields optimum time efficiency and data reliability and provides a good choice for proteomic analysis in biological and clinical studies, and these dysregulated proteins might be potential biomarkers for ccRCC diagnosis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stiffness and evolution of interfacial micropancakes revealed by AFM quantitative nanomechanical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Binyu; Wang, Xingya; Song, Yang; Hu, Jun; Lü, Junhong; Zhou, Xingfei; Tai, Renzhong; Zhang, Xuehua; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-05-28

    Micropancakes are quasi-two-dimensional micron-sized domains on crystalline substrates (e.g. highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)) immersed in water. They are only a few nanometers thick, and are suspected to come from the accumulation of dissolved air at the solid-water interface. However, the exact chemical nature and basic physical properties of micropancakes have been under debate ever since their first observation, primarily due to the lack of a suitable characterization technique. In this study, the stiffness of micropancakes at the interface between HOPG and ethanol-water solutions was investigated by using PeakForce Quantitative NanoMechanics (PF-QNM) mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Our measurements showed that micropancakes were stiffer than nanobubbles, and for bilayer micropancakes, the bottom layer in contact with the substrate was stiffer than the top one. Interestingly, the micropancakes became smaller and softer with an increase in the ethanol concentration in the solution, and were undetectable by AFM above a critical concentration of ethanol. But they re-appeared after the ethanol concentration in the solution was reduced. Clearly the evolution and stiffness of the micropancakes were dependent on the chemical composition in the solution, which could be attributed to the correlation of the mechanical properties of the micropancakes with the surface tension of the liquid phase. Based on the "go-and-come" behaviors of micropancakes with the ethanol concentration, we found that the micropancakes could actually tolerate the ethanol concentration much higher than 5%, a value reported in the literature. The results from this work may be helpful in alluding the chemical nature of micropancakes.

  6. Fiber architecture in remodeled myocardium revealed with a quantitative diffusion CMR tractography framework and histological validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkaoui Choukri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of myofiber reorganization in the remote zone after myocardial infarction has been performed in 2D. Microstructural reorganization in remodeled hearts, however, can only be fully appreciated by considering myofibers as continuous 3D entities. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a technique for quantitative 3D diffusion CMR tractography of the heart, and to apply this method to quantify fiber architecture in the remote zone of remodeled hearts. Methods Diffusion Tensor CMR of normal human, sheep, and rat hearts, as well as infarcted sheep hearts was performed ex vivo. Fiber tracts were generated with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and classified statistically by the median, mean, maximum, or minimum helix angle (HA along the tract. An index of tract coherence was derived from the relationship between these HA statistics. Histological validation was performed using phase-contrast microscopy. Results In normal hearts, the subendocardial and subepicardial myofibers had a positive and negative HA, respectively, forming a symmetric distribution around the midmyocardium. However, in the remote zone of the infarcted hearts, a significant positive shift in HA was observed. The ratio between negative and positive HA variance was reduced from 0.96 ± 0.16 in normal hearts to 0.22 ± 0.08 in the remote zone of the remodeled hearts (p Conclusions A significant reorganization of the 3D fiber continuum is observed in the remote zone of remodeled hearts. The positive (rightward shift in HA in the remote zone is greatest in the subepicardium, but involves all layers of the myocardium. Tractography-based quantification, performed here for the first time in remodeled hearts, may provide a framework for assessing regional changes in the left ventricle following infarction.

  7. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Johnston

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  8. Quantitative proteomics and dynamic imaging of the nucleolus reveal distinct responses to UV and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Henna M; Bai, Baoyan; Boisvert, François-Michel; Latonen, Leena; Rantanen, Ville; Simpson, Jeremy C; Pepperkok, Rainer; Lamond, Angus I; Laiho, Marikki

    2011-10-01

    The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle that coordinates rRNA transcription and ribosome subunit biogenesis. Recent proteomic analyses have shown that the nucleolus contains proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA processing and DNA damage response and repair, in addition to the many proteins connected with ribosome subunit production. Here we study the dynamics of nucleolar protein responses in cells exposed to stress and DNA damage caused by ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in diploid human fibroblasts. We show using a combination of imaging and quantitative proteomics methods that nucleolar substructure and the nucleolar proteome undergo selective reorganization in response to UV damage. The proteomic responses to UV include alterations of functional protein complexes such as the SSU processome and exosome, and paraspeckle proteins, involving both decreases and increases in steady state protein ratios, respectively. Several nonhomologous end-joining proteins (NHEJ), such as Ku70/80, display similar fast responses to UV. In contrast, nucleolar proteomic responses to IR are both temporally and spatially distinct from those caused by UV, and more limited in terms of magnitude. With the exception of the NHEJ and paraspeckle proteins, where IR induces rapid and transient changes within 15 min of the damage, IR does not alter the ratios of most other functional nucleolar protein complexes. The rapid transient decrease of NHEJ proteins in the nucleolus indicates that it may reflect a response to DNA damage. Our results underline that the nucleolus is a specific stress response organelle that responds to different damage and stress agents in a unique, damage-specific manner.

  9. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Temporal Proteomic Changes in Signaling Pathways during BV2 Mouse Microglial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jongmin; Han, Dohyun; Wang, Joseph Injae; Park, Joonho; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Youngsoo

    2017-09-01

    The development of systematic proteomic quantification techniques in systems biology research has enabled one to perform an in-depth analysis of cellular systems. We have developed a systematic proteomic approach that encompasses the spectrum from global to targeted analysis on a single platform. We have applied this technique to an activated microglia cell system to examine changes in the intracellular and extracellular proteomes. Microglia become activated when their homeostatic microenvironment is disrupted. There are varying degrees of microglial activation, and we chose to focus on the proinflammatory reactive state that is induced by exposure to such stimuli as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Using an improved shotgun proteomics approach, we identified 5497 proteins in the whole-cell proteome and 4938 proteins in the secretome that were associated with the activation of BV2 mouse microglia by LPS or IFN-γ. Of the differentially expressed proteins in stimulated microglia, we classified pathways that were related to immune-inflammatory responses and metabolism. Our label-free parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) approach made it possible to comprehensively measure the hyper-multiplex quantitative value of each protein by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Over 450 peptides that corresponded to pathway proteins and direct or indirect interactors via the STRING database were quantified by label-free PRM in a single run. Moreover, we performed a longitudinal quantification of secreted proteins during microglial activation, in which neurotoxic molecules that mediate neuronal cell loss in the brain are released. These data suggest that latent pathways that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases can be discovered by constructing and analyzing a pathway network model of proteins. Furthermore, this systematic quantification platform has tremendous potential for applications in large-scale targeted analyses. The proteomics data for

  10. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics: Targeting the crosstalk between gut microbiota and brain in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hemi; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-11-12

    Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain. More evidence reveals that small molecule metabolites may play a critical role in mediating microbial effects on neurotransmission and disease development. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is uniquely suitable for obtaining the metabolic signals in bidirectional communication between gut microbiota and brain. In this review, we summarized major mass spectrometry technologies including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and imaging mass spectrometry for metabolomics studies of neurodegenerative disorders. We also reviewed the recent advances in the identification of new metabolites by mass spectrometry and metabolic pathways involved in the connection of intestinal microbiota and brain. These metabolic pathways allowed the microbiota to impact the regular function of the brain, which can in turn affect the composition of microbiota via the neurotransmitter substances. The dysfunctional interaction of this crosstalk connects neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. The mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analysis provides information for targeting dysfunctional pathways of small molecule metabolites in the development of the neurodegenerative diseases, which may be valuable for the

  11. Atomic-scale Ge diffusion in strained Si revealed by quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, G.; Favre, L.; Couillard, M.; Amiard, G.; Berbezier, I.; Botton, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is employed to investigate the local chemistry in the vicinity of a Si0.8Ge0.2/Si interface grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark field contrast reveals the presence of a nonuniform diffusion of Ge from the substrate into the strained Si thin film. On the basis of multislice calculations, a model is proposed to quantify the experimental contrast, showing that the Ge concentration in the thin film reaches about 4% at the interface and decreases monotonically on a typical length scale of 10 nm. Diffusion occurring during the growth process itself therefore appears as a major factor limiting the abruptness of interfaces in the Si-Ge system.

  12. Global Metabolomics of the Placenta Reveals Distinct Metabolic Profiles between Maternal and Fetal Placental Tissues Following Delivery in Non-Labored Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn M. Walejko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the metabolic alterations in maternal and fetal placental tissues from non-labored women undergoing cesarean section using samples collected from 5 min to 24 h following delivery. Using 1H-NMR, we identified 14 metabolites that significantly differed between maternal and fetal placental tissues (FDR-corrected p-value < 0.05, with 12 metabolites elevated in the maternal tissue, reflecting the flux of these metabolites from mother to fetus. In the maternal tissue, 4 metabolites were significantly altered at 15 min, 10 metabolites at 30 min, and 16 metabolites at 1 h postdelivery, while 11 metabolites remained stable over 24 h. In contrast, in the fetal placenta tissue, 1 metabolite was significantly altered at 15 min, 2 metabolites at 30 min, and 4 metabolites at 1 h postdelivery, while 22 metabolites remained stable over 24 h. Our study provides information on the metabolic profiles of maternal and fetal placental tissues delivered by cesarean section and reveals that there are different metabolic alterations in the maternal and fetal tissues of the placenta following delivery.

  13. Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved abiotic stress resistance in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] by exogenous melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-xian; Reiter, Russel J.; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:25225478

  14. Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved abiotic stress resistance in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.] by exogenous melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-02-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits...

  16. INVESTIGATING THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE TOXICITY OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT THROUGH NMR BASED METABOLOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, metabolomics, or the quantitative measurement of a broad spectrum of metabolic responses of living systems in response to disease onset or genetic modification, has been employed to enable rapid identification of the mechanisms of toxicity for compounds of environmental...

  17. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  18. Metabolomics and Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Nadia; Du Preez, Ilse; Loots, Du Toit

    2016-01-01

    Current clinical practice strongly relies on the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases using methods determined and averaged for the specific diseased cohort/population. Although this approach complies positively with most patients, misdiagnosis, treatment failure, relapse, and adverse drug effects are common occurrences in many individuals, which subsequently hamper the control and eradication of a number of diseases. These incidences can be explained by individual variation in the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of a patient. Various "omics" approaches have investigated the influence of these factors on a molecular level, with the intention of developing personalized approaches to disease diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics, the newest addition to the "omics" domain and the closest to the observed phenotype, reflects changes occurring at all molecular levels, as well as influences resulting from other internal and external factors. By comparing the metabolite profiles of two or more disease phenotypes, metabolomics can be applied to identify biomarkers related to the perturbation being investigated. These biomarkers can, in turn, be used to develop personalized prognostic, diagnostic, and treatment approaches, and can also be applied to the monitoring of disease progression, treatment efficacy, predisposition to drug-related side effects, and potential relapse. In this review, we discuss the contributions that metabolomics has made, and can potentially still make, towards the field of personalized medicine. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single cell metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    Recent discoveries suggest that cells of a clonal population often display multiple metabolic phenotypes at the same time. Motivated by the success of mass spectrometry (MS) in the investigation of population-level metabolomics, the analytical community has initiated efforts towards MS-based single

  20. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  1. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals middle infrared radiation-interfered networks in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Li, Ming-Hua; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Lee, Si-Chen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-06

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death worldwide. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is complex and challenging, especially when metastasis has developed. In this study, we applied infrared radiation as an alternative approach for the treatment of TNBC. We used middle infrared (MIR) with a wavelength range of 3-5 μm to irradiate breast cancer cells. MIR significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells. We performed iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the MIR-triggered molecular mechanisms in breast cancer cells. A total of 1749 proteins were identified, quantified, and subjected to functional enrichment analysis. From the constructed functionally enriched network, we confirmed that MIR caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability. Our results reveal the coordinative effects of MIR-regulated physiological responses in concentrated networks, demonstrating the potential implementation of infrared radiation in breast cancer therapy.

  3. Integrative Analysis of Subcellular Quantitative Proteomics Studies Reveals Functional Cytoskeleton Membrane-Lipid Raft Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup D; Inder, Kerry L; Shah, Alok K; Cristino, Alexandre S; McKie, Arthur B; Gabra, Hani; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-07

    Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains that orchestrate molecular interactions and are implicated in cancer development. To understand the functions of lipid rafts in cancer, we performed an integrated analysis of quantitative lipid raft proteomics data sets modeling progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. This analysis revealed that cancer development is associated with increased membrane raft-cytoskeleton interactions, with ∼40% of elevated lipid raft proteins being cytoskeletal components. Previous studies suggest a potential functional role for the raft-cytoskeleton in the action of the putative tumor suppressors PTRF/Cavin-1 and Merlin. To extend the observation, we examined lipid raft proteome modulation by an unrelated tumor suppressor opioid binding protein cell-adhesion molecule (OPCML) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. In agreement with the other model systems, quantitative proteomics revealed that 39% of OPCML-depleted lipid raft proteins are cytoskeletal components, with microfilaments and intermediate filaments specifically down-regulated. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network and simulation analysis showed significantly higher interactions among cancer raft proteins compared with general human raft proteins. Collectively, these results suggest increased cytoskeleton-mediated stabilization of lipid raft domains with greater molecular interactions as a common, functional, and reversible feature of cancer cells.

  4. Quantitative membrane proteomics reveals a role for tetraspanin enriched microdomains during entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC, membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated. Since CD81 downregulation was also observed during infection with UV-inactivated virus we hypothesized that this tetraspanin is part of the viral entry process. Interestingly, additional members of the tetraspanin family, CD9 and CD151, were also downregulated during HCMV-entry. Since tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEM cluster host cell membrane proteins including known CMV receptors such as integrins, we studied whether TEMs are required for viral entry. When TEMs were disrupted with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cylcodextrin, viral entry was inhibited and this inhibition correlated with reduced surface levels of CD81, CD9 and CD151, whereas integrin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of multiple tetraspanins inhibited viral entry whereas individual knockdown had little effect suggesting essential, but redundant roles for individual tetraspanins during entry. Taken together, our data suggest that TEM act as platforms for receptors utilized by HCMV for entry into cells.

  5. Blood Transcriptomics and Metabolomics for Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-31

    involved in rheumatoid arthritis . PLoS Comput Biol 2011;7. [100] Zhu J. Stitching together multiple data dimensions reveals interacting metabolomic...capability, detecting N10,000 metabo- lites, together with environmental exposure, dietary intake, microbial activity, and pharmaceutical drugs. Thus...research to clinical care has constantly seen huge disap- pointments. With the accumulation of detailed, information-rich data, human subjects start to

  6. Isotopic Zonation Within Sulfate Evaporite Mineral Crystals Reveal Quantitative Paleoenvironment Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.; Rhorssen, M.; Mielke, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    developed a new analytical method [2]. We use a modification of the standard TC/EA continuous-flow protocol to measure both hydrogen and oxygen of water of hydration from the same small sample. We have proved the concept of this new approach by analyzing zones within crystals and individual grains, growing epsomite (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) in the laboratory and by analysis of natural gypsum evaporites. We are now exploring the effects of varying the controlling parameters. Eventual application to Martian sulfates will reveal amount of water involved in sulfate formation, its isotopic composition(s) and details of the paleo-atmospheric humidity. [1] Gat JR and Gonfiantini R, (Eds) (1981) IAEA Technical Report Series. [2] Rohrssen MK, Brunner B Mielke RE and Coleman M (2008) Analyt. Chem. (in press).

  7. Quantitative ligand and receptor binding studies reveal the mechanism of interleukin-36 (IL-36) pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Todorovic, Viktor; Kakavas, Steve; Sielaff, Bernhard; Medina, Limary; Wang, Leyu; Sadhukhan, Ramkrishna; Stockmann, Henning; Richardson, Paul L; DiGiammarino, Enrico; Sun, Chaohong; Scott, Victoria

    2018-01-12

    IL-36 cytokines signal through the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) and a shared subunit, IL-1RAcP (IL-1 receptor accessory protein). The activation mechanism for the IL-36 pathway is proposed to be similar to that of IL-1 in that an IL-36R agonist (IL-36α, IL-36β, or IL-36γ) forms a binary complex with IL-36R, which then recruits IL-1RAcP. Recent studies have shown that IL-36R interacts with IL-1RAcP even in the absence of an agonist. To elucidate the IL-36 activation mechanism, we considered all possible binding events for IL-36 ligands/receptors and examined these events in direct binding assays. Our results indicated that the agonists bind the IL-36R extracellular domain with micromolar affinity but do not detectably bind IL-1RAcP. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we found that IL-1RAcP also does not bind IL-36R when no agonist is present. In the presence of IL-36α, however, IL-1RAcP bound IL-36R strongly. These results suggested that the main pathway to the IL-36R·IL-36α·IL-1RAcP ternary complex is through the IL-36R·IL-36α binary complex, which recruits IL-1RAcP. We could not measure the binding affinity of IL-36R to IL-1RAcP directly, so we engineered a fragment crystallizable-linked construct to induce IL-36R·IL-1RAcP heterodimerization and predicted the binding affinity during a complete thermodynamic cycle to be 74 μm The SPR analysis also indicated that the IL-36R antagonist IL-36Ra binds IL-36R with higher affinity and a much slower off rate than the IL-36R agonists, shedding light on IL-36 pathway inhibition. Our results reveal the landscape of IL-36 ligand and receptor interactions, improving our understanding of IL-36 pathway activation and inhibition. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Metabolomics: Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develops over many years, providing an opportunity to consider early prognostic tools that guide interventions to thwart disease. Advancements in analytical chemistry enable quantitation of hundreds of metabolites in biofluids and tissues (metabolomics), providing in...

  9. Quantitative proteomics reveals the mechanism and consequence of gliotoxin-mediated dysregulation of the methionine cycle in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Miralles, Lara; Sarikaya-Bayram, Özlem; Smith, Elizabeth B; Dolan, Stephen K; Bayram, Özgür; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean

    2016-01-10

    Gliotoxin (GT) is a redox-active metabolite, produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, which inhibits the growth of other fungi. Here we demonstrate how Aspergillus niger responds to GT exposure. Quantitative proteomics revealed that GT dysregulated the abundance of 378 proteins including those involved in methionine metabolism and induced de novo abundance of two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. Increased abundance of enzymes S-adenosylhomocysteinase (p=0.0018) required for homocysteine generation from S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and spermidine synthase (p=0.0068), involved in the recycling of Met, was observed. Analysis of Met-related metabolites revealed significant increases in the levels of Met and adenosine, in correlation with proteomic data. Methyltransferase MT-II is responsible for bisthiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (BmGT) formation, deletion of MT-II abolished BmGT formation and led to increased GT sensitivity in A. niger. Proteomic analysis also revealed that GT exposure also significantly (pniger. Thus, it provides new opportunities to exploit the response of GT-naïve fungi to GT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining...

