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Sample records for quantitative indices reflecting

  1. Global quantitative indices reflecting provider process-of-care: data-base derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2010-04-19

    Controversy has attended the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care. There would be advantage in the establishment, at the data-base level, of global quantitative indices subsuming the diversity of process-of-care. A retrospective, cohort study of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 1993-2003, at the level of geographic and ICU-level descriptors (n = 35), for both hospital survivors and non-survivors. Process-of-care indices were established by analysis of: (i) the smoothed time-hazard curve of individual patient discharge and determined by pharmaco-kinetic methods as area under the hazard-curve (AUC), reflecting the integrated experience of the discharge process, and time-to-peak-hazard (TMAX, in days), reflecting the time to maximum rate of hospital discharge; and (ii) individual patient ability to optimize output (as length-of-stay) for recorded data-base physiological inputs; estimated as a technical production-efficiency (TE, scaled [0,(maximum)1]), via the econometric technique of stochastic frontier analysis. For each descriptor, multivariate correlation-relationships between indices and summed mortality probability were determined. The data-set consisted of 223129 patients from 99 ICUs with mean (SD) age and APACHE III score of 59.2(18.9) years and 52.7(30.6) respectively; 41.7% were female and 45.7% were mechanically ventilated within the first 24 hours post-admission. For survivors, AUC was maximal in rural and for-profit ICUs, whereas TMAX (>or= 7.8 days) and TE (>or= 0.74) were maximal in tertiary-ICUs. For non-survivors, AUC was maximal in tertiary-ICUs, but TMAX (>or= 4.2 days) and TE (>or= 0.69) were maximal in for-profit ICUs. Across descriptors, significant differences in indices were demonstrated (analysis-of-variance, P variance, for survivors (0.89) and non-survivors (0.89), was maximized by combinations of indices demonstrating a low correlation with

  2. Global quantitative indices reflecting provider process-of-care: data-base derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Patricia J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy has attended the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care. There would be advantage in the establishment, at the data-base level, of global quantitative indices subsuming the diversity of process-of-care. Methods A retrospective, cohort study of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 1993-2003, at the level of geographic and ICU-level descriptors (n = 35, for both hospital survivors and non-survivors. Process-of-care indices were established by analysis of: (i the smoothed time-hazard curve of individual patient discharge and determined by pharmaco-kinetic methods as area under the hazard-curve (AUC, reflecting the integrated experience of the discharge process, and time-to-peak-hazard (TMAX, in days, reflecting the time to maximum rate of hospital discharge; and (ii individual patient ability to optimize output (as length-of-stay for recorded data-base physiological inputs; estimated as a technical production-efficiency (TE, scaled [0,(maximum1], via the econometric technique of stochastic frontier analysis. For each descriptor, multivariate correlation-relationships between indices and summed mortality probability were determined. Results The data-set consisted of 223129 patients from 99 ICUs with mean (SD age and APACHE III score of 59.2(18.9 years and 52.7(30.6 respectively; 41.7% were female and 45.7% were mechanically ventilated within the first 24 hours post-admission. For survivors, AUC was maximal in rural and for-profit ICUs, whereas TMAX (≥ 7.8 days and TE (≥ 0.74 were maximal in tertiary-ICUs. For non-survivors, AUC was maximal in tertiary-ICUs, but TMAX (≥ 4.2 days and TE (≥ 0.69 were maximal in for-profit ICUs. Across descriptors, significant differences in indices were demonstrated (analysis-of-variance, P ≤ 0.0001. Total explained variance, for survivors (0.89 and non-survivors (0.89, was maximized by

  3. Beyond nutrient-based food indices: a data mining approach to search for a quantitative holistic index reflecting the degree of food processing and including physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Lakhssassi, Sanaé; Briffaz, Aurélien

    2018-01-24

    Processing has major impacts on both the structure and composition of food and hence on nutritional value. In particular, high consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) is associated with increased risks of obesity and diabetes. Unfortunately, existing food indices only focus on food nutritional content while failing to consider either food structure or the degree of processing. The objectives of this study were thus to link non-nutrient food characteristics (texture, water activity (a w ), glycemic and satiety potentials (FF), and shelf life) to the degree of processing; search for associations between these characteristics with nutritional composition; search for a holistic quantitative technological index; and determine quantitative rules for a food to be defined as UPF using data mining. Among the 280 most widely consumed foods by the elderly in France, 139 solid/semi-solid foods were selected for textural and a w measurements, and classified according to three degrees of processing. Our results showed that minimally-processed foods were less hyperglycemic, more satiating, had better nutrient profile, higher a w , shorter shelf life, lower maximum stress, and higher energy at break than UPFs. Based on 72 food variables, multivariate analyses differentiated foods according to their degree of processing. Then technological indices including food nutritional composition, a w , FF and textural parameters were tested against technological groups. Finally, a LIM score (nutrients to limit) ≥8 per 100 kcal and a number of ingredients/additives >4 are relevant, but not sufficient, rules to define UPFs. We therefore suggest that food health potential should be first defined by its degree of processing.

  4. Safety culture management and quantitative indicator evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discuses a relationship between safety culture and evaluation of quantitative indicators. It shows how a systematic use of generally shared operational safety indicators may contribute to formation and reinforcement of safety culture characteristics in routine plant operation. The report also briefly describes the system of operational safety indicators used at the Dukovany plant. It is a PC database application enabling an effective work with the indicators and providing all users with an efficient tool for making synoptic overviews of indicator values in their links and hierarchical structure. Using color coding, the system allows quick indicator evaluation against predefined limits considering indicator value trends. The system, which has resulted from several-year development, was completely established at the plant during the years 2001 and 2002. (author)

  5. QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS OF THE SECURITIZATION OF ASSETS

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    Denis VOSTRICOV

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Securitization is instrumental in return on capital increment through the withdrawal from the balance oflending activities being accompanied by off-balance incomes flow from fees, which are less capital-intensive. Thepurpose of this paper is to analyze the quantitative indicators characterizing the securitization of assets. For draftingthis article, the method of analysis, synthesis method, logic and dialectic method, normative method, the study ofstatistical sampling and time series of expert evaluations (Standard and Poor’s, personal observations, andmonographic studies have been used. The main difference between the securitization of assets from traditional waysof financing is related to the achievement of a plenty of secondary goals in attracting financial resources, whichcan play a significant role in choosing to favour the securitization of assets or other types of financing. Inparticular, it gives a possibility to write off the assets from the balance sheet along with the relevant obligationsunder the securities, to expand the range of potential investors accompanied by the reducing of credit risk, interestrate and liquidity risk, as well as to improve the management quality of assets, liabilities and risks. All of thesesecondary effects are achieved by the isolation of selected assets from the total credit risk of the enterprise, raisingits funds, which forms the pivotal actuality and significance of asset securitization. The article containsdemonstrations of quantitative and qualitative indicators characterizing the securitization of assets.

  6. Transmission versus reflectance spectroscopy for quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Craig M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the accuracy of analyte concentration estimation when using transmission versus diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of a scattering medium. Monte Carlo ray tracing of light through the medium was used in conjunction with pure component absorption spectra and Beer-Lambert absorption along each ray's pathlength to generate matched sets of pseudoabsorbance spectra, containing water and six analytes present in skin. PLS regression models revealed an improvement in accuracy when using transmission compared to reflectance for a range of medium thicknesses and instrument noise levels. An analytical expression revealed the source of the accuracy degradation with reflectance was due both to the reduced collection efficiency for a fixed instrument etendue and to the broad pathlength distribution that detected light travels in the medium before exiting from the incident side.

  7. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Kozelová; Dana Országhová; Milan Fiľa; Zuzana Čmiková

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific heal...

  8. Quantitative interpretations of Visible-NIR reflectance spectra of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M; Smith, Jennifer M; Huffman, Debra E; Leparc, German F; García-Rubio, Luis H

    2008-10-27

    This paper illustrates the implementation of a new theoretical model for rapid quantitative analysis of the Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra of blood cultures. This new model is based on the photon diffusion theory and Mie scattering theory that have been formulated to account for multiple scattering populations and absorptive components. This study stresses the significance of the thorough solution of the scattering and absorption problem in order to accurately resolve for optically relevant parameters of blood culture components. With advantages of being calibration-free and computationally fast, the new model has two basic requirements. First, wavelength-dependent refractive indices of the basic chemical constituents of blood culture components are needed. Second, multi-wavelength measurements or at least the measurements of characteristic wavelengths equal to the degrees of freedom, i.e. number of optically relevant parameters, of blood culture system are required. The blood culture analysis model was tested with a large number of diffuse reflectance spectra of blood culture samples characterized by an extensive range of the relevant parameters.