  11. Metabolomics in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical investigations on the regulatory mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) metabolism have fostered a century of advances in the field of transfusion medicine. Owing to these advances, storage of RBCs and PLT concentrates has become a lifesaving practice in clinical and military settings. There, however, remains room for improvement, especially with regard to the introduction of novel storage and/or rejuvenation solutions, alternative cell processing strategies (e.g., pathogen inactivation technologies), and quality testing (e.g., evaluation of novel containers with alternative plasticizers). Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and systems biology, the bioinformatics integration of omics data, promise to speed up the design and testing of innovative storage strategies developed to improve the quality, safety, and effectiveness of blood products. Here we review the currently available metabolomics technologies and briefly describe the routine workflow for transfusion medicine-relevant studies. The goal is to provide transfusion medicine experts with adequate tools to navigate through the otherwise overwhelming amount of metabolomics data burgeoning in the field during the past few years. Descriptive metabolomics data have represented the first step omics researchers have taken into the field of transfusion medicine. However, to up the ante, clinical and omics experts will need to merge their expertise to investigate correlative and mechanistic relationships among metabolic variables and transfusion-relevant variables, such as 24-hour in vivo recovery for transfused RBCs. Integration with systems biology models will potentially allow for in silico prediction of metabolic phenotypes, thus streamlining the design and testing of alternative storage strategies and/or solutions. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Metabolomic Analysis in Brain Research: Opportunities & Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G Vasilopoulou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism being a fundamental part of molecular physiology, elucidating the structure and regulation of metabolic pathways is crucial for obtaining a comprehensive perspective of cellular function and understanding the underlying mechanisms of its dysfunction(s. Therefore, quantifying an accurate metabolic network activity map under various physiological conditions is among the major objectives of systems biology in the context of many biological applications. Especially for CNS, metabolic network activity analysis can substantially enhance our knowledge about the complex structure of the mammalian brain and the mechanisms of neurological disorders, leading to the design of effective therapeutic treatments. Metabolomics has emerged as the high-throughput quantitative analysis of the concentration profile of small molecular weight metabolites, which act as reactants and products in metabolic reactions and as regulatory molecules of proteins participating in many biological processes. Thus, the metabolic profile provides a metabolic activity fingerprint, through the simultaneous analysis of tens to hundreds of molecules of pathophysiological and pharmacological interest. The application of metabolomics is at its standardization phase in general, and the challenges for paving a standardized procedure are even more pronounced in brain studies. In this review, we support the value of metabolomics in brain research. Moreover, we demonstrate the challenges of designing and setting up a reliable brain metabolomic study, which, among other parameters, has to take into consideration the sex differentiation and the complexity of brain physiology manifested in its regional variation. We finally propose ways to overcome these challenges and design a study that produces reproducible and consistent results.

  13. Quantitative Proteomics of the Tonoplast Reveals a Role for Glycolytic Enzymes in Salt Tolerance[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Pantoja, Omar

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the tonoplast in plant salt tolerance and identify proteins involved in the regulation of transporters for vacuolar Na+ sequestration, we exploited a targeted quantitative proteomics approach. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis of free flow zonal electrophoresis separated tonoplast fractions from control, and salt-treated Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants revealed the membrane association of glycolytic enzymes aldolase and enolase, along with subunits of the vacuolar H+-ATPase V-ATPase. Protein blot analysis confirmed coordinated salt regulation of these proteins, and chaotrope treatment indicated a strong tonoplast association. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that the glycolytic enzymes interacted with the V-ATPase subunit B VHA-B, and aldolase was shown to stimulate V-ATPase activity in vitro by increasing the affinity for ATP. To investigate a physiological role for this association, the Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic enolase mutant, los2, was characterized. These plants were salt sensitive, and there was a specific reduction in enolase abundance in the tonoplast from salt-treated plants. Moreover, tonoplast isolated from mutant plants showed an impaired ability for aldolase stimulation of V-ATPase hydrolytic activity. The association of glycolytic proteins with the tonoplast may not only channel ATP to the V-ATPase, but also directly upregulate H+-pump activity. PMID:20028841

  14. Metabolomics of Small Numbers of Cells: Metabolomic Profiling of 100, 1000, and 10000 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xian; Li, Liang

    2017-11-07

    In cellular metabolomics, it is desirable to carry out metabolomic profiling using a small number of cells in order to save time and cost. In some applications (e.g., working with circulating tumor cells in blood), only a limited number of cells are available for analysis. In this report, we describe a method based on high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) for high-coverage metabolomic analysis of small numbers of cells (i.e., ≤10000 cells). As an example, 12 C-/ 13 C-dansyl labeling of the metabolites in lysates of 100, 1000, and 10000 MCF-7 breast cancer cells was carried out using a new labeling protocol tailored to handle small amounts of metabolites. Chemical-vapor-assisted ionization in a captivespray interface was optimized for improving metabolite ionization and increasing robustness of nanoLC-MS. Compared to microflow LC-MS, the nanoflow system provided much improved metabolite detectability with a significantly reduced sample amount required for analysis. Experimental duplicate analyses of biological triplicates resulted in the detection of 1620 ± 148, 2091 ± 89 and 2402 ± 80 (n = 6) peak pairs or metabolites in the amine/phenol submetabolome from the 12 C-/ 13 C-dansyl labeled lysates of 100, 1000, and 10000 cells, respectively. About 63-69% of these peak pairs could be either identified using dansyl labeled standard library or mass-matched to chemical structures in human metabolome databases. We envisage the routine applications of this method for high-coverage quantitative cellular metabolomics using a starting material of 10000 cells. Even for analyzing 100 or 1000 cells, although the metabolomic coverage is reduced from the maximal coverage, this method can still detect thousands of metabolites, allowing the analysis of a large fraction of the metabolome and focused analysis of the detectable metabolites.

  15. Metabolomics for functional genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki; Matsuda, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Metabolomics now plays a significant role in fundamental plant biology and applied biotechnology. Plants collectively produce a huge array of chemicals, far more than are produced by most other organisms; hence, metabolomics is of great importance in plant biology. Although substantial improvements have been made in the field of metabolomics, the uniform annotation of metabolite signals in databases and informatics through international standardization efforts remains a challenge, as does the development of new fields such as fluxome analysis and single cell analysis. The principle of transcript and metabolite cooccurrence, particularly transcriptome coexpression network analysis, is a powerful tool for decoding the function of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. This strategy can now be used for the identification of genes involved in specific pathways in crops and medicinal plants. Metabolomics has gained importance in biotechnology applications, as exemplified by quantitative loci analysis, prediction of food quality, and evaluation of genetically modified crops. Systems biology driven by metabolome data will aid in deciphering the secrets of plant cell systems and their application to biotechnology.

  16. Mass spectrometric based approaches in urine metabolomics and biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Mona M; Adamko, Darryl J; El-Aneed, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Urine metabolomics has recently emerged as a prominent field for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers that can detect subtle metabolic discrepancies in response to a specific disease or therapeutic intervention. Urine, compared to other biofluids, is characterized by its ease of collection, richness in metabolites and its ability to reflect imbalances of all biochemical pathways within the body. Following urine collection for metabolomic analysis, samples must be immediately frozen to quench any biogenic and/or non-biogenic chemical reactions. According to the aim of the experiment; sample preparation can vary from simple procedures such as filtration to more specific extraction protocols such as liquid-liquid extraction. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on urine metabolome stability, higher storage temperatures (i.e. 4°C) and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles should be avoided. To date, among all analytical techniques, mass spectrometry (MS) provides the best sensitivity, selectivity and identification capabilities to analyze the majority of the metabolite composition in the urine. Combined with the qualitative and quantitative capabilities of MS, and due to the continuous improvements in its related technologies (i.e. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography [UPLC] and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography [HILIC]), liquid chromatography (LC)-MS is unequivocally the most utilized and the most informative analytical tool employed in urine metabolomics. Furthermore, differential isotope tagging techniques has provided a solution to ion suppression from urine matrix thus allowing for quantitative analysis. In addition to LC-MS, other MS-based technologies have been utilized in urine metabolomics. These include direct injection (infusion)-MS, capillary electrophoresis-MS and gas chromatography-MS. In this article, the current progresses of different MS-based techniques in exploring the urine metabolome as well as the recent findings in providing

  17. Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic analysis reveals differential abundance of cell signaling proteins between normal and lung cancer-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Yang, Austin; Mao, Li

    2016-02-05

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm sized membrane vesicles released by cells into the extracellular space that mediate intercellular communication via transfer of proteins and other biological molecules. To better understand the role of these microvesicles in lung carcinogenesis, we employed a Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic strategy to examine the differential protein abundance between exosomes derived from an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line and two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring distinct activating mutations in the cell signaling molecules: Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In total, we were able to quantify 721 exosomal proteins derived from the three cell lines. Proteins associated with signal transduction, including EGFR, GRB2 and SRC, were enriched in NSCLC exosomes, and could actively regulate cell proliferation in recipient cells. This study's investigation of the NSCLC exosomal proteome has identified enriched protein cargo that can contribute to lung cancer progression, which may have potential clinical implications in biomarker development for patients with NSCLC. The high mortality associated with lung cancer is a result of late-stage diagnosis of the disease. Current screening techniques used for early detection of lung cancer lack the specificity for accurate diagnosis. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles, and the increased abundance of select protein cargo in exosomes derived from cancer cells may be used for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we applied quantitative proteomic analysis to elucidate abundance differences in exosomal protein cargo between two NSCLC cell lines with distinctive oncogene mutations and an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line. This study revealed proteins associated with cell adhesion, the extracellular matrix, and a variety of signaling molecules were enriched in NSCLC exosomes. The present data reveals

  18. Comparative sequence analyses of the major quantitative trait locus phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) reveal a complex genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Lu, Xiaochun; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Tanaka, Juan Pariasca; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Leon, Teresa; Ulat, Victor Jun; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Yano, Masahiro; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) locus was identified as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for tolerance of phosphorus deficiency in rice. Near-isogenic lines with the Pup1 region from tolerant donor parent Kasalath typically show threefold higher phosphorus uptake and grain yield in phosphorus-deficient field trials than the intolerant parent Nipponbare. In this study, we report the fine mapping of the Pup1 locus to the long arm of chromosome 12 (15.31-15.47 Mb). Genes in the region were initially identified on the basis of the Nipponbare reference genome, but did not reveal any obvious candidate genes related to phosphorus uptake. Kasalath BAC clones were therefore sequenced and revealed a 278-kbp sequence significantly different from the syntenic regions in Nipponbare (145 kb) and in the indica reference genome of 93-11 (742 kbp). Size differences are caused by large insertions or deletions (INDELs), and an exceptionally large number of retrotransposon and transposon-related elements (TEs) present in all three sequences (45%-54%). About 46 kb of the Kasalath sequence did not align with the entire Nipponbare genome, and only three Nipponbare genes (fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase, dirigent protein and aspartic proteinase) are highly conserved in Kasalath. Two Nipponbare genes (expressed proteins) might have evolved by at least three TE integrations in an ancestor gene that is still present in Kasalath. Several predicted Kasalath genes are novel or unknown genes that are mainly located within INDEL regions. Our results highlight the importance of sequencing QTL regions in the respective donor parent, as important genes might not be present in the current reference genomes.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H Buck

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A tails to the 3' end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi. Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h and late (24 h times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p. Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication.

  20. High Resolution Separations and Improved Ion Production and Transmission in Metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O.; Page, Jason S.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tang, Keqi; Ding, Jie; Shen, Yufeng; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-03-31

    The goal of metabolomics experiments is the detection and quantitation of as many sample components as reasonably possible in order to identify “features” that can be used to characterize the samples under study. When utilizing electrospray ionization to produce ions for analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), it is imperative that metabolome sample constituents be efficiently separated prior to ion production, in order to minimize the phenomenon of ionization suppression. Similarly, optimization of the MS inlet can lead to increased measurement sensitivity. This review will focus on the role of high resolution liquid chromatography (LC) separations in conjunction with improved ion production and transmission for LC-MS-based metabolomics.

  1. Quantitative genome-wide genetic interaction screens reveal global epistatic relationships of protein complexes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI screens can provide insights into the biological role(s of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems.

  2. Protein content and functional characteristics of serum-purified exosomes from patients with colorectal cancer revealed by quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Xie, Yong; Xu, Lai; Zhan, Shaohua; Xiao, Yi; Gao, Yanpan; Wu, Bin; Ge, Wei

    2017-02-15

    Tumor cells of colorectal cancer (CRC) release exosomes into the circulation. These exosomes can mediate communication between cells and affect various tumor-related processes in their target cells. We present a quantitative proteomics analysis of the exosomes purified from serum of patients with CRC and normal volunteers; data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003875. We identified 918 proteins with an overlap of 725 Gene IDs in the Exocarta proteins list. Compared with the serum-purified exosomes (SPEs) of normal volunteers, we found 36 proteins upregulated and 22 proteins downregulated in the SPEs of CRC patients. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that upregulated proteins are involved in processes that modulate the pretumorigenic microenvironment for metastasis. In contrast, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that play critical roles in tumor growth and cell survival were principally downregulated. Our study demonstrates that SPEs of CRC patients play a pivotal role in promoting the tumor invasiveness, but have minimal influence on putative alterations in tumor survival or proliferation. According to bioinformatics analysis, we speculate that the protein contents of exosomes might be associated with whether they are involved in premetastatic niche establishment or growth and survival of metastatic tumor cells. This information will be helpful in elucidating the pathophysiological functions of tumor-derived exosomes, and aid in the development of CRC diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  4. Quantitative PCR Profiling of Escherichia coli in Livestock Feces Reveals Increased Population Resilience Relative to Culturable Counts under Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Bird, Clare; Burd, Emmy; Wyman, Michael

    2016-09-06

    The relationship between culturable counts (CFU) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) cell equivalent counts of Escherichia coli in dairy feces exposed to different environmental conditions and temperature extremes was investigated. Fecal samples were collected in summer and winter from dairy cowpats held under two treatments: field-exposed versus polytunnel-protected. A significant correlation in quantified E. coli was recorded between the qPCR and culture-based methods (r = 0.82). Evaluation of the persistence profiles of E. coli over time revealed no significant difference in the E. coli numbers determined as either CFU or gene copies during the summer for the field-exposed cowpats, whereas significantly higher counts were observed by qPCR for the polytunnel-protected cowpats, which were exposed to higher ambient temperatures. In winter, the qPCR returned significantly higher counts of E. coli for the field-exposed cowpats, thus representing a reversal of the findings from the summer sampling campaign. Results from this study suggest that with increasing time post-defecation and with the onset of challenging environmental conditions, such as extremes in temperature, culture-based counts begin to underestimate the true resilience of viable E. coli populations in livestock feces. This is important not only in the long term as the Earth changes in response to climate-change drivers but also in the short term during spells of extremely cold or hot weather.

  5. Sulfites and the wine metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Hemmler, Daniel; Gonsior, Michael; Li, Yan; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Aron, Alissa; Coelho, Christian; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-12-15

    In a context of societal concern about food preservation, the reduction of sulfite input plays a major role in the wine industry. To improve the understanding of the chemistry involved in the SO 2 protection, a series of bottle aged Chardonnay wines made from the same must, but with different concentrations of SO 2 added at pressing were analyzed by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF). Metabolic fingerprints from FT-ICR-MS data could discriminate wines according to the added concentration to the must but they also revealed chemistry-related differences according to the type of stopper, providing a wine metabolomics picture of the impact of distinct stopping strategies. Spearman rank correlation was applied to link the statistically modeled EEMF components (parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and the exact mass information from FT-ICR-MS, and thus revealing the extent of sulfur-containing compounds which could show some correlation with fluorescence fingerprints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. When transcriptome meets metabolome : Fast cellular responses of yeast to sudden relief of glucose limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Knijnenburg, T.A.; Ras, C.; Ten Pierick, A.; Akmering, M.J.; Van Winden, W.A.; Kresnowati, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the first 5 min after a sudden relief from glucose limitation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited fast changes of intracellular metabolite levels and a major transcriptional reprogramming. Integration of transcriptome and metabolome data revealed tight relationships between the changes at

  7. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  9. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis of human testis reveals system-wide molecular and cellular pathways associated with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Parsamatin, Pouria; Karamzadeh, Razieh; Adib, Samane; Sodeifi, Niloofar; Gilani, Mohammad Ali Sadighi; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Parker, Lindsay; Wu, Yunqi; Gupta, Vivek; Haynes, Paul A; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2017-06-06

    Male infertility accounts for half of the infertility problems experienced by couples. Azoospermia, having no measurable level of sperm in seminal fluid, is one of the known conditions resulting in male infertility. In order to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms causing male azoospermia, label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics was carried out on testicular tissue specimens from patients with obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia, including maturation arrest (MA) and Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS). The abundance of 520 proteins was significantly changed across three groups of samples. We were able to identify several functional biological pathways enriched in azoospermia samples and confirm selected differentially abundant proteins, using multiple histological methods. The results revealed that cell cycle and proteolysis, and RNA splicing were the most significant biological processes impaired by the substantial suppression of proteins related to the aforementioned categories in SCOS tissues. In the MA patient testes, generation of precursor metabolites and energy as well as oxidation-reduction were the most significantly altered processes. Novel candidate proteins identified in this study include key transcription factors, many of which have not previously been shown to be associated with azoospermia. Our findings can provide substantial insights into the molecular regulation of spermatogenesis and human reproduction. The obtained data showed a drastic suppression of proteins involved in spliceosome, cell cycle and proteasome proteins, as well as energy and metabolic production in Sertoli cell only syndrome testis tissue, and to a lesser extent in maturation arrest samples. Moreover, we identified new transcription factors that are highly down-regulated in SCOS and MA patients, thus helping to understand the molecular complexity of spermatogenesis in male infertility. Our findings provide novel candidate protein targets associated

  11. Quantitative Imaging of Cholinergic Interneurons Reveals a Distinctive Spatial Organization and a Functional Gradient across the Mouse Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Matamales

    Full Text Available Information processing in the striatum requires the postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals, which are then relayed to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia to influence behavior. Although cellularly homogeneous in appearance, the striatum contains several rare interneuron populations which tightly modulate striatal function. Of these, cholinergic interneurons (CINs have been recently shown to play a critical role in the control of reward-related learning; however how the striatal cholinergic network is functionally organized at the mesoscopic level and the way this organization influences striatal function remains poorly understood. Here, we systematically mapped and digitally reconstructed the entire ensemble of CINs in the mouse striatum and quantitatively assessed differences in densities, spatial arrangement and neuropil content across striatal functional territories. This approach demonstrated that the rostral portion of the striatum contained a higher concentration of CINs than the caudal striatum and that the cholinergic content in the core of the ventral striatum was significantly lower than in the rest of the regions. Additionally, statistical comparison of spatial point patterns in the striatal cholinergic ensemble revealed that only a minor portion of CINs (17% aggregated into cluster and that they were predominantly organized in a random fashion. Furthermore, we used a fluorescence reporter to estimate the activity of over two thousand CINs in naïve mice and found that there was a decreasing gradient of CIN overall function along the dorsomedial-to-ventrolateral axis, which appeared to be independent of their propensity to aggregate within the striatum. Altogether this work suggests that the regulation of striatal function by acetylcholine across the striatum is highly heterogeneous, and that signals originating in external afferent systems may be principally determining the function of CINs in the

  12. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  13. Metabolomics Workbench (MetWB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Metabolomics Program's Data Repository and Coordinating Center (DRCC), housed at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), University of California, San Diego,...

  14. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomics and liver diseases: Recent advances and future clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amathieu, Roland; Triba, Mohamed Nawfal; Goossens, Corentine; Bouchemal, Nadia; Nahon, Pierre; Savarin, Philippe; Le Moyec, Laurence

    2016-01-07

    Metabolomics is defined as the quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification. It is an "omics" technique that is situated downstream of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Metabolomics is recognized as a promising technique in the field of systems biology for the evaluation of global metabolic changes. During the last decade, metabolomics approaches have become widely used in the study of liver diseases for the detection of early biomarkers and altered metabolic pathways. It is a powerful technique to improve our pathophysiological knowledge of various liver diseases. It can be a useful tool to help clinicians in the diagnostic process especially to distinguish malignant and non-malignant liver disease as well as to determine the etiology or severity of the liver disease. It can also assess therapeutic response or predict drug induced liver injury. Nevertheless, the usefulness of metabolomics is often not understood by clinicians, especially the concept of metabolomics profiling or fingerprinting. In the present work, after a concise description of the different techniques and processes used in metabolomics, we will review the main research on this subject by focusing specifically on in vitro proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based metabolomics approaches in human studies. We will first consider the clinical point of view enlighten physicians on this new approach and emphasis its future use in clinical "routine".