  9. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  10. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  11. Quantitative Indicators for Behaviour Drift Detection from Home Automation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Fabio; Masciadri, Andrea; Comai, Sara; Matteucci, Matteo; Salice, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Smart Homes diffusion provides an opportunity to implement elderly monitoring, extending seniors' independence and avoiding unnecessary assistance costs. Information concerning the inhabitant behaviour is contained in home automation data, and can be extracted by means of quantitative indicators. The application of such approach proves it can evidence behaviour changes.

  12. The profile of quantitative risk indicators in Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Basic, I.; Bilic-Zabric, T.; Spiler, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade strong initiative was observed which was aimed at incorporating information on risk into various aspects of operation of nuclear power plants. The initiative was observable in activities carried out by regulators as well as utilities and industry. It resulted in establishing the process, or procedure, which is often referred to as integrated decision making or risk informed decision making. In this process, engineering analyses and evaluations that are usually termed traditional and that rely on considerations of safety margins and defense in depth are supplemented by quantitative indicators of risk. Throughout the process, the plant risk was most commonly expressed in terms of likelihood of events involving damage to the reactor core and events with radiological releases to the environment. These became two commonly used quantitative indicators or metrics of plant risk (or, reciprocally, plant safety). They were evaluated for their magnitude (e.g. the expected number of events per specified time interval), as well as their profile (e.g. the types of contributing events). The information for quantitative risk indicators (to be used in risk informing process) is obtained from plant's probabilistic safety analyses or analyses of hazards. It is dependable on issues such as availability of input data or quality of model or analysis. Nuclear power plant Krsko has recently performed Periodic Safety Review, which was a good opportunity to evaluate and integrate the plant specific information on quantitative plant risk indicators and their profile. The paper discusses some aspects of quantitative plant risk profile and its perception.(author)

  13. Quantitative indicators of the impacts generated in lineal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina N, Jesus Efren; Lema T, Alvaro de J.

    2002-01-01

    This work outlines a methodological proposal for the elaboration of quantitative indicators of the impact caused by electrical power transmission projects, using the perspective of the model of environmental administration by dimensions (physical, biotic, cultural, economic, and political). The model achieved an integral and interdisciplinary analysis, managing to determine what the degree of impact that a project generates on a dimension and its relationships to the others, moreover the indicators identified are useful tools that should help support planning, project formulation, decisions making, and environmental studies, such as: environmental management plans and greater efficiency in the estimation of administrative costs, as well as in the techniques of generating location alternatives, and also may lead to better administration of economic and human resources, among others

  14. Two quantitative forecasting methods for macroeconomic indicators in Czech Republic

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    Mihaela BRATU (SIMIONESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Econometric modelling and exponential smoothing techniques are two quantitative forecasting methods with good results in practice, but the objective of the research was to find out which of the two techniques are better for short run predictions. Therefore, for inflation, unemployment and interest rate in Czech Republic some accuracy indicators were calculated for the predictions based on these methods. Short run forecasts on a horizon of 3 months were made for December 2011-February 2012, the econometric models being updated. For Czech Republic, the exponential smoothing techniques provided more accurate forecasts than the econometric models (VAR(2 models, ARMA procedure and models with lagged variables. One explication for the better performance of smoothing techniques would be that in the chosen countries the short run predictions more influenced by the recent evolution of the indicators.

  15. Using Digital Archives in Quantitative Discourse Studies: Methodological Reflections

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    Kobie Van Krieken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This methodological essay discusses the possibilities of using digital archives in quantitative discourse studies. I illustrate these possibilities by discussing a study in which the digital archive Delpher was used to build a relatively large corpus of newspaper narratives (N=300 in order to test hypotheses about the historical development of linguistic features associated with objective and subjective reporting. The large amount of data collected in digital archives like Delpher facilitates the construction of corpora for such hypothesis-driven studies. However, the collection of newspaper articles on Delpher in fact constitutes only a small, non-random and continuously changing selection of all available data. Due to these characteristics, the use of Delpher jeopardizes two core values of quantitative empirical research: the generalizability and the replicability of findings. Although these issues cannot be easily overcome, I argue that digital archives have the potential to broaden the methodological scope of discourse studies and increase the overall significance of the field.