  16. Quantitative DNA methylation analyses reveal stage dependent DNA methylation and association to clinico-pathological factors in breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajic, Jovana; Tost, Jörg; Kristensen, Vessela N; Fleischer, Thomas; Dejeux, Emelyne; Edvardsen, Hege; Warnberg, Fredrik; Bukholm, Ida; Lønning, Per Eystein; Solvang, Hiroko; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation of regulatory genes has frequently been found in human breast cancers and correlated to clinical outcome. In the present study we investigate stage specific changes in the DNA methylation patterns in order to identify valuable markers to understand how these changes affect breast cancer progression. Quantitative DNA methylation analyses of 12 candidate genes ABCB1, BRCCA1, CDKN2A, ESR1, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, HMLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN, RASSF1A and FOXC1 was performed by pyrosequencing a series of 238 breast cancer tissue samples from DCIS to invasive tumors stage I to IV. Significant differences in methylation levels between the DCIS and invasive stage II tumors were observed for six genes RASSF1A, CDKN2A, MGMT, ABCB1, GSTP1 and FOXC1. RASSF1A, ABCB1 and GSTP1 showed significantly higher methylation levels in late stage compared to the early stage breast carcinoma. Z-score analysis revealed significantly lower methylation levels in DCIS and stage I tumors compared with stage II, III and IV tumors. Methylation levels of PTEN, PPP2R2B, FOXC1, ABCB1 and BRCA1 were lower in tumors harboring TP53 mutations then in tumors with wild type TP53. Z-score analysis showed that TP53 mutated tumors had significantly lower overall methylation levels compared to tumors with wild type TP53. Methylation levels of RASSF1A, PPP2R2B, GSTP1 and FOXC1 were higher in ER positive vs. ER negative tumors and methylation levels of PTEN and CDKN2A were higher in HER2 positive vs. HER2 negative tumors. Z-score analysis also showed that HER2 positive tumors had significantly higher z-scores of methylation compared to the HER2 negative tumors. Univariate survival analysis identifies methylation status of PPP2R2B as significant predictor of overall survival and breast cancer specific survival. In the present study we report that the level of aberrant DNA methylation is higher in late stage compared with early stage of invasive breast cancers and DCIS for genes mentioned above

  17. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  18. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Black Rice Grain Development Reveals Metabolic Pathways Associated with Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zhang, Dasheng; Zheng, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP). Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS were employed to identify statistically significant alterations in the grain proteome. Approximately 928 proteins were detected, of which 230 were differentially expressed throughout 5 successive developmental stages, starting from 3 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). The greatest number of differentially expressed proteins was observed on 7 and 10 DAF, including 76 proteins that were upregulated and 39 that were downregulated. The biological process analysis of gene ontology revealed that the 230 differentially expressed proteins could be sorted into 14 functional groups. Proteins in the largest group were related to metabolic process, which could be integrated into multiple biochemical pathways. Specifically, proteins with a role in ACN biosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and the regulation of gene expression were upregulated, particularly from the onset of black rice grain development and during development. In contrast, the expression of proteins related to signal transduction, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis and N-metabolism decreased during grain maturation. Finally, 8 representative genes encoding different metabolic proteins were verified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, these genes had differed in transcriptional and translational expression during grain development. Expression analyses of

  19. Metabolomics Society’s International Affiliations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, U.; Rolin, D.; Rijswijk, van M.E.C.; Hall, R.D.; Hankemeier, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the Metabolomics Society established a more formal system for national and regional metabolomics initiatives, interest groups, societies and networks to become an International Affiliate of the Society. A number of groups (http://metabolomicssociety.org/international-affilia

  20. Metabolomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Potential Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Barderas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics involves the identification and quantification of metabolites present in a biological system. Three different approaches can be used: metabolomic fingerprinting, metabolic profiling, and metabolic footprinting, in order to evaluate the clinical course of a disease, patient recovery, changes in response to surgical intervention or pharmacological treatment, as well as other associated features. Characteristic patterns of metabolites can be revealed that broaden our understanding of a particular disorder. In the present paper, common strategies and analytical techniques used in metabolomic studies are reviewed, particularly with reference to the cardiovascular field.

  1. Siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the virulence-associated interactive metabolome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiao; Guan, Tianbing; Lv, Haitao

    2016-04-14

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) growth in women's bladders during urinary tract infection (UTI) incurs substantial chemical exchange, termed the "interactive metabolome", which primarily accounts for the metabolic costs (utilized metabolome) and metabolic donations (excreted metabolome) between UPEC and human urine. Here, we attempted to identify the individualized interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine. We were able to distinguish UPEC from non-UPEC by employing a combination of metabolomics and genetics. Our results revealed that the interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine was markedly different from that between non-UPEC and human urine, and that UPEC triggered much stronger perturbations in the interactive metabolome in human urine. Furthermore, siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the individualized interactive metabolome, which we found to be a critical component of UPEC virulence. The individualized virulence-associated interactive metabolome contained 31 different metabolites and 17 central metabolic pathways that were annotated to host these different metabolites, including energetic metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism. Changes in the activities of these pathways mechanistically pinpointed the virulent capability of siderophore biosynthesis. Together, our findings provide novel insights into UPEC virulence, and we propose that siderophores are potential targets for further discovery of drugs to treat UPEC-induced UTI.

  2. Metabolomic biosignature differentiates melancholic depressive patients from healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yashu; Yieh, Lynn; Yang, Tao; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Peeters, Pieter; Steckler, Thomas; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Wittenberg, Gayle; Ye, Jieping

    2016-08-23

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous disease at the level of clinical symptoms, and this heterogeneity is likely reflected at the level of biology. Two clinical subtypes within MDD that have garnered interest are "melancholic depression" and "anxious depression". Metabolomics enables us to characterize hundreds of small molecules that comprise the metabolome, and recent work suggests the blood metabolome may be able to inform treatment decisions for MDD, however work is at an early stage. Here we examine a metabolomics data set to (1) test whether clinically homogenous MDD subtypes are also more biologically homogeneous, and hence more predictiable, (2) devise a robust machine learning framework that preserves biological meaning, and (3) describe the metabolomic biosignature for melancholic depression. With the proposed computational system we achieves around 80 % classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for melancholic depression, but only ~72 % for anxious depression or MDD, suggesting the blood metabolome contains more information about melancholic depression.. We develop an ensemble feature selection framework (EFSF) in which features are first clustered, and learning then takes place on the cluster centroids, retaining information about correlated features during the feature selection process rather than discarding them as most machine learning methods will do. Analysis of the most discriminative feature clusters revealed differences in metabolic classes such as amino acids and lipids as well as pathways studied extensively in MDD such as the activation of cortisol in chronic stress. We find the greater clinical homogeneity does indeed lead to better prediction based on biological measurements in the case of melancholic depression. Melancholic depression is shown to be associated with changes in amino acids, catecholamines, lipids, stress hormones, and immune-related metabolites. The proposed computational framework can be adapted

  3. Role of metabolomics in TBI research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolahan, Stephanie M.; Hirt, Daniel; Braas, Daniel; Glenn, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Metabolomics is an important member of the omics community in that it defines which small molecules may be responsible for disease states. This article reviews the essential principles of metabolomics from specimen preparation, chemical analysis, and advanced statistical methods. Metabolomics in TBI has so far been underutilized. Future metabolomics based studies focused on the diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment effects, need to be conducted across all types of TBI. PMID:27637396

  4. ECMDB: The E. coli Metabolome Database

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, An Chi; Jewison, Timothy; Wilson, Michael; Liu, Yifeng; Knox, Craig; Djoumbou, Yannick; Lo, Patrick; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Wishart, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Metabolome Database (ECMDB, http://www.ecmdb.ca) is a comprehensively annotated metabolomic database containing detailed information about the metabolome of E. coli (K-12). Modelled closely on the Human and Yeast Metabolome Databases, the ECMDB contains >2600 metabolites with links to ?1500 different genes and proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in the ECMDB has been collected from dozens of textbooks, journal articles and electronic databases. E...

  5. Metabolomics: the chemistry between ecology and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; Van Dam, N.M.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolomics is a fast developing field of comprehensive untargeted chemical analyses. It has many applications and can in principle be used on any organism without prior knowledge of the metabolome or genome. The amount of functional information that is acquired with metabolomics largely depends on

  6. An overview of renal metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalim, Sahir; Rhee, Eugene P

    2017-01-01

    The high-throughput, high-resolution phenotyping enabled by metabolomics has been applied increasingly to a variety of questions in nephrology research. This article provides an overview of current metabolomics methodologies and nomenclature, citing specific considerations in sample preparation, metabolite measurement, and data analysis that investigators should understand when examining the literature or designing a study. Furthermore, we review several notable findings that have emerged in the literature that both highlight some of the limitations of current profiling approaches, as well as outline specific strengths unique to metabolomics. More specifically, we review data on the following: (i) tryptophan metabolites and chronic kidney disease onset, illustrating the interpretation of metabolite data in the context of established biochemical pathways; (ii) trimethylamine-N-oxide and cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease, illustrating the integration of exogenous and endogenous inputs to the blood metabolome; and (iii) renal mitochondrial function in diabetic kidney disease and acute kidney injury, illustrating the potential for rapid translation of metabolite data for diagnostic or therapeutic aims. Finally, we review future directions, including the need to better characterize interperson and intraperson variation in the metabolome, pool existing data sets to identify the most robust signals, and capitalize on the discovery potential of emerging nontargeted methods. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applied metabolomics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profile is a direct signature of phenotype and biochemical activity following any perturbation. Metabolites are small molecules present in a biological system including natural products as well as drugs and their metabolism by-products depending on the biological system studied. Metabolomics can provide activity information about possible novel drugs and drug scaffolds, indicate interesting targets for drug development and suggest binding partners of compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics can be used for the discovery of novel natural products and in drug development. Metabolomics can enhance the discovery and testing of new drugs and provide insight into the on- and off-target effects of drugs. This review focuses primarily on the application of metabolomics in the discovery of active drugs from natural products and the analysis of chemical libraries and the computational analysis of metabolic networks. Metabolomics methodology, both experimental and analytical is fast developing. At the same time, databases of compounds are ever growing with the inclusion of more molecular and spectral information. An increasing number of systems are being represented by very detailed metabolic network models. Combining these experimental and computational tools with high throughput drug testing and drug discovery techniques can provide new promising compounds and leads.

  8. Growth of solid domains in model membranes: quantitative image analysis reveals a strong correlation between domain shape and spatial position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    . To analyze this effect, the nucleation points were used as generators in a Voronoi construction. Associated with each generator is a Voronoi polygon that contains all points closer to this generator than to any other. Through a detailed quantitative analysis of the Voronoi cells and the domains, we have...

  9. Deep Learning Accurately Predicts Estrogen Receptor Status in Breast Cancer Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakwaa, Fadhl M; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Garmire, Lana X

    2018-01-05

    Metabolomics holds the promise as a new technology to diagnose highly heterogeneous diseases. Conventionally, metabolomics data analysis for diagnosis is done using various statistical and machine learning based classification methods. However, it remains unknown if deep neural network, a class of increasingly popular machine learning methods, is suitable to classify metabolomics data. Here we use a cohort of 271 breast cancer tissues, 204 positive estrogen receptor (ER+), and 67 negative estrogen receptor (ER-) to test the accuracies of feed-forward networks, a deep learning (DL) framework, as well as six widely used machine learning models, namely random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVM), recursive partitioning and regression trees (RPART), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM), and generalized boosted models (GBM). DL framework has the highest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 in classifying ER+/ER- patients, compared to the other six machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, the biological interpretation of the first hidden layer reveals eight commonly enriched significant metabolomics pathways (adjusted P-value learning methods. Among them, protein digestion and absorption and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters pathways are also confirmed in integrated analysis between metabolomics and gene expression data in these samples. In summary, deep learning method shows advantages for metabolomics based breast cancer ER status classification, with both the highest prediction accuracy (AUC = 0.93) and better revelation of disease biology. We encourage the adoption of feed-forward networks based deep learning method in the metabolomics research community for classification.

  10. Metabolomics analysis identifies sex-associated metabotypes of oxidative stress and the autotaxin–lysoPA axis in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Shama; Kolmert, Johan; Yang, Mingxing; Reinke, Stacey N.; Kamleh, Muhammad Anas; Snowden, Stuart; Heyder, Tina; Levänen, Bettina; Erle, David J.; Sköld, C. Magnus; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex dependency of circulating metabolic profiles in COPD. Serum from healthy never-smokers (healthy), smokers with normal lung function (smokers), and smokers with COPD (COPD; Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II/A–B) from the Karolinska COSMIC cohort (n=116) was analysed using our nontargeted liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. Pathway analyses revealed that several altered metabolites are involved in oxidative stress. Supervised multivariate modelling showed significant classification of smokers from COPD (p=2.8×10−7). Sex stratification indicated that the separation was driven by females (p=2.4×10−7) relative to males (p=4.0×10−4). Significantly altered metabolites were confirmed quantitatively using targeted metabolomics. Multivariate modelling of targeted metabolomics data confirmed enhanced metabolic dysregulation in females with COPD (p=3.0×10−3) relative to males (p=0.10). The autotaxin products lysoPA (16:0) and lysoPA (18:2) correlated with lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in males with COPD (r=0.86; pCOPD, and suggest that sex-enhanced dysregulation in oxidative stress, and potentially the autotaxin–lysoPA axis, are associated with disease mechanisms and/or prevalence. PMID:28642310

  11. Metabolomics of Clostridial Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Aristilde, Ludmilla [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Amador-Noguez, Daniel [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Members of the genus Clostridium collectively have the ideal set of the metabolic capabilities for fermentative biofuel production: cellulose degradation, hydrogen production, and solvent excretion. No single organism, however, can effectively convert cellulose into biofuels. Here we developed, using metabolomics and isotope tracers, basic science knowledge of Clostridial metabolism of utility for future efforts to engineer such an organism. In glucose fermentation carried out by the biofuel producer Clostridium acetobutylicum, we observed a remarkably ordered series of metabolite concentration changes as the fermentation progressed from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In general, high-energy compounds decreased while low-energy species increased during solventogenesis. These changes in metabolite concentrations were accompanied by large changes in intracellular metabolic fluxes, with pyruvate directed towards acetyl-CoA and solvents instead of oxaloacetate and amino acids. Thus, the solventogenic transition involves global remodeling of metabolism to redirect resources from biomass production into solvent production. In contrast to C. acetobutylicum, which is an avid fermenter, C. cellulolyticum metabolizes glucose only slowly. We find that glycolytic intermediate concentrations are radically different from fast fermenting organisms. Associated thermodynamic and isotope tracer analysis revealed that the full glycolytic pathway in C. cellulolyticum is reversible. This arises from changes in cofactor utilization for phosphofructokinase and an alternative pathway from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. The net effect is to increase the high-energy phosphate bond yield of glycolysis by 150% (from 2 to 5) at the expense of lower net flux. Thus, C. cellulolyticum prioritizes glycolytic energy efficiency over speed. Degradation of cellulose results in other sugars in addition to glucose. Simultaneous feeding of stable isotope-labeled glucose and unlabeled pentose sugars

  12. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MetaFIND: A feature analysis tool for metabolomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Pádraig

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics, or metabonomics, refers to the quantitative analysis of all metabolites present within a biological sample and is generally carried out using NMR spectroscopy or Mass Spectrometry. Such analysis produces a set of peaks, or features, indicative of the metabolic composition of the sample and may be used as a basis for sample classification. Feature selection may be employed to improve classification accuracy or aid model explanation by establishing a subset of class discriminating features. Factors such as experimental noise, choice of technique and threshold selection may adversely affect the set of selected features retrieved. Furthermore, the high dimensionality and multi-collinearity inherent within metabolomics data may exacerbate discrepancies between the set of features retrieved and those required to provide a complete explanation of metabolite signatures. Given these issues, the latter in particular, we present the MetaFIND application for 'post-feature selection' correlation analysis of metabolomics data. Results In our evaluation we show how MetaFIND may be used to elucidate metabolite signatures from the set of features selected by diverse techniques over two metabolomics datasets. Importantly, we also show how MetaFIND may augment standard feature selection and aid the discovery of additional significant features, including those which represent novel class discriminating metabolites. MetaFIND also supports the discovery of higher level metabolite correlations. Conclusion Standard feature selection techniques may fail to capture the full set of relevant features in the case of high dimensional, multi-collinear metabolomics data. We show that the MetaFIND 'post-feature selection' analysis tool may aid metabolite signature elucidation, feature discovery and inference of metabolic correlations.

  14. Quantitative Molecular Imaging with a Single Gd-Based Contrast Agent Reveals Specific Tumor Binding and Retention in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mette L; Gao, Ying; Hutnick, Melanie A; Craig, Sonya E L; Pokorski, Jonathan K; Flask, Chris A; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M

    2017-06-06

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, especially cancer. However, the poor sensitivity of MRI relative to other imaging modalities, such as PET, has hindered the development and clinical use of molecular MRI contrast agents that could provide vital diagnostic information by specifically locating a molecular target altered in the disease process. This work describes the specific and sustained in vivo binding and retention of a protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPμ)-targeted, molecular magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent with a single gadolinium (Gd) chelate using a quantitative MRI T 1 mapping technique in glioma xenografts. Quantitative T 1 mapping is an imaging method used to measure the longitudinal relaxation time, the T 1 relaxation time, of protons in a magnetic field after excitation by a radiofrequency pulse. T 1 relaxation times can in turn be used to calculate the concentration of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent in a region of interest, thereby allowing the retention or clearance of an agent to be quantified. In this context, retention is a measure of molecular contrast agent binding. Using conventional peptide chemistry, a PTPμ-targeted peptide was linked to a chelator that had been conjugated to a lysine residue. Following complexation with Gd, this PTPμ-targeted molecular contrast agent containing a single Gd ion showed significant tumor enhancement and a sustained increase in Gd concentration in both heterotopic and orthotopic tumors using dynamic quantitative MRI. This single Gd-containing PTPμ agent was more effective than our previous version with three Gd ions. Differences between nonspecific and specific agents, due to specific tumor binding, can be determined within the first 30 min after agent administration by examining clearance rates. This more facile chemistry, when combined with quantitative MR techniques, allows for widespread adoption by academic

  15. Systematic and quantitative comparison of digest efficiency and specificity reveals the impact of trypsin quality on MS-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Julia Maria; Schumbrutzki, Cornelia; Wortelkamp, Stefanie; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René Peiman

    2012-02-02

    Trypsin is the most frequently used proteolytic enzyme in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Beside its good availability, it also offers some major advantages such as an optimal average peptide length of ~14 amino acids, and typically the presence of at least two defined positive charges at the N-terminus as well as the C-terminal Arg/Lys, rendering tryptic peptides well suited for CID-based LC-MS/MS. Here, we conducted a systematic study of different types of commercially available trypsin in order to qualitatively and quantitatively compare cleavage specificity, efficiency as well as reproducibility and the potential impact on quantitation and proteome coverage. We present a straightforward strategy applied to complex digests of human platelets, comprising (1) digest controls using a monolithic column HPLC-setup, (2) SCX enrichment of semitryptic/nonspecific peptides, (3) targeted MRM analysis of corresponding full cleavage/missed cleavage peptide pairs as well as (4) LC-MS analyses of complete digests with a three-step data interpretation. Thus, differences in digest performance can be readily assessed, rendering these procedures extremely beneficial to quality control not only the trypsin of choice, but also to effectively compare as well as optimize different digestion conditions and to evaluate the reproducibility of a dedicated digest protocol for all kinds of quantitative proteome studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mastitomics, the integrated omics of bovine milk in an experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis: 3. Untargeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Funmilola Clara; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Tassi, Riccardo; McNeilly, Tom N; Burchmore, Richard; Burgess, Karl; Herzyk, Pawel; Zadoks, Ruth N; Eckersall, P David

    2016-08-16

    Intramammary infection leading to bovine mastitis is the leading disease problem affecting dairy cows and has marked effects on the milk produced by infected udder quarters. An experimental model of Streptococcus uberis mastitis has previously been investigated for clinical, immunological and pathophysiological alteration in milk, and has been the subject of peptidomic and quantitative proteomic investigation. The same sample set has now been investigated with a metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed over 3000 chromatographic peaks, of which 690 were putatively annotated with a metabolite. Hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis demonstrated that metabolite changes due to S. uberis infection were maximal at 81 hours post challenge with metabolites in the milk from the resolution phase at 312 hours post challenge being closest to the pre-challenge samples. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that the majority of the metabolites mapped to carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism show a decreasing trend in concentration up to 81 hours post-challenge whereas an increasing trend was found in lipid metabolites and di-, tri- and tetra-peptides up to the same time point. The increase in these peptides coincides with an increase in larger peptides found in the previous peptidomic analysis and is likely to be due to protease degradation of milk proteins. Components of bile acid metabolism, linked to the FXR pathway regulating inflammation, were also increased. Metabolomic analysis of the response in milk during mastitis provides an essential component to the full understanding of the mammary gland's response to infection.