  16. Intramyocardial oxygen transport by quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbergh, Tobias; Larsson, Marcus; Szabó, Zoltán; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Intramyocardial oxygen transport was assessed during open-chest surgery in calves by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a small intramuscular fiber-optic probe. The sum of hemo- and myoglobin tissue fraction and oxygen saturation, the tissue fraction and oxidation of cytochrome aa3, and the tissue fraction of methemoglobin were estimated using a calibrated empirical light transport model. Increasing the oxygen content in the inhaled gas, 21%-50%-100%, in five calves (group A) gave an increasing oxygen saturation of 19+/-4%, 24+/-5%, and 28+/-8% (panimals increased with LVAD pump speed (p<0.001, ANOVA) and with oxygen content in inhaled gas (p<0.001, ANOVA). The cytochrome aa3 oxidation level was above 96% in both group A and group B calves, including the two cases involving cardiac arrest. In conclusion, the estimated tissue fractions and oxygenation/oxidation levels of the myocardial chromophores during respiratory and hemodynamic provocations were in agreement with previously presented results, demonstrating the potential of the method.

  17. Bibliometric indicators: spread reflections for a focusing and conscious use

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    Tessa Piazzini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel mondo scientifico e accademico l'uso di indicatori bibliometrici è ormai largamente diffuso ed è diventato un  parametro di giudizio per assegnare fondi di ricerca e valutare i risultati degli investimenti. Lo scopo di questo articolo è quello di fornire, senza alcuna pretesa di completezza, spunti di riflessione e consigli pratici per un utilizzo consapevole degli indicatori bibliometrici più consolidati, segnalandone i limiti e le peculiarità. Oltre al più noto e discusso indicatore bibliometrico, l'Impact factor, sono stati sviluppati negli ultimi anni alcuni sistemi alternativi legati all'open acess. Le più valide alternative sono rappresentate da Scimago, strumento gratuitamente consultabile on-line nato da un gruppo di ricerca del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC in collaborazione con alcune università spagnole e Eigenfactor, progetto di ricerca accademica non-commerciale sponsorizzato dal Bergstrom lab dell’Università di Washington. Molto affermato è infine l'H-index (o Indice di Hirsch, messo a punto nel 2005 da Jorge E. Hirsch professore all’Università della California di San Diego. Questo recente indice cerca di ridimensionare alcuni eccessi del Citation index, equilibrando e rendendo compatibili autori molto prolifici, ma con un basso numero di citazioni per articolo e studiosi meno produttivi, ma con un alto rapporto citazione/articolo.

  18. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R.; Garcia-Heras, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies

  19. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  20. Establishment of a Quantitative Medical Technology Evaluation System and Indicators within Medical Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Chen, Tong; Pan, Qi; Wei, Liang-Yu; Wang, Qin; Li, Chao; Song, Jing-Chen; Luo, Ji

    2018-06-05

    The development and application of medical technologies reflect the medical quality and clinical capacity of a hospital. It is also an effective approach in upgrading medical service and core competitiveness among medical institutions. This study aimed to build a quantitative medical technology evaluation system through questionnaire survey within medical institutions to perform an assessment to medical technologies more objectively and accurately, and promote the management of medical quality technologies and ensure the medical safety of various operations among the hospitals. A two-leveled quantitative medical technology evaluation system was built through a two-round questionnaire survey of chosen experts. The Delphi method was applied in identifying the structure of evaluation system and indicators. The judgment of the experts on the indicators was adopted in building the matrix so that the weight coefficient and maximum eigenvalue (λ max), consistency index (CI), and random consistency ratio (CR) could be obtained and collected. The results were verified through consistency tests, and the index weight coefficient of each indicator was conducted and calculated through analytical hierarchy process. Twenty-six experts of different medical fields were involved in the questionnaire survey, 25 of whom successfully responded to the two-round research. Altogether, 4 primary indicators (safety, effectiveness, innovativeness, and benefits), as well as 13 secondary indicators, were included in the evaluation system. The matrix is built to conduct the λ max, CI, and CR of each expert in the survey, and the index weight coefficients of primary indicators were 0.33, 0.28, 0.27, and 0.12, respectively, and the index weight coefficients of secondary indicators were conducted and calculated accordingly. As the two-round questionnaire survey of experts and statistical analysis were performed and credibility of the results was verified through consistency evaluation test, the