  17. Profiling the metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins in plasma of female rats using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J; Tayyari, Fariba; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for three times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma was collected 6 h after the last gavage and analyzed using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using (1) H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in the plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulphate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-ϒ-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP. The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Profiling the Metabolome Changes Caused by Cranberry Procyanidins in Plasma of Female Rats using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS Global Metabolomics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Tayyari, Fariba; Gu, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Scope The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites. Methods and results Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for 3 times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma were collected six hours after the last gavage and analyzed using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using 1H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulfate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4′-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-3′-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP. Conclusion The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers. PMID:26264887

  19. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Carstensen, Maren; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Strauch, Konstantin; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Prokisch, Holger; Theis, Fabian J.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems consist of multiple organizational levels all densely interacting with each other to ensure function and flexibility of the system. Simultaneous analysis of cross-sectional multi-omics data from large population studies is a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms on a physiological scale. In this study, we systematically analyzed the relationship between fasting serum metabolomics and whole blood transcriptomics data from 712 individuals of the German KORA F4 cohort. Correlation-based analysis identified 1,109 significant associations between 522 transcripts and 114 metabolites summarized in an integrated network, the ‘human blood metabolome-transcriptome interface’ (BMTI). Bidirectional causality analysis using Mendelian randomization did not yield any statistically significant causal associations between transcripts and metabolites. A knowledge-based interpretation and integration with a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction revealed systematic signatures of signaling, transport and metabolic processes, i.e. metabolic reactions mainly belonging to lipid, energy and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, the construction of a network based on functional categories illustrated the cross-talk between the biological layers at a pathway level. Using a transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis, this pathway cross-talk was further confirmed at a regulatory level. Finally, we demonstrated how the constructed networks can be used to gain novel insights into molecular mechanisms associated to intermediate clinical traits. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a multi-omics integrative approach to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying both normal physiology and disease. PMID:26086077

  20. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bartel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems consist of multiple organizational levels all densely interacting with each other to ensure function and flexibility of the system. Simultaneous analysis of cross-sectional multi-omics data from large population studies is a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms on a physiological scale. In this study, we systematically analyzed the relationship between fasting serum metabolomics and whole blood transcriptomics data from 712 individuals of the German KORA F4 cohort. Correlation-based analysis identified 1,109 significant associations between 522 transcripts and 114 metabolites summarized in an integrated network, the 'human blood metabolome-transcriptome interface' (BMTI. Bidirectional causality analysis using Mendelian randomization did not yield any statistically significant causal associations between transcripts and metabolites. A knowledge-based interpretation and integration with a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction revealed systematic signatures of signaling, transport and metabolic processes, i.e. metabolic reactions mainly belonging to lipid, energy and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, the construction of a network based on functional categories illustrated the cross-talk between the biological layers at a pathway level. Using a transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis, this pathway cross-talk was further confirmed at a regulatory level. Finally, we demonstrated how the constructed networks can be used to gain novel insights into molecular mechanisms associated to intermediate clinical traits. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a multi-omics integrative approach to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying both normal physiology and disease.

  1. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3 -). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3 - responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3 -. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  2. Transcriptome and quantitative proteome analysis reveals molecular processes associated with larval metamorphosis in the polychaete pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Sun, Jin; Mok, FloraSy; Liu, Lingli; Qiu, Jianwen; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Peiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Larval growth of the polychaete worm Pseudopolydora vexillosa involves the formation of segment-specific structures. When larvae attain competency to settle, they discard swimming chaetae and secrete mucus. The larvae build tubes around themselves and metamorphose into benthic juveniles. Understanding the molecular processes, which regulate this complex and unique transition, remains a major challenge because of the limited molecular information available. To improve this situation, we conducted high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative proteome analysis of the larval stages of P. vexillosa. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, transcripts related to cellular and metabolic processes, binding, and catalytic activities were highly represented during larval-adult transition. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium-signaling, Wnt/β-catenin, and notch signaling metabolic pathways were enriched in transcriptome data. Quantitative proteomics identified 107 differentially expressed proteins in three distinct larval stages. Fourteen and 53 proteins exhibited specific differential expression during competency and metamorphosis, respectively. Dramatic up-regulation of proteins involved in signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton functions were found during the larval-juvenile transition. Several proteins involved in cell signaling, cytoskeleton and metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins related to transcription and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated during competency. The integration of high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics allowed a global scale analysis of larval transcripts/proteins associated molecular processes in the metamorphosis of polychaete worms. Further, transcriptomic and proteomic insights provide a new direction to understand the fundamental mechanisms that regulate larval metamorphosis in polychaetes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Transcriptome and quantitative proteome analysis reveals molecular processes associated with larval metamorphosis in the polychaete pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-03-01

    Larval growth of the polychaete worm Pseudopolydora vexillosa involves the formation of segment-specific structures. When larvae attain competency to settle, they discard swimming chaetae and secrete mucus. The larvae build tubes around themselves and metamorphose into benthic juveniles. Understanding the molecular processes, which regulate this complex and unique transition, remains a major challenge because of the limited molecular information available. To improve this situation, we conducted high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative proteome analysis of the larval stages of P. vexillosa. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, transcripts related to cellular and metabolic processes, binding, and catalytic activities were highly represented during larval-adult transition. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium-signaling, Wnt/β-catenin, and notch signaling metabolic pathways were enriched in transcriptome data. Quantitative proteomics identified 107 differentially expressed proteins in three distinct larval stages. Fourteen and 53 proteins exhibited specific differential expression during competency and metamorphosis, respectively. Dramatic up-regulation of proteins involved in signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton functions were found during the larval-juvenile transition. Several proteins involved in cell signaling, cytoskeleton and metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins related to transcription and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated during competency. The integration of high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics allowed a global scale analysis of larval transcripts/proteins associated molecular processes in the metamorphosis of polychaete worms. Further, transcriptomic and proteomic insights provide a new direction to understand the fundamental mechanisms that regulate larval metamorphosis in polychaetes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. NMR and pattern recognition methods in metabolomics: From data acquisition to biomarker discovery: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinska, Agnieszka; Blanchet, Lionel; Buydens, Lutgarde M.C.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Procedures for acquisition of different biofluids by NMR. ► Recent developments in metabolic profiling of different biofluids by NMR are presented. ► The crucial steps involved in data preprocessing and multivariate chemometric analysis are reviewed. ► Emphasis is given on recent findings on Multiple Sclerosis via NMR and pattern recognition methods. - Abstract: Metabolomics is the discipline where endogenous and exogenous metabolites are assessed, identified and quantified in different biological samples. Metabolites are crucial components of biological system and highly informative about its functional state, due to their closeness to functional endpoints and to the organism's phenotypes. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, next to Mass Spectrometry (MS), is one of the main metabolomics analytical platforms. The technological developments in the field of NMR spectroscopy have enabled the identification and quantitative measurement of the many metabolites in a single sample of biofluids in a non-targeted and non-destructive manner. Combination of NMR spectra of biofluids and pattern recognition methods has driven forward the application of metabolomics in the field of biomarker discovery. The importance of metabolomics in diagnostics, e.g. in identifying biomarkers or defining pathological status, has been growing exponentially as evidenced by the number of published papers. In this review, we describe the developments in data acquisition and multivariate analysis of NMR-based metabolomics data, with particular emphasis on the metabolomics of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and biomarker discovery in Multiple Sclerosis (MScl).

  5. Targeted metabolomics and medication classification data from participants in the ADNI1 cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John-Williams, Lisa; Blach, Colette; Toledo, Jon B.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Kim, Sungeun; Klavins, Kristaps; Baillie, Rebecca; Han, Xianlin; Mahmoudiandehkordi, Siamak; Jack, John; Massaro, Tyler J.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Louie, Gregory; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Arnold, Matthias; Koal, Therese; Moseley, M. Arthur; Mangravite, Lara M.; Peters, Mette A.; Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Thompson, J. Will; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease presenting major health and economic challenges that continue to grow. Mechanisms of disease are poorly understood but significant data point to metabolic defects that might contribute to disease pathogenesis. The Alzheimer Disease Metabolomics Consortium (ADMC) in partnership with Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is creating a comprehensive biochemical database for AD. Using targeted and non- targeted metabolomics and lipidomics platforms we are mapping metabolic pathway and network failures across the trajectory of disease. In this report we present quantitative metabolomics data generated on serum from 199 control, 356 mild cognitive impairment and 175 AD subjects enrolled in ADNI1 using AbsoluteIDQ-p180 platform, along with the pipeline for data preprocessing and medication classification for confound correction. The dataset presented here is the first of eight metabolomics datasets being generated for broad biochemical investigation of the AD metabolome. We expect that these collective metabolomics datasets will provide valuable resources for researchers to identify novel molecular mechanisms contributing to AD pathogenesis and disease phenotypes. PMID:29039849

  6. Targeted metabolomics and medication classification data from participants in the ADNI1 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John-Williams, Lisa; Blach, Colette; Toledo, Jon B; Rotroff, Daniel M; Kim, Sungeun; Klavins, Kristaps; Baillie, Rebecca; Han, Xianlin; Mahmoudiandehkordi, Siamak; Jack, John; Massaro, Tyler J; Lucas, Joseph E; Louie, Gregory; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Arnold, Matthias; Koal, Therese; Moseley, M Arthur; Mangravite, Lara M; Peters, Mette A; Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Thompson, J Will; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2017-10-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease presenting major health and economic challenges that continue to grow. Mechanisms of disease are poorly understood but significant data point to metabolic defects that might contribute to disease pathogenesis. The Alzheimer Disease Metabolomics Consortium (ADMC) in partnership with Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is creating a comprehensive biochemical database for AD. Using targeted and non- targeted metabolomics and lipidomics platforms we are mapping metabolic pathway and network failures across the trajectory of disease. In this report we present quantitative metabolomics data generated on serum from 199 control, 356 mild cognitive impairment and 175 AD subjects enrolled in ADNI1 using AbsoluteIDQ-p180 platform, along with the pipeline for data preprocessing and medication classification for confound correction. The dataset presented here is the first of eight metabolomics datasets being generated for broad biochemical investigation of the AD metabolome. We expect that these collective metabolomics datasets will provide valuable resources for researchers to identify novel molecular mechanisms contributing to AD pathogenesis and disease phenotypes.

  7. New approaches for metabolomics by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertes, Akos [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Small molecules constitute a large part of the world around us, including fossil and some renewable energy sources. Solar energy harvested by plants and bacteria is converted into energy rich small molecules on a massive scale. Some of the worst contaminants of the environment and compounds of interest for national security also fall in the category of small molecules. The development of large scale metabolomic analysis methods lags behind the state of the art established for genomics and proteomics. This is commonly attributed to the diversity of molecular classes included in a metabolome. Unlike nucleic acids and proteins, metabolites do not have standard building blocks, and, as a result, their molecular properties exhibit a wide spectrum. This impedes the development of dedicated separation and spectroscopic methods. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a strong contender in the quest for a quantitative analytical tool with extensive metabolite coverage. Although various MS-based techniques are emerging for metabolomics, many of these approaches include extensive sample preparation that make large scale studies resource intensive and slow. New ionization methods are redefining the range of analytical problems that can be solved using MS. This project developed new approaches for the direct analysis of small molecules in unprocessed samples, as well as pushed the limits of ultratrace analysis in volume limited complex samples. The projects resulted in techniques that enabled metabolomics investigations with enhanced molecular coverage, as well as the study of cellular response to stimuli on a single cell level. Effectively individual cells became reaction vessels, where we followed the response of a complex biological system to external perturbation. We established two new analytical platforms for the direct study of metabolic changes in cells and tissues following external perturbation. For this purpose we developed a novel technique, laser ablation electrospray

  8. Benchmarking sample preparation/digestion protocols reveals tube-gel being a fast and repeatable method for quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leslie; Fornecker, Luc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah; Carapito, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Sample preparation, typically by in-solution or in-gel approaches, has a strong influence on the accuracy and robustness of quantitative proteomics workflows. The major benefit of in-gel procedures is their compatibility with detergents (such as SDS) for protein solubilization. However, SDS-PAGE is a time-consuming approach. Tube-gel (TG) preparation circumvents this drawback as it involves directly trapping the sample in a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. We report here the first global label-free quantitative comparison between TG, stacking gel (SG), and basic liquid digestion (LD). A series of UPS1 standard mixtures (at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 fmol) were spiked in a complex yeast lysate background. TG preparation allowed more yeast proteins to be identified than did the SG and LD approaches, with mean numbers of 1979, 1788, and 1323 proteins identified, respectively. Furthermore, the TG method proved equivalent to SG and superior to LD in terms of the repeatability of the subsequent experiments, with mean CV for yeast protein label-free quantifications of 7, 9, and 10%. Finally, known variant UPS1 proteins were successfully detected in the TG-prepared sample within a complex background with high sensitivity. All the data from this study are accessible on ProteomeXchange (PXD003841). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  10. The metabolomics standards initiative (MSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiehn, O.; Robertson, D.; Griffin, J.; Werf, M. van der; Nikolau, B.; Morrison, N.; Sumner, L.W.; Goodacre, R.; Hardy, N.W.; Taylor, C.; Fostel, J.; Kristal, B.; Kaddurah-Daouk, R.; Mendes, P.; Ommen, B. van; Lindon, J.C.; Sansone, S.-A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative has been formed. An outline and general introduction is provided to inform about the history, structure, working plan and intentions of this initiative. Comments on any of the suggested minimal reporting standards are welcome to be sent to the open

  11. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Kornegay, Joe N.; Honcoop, Aubree; Parry, Traci L.; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Patterson, Cam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes moderate atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF) as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE), which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. Methods: We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Results: Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF) identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10−3), carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10−2), fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10−4), lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10−2), myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10−2), and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10−2), glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10−2), and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10−2). Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10−4, FDR 4.7 × 10−2), where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid), suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle

  12. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrop, Gareth D; Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G; Coombs, Graham H

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus.

  13. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T

  14. Quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome analyses of Streptomyces coelicolor reveal proteins and phosphoproteins modulating differentiation and secondary metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rioseras, Beatriz; Sliaha, Pavel V; Gorshkov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    identified and quantified 3461 proteins corresponding to 44.3% of the S. coelicolor proteome across three developmental stages: vegetative hypha (MI); secondary metabolite producing hyphae (MII); and sporulating hyphae. A total of 1350 proteins exhibited more than 2-fold expression changes during....../Thr/Tyr kinases, making this genus an outstanding model for the study of bacterial protein phosphorylation events. We used mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics to characterize bacterial differentiation and activation of secondary metabolism of Streptomyces coelicolor. We...... the bacterial differentiation process. These proteins include 136 regulators (transcriptional regulators, transducers, Ser/Thr/Tyr kinases, signalling proteins), as well as 542 putative proteins with no clear homology to known proteins which are likely to play a role in differentiation and secondary metabolism...

  15. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed...... to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at similar to 100 kg. Gene...... monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection....

  16. Genetic control of environmental variation of two quantitative traits of Drosophila melanogaster revealed by whole-genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; de los Campos, Gustavo; Morgante, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    and others more volatile performance. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for environmental variability not only informs medical questions but is relevant in evolution and in agricultural science. In this work fully sequenced inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed to study the nature...... of genetic control of environmental variance for two quantitative traits: starvation resistance (SR) and startle response (SL). The evidence for genetic control of environmental variance is compelling for both traits. Sequence information is incorporated in random regression models to study the underlying...... genetic signals, which are shown to be different in the two traits. Genomic variance in sexual dimorphism was found for SR but not for SL. Indeed, the proportion of variance captured by sequence information and the contribution to this variance from four chromosome segments differ between sexes in SR...

  17. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Omer; Zaritsky, Assaf; Yaffe, Yakey; Mutukula, Naresh; Edri, Reuven; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture) and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII) reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  18. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Ziv

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  19. Ultrasonography of the nail unit reveals quantitative and qualitative alterations in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idolazzi, Luca; Gisondi, Paolo; Fassio, Angelo; Viapiana, Ombretta; Giollo, Alessandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Gatti, Davide

    2018-05-02

    The nail unit is a matter of interest both for dermatologist and rheumatologist. The nail is considered one of the possible targets of assessment, especially when ultrasonography is performed. The aim of the study is to highlight peculiar features and alterations of the nail unit in patients affected by psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis versus healthy controls using ultrasonography. The study sample included 82 patients affected by psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis and 50 healthy controls. The patients were consecutively enrolled during their routine visit in the outpatient clinic and they performed clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation of the nail. The evaluationof disease activity was done using Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA), Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI), and Nail Psoriasi Severity Index (NAPSI). Multivariate analysis of variance was performed between groups. Post hoc analysis underlined the differences between healthy and affected regarding nail plate thickness (0.063±0.011 cm for patients with psoriasis, 0.065±0.014 cm for patients with psoriatic arthritis and 0.051±0.006 cm for healthy controls, p<0.05). Elementary lesions of nail plate and nail bed were compared using Pearson's chi square test between patients in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis groups, with no differences except for a trend for onycholisis and crumbling (p=0.07 and 0.06, respectively) in the psoriatic arthritis group. ROC curves were calculated (AUC = 0.68) obtaining also quantitative cut offs for nail plate andnail bed thickness in the affected vs healthy patients. Our study shows that ultrasonography may be a potential advantage in clinical practice. Our results strengthen the information already available in the literature and add quantitative parameters for ultrasonography of the nail.

  20. Elevated host lipid metabolism revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jun [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Yang, Yongtao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chen, Jin; Cheng, Ke; Li, Qi; Wei, Yongdong; Zhu, Dan; Shao, Weihua; Zheng, Peng [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Xie, Peng, E-mail: xiepeng@cqmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-10-30

    Purpose: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains to be one of the most deadly infectious diseases. The pathogen interacts with the host immune system, the process of which is largely unknown. Various cellular processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) centers around lipid metabolism. To determine the lipid metabolism related proteins, a quantitative proteomic study was performed here to identify differential proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from TBM patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Methods: CSF samples were desalted, concentrated, labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ™), and analyzed by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene ontology and proteomic phenotyping analysis of the differential proteins were conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. ApoE and ApoB were selected for validation by ELISA. Results: Proteomic phenotyping of the 4 differential proteins was invloved in the lipid metabolism. ELISA showed significantly increased ApoB levels in TBM subjects compared to healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated ApoB levels could distinguish TBM subjects from healthy controls and viral meningitis subjects with 89.3% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusions: CSF lipid metabolism disregulation, especially elevated expression of ApoB, gives insights into the pathogenesis of TBM. Further evaluation of these findings in larger studies including anti-tuberculosis medicated and unmedicated patient cohorts with other center nervous system infectious diseases is required for successful clinical translation. - Highlights: • The first proteomic study on the cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients using iTRAQ. • Identify 4 differential proteins invloved in the lipid metabolism. • Elevated expression of ApoB gives

  1. Elevated host lipid metabolism revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jun; Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Ke; Li, Qi; Wei, Yongdong; Zhu, Dan; Shao, Weihua; Zheng, Peng; Xie, Peng

    2015-10-30

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains to be one of the most deadly infectious diseases. The pathogen interacts with the host immune system, the process of which is largely unknown. Various cellular processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) centers around lipid metabolism. To determine the lipid metabolism related proteins, a quantitative proteomic study was performed here to identify differential proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from TBM patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). CSF samples were desalted, concentrated, labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ™), and analyzed by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene ontology and proteomic phenotyping analysis of the differential proteins were conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. ApoE and ApoB were selected for validation by ELISA. Proteomic phenotyping of the 4 differential proteins was invloved in the lipid metabolism. ELISA showed significantly increased ApoB levels in TBM subjects compared to healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated ApoB levels could distinguish TBM subjects from healthy controls and viral meningitis subjects with 89.3% sensitivity and 92% specificity. CSF lipid metabolism disregulation, especially elevated expression of ApoB, gives insights into the pathogenesis of TBM. Further evaluation of these findings in larger studies including anti-tuberculosis medicated and unmedicated patient cohorts with other center nervous system infectious diseases is required for successful clinical translation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated host lipid metabolism revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Jun; Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Ke; Li, Qi; Wei, Yongdong; Zhu, Dan; Shao, Weihua; Zheng, Peng; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains to be one of the most deadly infectious diseases. The pathogen interacts with the host immune system, the process of which is largely unknown. Various cellular processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) centers around lipid metabolism. To determine the lipid metabolism related proteins, a quantitative proteomic study was performed here to identify differential proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from TBM patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Methods: CSF samples were desalted, concentrated, labelled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ™), and analyzed by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene ontology and proteomic phenotyping analysis of the differential proteins were conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. ApoE and ApoB were selected for validation by ELISA. Results: Proteomic phenotyping of the 4 differential proteins was invloved in the lipid metabolism. ELISA showed significantly increased ApoB levels in TBM subjects compared to healthy controls. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated ApoB levels could distinguish TBM subjects from healthy controls and viral meningitis subjects with 89.3% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Conclusions: CSF lipid metabolism disregulation, especially elevated expression of ApoB, gives insights into the pathogenesis of TBM. Further evaluation of these findings in larger studies including anti-tuberculosis medicated and unmedicated patient cohorts with other center nervous system infectious diseases is required for successful clinical translation. - Highlights: • The first proteomic study on the cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous meningitis patients using iTRAQ. • Identify 4 differential proteins invloved in the lipid metabolism. • Elevated expression of ApoB gives

  3. Women with preterm birth have a distinct cervicovaginal metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartey, Jeny; Bastek, Jamie A; Brown, Amy G; Anglim, Laura; Elovitz, Michal A

    2015-06-01

    Metabolomics has the potential to reveal novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the cervicovaginal (CV) metabolome was different in asymptomatic women destined to have a PTB compared with term birth. A nested case-control study was performed using CV fluid collected from a larger prospective cohort. The CV fluid was collected between 20-24 weeks (V1) and 24-28 weeks (V2). The metabolome was compared between women with a spontaneous PTB (n = 10) to women who delivered at term (n = 10). Samples were extracted and prepared for analysis using a standard extraction solvent method. Global biochemical profiles were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. An ANOVA was used to detect differences in biochemical compounds between the groups. A false discovery rate was estimated to account for multiple comparisons. A total of 313 biochemicals were identified in CV fluid. Eighty-two biochemicals were different in the CV fluid at V1 in those destined to have a PTB compared with term birth, whereas 48 were different at V2. Amino acid, carbohydrate, and peptide metabolites were distinct between women with and without PTB. These data suggest that the CV space is metabolically active during pregnancy. Changes in the CV metabolome may be observed weeks, if not months, prior to any clinical symptoms. Understanding the CV metabolome may hold promise for unraveling the pathogenesis of PTB and may provide novel biomarkers to identify women most at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  5. YMDB: the Yeast Metabolome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated ‘metabolomic’ database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855

  6. Mass Spectrometry Strategies for Clinical Metabolomics and Lipidomics in Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neuro-Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics research has the potential to provide biomarkers for the detection of disease, for subtyping complex disease populations, for monitoring disease progression and therapy, and for defining new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. These potentials are far from being realized because of a number of technical, conceptual, financial, and bioinformatics issues. Mass spectrometry provides analytical platforms that address the technical barriers to success in metabolomics research; however, the limited commercial availability of analytical and stable isotope standards has created a bottleneck for the absolute quantitation of a number of metabolites. Conceptual and financial factors contribute to the generation of statistically under-powered clinical studies, whereas bioinformatics issues result in the publication of a large number of unidentified metabolites. The path forward in this field involves targeted metabolomics analyses of large control and patient populations to define both the normal range of a defined metabolite and the potential heterogeneity (eg, bimodal) in complex patient populations. This approach requires that metabolomics research groups, in addition to developing a number of analytical platforms, build sufficient chemistry resources to supply the analytical standards required for absolute metabolite quantitation. Examples of metabolomics evaluations of sulfur amino-acid metabolism in psychiatry, neurology, and neuro-oncology and of lipidomics in neurology will be reviewed. PMID:23842599

  7. Integrated and global pseudotargeted metabolomics strategy applied to screening for quality control markers of Citrus TCMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yisong; Liu, Zhenli; Zhao, Siyu; Song, Zhiqian; He, Dan; Wang, Menglei; Zeng, Honglian; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Liu, Yuanyan

    2017-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) exerts its therapeutic effect in a holistic fashion with the synergistic function of multiple characteristic constituents. The holism philosophy of TCM is coincident with global and systematic theories of metabolomics. The proposed pseudotargeted metabolomics methodologies were employed for the establishment of reliable quality control markers for use in the screening strategy of TCMs. Pseudotargeted metabolomics integrates the advantages of both targeted and untargeted methods. In the present study, targeted metabolomics equipped with the gold standard RRLC-QqQ-MS method was employed for in vivo quantitative plasma pharmacochemistry study of characteristic prototypic constituents. Meanwhile, untargeted metabolomics using UHPLC-QE Orbitrap HRMS with better specificity and selectivity was employed for identification of untargeted metabolites in the complex plasma matrix. In all, 32 prototypic metabolites were quantitatively determined, and 66 biotransformed metabolites were convincingly identified after being orally administered with standard extracts of four labeled Citrus TCMs. The global absorption and metabolism process of complex TCMs was depicted in a systematic manner.

  8. Mass spectrometry strategies for clinical metabolomics and lipidomics in psychiatry, neurology, and neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics research has the potential to provide biomarkers for the detection of disease, for subtyping complex disease populations, for monitoring disease progression and therapy, and for defining new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. These potentials are far from being realized because of a number of technical, conceptual, financial, and bioinformatics issues. Mass spectrometry provides analytical platforms that address the technical barriers to success in metabolomics research; however, the limited commercial availability of analytical and stable isotope standards has created a bottleneck for the absolute quantitation of a number of metabolites. Conceptual and financial factors contribute to the generation of statistically under-powered clinical studies, whereas bioinformatics issues result in the publication of a large number of unidentified metabolites. The path forward in this field involves targeted metabolomics analyses of large control and patient populations to define both the normal range of a defined metabolite and the potential heterogeneity (eg, bimodal) in complex patient populations. This approach requires that metabolomics research groups, in addition to developing a number of analytical platforms, build sufficient chemistry resources to supply the analytical standards required for absolute metabolite quantitation. Examples of metabolomics evaluations of sulfur amino-acid metabolism in psychiatry, neurology, and neuro-oncology and of lipidomics in neurology will be reviewed.

  9. Metabolomics in cancer biomarker discovery: current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Emily G; Barbas, Coral

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most devastating human diseases that causes a vast number of mortalities worldwide each year. Cancer research is one of the largest fields in the life sciences and despite many astounding breakthroughs and contributions over the past few decades, there is still a considerable amount to unveil on the function of cancer. It is well known that cancer metabolism differs from that of normal tissue and an important hypothesis published in the 1950s by Otto Warburg proposed that cancer cells rely on anaerobic metabolism as the source for energy, even under physiological oxygen levels. Following this, cancer central carbon metabolism has been researched extensively and beyond respiration, cancer has been found to involve a wide range of metabolic processes, and many more are still to be unveiled. Studying cancer through metabolomics could reveal new biomarkers for cancer that could be useful for its future prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in the life sciences since it is a relatively fast and accurate technique that can be applied with either a particular focus or in a global manner to reveal new knowledge about biological systems. There have been many examples of its application to reveal potential biomarkers in different cancers that have employed a range of different analytical platforms. In this review, approaches in metabolomics that have been employed in cancer biomarker discovery are discussed and some of the most noteworthy research in the field is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mosquito C6/36 Cells Reveals Host Proteins Involved in Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qi-Lin; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shao-Bo; Wang, Wei; Deng, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Xiao, Gengfu; Zhang, Lei-Ke

    2017-06-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae During replication processes, flavivirus manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while the host cells activate antiviral responses. Identification of host proteins involved in the flavivirus replication process may lead to the discovery of antiviral targets. The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are epidemiologically important vectors for ZIKV, and effective restrictions of ZIKV replication in mosquitoes will be vital in controlling the spread of virus. In this study, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of ZIKV-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells was performed to investigate host proteins involved in the ZIKV infection process. A total of 3,544 host proteins were quantified, with 200 being differentially regulated, among which CHCHD2 can be upregulated by ZIKV infection in both mosquito C6/36 and human HeLa cells. Our further study indicated that CHCHD2 can promote ZIKV replication and inhibit beta interferon (IFN-β) production in HeLa cells, suggesting that ZIKV infection may upregulate CHCHD2 to inhibit IFN-I production and thus promote virus replication. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated host proteins highlighted several ZIKV infection-regulated biological processes. Further study indicated that the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in the ZIKV entry process and that an FDA-approved inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, bortezomib, can inhibit ZIKV infection in vivo Our study illustrated how host cells respond to ZIKV infection and also provided a candidate drug for the control of ZIKV infection in mosquitoes and treatment of ZIKV infection in patients. IMPORTANCE ZIKV infection poses great threats to human health, and there is no FDA-approved drug available for the treatment of ZIKV infection. During replication, ZIKV manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while host cells activate

  11. The next wave in metabolome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, S.

    2005-01-01

    The metabolome of a cell represents the amplification and integration of signals from other functional genomic levels, such as the transcriptome and the proteome. Although this makes metabolomics a useful tool for the high-throughput analysis of phenotypes, the lack of a direct connection...... to the genome makes it difficult to interpret metabolomic data. Nevertheless, functional genomics has produced examples of the use of metabolomics to elucidate the phenotypes of otherwise silent mutations. Despite several successes, we believe that future metabolomic studies must focus on the accurate...... measurement of the concentrations of unambiguously identified metabolites. The research community must develop databases of metabolite concentrations in cells that are grown in several well-defined conditions if metabolomic data are to be integrated meaningfully with data from the other levels of functional...

  12. Quantitative evaluation of protocorm growth and fungal colonization in Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae) reveals less-productive symbiosis with a non-native symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuki; Miura, Chihiro; Fuji, Masako; Nagata, Shotaro; Otani, Yuria; Yagame, Takahiro; Yamato, Masahide; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2017-02-21

    In nature, orchid plants depend completely on symbiotic fungi for their nutrition at the germination and the subsequent seedling (protocorm) stages. However, only limited quantitative methods for evaluating the orchid-fungus interactions at the protocorm stage are currently available, which greatly constrains our understanding of the symbiosis. Here, we aimed to improve and integrate quantitative evaluations of the growth and fungal colonization in the protocorms of a terrestrial orchid, Blettila striata, growing on a plate medium. We achieved both symbiotic and asymbiotic germinations for the terrestrial orchid B. striata. The protocorms produced by the two germination methods grew almost synchronously for the first three weeks. At week four, however, the length was significantly lower in the symbiotic protocorms. Interestingly, the dry weight of symbiotic protocorms did not significantly change during the growth period, which implies that there was only limited transfer of carbon compounds from the fungus to the protocorms in this relationship. Next, to evaluate the orchid-fungus interactions, we developed an ink-staining method to observe the hyphal coils in protocorms without preparing thin sections. Crushing the protocorm under the coverglass enables us to observe all hyphal coils in the protocorms with high resolution. For this observation, we established a criterion to categorize the stages of hyphal coils, depending on development and degradation. By counting the symbiotic cells within each stage, it was possible to quantitatively evaluate the orchid-fungus symbiosis. We describe a method for quantitative evaluation of orchid-fungus symbiosis by integrating the measurements of plant growth and fungal colonization. The current study revealed that although fungal colonization was observed in the symbiotic protocorms, the weight of the protocorm did not significantly increase, which is probably due to the incompatibility of the fungus in this symbiosis. These

  13. Quantitative mapping of zinc fluxes in the mammalian egg reveals the origin of fertilization-induced zinc sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Emily L.; Bleher, Reiner; Duncan, Francesca E.; Kong, Betty Y.; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vogt, Stefan; Chen, Si; Garwin, Seth A.; Bayer, Amanda R.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; O' Halloran, Thomas V.

    2014-12-15

    Fertilization of a mammalian egg initiates a series of 'zinc sparks' that are necessary to induce the egg-to-embryo transition. Despite the importance of these zinc-efflux events little is known about their origin. To understand the molecular mechanism of the zinc spark we combined four physical approaches that resolve zinc distributions in single cells: a chemical probe for dynamic live-cell fluorescence imaging and a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional elemental tomography for high-resolution elemental mapping. We show that the zinc spark arises from a system of thousands of zinc-loaded vesicles, each of which contains, on average, 10(6) zinc atoms. These vesicles undergo dynamic movement during oocyte maturation and exocytosis at the time of fertilization. The discovery of these vesicles and the demonstration that zinc sparks originate from them provides a quantitative framework for understanding how zinc fluxes regulate cellular processes

  14. The Pseudomonas community in metal-contaminated sediments as revealed by quantitative PCR: a link with metal bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wauven, Corinne Vander; Billon, Gabriel; Matthijs, Sandra; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria are ubiquitous Gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms that are known to harbor metal resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps and intracellular redox enzymes. Specific Pseudomonas bacteria have been quantified in some metal-contaminated environments, but the entire Pseudomonas population has been poorly investigated under these conditions, and the link with metal bioavailability was not previously examined. In the present study, quantitative PCR and cell cultivation were used to monitor and characterize the Pseudomonas population at 4 different sediment sites contaminated with various levels of metals. At the same time, total metals and metal bioavailability (as estimated using an HCl 1 m extraction) were measured. It was found that the total level of Pseudomonas, as determined by qPCR using two different genes (oprI and the 16S rRNA gene), was positively and significantly correlated with total and HCl-extractable Cu, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn, with high correlation coefficients (>0.8). Metal-contaminated sediments featured isolates of the Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa groups, with other bacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Klebsiella and Methylobacterium. It is concluded that Pseudomonas bacteria do proliferate in metal-contaminated sediments, but are still part of a complex community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. SAFER, an Analysis Method of Quantitative Proteomic Data, Reveals New Interactors of the C. elegans Autophagic Protein LGG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhou; Manil-Ségalen, Marion; Sago, Laila; Glatigny, Annie; Redeker, Virginie; Legouis, Renaud; Mucchielli-Giorgi, Marie-Hélène

    2016-05-06

    Affinity purifications followed by mass spectrometric analysis are used to identify protein-protein interactions. Because quantitative proteomic data are noisy, it is necessary to develop statistical methods to eliminate false-positives and identify true partners. We present here a novel approach for filtering false interactors, named "SAFER" for mass Spectrometry data Analysis by Filtering of Experimental Replicates, which is based on the reproducibility of the replicates and the fold-change of the protein intensities between bait and control. To identify regulators or targets of autophagy, we characterized the interactors of LGG1, a ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagosome formation in C. elegans. LGG-1 partners were purified by affinity, analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, and quantified by a label-free proteomic approach based on the mass spectrometric signal intensity of peptide precursor ions. Because the selection of confident interactions depends on the method used for statistical analysis, we compared SAFER with several statistical tests and different scoring algorithms on this set of data. We show that SAFER recovers high-confidence interactors that have been ignored by the other methods and identified new candidates involved in the autophagy process. We further validated our method on a public data set and conclude that SAFER notably improves the identification of protein interactors.

  16. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis reveals similar substrate consensus motif for human Mps1 kinase and Plk1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Dou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the Mps1 kinase family play an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, a surveillance mechanism that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. Human Mps1 (hMps1 is highly phosphorylated during mitosis and many phosphorylation sites have been identified. However, the upstream kinases responsible for these phosphorylations are not presently known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we identify 29 in vivo phosphorylation sites in hMps1. While in vivo analyses indicate that Aurora B and hMps1 activity are required for mitotic hyper-phosphorylation of hMps1, in vitro kinase assays show that Cdk1, MAPK, Plk1 and hMps1 itself can directly phosphorylate hMps1. Although Aurora B poorly phosphorylates hMps1 in vitro, it positively regulates the localization of Mps1 to kinetochores in vivo. Most importantly, quantitative mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that at least 12 sites within hMps1 can be attributed to autophosphorylation. Remarkably, these hMps1 autophosphorylation sites closely resemble the consensus motif of Plk1, demonstrating that these two mitotic kinases share a similar substrate consensus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: hMps1 kinase is regulated by Aurora B kinase and its autophosphorylation. Analysis on hMps1 autophosphorylation sites demonstrates that hMps1 has a substrate preference similar to Plk1 kinase.