  1. Characterization and quantitative determination of calcium aluminate clinker phases through reflected light microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano Junior, E.; Cunha Munhoz, F.A. da; Splettstoser Junior, J.; Placido, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    The identification and quantitative determination of phases in calcium aluminate clinker is of great importance to the producer, as it enables a better understanding of the cement and concrete properties, specially those concerning setting time and compressive strenght. Polished sections of three electrofused clinkers, one experimental and two industrial, were used to select the most suitable etchings in order to identify by microscopy the main phases (Ca, CA 2 , C 2 AS, C 12 A 7 , α-Al 2 O 3 ). Quantitative phases determinations by reflected light microscopy showed good results when compared to X-ray diffractometry measurements [pt

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Political Fragility Indices and Food Prices as Indicators of Food Riots in Countries

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    Davide Natalini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of resources on social unrest is of increasing interest to political leaders, business and civil society. Recent events have highlighted that (lack of access to critical resources, including food, energy and water, can, in certain circumstances, lead to violent demonstrations. In this paper, we assess a number of political fragility indices to see whether they are good indicators of propensity to food riots. We found that the most accurate is the Political Instability and Absence of Violence Indicator of the Worldwide Governance Indicators by the World Bank. We compute a likelihood of experiencing a food riot for each quartile of this index. We found that the self-sufficiency of food does not seem to affect the likelihood of the occurrence of food riots, but that the level of political stability of a country does have a role. In addition, we identify a monthly and annual threshold for the Food and Agriculture Organisation Food Price Index, above which food riots in fragile states are more likely to occur.

  3. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  4. Reflections on the Introduction of Quantitative Assessment in Persuasive Writing Classes

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    Paul H. Grawe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If quantitative reasoning is to be a legitimate part of composition curricula, it must be seen as a valuable tool for composition instructors to use in exploring their own subject. Composition instructors must see the relevance of QR not merely to their students in other subject areas but also directly in their literary and rhetorical studies and careers. Here we reflect on a highly successful program of using quantitative techniques in teaching advanced levels of professional rhetoric, namely persuasive speech and writing. We recount our 15-year experience of running an in-class, empirical and progressive experiment in group negotiations, the Legislative Simulation (LS. The LS provided statistically significant results, some eye-opening, reported in various publications, but here our reflections concern what such an experiment tells us about opportunities and challenges of using quantitative techniques for the improvement of teaching rhetoric in and for itself. It is clear from our experience that QR takes on a somewhat different appearance within the humanities requiring adjustments in pedagogy and expectations. None of the challenges, however, are insuperable, and the rewards for the discipline as well as for a quantitatively competent university are very great.

  5. Quantitative Determination of Pole Figures with a Texture Goniometer by the Reflection Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Manfred

    1962-03-15

    For different slit systems of a modern texture goniometer (type Siemens) the X-ray intensity reflected from textureless plane samples has been measured as function of the tilt angle {phi} and Bragg angle {theta}. The intensity curves obtained generally enable quantitative and almost complete pole figure determinations to be made with only one reflection recording, even for materials with high line density. Investigations on rolled uranium sheet with CuK{sub {alpha}} radiation showed that for reliable chart records up to {phi} {approx} 70 deg on reflections with an angular separation of only {delta}(2{theta}) = 0.7 deg, the vertical receiving slit must be limited to at least 1 mm when using a horizontal main slit of 0.5 mm, Though in this case the intensity drop off resulting from defocusing from the flat sample surface is considerable even at small tilt angles, a correction of intensity is possible also at large angles within an accuracy of {+-} 5 %. Moreover, different pole figures for one material can be compared quantitatively, without constant slit settings and recording conditions being necessary, if the intensity values of the contour lines are always referred to the background radiation.

  6. Quantitative surface topography determination by Nomarski reflection microscopy. 2: Microscope modification, calibration, and planar sample experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J.S.; Gordon, R.L.; Lessor, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    The application of reflective Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy for the determination of quantitative sample topography data is presented. The discussion includes a review of key theoretical results presented previously plus the experimental implementation of the concepts using a commercial Momarski microscope. The experimental work included the modification and characterization of a commercial microscope to allow its use