  17. Quantitative analyses reveal distinct sensitivities of the capture of HIV-1 primary viruses and pseudoviruses to broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiae; Jobe, Ousman; Peachman, Kristina K; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Rao, Mangala; Rao, Venigalla B

    2017-08-01

    Development of vaccines capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a key goal to controlling the global AIDS epidemic. To be effective, bNAbs must block the capture of HIV-1 to prevent viral acquisition and establishment of reservoirs. However, the role of bNAbs, particularly during initial exposure of primary viruses to host cells, has not been fully examined. Using a sensitive, quantitative, and high-throughput qRT-PCR assay, we found that primary viruses were captured by host cells and converted into a trypsin-resistant form in less than five minutes. We discovered, unexpectedly, that bNAbs did not block primary virus capture, although they inhibited the capture of pseudoviruses/IMCs and production of progeny viruses at 48h. Further, viruses escaped bNAb inhibition unless the bNAbs were present in the initial minutes of exposure of virus to host cells. These findings will have important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design and determination of vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative FLIM-FRET Microscopy to Monitor Nanoscale Chromatin Compaction In Vivo Reveals Structural Roles of Condensin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Llères

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available How metazoan genomes are structured at the nanoscale in living cells and tissues remains unknown. Here, we adapted a quantitative FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM approach to assay nanoscale chromatin compaction in living organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans was chosen as a model system. By measuring FRET between histone-tagged fluorescent proteins, we visualized distinct chromosomal regions and quantified the different levels of nanoscale compaction in meiotic cells. Using RNAi and repetitive extrachromosomal array approaches, we defined the heterochromatin state and showed that its architecture presents a nanoscale-compacted organization controlled by Heterochromatin Protein-1 (HP1 and SETDB1 H3-lysine-9 methyltransferase homologs in vivo. Next, we functionally explored condensin complexes. We found that condensin I and condensin II are essential for heterochromatin compaction and that condensin I additionally controls lowly compacted regions. Our data show that, in living animals, nanoscale chromatin compaction is controlled not only by histone modifiers and readers but also by condensin complexes.

  19. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...

  20. LC-HRMS Metabolomics for Untargeted Diagnostic Screening in Clinical Laboratories: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Rochat

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS allow bioanalysts to perform untargeted/global determinations that can reveal unexpected compounds or concentrations in a patient’s sample. This could be performed for preliminary diagnosis attempts when usual diagnostic processes and targeted determinations fail. We have evaluated an untargeted diagnostic screening (UDS procedure. UDS is a metabolome analysis that compares one sample (e.g., a patient with control samples (a healthy population. Using liquid chromatography (LC-HRMS full-scan analysis of human serum extracts and unsupervised data treatment, we have compared individual samples that were spiked with one xenobiotic or a higher level of one endogenous compound with control samples. After the use of different filters that drastically reduced the number of metabolites detected, the spiked compound was eventually revealed in each test sample and ranked. The proposed UDS procedure appears feasible and reliable to reveal unexpected xenobiotics (toxicology or higher concentrations of endogenous metabolites. HRMS-based untargeted approaches could be useful as preliminary diagnostic screening when canonical processes do not reveal disease etiology nor establish a clear diagnosis and could reduce misdiagnosis. On the other hand, the risk of overdiagnosis of this approach should be reduced with mandatory biomedical interpretation of the patient’s UDS results and with confirmatory targeted and quantitative determinations.

  1. Metabolomics Application in Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fanos, Vassilios; Atzori, Luigi; Makarenko, Karina; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics in maternal-fetal medicine is still an “embryonic” science. However, there is already an increasing interest in metabolome of normal and complicated pregnancies, and neonatal outcomes. Tissues used for metabolomics interrogations of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns are amniotic fluid, blood, plasma, cord blood, placenta, urine, and vaginal secretions. All published papers highlight the strong correlation between biomarkers found in these tissues and fetal malformations, prete...

  2. Putative regulatory sites unraveled by network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of metabolome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kümmel, Anne; Panke, Sven; Heinemann, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most recent members of the omics family, large-scale quantitative metabolomics data are currently complementing our systems biology data pool and offer the chance to integrate the metabolite level into the functional analysis of cellular networks. Network-embedded thermodynamic

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cabernet sauvignon grape cells exposed to thermal stresses reveals alterations in sugar and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Iniga S; Pascovici, Dana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are a valuable fruit crop and wine production is a major industry. Global warming and expanded range of cultivation will expose grapes to more temperature stresses in future. Our study investigated protein level responses to abiotic stresses, with particular reference to proteomic changes induced by the impact of four different temperature stress regimes, including both hot and cold temperatures, on cultured grape cells. Cabernet Sauvignon cell suspension cultures grown at 26°C were subjected to 14 h of exposure to 34 and 42°C for heat stress, and 18 and 10°C for cold stress. Cells from the five temperatures were harvested in biological triplicates and label-free quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed. A total of 2042 non-redundant proteins were identified from the five temperature points. Fifty-five proteins were only detected in extreme heat stress conditions (42°C) and 53 proteins were only detected at extreme cold stress conditions (10°C). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of differentially expressed proteins provided insights into the metabolic pathways that are involved in temperature stress in grape cells. Sugar metabolism displayed switching between alternative and classical pathways during temperature stresses. Additionally, nine proteins involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were greatly increased in abundance at extreme cold stress, and were thus found to be cold-responsive proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000977 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000977). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals that Antioxidation Mechanisms Contribute to Cold Tolerance in Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) Seedlings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A.; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that antioxidation mechanisms contribute to cold tolerance in plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.; ABB Group) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao-Song; Wu, Jun-Hua; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Sheng, Ou; Hu, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Huang, Yong-Hong; Peng, Xin-Xiang; McCardle, James A; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yong; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-12-01

    Banana and its close relative, plantain are globally important crops and there is considerable interest in optimizing their cultivation. Plantain has superior cold tolerance compared with banana and a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms and responses of plantain to cold stress has great potential value for developing cold tolerant banana cultivars. In this study, we used iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the temporal responses of plantain to cold stress. Plantain seedlings were exposed for 0, 6, and 24 h of cold stress at 8 °C and subsequently allowed to recover for 24 h at 28 °C. A total of 3477 plantain proteins were identified, of which 809 showed differential expression from the three treatments. The majority of differentially expressed proteins were predicted to be involved in oxidation-reduction, including oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas others were associated with photosynthesis, photorespiration, and several primary metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolic process and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays were performed on seven differentially expressed, cold-response candidate plantain proteins to validate the proteomics data. Similar analyses of the seven candidate proteins were performed in cold-sensitive banana to examine possible functional conservation, and to compare the results to equivalent responses between the two species. Consistent results were achieved by Western blot and enzyme activity assays, demonstrating that the quantitative proteomics data collected in this study are reliable. Our results suggest that an increase of antioxidant capacity through adapted ROS scavenging capability, reduced production of ROS, and decreased lipid peroxidation contribute to molecular mechanisms for the increased cold tolerance in plantain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a global investigation on molecular responses of plantain to cold stress by

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Dynamic Interactions of the Minichromosome Maintenance Complex (MCM) in the Cellular Response to Etoposide Induced DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, Romain; Dubois, Marie-Line; Douziech, Mélanie; Boisvert, François-Michel

    2015-07-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) proteins are required for processive DNA replication and are a target of S-phase checkpoints. The eukaryotic MCM complex consists of six proteins (MCM2-7) that form a heterohexameric ring with DNA helicase activity, which is loaded on chromatin to form the pre-replication complex. Upon entry in S phase, the helicase is activated and opens the DNA duplex to recruit DNA polymerases at the replication fork. The MCM complex thus plays a crucial role during DNA replication, but recent work suggests that MCM proteins could also be involved in DNA repair. Here, we employed a combination of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics with immunoprecipitation of green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion proteins to identify proteins interacting with the MCM complex, and quantify changes in interactions in response to DNA damage. Interestingly, the MCM complex showed very dynamic changes in interaction with proteins such as Importin7, the histone chaperone ASF1, and the Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3 (CHD3) following DNA damage. These changes in interactions were accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation and ubiquitination on specific sites on the MCM proteins and an increase in the co-localization of the MCM complex with γ-H2AX, confirming the recruitment of these proteins to sites of DNA damage. In summary, our data indicate that the MCM proteins is involved in chromatin remodeling in response to DNA damage. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Dubois, J.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatio-temporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spino-thalamic tract and fornix, and finally the cortico-spinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. (authors)

  8. Quantitative proteomics reveals divergent responses in Apis mellifera worker and drone pupae to parasitization by Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlis, Carla; Carolan, James C; Coffey, Mary; Kavanagh, Kevin

    Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae. 1195 proteins were identified in total, of which 202 and 250 were differentially abundant in parasitized drone and worker pupae, respectively. Both parasitized drone and worker pupae displayed reduced abundance in proteins associated with the cuticle, lipid transport and innate immunity. Proteins involved in metabolic processes were more abundant in both parasitized castes although the response in workers was more pronounced. A number of caste specific responses were observed including differential abundance of numerous cytoskeletal and muscle proteins, which were of higher abundance in parasitized drones in comparison to parasitized workers. Proteins involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism were more abundant in parasitized workers as were a large number of ribosomal proteins highlighting either potentially divergent responses to Varroa or a different strategy by the mite when parasitizing the different castes. This data improves our understanding of this interaction and may provide a basis for future studies into improvements to therapy and control of Varroasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative PCR analysis reveals a high incidence of large intragenic deletions in the FANCA gene in Spanish Fanconi anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, E; Tischkowitz, M D; Creus, A; Marcos, R; Bueren, J A; Casado, J A; Mathew, C G; Surrallés, J

    2004-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome fragility, multiple congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and a high predisposition to develop malignancies. Most of the Fanconi anaemia patients belong to complementation group FA-A due to mutations in the FANCA gene. This gene contains 43 exons along a 4.3-kb coding sequence with a very heterogeneous mutational spectrum that makes the mutation screening of FANCA a difficult task. In addition, as the FANCA gene is rich in Alu sequences, it was reported that Alu-mediated recombination led to large intragenic deletions that cannot be detected in heterozygous state by conventional PCR, SSCP analysis, or DNA sequencing. To overcome this problem, a method based on quantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR was proposed to detect intragenic deletions in FANCA involving the most frequently deleted exons (exons 5, 11, 17, 21 and 31). Here we apply the proposed method to detect intragenic deletions in 25 Spanish FA-A patients previously assigned to complementation group FA-A by FANCA cDNA retroviral transduction. A total of eight heterozygous deletions involving from one to more than 26 exons were detected. Thus, one third of the patients carried a large intragenic deletion that would have not been detected by conventional methods. These results are in agreement with previously published data and indicate that large intragenic deletions are one of the most frequent mutations leading to Fanconi anaemia. Consequently, this technology should be applied in future studies on FANCA to improve the mutation detection rate. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Quantitative N-linked Glycoproteomics of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Reveals Early Remodeling in the Extracellular Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Edwards, Alistair V G

    2011-01-01

    , while dimethyl labeling confirmed 46 of these and revealed an additional 62 significant changes. These were mainly from predicted extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins that are implicated in cardiac remodeling. Analysis of N-glycans released from myocardial proteins suggest...... that the observed changes were not due to significant alterations in N-glycan structures. Altered proteins included the collagen-laminin-integrin complexes and collagen assembly enzymes, cadherins, mast cell proteases, proliferation-associated secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and microfibril......Extracellular and cell surface proteins are generally modified with N-linked glycans and glycopeptide enrichment is an attractive tool to analyze these proteins. The role of N-linked glycoproteins in cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemia and reperfusion injury, is poorly understood...

  11. Metabolomics in Toxicology and Preclinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Bois, Frederic Y.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Coen, Muireann; Donley, Beth; Fischer, Steven M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Fabian, Eric; Guillou, Claude; Heuer, Joachim; Hogberg, Helena T.; Jungnickel, Harald; Keun, Hector C.; Krennrich, Gerhard; Krupp, Eckart; Luch, Andreas; Noor, Fozia; Peter, Erik; Riefke, Bjoern; Seymour, Mark; Skinner, Nigel; Smirnova, Lena; Verheij, Elwin; Wagner, Silvia; Hartung, Thomas; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Leist, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological system, provides detailed information about the biochemical/physiological status of a biological system, and about the changes caused by chemicals. Metabolomics analysis is used in many fields, ranging from the analysis of the physiological status of genetically modified organisms in safety science to the evaluation of human health conditions. In toxicology, metabolomics is the -omics discipline that is most closely related to classical knowledge of disturbed biochemical pathways. It allows rapid identification of the potential targets of a hazardous compound. It can give information on target organs and often can help to improve our understanding regarding the mode-of-action of a given compound. Such insights aid the discovery of biomarkers that either indicate pathophysiological conditions or help the monitoring of the efficacy of drug therapies. The first toxicological applications of metabolomics were for mechanistic research, but different ways to use the technology in a regulatory context are being explored. Ideally, further progress in that direction will position the metabolomics approach to address the challenges of toxicology of the 21st century. To address these issues, scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory bodies came together in a workshop to discuss the current status of applied metabolomics and its potential in the safety assessment of compounds. We report here on the conclusions of three working groups addressing questions regarding 1) metabolomics for in vitro studies 2) the appropriate use of metabolomics in systems toxicology, and 3) use of metabolomics in a regulatory context. PMID:23665807

  12. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Edison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  13. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation at all human imprinted regions reveals preservation of epigenetic stability in adult somatic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfine Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes subject to genomic imprinting are mono-allelically expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. Each imprinted locus has at least one differentially methylated region (DMR which has allele specific DNA methylation and contributes to imprinted gene expression. Once DMRs are established, they are potentially able to withstand normal genome reprogramming events that occur during cell differentiation and germ-line DMRs are stably maintained throughout development. These DMRs, in addition to being either maternally or paternally methylated, have differences in whether methylation was acquired in the germ-line or post fertilization and are present in a variety of genomic locations with different Cytosine-phosphate guanine (CpG densities and CTCF binding capacities. We therefore examined the stability of maintenance of DNA methylation imprints and determined the normal baseline DNA methylation levels in several adult tissues for all imprinted genes. In order to do this, we first developed and validated 50 highly specific, quantitative DNA methylation pyrosequencing assays for the known DMRs associated with human imprinted genes. Results Remarkable stability of the DNA methylation imprint was observed in all germ-line DMRs and paternally methylated somatic DMRs (which maintained average methylation levels of between 35% - 65% in all somatic tissues, independent of gene expression. Maternally methylated somatic DMRs were found to have more variation with tissue specific methylation patterns. Most DMRs, however, showed some intra-individual variability for DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood, suggesting that more than one DMR needs to be examined in order to get an overall impression of the epigenetic stability in a tissue. The plasticity of DNA methylation at imprinted genes was examined in a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. All cell lines showed changes in DNA methylation, especially at the paternal germ

  14. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichorova, Raina N., E-mail: rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Murray, Ryan [Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F. [CONRAD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety. • Biomarkers were

  15. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Murray, Ryan; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety. • Biomarkers were

  16. Metabolomic Profiling as a Possible Reverse Engineering Tool for Estimating Processing Conditions of Dry-Cured Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2017-01-18

    Dry-cured hams are popular among consumers. To increase the attractiveness of the product, objective analytical methods and algorithms to evaluate the relationship between observable properties and consumer acceptability are required. In this study, metabolomics, which is used for quantitative profiling of hundreds of small molecules, was applied to 12 kinds of dry-cured hams from Japan and Europe. In total, 203 charged metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, nucleotides, and peptides, were successfully identified and quantified. Metabolite profiles were compared for the samples with different countries of origin and processing methods (e.g., smoking or use of a starter culture). Principal component analysis of the metabolite profiles with sensory properties revealed significant correlations for redness, homogeneity, and fat whiteness. This approach could be used to design new ham products by objective evaluation of various features.

  17. Development of a universal metabolome-standard method for long-term LC-MS metabolome profiling and its application for bladder cancer urine-metabolite-biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chien-Lun; Li, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Large-scale metabolomics study requires a quantitative method to generate metabolome data over an extended period with high technical reproducibility. We report a universal metabolome-standard (UMS) method, in conjunction with chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), to provide long-term analytical reproducibility and facilitate metabolome comparison among different data sets. In this method, UMS of a specific type of sample labeled by an isotope reagent is prepared a priori. The UMS is spiked into any individual samples labeled by another form of the isotope reagent in a metabolomics study. The resultant mixture is analyzed by LC-MS to provide relative quantification of the individual sample metabolome to UMS. UMS is independent of a study undertaking as well as the time of analysis and useful for profiling the same type of samples in multiple studies. In this work, the UMS method was developed and applied for a urine metabolomics study of bladder cancer. UMS of human urine was prepared by (13)C2-dansyl labeling of a pooled sample from 20 healthy individuals. This method was first used to profile the discovery samples to generate a list of putative biomarkers potentially useful for bladder cancer detection and then used to analyze the verification samples about one year later. Within the discovery sample set, three-month technical reproducibility was examined using a quality control sample and found a mean CV of 13.9% and median CV of 9.4% for all the quantified metabolites. Statistical analysis of the urine metabolome data showed a clear separation between the bladder cancer group and the control group from the discovery samples, which was confirmed by the verification samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.956 in the discovery data set and 0.935 in the verification data set. These results demonstrated the utility of the UMS method for long-term metabolomics and

  18. Quantitative proteomics revealed partial fungistatic mechanism of ammonia against conidial germination of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora ATCC24927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Tian, Dong-Wei; Zou, Li-Juan; Liu, Fang-Yu; Can, Qi-Yan; Yang, Jin-Kui; Xu, Jian-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Xi, Jia-Qin; Zhu, Ming-Liang; Mo, Ming-He; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2018-05-01

    Ammonia is one of the fungistatic factors in soil that can suppress conidial germination, but the molecular mechanism underlying the suppression is unknown. In this study, the proteomes of fungistatic conidia, fresh conidia and germinated conidia of Arthrobotrys oligospora ATCC24927 were determined and quantified. The protein expression profile of fungistatic conidia was significantly different from those in the other two conditions. 281 proteins were down expressed in fungistatic conidia and characterized by GO annotation. Gene transcription analysis and inhibition of puromycin (a protein translation inhibitor) on conidial germination suggested that down expression of 33 protein translation related proteins might well result in repression of protein synthesis and inhibition of conidial germination. In addition, 16 down-expressed proteins were mapped to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (Ras/MAP) regulatory networks which regulate conidial DNA synthesis. The conidial DNA synthesis was found to be definitely inhibited under by ammonia, and function studies of two Ras/MAP proteins by using knock-out strains provided partial evidence that Ras/MAP pathway regulate the conidial germination. These results suggested that down-expression of Ras/MAP related proteins might result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and finally result in inhibition conidial germination. This study revealed partial fungistatic mechanism of ammonia against conidial germination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... Therefore this thesis will also present and discuss state-of-the-art tools for computer-assisted compound identification, including: annotation of adducts and fragments, determination of the molecular ion, in silico fragmentation, retention time mapping between analytical systems and de novo retention time...

  20. Metabolomics techniques for nanotoxicity investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengying; Huang, Wanqiu; Chen, Zhipeng; Jiang, Hulin; Chen, Jiaqing; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly defined as engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or less. Investigations of their potential toxicological impact on biological systems and the environment have yet to catch up with the rapid development of nanotechnology and extensive production of nanoparticles. High-throughput methods are necessary to assess the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. The omics techniques are well suited to evaluate toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Besides genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling, metabolomics holds great promises for globally evaluating and understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-organism interaction. This manuscript presents a general overview of metabolomics techniques, summarizes its early application in nanotoxicology and finally discusses opportunities and challenges faced in nanotoxicology.

  1. Conventional and Advanced Separations in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Methodologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, Heino M.; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Keqi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-02-16

    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in a given sample. Due to the chemical complexity of the metabolome, optimal separations are required for comprehensive identification and quantification of sample constituents. This chapter provides an overview of both conventional and advanced separations methods in practice for reducing the complexity of metabolite extracts delivered to the mass spectrometer detector, and covers gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as both uni-dimensional and as multi-dimensional approaches.

  2. Quantitative analysis of commensal Escherichia coli populations reveals host-specific enterotypes at the intra-species level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smati, Mounira; Clermont, Olivier; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Fourreau, Frédéric; David, Anthony; Daubié, Anne-Sophie; Hignard, Cécile; Loison, Odile; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick

    2015-08-01

    The primary habitat of the Escherichia coli species is the gut of warm-blooded vertebrates. The E. coli species is structured into four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D. We estimated the relative proportions of these phylogroups in the feces of 137 wild and domesticated animals with various diets living in the Ile de France (Paris) region by real-time PCR. We distinguished three main clusters characterized by a particular abundance of two or more phylogroups within the E. coli animal commensal populations, which we called "enterocolitypes" by analogy with the enterotypes defined in the human gut microbiota at the genus level. These enterocolitypes were characterized by a dominant (>50%) B2, B1, or A phylogroup and were associated with different host species, diets, and habitats: wild and herbivorous species (wild rabbits and deer), domesticated herbivorous species (domesticated rabbits, horses, sheep, and cows), and omnivorous species (boar, pigs, and chickens), respectively. By analyzing retrospectively the data obtained using the same approach from 98 healthy humans living in Ile de France (Smati et al. 2013, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79, 5005-5012), we identified a specific human enterocolitype characterized by the dominant and/or exclusive (>90%) presence of phylogroup B2. We then compared B2 strains isolated from animals and humans, and revealed that human and animal strains differ regarding O-type and B2 subgroup. Moreover, two genes, sfa/foc and clbQ, were associated with the exclusive character of strains, observed only in humans. In conclusion, a complex network of interactions exists at several levels (genus and intra-species) within the intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identifying biomarkers for asthma diagnosis using targeted metabolomics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, William; Deza, Maria P; Klawitter, Jost; Romero, Karina M; Klawitter, Jelena; Pollard, Suzanne L; Wise, Robert A; Christians, Uwe; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of asthma in children is challenging and relies on a combination of clinical factors and biomarkers including methacholine challenge, lung function, bronchodilator responsiveness, and presence of airway inflammation. No single test is diagnostic. We sought to identify a pattern of inflammatory biomarkers that was unique to asthma using a targeted metabolomics approach combined with data science methods. We conducted a nested case-control study of 100 children living in a peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. We defined cases as children with current asthma, and controls as children with no prior history of asthma and normal lung function. We further categorized enrollment following a factorial design to enroll equal numbers of children as either overweight or not. We obtained a fasting venous blood sample to characterize a comprehensive panel of targeted markers using a metabolomics approach based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A statistical comparison of targeted metabolites between children with asthma (n = 50) and healthy controls (n = 49) revealed distinct patterns in relative concentrations of several metabolites: children with asthma had approximately 40-50% lower relative concentrations of ascorbic acid, 2-isopropylmalic acid, shikimate-3-phosphate, and 6-phospho-d-gluconate when compared to children without asthma, and 70% lower relative concentrations of reduced glutathione (all p  13 077 normalized counts/second and betaine ≤ 16 47 121 normalized counts/second). By using a metabolomics approach applied to serum, we were able to discriminate between children with and without asthma by revealing different metabolic patterns. These results suggest that serum metabolomics may represent a diagnostic tool for asthma and may be helpful for distinguishing asthma phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metagenomic and metabolomic analysis of the toxic effects of trichloroacetamide-induced gut microbiome and urine metabolome perturbations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Fuzheng; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang

    2015-04-03

    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water have been linked to various diseases, including colon, colorectal, rectal, and bladder cancer. Trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) is an emerging nitrogenous DBP, and our previous study found that TCAcAm could induce some changes associated with host-gut microbiota co-metabolism. In this study, we used an integrated approach combining metagenomics, based on high-throughput sequencing, and metabolomics, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), to evaluate the toxic effects of TCAcAm exposure on the gut microbiome and urine metabolome. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the gut microbiome's composition and function were significantly altered after TCAcAm exposure for 90 days in Mus musculus mice. In addition, metabolomic analysis showed that a number of gut microbiota-related metabolites were dramatically perturbed in the urine of the mice. These results may provide novel insight into evaluating the health risk of environmental pollutants as well as revealing the potential mechanism of TCAcAm's toxic effects.

  5. Metabolomic and proteomic analysis of D-lactate-producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii under various fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaoxiong; Gao, Dacheng; Liu, Huanhuan; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-05-28

    As an important feedstock monomer for the production of biodegradable stereo-complex poly-lactic acid polymer, D-lactate has attracted much attention. To improve D-lactate production by microorganisms such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, various fermentation conditions were performed, such as the employment of anaerobic fermentation, the utilization of more suitable neutralizing agents, and exploitation of alternative nitrogen sources. The highest D-lactate titer could reach 133 g/L under the optimally combined fermentation condition, increased by 70.5% compared with the control. To decipher the potential mechanisms of D-lactate overproduction, the time-series response of intracellular metabolism to different fermentation conditions was investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based metabolomic analysis. Then the metabolomic datasets were subjected to weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), and nine distinct metabolic modules and eight hub metabolites were identified to be specifically associated with D-lactate production. Moreover, a quantitative iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS proteomic approach was employed to further analyze the change of intracellular metabolism under the combined fermentation condition, identifying 97 up-regulated and 42 down-regulated proteins compared with the control. The in-depth analysis elucidated how the key factors exerted influence on D-lactate biosynthesis. The results revealed that glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, transport of glucose, amino acids and peptides, amino acid metabolism, peptide hydrolysis, synthesis of nucleotides and proteins, and cell division were all strengthened, while ATP consumption for exporting proton, cell damage, metabolic burden caused by stress response, and bypass of pyruvate were decreased under the combined condition. These might be the main reasons for significantly improved D-lactate production. These findings provide the first omics view of cell growth and D-lactate overproduction in L. delbrueckii, which

  6. Recent Advances in Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics by NMR and MS/NMR Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingol, Kerem

    2018-04-18

    Metabolomics has made significant progress in multiple fronts in the last 18 months. This minireview aimed to give an overview of these advancements in the light of their contribution to targeted and untargeted metabolomics. New computational approaches have emerged to overcome manual absolute quantitation step of metabolites in 1D 1H NMR spectra. This provides more consistency between inter-laboratory comparisons. Integration of 2D NMR metabolomics databases under a unified web server allowed very accurate identification of the metabolites that have been catalogued in these databases. For the remaining uncatalogued and unknown metabolites, new cheminformatics approaches have been developed by combining NMR and mass spectrometry. These hybrid NMR/MS approaches accelerated the identification of unknowns in untargeted studies, and now they are allowing to profile ever larger number of metabolites in application studies.

  7. The future of metabolomics in ELIXIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijswijk, Merlijn; Beirnaert, Charlie; Caron, Christophe; Cascante, Marta; Dominguez, Victoria; Dunn, Warwick B.; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.; Giacomoni, Franck; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Hankemeier, Thomas; Haug, Kenneth; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L.; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Jourdan, Fabien; Kale, Namrata; Klapa, Maria I.; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Koort, Kairi; Kultima, Kim; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Moreno, Pablo; Moschonas, Nicholas K.; Neumann, Steffen; O’Donovan, Claire; Reczko, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Rosato, Antonio; Salek, Reza M.; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Satagopam, Venkata; Schober, Daniel; Shimmo, Ruth; Spicer, Rachel A.; Spjuth, Ola; Thévenot, Etienne A.; Viant, Mark R.; Weber, Ralf J. M.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics, the youngest of the major omics technologies, is supported by an active community of researchers and infrastructure developers across Europe. To coordinate and focus efforts around infrastructure building for metabolomics within Europe, a workshop on the “Future of metabolomics in ELIXIR” was organised at Frankfurt Airport in Germany. This one-day strategic workshop involved representatives of ELIXIR Nodes, members of the PhenoMeNal consortium developing an e-infrastructure that supports workflow-based metabolomics analysis pipelines, and experts from the international metabolomics community. The workshop established metabolite identification as the critical area, where a maximal impact of computational metabolomics and data management on other fields could be achieved. In particular, the existing four ELIXIR Use Cases, where the metabolomics community - both industry and academia - would benefit most, and which could be exhaustively mapped onto the current five ELIXIR Platforms were discussed. This opinion article is a call for support for a new ELIXIR metabolomics Use Case, which aligns with and complements the existing and planned ELIXIR Platforms and Use Cases. PMID:29043062

  8. The future of metabolomics in ELIXIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijswijk, Merlijn; Beirnaert, Charlie; Caron, Christophe; Cascante, Marta; Dominguez, Victoria; Dunn, Warwick B; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Giacomoni, Franck; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Hankemeier, Thomas; Haug, Kenneth; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L; Jimenez, Rafael C; Jourdan, Fabien; Kale, Namrata; Klapa, Maria I; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Koort, Kairi; Kultima, Kim; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Moreno, Pablo; Moschonas, Nicholas K; Neumann, Steffen; O'Donovan, Claire; Reczko, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Rosato, Antonio; Salek, Reza M; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Satagopam, Venkata; Schober, Daniel; Shimmo, Ruth; Spicer, Rachel A; Spjuth, Ola; Thévenot, Etienne A; Viant, Mark R; Weber, Ralf J M; Willighagen, Egon L; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics, the youngest of the major omics technologies, is supported by an active community of researchers and infrastructure developers across Europe. To coordinate and focus efforts around infrastructure building for metabolomics within Europe, a workshop on the "Future of metabolomics in ELIXIR" was organised at Frankfurt Airport in Germany. This one-day strategic workshop involved representatives of ELIXIR Nodes, members of the PhenoMeNal consortium developing an e-infrastructure that supports workflow-based metabolomics analysis pipelines, and experts from the international metabolomics community. The workshop established metabolite identification as the critical area, where a maximal impact of computational metabolomics and data management on other fields could be achieved. In particular, the existing four ELIXIR Use Cases, where the metabolomics community - both industry and academia - would benefit most, and which could be exhaustively mapped onto the current five ELIXIR Platforms were discussed. This opinion article is a call for support for a new ELIXIR metabolomics Use Case, which aligns with and complements the existing and planned ELIXIR Platforms and Use Cases.

  9. Symbiosis of chemometrics and metabolomics: past, present, and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Greef, J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    Metabolomics is a growing area in the field of systems biology. Metabolomics has already a long history and also the connection of metabolomics with chemometrics goes back some time. This review discusses the symbiosis of metabolomics and chemometrics with emphasis on the medical domain, puts the

  10. Pre-analytic evaluation of volumetric absorptive microsampling and integration in a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volani, Chiara; Caprioli, Giulia; Calderisi, Giovanni; Sigurdsson, Baldur B; Rainer, Johannes; Gentilini, Ivo; Hicks, Andrew A; Pramstaller, Peter P; Weiss, Guenter; Smarason, Sigurdur V; Paglia, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel approach that allows single-drop (10 μL) blood collection. Integration of VAMS with mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics is an attractive solution for both human and animal studies. However, to boost the use of VAMS in metabolomics, key pre-analytical questions need to be addressed. Therefore, in this work, we integrated VAMS in a MS-based untargeted metabolomics workflow and investigated pre-analytical strategies such as sample extraction procedures and metabolome stability at different storage conditions. We first evaluated the best extraction procedure for the polar metabolome and found that the highest number and amount of metabolites were recovered upon extraction with acetonitrile/water (70:30). In contrast, basic conditions (pH 9) resulted in divergent metabolite profiles mainly resulting from the extraction of intracellular metabolites originating from red blood cells. In addition, the prolonged storage of blood samples at room temperature caused significant changes in metabolome composition, but once the VAMS devices were stored at - 80 °C, the metabolome remained stable for up to 6 months. The time used for drying the sample did also affect the metabolome. In fact, some metabolites were rapidly degraded or accumulated in the sample during the first 48 h at room temperature, indicating that a longer drying step will significantly change the concentration in the sample. Graphical abstract Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel technology that allows single-drop blood collection and, in combination with mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics, represents an attractive solution for both human and animal studies. In this work, we integrated VAMS in a MS-based untargeted metabolomics workflow and investigated pre-analytical strategies such as sample extraction procedures and metabolome stability at different storage conditions. The latter revealed that

  11. Tools and databases of the KOMICS web portal for preprocessing, mining, and dissemination of metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nozomu; Ara, Takeshi; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Motegi, Takeshi; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Iijima, Yoko; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Nakajima, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A metabolome--the collection of comprehensive quantitative data on metabolites in an organism--has been increasingly utilized for applications such as data-intensive systems biology, disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and assessment of food quality. A considerable number of tools and databases have been developed to date for the analysis of data generated by various combinations of chromatography and mass spectrometry. We report here a web portal named KOMICS (The Kazusa Metabolomics Portal), where the tools and databases that we developed are available for free to academic users. KOMICS includes the tools and databases for preprocessing, mining, visualization, and publication of metabolomics data. Improvements in the annotation of unknown metabolites and dissemination of comprehensive metabolomic data are the primary aims behind the development of this portal. For this purpose, PowerGet and FragmentAlign include a manual curation function for the results of metabolite feature alignments. A metadata-specific wiki-based database, Metabolonote, functions as a hub of web resources related to the submitters' work. This feature is expected to increase citation of the submitters' work, thereby promoting data publication. As an example of the practical use of KOMICS, a workflow for a study on Jatropha curcas is presented. The tools and databases available at KOMICS should contribute to enhanced production, interpretation, and utilization of metabolomic Big Data.

  12. Using MetaboAnalyst 3.0 for Comprehensive Metabolomics Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianguo; Wishart, David S

    2016-09-07

    MetaboAnalyst (http://www.metaboanalyst.ca) is a comprehensive Web application for metabolomic data analysis and interpretation. MetaboAnalyst handles most of the common metabolomic data types from most kinds of metabolomics platforms (MS and NMR) for most kinds of metabolomics experiments (targeted, untargeted, quantitative). In addition to providing a variety of data processing and normalization procedures, MetaboAnalyst also supports a number of data analysis and data visualization tasks using a range of univariate, multivariate methods such as PCA (principal component analysis), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis), heatmap clustering and machine learning methods. MetaboAnalyst also offers a variety of tools for metabolomic data interpretation including MSEA (metabolite set enrichment analysis), MetPA (metabolite pathway analysis), and biomarker selection via ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis, as well as time series and power analysis. This unit provides an overview of the main functional modules and the general workflow of the latest version of MetaboAnalyst (MetaboAnalyst 3.0), followed by eight detailed protocols. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Metabolomics and bioactive substances in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod

    Metabolomic analysis of plants broadens understanding of how plants may benefit humans, animals and the environment, provide sustainable food and energy, and improve current agricultural, pharmacological and medicinal practices in order to bring about healthier and longer life. The quality...... and amount of the extractible biological information is largely determined by data acquisition, data processing and analysis methodologies of the plant metabolomics studies. This PhD study focused mainly on the development and implementation of new metabolomics methodologies for improved data acquisition...... and data processing. The study mainly concerned the three most commonly applied analytical techniques in plant metabolomics, GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR. In addition, advanced chemometrics methods e.g. PARAFAC2 and ASCA have been extensively used for development of complex metabolomics data processing...

  14. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2013-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

  15. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Lynne A; Abdul-Sada, Ali; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hodge, Angela; Hartley, Sue E

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.

  16. Metabolomics enables precision medicine: "A White Paper, Community Perspective".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Richard D; Dunn, Warwick; Schmidt, Michael A; Gross, Steven S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Cascante, Marta; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S; Oresic, Matej; Hankemeier, Thomas; Broadhurst, David I; Lane, Andrew N; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Sumner, Susan J; Thiele, Ines; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or "-omics" level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person's metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual's overall health status. This metabolic state reflects what has been encoded by the genome, and modified by diet, environmental factors, and the gut microbiome. The metabolic profile provides a quantifiable readout of biochemical state from normal physiology to diverse pathophysiologies in a manner that is often not obvious from gene expression analyses. Today, clinicians capture only a very small part of the information contained in the metabolome, as they routinely measure only a narrow set of blood chemistry analytes to assess health and disease states. Examples include measuring glucose to monitor diabetes, measuring cholesterol and high density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein ratio to assess cardiovascular health, BUN and creatinine for renal disorders, and measuring a panel of metabolites to diagnose potential inborn errors of metabolism in neonates. We anticipate that the narrow range of chemical analyses in current use by the medical community today will be replaced in the future by analyses that reveal a far more comprehensive metabolic signature. This signature is expected to describe global biochemical aberrations that reflect patterns of variance in states of wellness, more accurately describe specific diseases and their progression, and greatly aid in differential diagnosis. Such future metabolic signatures will: (1) provide predictive, prognostic, diagnostic, and surrogate markers of diverse disease states; (2) inform on underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases; (3) allow for sub-classification of diseases, and

  17. Comparing quantitative analysis on revealed comparative advantages of aquatic products trade of china and ASEAN based on 21st century maritime silk road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. F.; Han, Y. H.; Li, Z. W.

    2017-11-01

    As the world’s leading aquaculture, aquatic production and trading country, China’s development of aquatic products trade with ASEAN is facing a historic opportunity in the favourable circumstances of construction of the 21st century Maritime Silk Road. In order to make guidance of the product selection and transformation for corresponding export enterprises, this article makes a quantitative analysis the Revealed Comparative Advantage of aquatic products trade from China and ASEAN respectively based on the HS classification and thoroughly compares the RCA indices. The comparison results show that the international competitiveness of aquatic products structures of China and ASEAN are quite different with few overlaps of strong competitive products, and there is a great gap between the two areas in many kinds of products.

  18. Impact of red meat consumption on the metabolome of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Louise M A; Yde, Christian C; Van Hecke, Thomas; Jessen, Randi; Young, Jette F; De Smet, Stefaan; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-03-01

    The scope of the present study was to investigate the effects of red versus white meat intake on the metabolome of rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 15 days of ad libitum feeding of one of four experimental diets: (i) lean chicken, (ii) chicken with lard, (iii) lean beef, and (iv) beef with lard. Urine, feces, plasma, and colon tissue samples were analyzed using 1 H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR was performed on colon tissue to examine the expression of specific genes. Urinary excretion of acetate and anserine was higher after chicken intake, while carnosine, fumarate, and trimethylamine N-oxide excretion were higher after beef intake. In colon tissue, higher choline levels and lower lipid levels were found after intake of chicken compared to beef. Expression of the apc gene was higher in response to the lean chicken and beef with lard diets. Correlation analysis revealed that intestinal apc gene expression was correlated with fecal lactate content (R 2 = 0.65). This study is the first to identify specific differences in the metabolome related to the intake of red and white meat. These differences may reflect perturbations in endogenous metabolism that can be linked to the proposed harmful effects associated with intake of red meat. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-20

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  20. NMR-based metabolomics reveals that conjugated double bond content and lipid storage efficiency in HepG2 cells are affected by fatty acid cis/trans configuration and chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najbjerg, Heidi; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    from conjugated double bonds (5.65, 5.94, and 6.28 ppm) in cells exposed to vaccenic acid, revealing that vaccenic acid upon uptake by the HepG2 cells is converted into a conjugated fatty acid. Upon exposure of the HepG2 cells to either butyric acid (C4:0), caproic acid (C6:0), lauric acid (C12...

  1. Genetic basis of metabolome variation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Breunig

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism, the conversion of nutrients into usable energy and biochemical building blocks, is an essential feature of all cells. The genetic factors responsible for inter-individual metabolic variability remain poorly understood. To investigate genetic causes of metabolome variation, we measured the concentrations of 74 metabolites across ~ 100 segregants from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cross by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found 52 quantitative trait loci for 34 metabolites. These included linkages due to overt changes in metabolic genes, e.g., linking pyrimidine intermediates to the deletion of ura3. They also included linkages not directly related to metabolic enzymes, such as those for five central carbon metabolites to ira2, a Ras/PKA pathway regulator, and for the metabolites, S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine to slt2, a MAP kinase involved in cell wall integrity. The variant of ira2 that elevates metabolite levels also increases glucose uptake and ethanol secretion. These results highlight specific examples of genetic variability, including in genes without prior known metabolic regulatory function, that impact yeast metabolism.

  2. Functional Analysis of Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoyen, Mónica; López-Ibáñez, Javier; Pazos, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics aims at characterizing the repertory of small chemical compounds in a biological sample. As it becomes more massive and larger sets of compounds are detected, a functional analysis is required to convert these raw lists of compounds into biological knowledge. The most common way of performing such analysis is "annotation enrichment analysis," also used in transcriptomics and proteomics. This approach extracts the annotations overrepresented in the set of chemical compounds arisen in a given experiment. Here, we describe the protocols for performing such analysis as well as for visualizing a set of compounds in different representations of the metabolic networks, in both cases using free accessible web tools.

  3. The Development of Metabolomic Sampling Procedures for Pichia pastoris, and Baseline Metabolome Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredwell, Gregory D.; Edwards-Jones, Bryn; Leak, David J.; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic profiling is increasingly being used to investigate a diverse range of biological questions. Due to the rapid turnover of intracellular metabolites it is important to have reliable, reproducible techniques for sampling and sample treatment. Through the use of non-targeted analytical techniques such as NMR and GC-MS we have performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of sampling techniques for Pichia pastoris. It was clear that quenching metabolism using solutions based on the standard cold methanol protocol caused some metabolite losses from P. pastoris cells. However, these were at a low level, with the NMR results indicating metabolite increases in the quenching solution below 5% of their intracellular level for 75% of metabolites identified; while the GC-MS results suggest a slightly higher level with increases below 15% of their intracellular values. There were subtle differences between the four quenching solutions investigated but broadly, they all gave similar results. Total culture extraction of cells + broth using high cell density cultures typical of P. pastoris fermentations, was an efficient sampling technique for NMR analysis and provided a gold standard of intracellular metabolite levels; however, salts in the media affected the GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, there was no benefit in including an additional washing step in the quenching process, as the results were essentially identical to those obtained just by a single centrifugation step. We have identified the major high-concentration metabolites found in both the extra- and intracellular locations of P. pastoris cultures by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS. This has provided us with a baseline metabolome for P. pastoris for future studies. The P. pastoris metabolome is significantly different from that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the most notable difference being the production of high concentrations of arabitol by P. pastoris. PMID:21283710

  4. Metabolomics study of human urinary metabolome modifications after intake of almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Garrido, Ignacio; Monagas, Maria; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Bartolome, Begona; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-11-05

    Almond, as a part of the nut family, is an important source of biological compounds, and specifically, almond skins have been considered an important source of polyphenols, including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Polyphenol metabolism may produce several classes of metabolites that could often be more biologically active than their dietary precursor and could also become a robust new biomarker of almond polyphenol intake. In order to study urinary metabolome modifications during the 24 h after a single dose of almond skin extract, 24 volunteers (n = 24), who followed a polyphenol-free diet for 48 h before and during the study, ingested a dietary supplement of almond skin phenolic compounds (n = 12) or a placebo (n = 12). Urine samples were collected before ((-2)-0 h) and after (0-2 h, 2-6 h, 6-10 h, and 10-24 h) the intake and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-q-TOF) and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS)). Putative identification of relevant biomarkers revealed a total of 34 metabolites associated with the single dose of almond extract, including host and, in particular, microbiota metabolites. As far as we know, this is the first time that conjugates of hydroxyphenylvaleric, hydroxyphenylpropionic, and hydroxyphenylacetic acids have been identified in human samples after the consumption of flavan-3-ols through a metabolomic approach. The results showed that this non-targeted approach could provide new intake biomarkers, contributing to the development of the food metabolome as an important part of the human urinary metabolome.

  5. Quantitative proteomics reveals altered expression of extracellular matrix related proteins of human primary dermal fibroblasts in response to sulfated hyaluronan and collagen applied as artificial extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan A; van der Smissen, Anja; von Feilitzsch, Margarete; Anderegg, Ulf; Kalkhof, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Fibroblasts are the main matrix producing cells of the dermis and are also strongly regulated by their matrix environment which can be used to improve and guide skin wound healing processes. Here, we systematically investigated the molecular effects on primary dermal fibroblasts in response to high-sulfated hyaluronan [HA] (hsHA) by quantitative proteomics. The comparison of non- and high-sulfated HA revealed regulation of 84 of more than 1,200 quantified proteins. Based on gene enrichment we found that sulfation of HA alters extracellular matrix remodeling. The collagen degrading enzymes cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -14 were found to be down-regulated on hsHA. Additionally protein expression of thrombospondin-1, decorin, collagen types I and XII were reduced, whereas the expression of trophoblast glycoprotein and collagen type VI were slightly increased. This study demonstrates that global proteomics provides a valuable tool for revealing proteins involved in molecular effects of growth substrates for further material optimization.

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Mechanisms of Action of Long Noncoding RNA Hox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in HeLa Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Ying; Chen, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Fleming, Joy; Gao, Ding; Bi, Lijun; Ge, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have emerged in recent years as a new and crucial layer of gene regulators, regulate various biological processes such as carcinogenesis and metastasis. HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA), a lncRNA overexpressed in most human cancers, has been shown to be an oncogenic lncRNA. Here, we explored the role of HOTAIR in HeLa cells and searched for proteins regulated by HOTAIR. To understand the mechanism of action of HOTAIR from a systems perspective, we employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to systematically identify potential targets of HOTAIR. The expression of 170 proteins was significantly dys-regulated after inhibition of HOTAIR, implying that they could be potential targets of HOTAIR. Analysis of this data at the systems level revealed major changes in proteins involved in diverse cellular components, including the cytoskeleton and the respiratory chain. Further functional studies on vimentin (VIM), a key protein involved in the cytoskeleton, revealed that HOTAIR exerts its effects on migration and invasion of HeLa cells, at least in part, through the regulation of VIM expression. Inhibition of HOTAIR leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural alterations, suggesting a novel role of HOTAIR in maintaining mitochondrial function in cancer cells. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the function of HOTAIR in cancer cells. We expect that the methods used in this study will become an integral part of functional studies of lncRNAs. PMID:25762744

  7. Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis for Metabolomic Data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nyamundanda, Gift

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Data from metabolomic studies are typically complex and high-dimensional. Principal component analysis (PCA) is currently the most widely used statistical technique for analyzing metabolomic data. However, PCA is limited by the fact that it is not based on a statistical model. Results Here, probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) which addresses some of the limitations of PCA, is reviewed and extended. A novel extension of PPCA, called probabilistic principal component and covariates analysis (PPCCA), is introduced which provides a flexible approach to jointly model metabolomic data and additional covariate information. The use of a mixture of PPCA models for discovering the number of inherent groups in metabolomic data is demonstrated. The jackknife technique is employed to construct confidence intervals for estimated model parameters throughout. The optimal number of principal components is determined through the use of the Bayesian Information Criterion model selection tool, which is modified to address the high dimensionality of the data. Conclusions The methods presented are illustrated through an application to metabolomic data sets. Jointly modeling metabolomic data and covariates was successfully achieved and has the potential to provide deeper insight to the underlying data structure. Examination of confidence intervals for the model parameters, such as loadings, allows for principled and clear interpretation of the underlying data structure. A software package called MetabolAnalyze, freely available through the R statistical software, has been developed to facilitate implementation of the presented methods in the metabolomics field.

  8. Metabolomic applications in radiation biodosimetry: exploring radiation effects through small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fornace, Albert J; Laiakis, Evagelia C

    2017-10-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation has increased in the past decades, primarily due to long distance travel and medical procedures. On the other hand, accidental exposures, nuclear accidents, and elevated threats of terrorism with the potential detonation of a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device in a major city, all have led to increased needs for rapid biodosimetry and assessment of exposure to different radiation qualities and scenarios. Metabolomics, the qualitative and quantitative assessment of small molecules in a given biological specimen, has emerged as a promising technology to allow for rapid determination of an individual's exposure level and metabolic phenotype. Advancements in mass spectrometry techniques have led to untargeted (discovery phase, global assessment) and targeted (quantitative phase) methods not only to identify biomarkers of radiation exposure, but also to assess general perturbations of metabolism with potential long-term consequences, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and pulmonary disease. Metabolomics of radiation exposure has provided a highly informative snapshot of metabolic dysregulation. Biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids and biospecimens (urine, blood, saliva, sebum, fecal material) from mouse, rat, and minipig models, to non-human primates and humans have provided the basis for determination of a radiation signature to assess the need for medical intervention. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the current status of radiation metabolomic studies for the purpose of rapid high-throughput radiation biodosimetry in easily accessible biofluids and discuss future directions of radiation metabolomics research.

  9. Metabolomics: beyond biomarkers and towards mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caroline H.; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Siuzdak, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics, which is the profiling of metabolites in biofluids, cells and tissues, is routinely applied as a tool for biomarker discovery. Owing to innovative developments in informatics and analytical technologies, and the integration of orthogonal biological approaches, it is now possible to expand metabolomic analyses to understand the systems-level effects of metabolites. Moreover, because of the inherent sensitivity of metabolomics, subtle alterations in biological pathways can be detected to provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological conditions and aberrant processes, including diseases. PMID:26979502

  10. Metabolomics applied to the pancreatic islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Jessica R; Jensen, Mette V; Newgard, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics, the characterization of the set of small molecules in a biological system, is advancing research in multiple areas of islet biology. Measuring a breadth of metabolites simultaneously provides a broad perspective on metabolic changes as the islets respond dynamically to metabolic fuels, hormones, or environmental stressors. As a result, metabolomics has the potential to provide new mechanistic insights into islet physiology and pathophysiology. Here we summarize advances in our understanding of islet physiology and the etiologies of type-1 and type-2 diabetes gained from metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mathematical Modeling Approaches in Plant Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtauer, Lisa; Weiszmann, Jakob; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Nägele, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The experimental analysis of a plant metabolome typically results in a comprehensive and multidimensional data set. To interpret metabolomics data in the context of biochemical regulation and environmental fluctuation, various approaches of mathematical modeling have been developed and have proven useful. In this chapter, a general introduction to mathematical modeling is presented and discussed in context of plant metabolism. A particular focus is laid on the suitability of mathematical approaches to functionally integrate plant metabolomics data in a metabolic network and combine it with other biochemical or physiological parameters.

  12. Feline urine metabolomic signature: characterization of low-molecular-weight substances in urine from domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vélez, Sol-Maiam; Villarino, Nicolas F

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats. These molecules are key components of at least 100 metabolic pathways. Feline urine appears to be dominated by carbohydrates, carbohydrate conjugates, organic acid and derivatives, and amino acids and analogs. The five most abundant molecules were phenaceturic acid, hippuric acid, pseudouridine phosphate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Conclusions and relevance This study is the first to characterize the feline urine metabolome. The results of this study revealed the presence of multiple low-molecular-weight substances that were not known to be present in feline urine. As expected, the origin of the metabolites detected in urine was diverse, including endogenous compounds and molecules biosynthesized by microbes. Also, the diet seemed to have had a relevant role on the urine metabolome. Further exploration of the urine metabolic phenotype will open a window for discovering unknown, or poorly understood, metabolic pathways. In turn, this will advance our understanding of feline biology and lead to new insights in feline physiology, nutrition and medicine.

  13. Short overview on metabolomic approach and redox changes in psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Nedic Erjavec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are severe mental disorders and complicated diagnostic entities, due to their phenotypic, biological and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and poorly understood alterations in biological pathways and biological mechanisms. Disturbed homeostasis between overproduction of oxidant species, overcoming redox regulation and a lack of cellular antioxidant defenses, resulting in free radical-mediated pathology and subsequent neurotoxicity contributes to development of depression, schizophrenia and PTSD, their heterogeneous clinical presentation and resistance to treatment. Metabolomics is a discipline that combines different strategies with the aim to extract, detect, identify and quantify all metabolites that are present in a biological sample and might provide mechanistic insights into the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Therefore, oxidative stress research combined with metabolomics might offer a novel approach in dissecting psychiatric disorders, since these data-driven but not necessarily hypothesis-driven methods might identify new targets, molecules and pathways responsible for development of schizophrenia, depression or PTSD. Findings from the oxidative research in psychiatry together with metabolomics data might facilitate development of specific and validated prognostic, therapeutic and clinical biomarkers. These methods might reveal bio-signatures of individual patients, leading to individualized treatment approach. In reviewing findings related to oxidative stress and metabolomics in selected psychiatric disorders, we have highlighted how these novel approaches might make a unique contribution to deeper understanding of psychopathological alterations underlying schizophrenia, depression and PTSD. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Depression, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Metabolomics, Biomarkers

  14. Chicken hepatic response to chronic heat stress using integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F Jastrebski

    Full Text Available The liver plays a central role in metabolism and is important in maintaining homeostasis throughout the body. This study integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic data to understand how the liver responds under chronic heat stress. Chickens from a rapidly growing broiler line were heat stressed for 8 hours per day for one week and liver samples were collected at 28 days post hatch. Transcriptome analysis reveals changes in genes responsible for cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair along with immune function. Integrating the metabolome and transcriptome data highlighted multiple pathways affected by heat stress including glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism along with glutathione production and beta-oxidation.

  15. A combined metabolomic and phylogenetic study reveals putatively prebiotic effects of high molecular weight arabino-oligosaccharides when assessed by in vitro fermentation in bacterial communities derived from humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulek, Karolina; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Schmidt, Line Rieck

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are defined by their selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system in ways claimed to be beneficial for health. However, apart from the short chain fatty acids, little is known about bacterial metabolites created by fermentation...... of prebiotics, and the significance of the size of the oligosaccharides remains largely unstudied. By in vitro fermentations in human fecal microbial communities (derived from six different individuals), we studied the effects of high-mass (HA, >1 kDa), low-mass (LA, ... plant structures. Additionally, the combination of qPCR and LC–MS revealed a number of other putative interactions between intestinal microbes and the oligosaccharides, which contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms behind prebiotic impact on human health....

  16. High-resolution mapping of a fruit firmness-related quantitative trait locus in tomato reveals epistatic interactions associated with a complex combinatorial locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Natalie H; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-08-01

    Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Fir(s.p.)QTL2.1 to Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

  17. Clusters of Insomnia Disorder: An Exploratory Cluster Analysis of Objective Sleep Parameters Reveals Differences in Neurocognitive Functioning, Quantitative EEG, and Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher B.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Mullins, Anna E.; Dodds, Kirsty L.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Kyle, Simon D.; Kim, Jong Won; D'Rozario, Angela L.; Lee, Rico S.C.; Comas, Maria; Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Yee, Brendon J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative (q)-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters. Results: From 96 volunteers with Insomnia Disorder, cluster analysis derived at least two clusters from objective sleep parameters: Insomnia with normal objective sleep duration (I-NSD: n = 53) and Insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD: n = 43). At sleep onset, differences in HRV between I-NSD and I-SSD clusters suggest attenuated parasympathetic activity in I-SSD (P insomnia clusters derived from cluster analysis differ in sleep onset HRV. Preliminary data suggest evidence for three clusters in insomnia with differences for sustained attention and sleep-onset q-EEG. Clinical Trial Registration: Insomnia 100 sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) identification number 12612000049875. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=347742. Citation: Miller CB, Bartlett DJ, Mullins AE, Dodds KL, Gordon CJ, Kyle SD, Kim JW, D'Rozario AL, Lee RS, Comas M, Marshall NS, Yee BJ, Espie CA, Grunstein RR. Clusters of Insomnia Disorder: an exploratory cluster analysis of objective sleep parameters reveals differences in neurocognitive functioning, quantitative EEG, and heart rate variability. SLEEP 2016;39(11):1993–2004. PMID:27568796

  18. Evaluation of intensity drift correction strategies using MetaboDrift, a normalization tool for multi-batch metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonusin, Chanisa; IglayReger, Heidi B; Soni, Tanu; Rothberg, Amy E; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R

    2017-11-10

    In recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has increasingly been applied to large-scale epidemiological studies of human subjects. However, the successful use of metabolomics in this context is subject to the challenge of detecting biologically significant effects despite substantial intensity drift that often occurs when data are acquired over a long period or in multiple batches. Numerous computational strategies and software tools have been developed to aid in correcting for intensity drift in metabolomics data, but most of these techniques are implemented using command-line driven software and custom scripts which are not accessible to all end users of metabolomics data. Further, it has not yet become routine practice to assess the quantitative accuracy of drift correction against techniques which enable true absolute quantitation such as isotope dilution mass spectrometry. We developed an Excel-based tool, MetaboDrift, to visually evaluate and correct for intensity drift in a multi-batch liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics dataset. The tool enables drift correction based on either quality control (QC) samples analyzed throughout the batches or using QC-sample independent methods. We applied MetaboDrift to an original set of clinical metabolomics data from a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). The performance of the method was evaluated for multiple classes of metabolites by comparison with normalization using isotope-labeled internal standards. QC sample-based intensity drift correction significantly improved correlation with IS-normalized data, and resulted in detection of additional metabolites with significant physiological response to the MMTT. The relative merits of different QC-sample curve fitting strategies are discussed in the context of batch size and drift pattern complexity. Our drift correction tool offers a practical, simplified approach to drift correction and batch combination in large metabolomics studies

  19. NMR and pattern recognition methods in metabolomics: From data acquisition to biomarker discovery: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinska, Agnieszka, E-mail: A.Smolinska@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blanchet, Lionel [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Biochemistry, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Buydens, Lutgarde M.C.; Wijmenga, Sybren S. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-10-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Procedures for acquisition of different biofluids by NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent developments in metabolic profiling of different biofluids by NMR are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crucial steps involved in data preprocessing and multivariate chemometric analysis are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emphasis is given on recent findings on Multiple Sclerosis via NMR and pattern recognition methods. - Abstract: Metabolomics is the discipline where endogenous and exogenous metabolites are assessed, identified and quantified in different biological samples. Metabolites are crucial components of biological system and highly informative about its functional state, due to their closeness to functional endpoints and to the organism's phenotypes. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, next to Mass Spectrometry (MS), is one of the main metabolomics analytical platforms. The technological developments in the field of NMR spectroscopy have enabled the identification and quantitative measurement of the many metabolites in a single sample of biofluids in a non-targeted and non-destructive manner. Combination of NMR spectra of biofluids and pattern recognition methods has driven forward the application of metabolomics in the field of biomarker discovery. The importance of metabolomics in diagnostics, e.g. in identifying biomarkers or defining pathological status, has been growing exponentially as evidenced by the number of published papers. In this review, we describe the developments in data acquisition and multivariate analysis of NMR-based metabolomics data, with particular emphasis on the metabolomics of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and biomarker discovery in Multiple Sclerosis (MScl).

  20. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges...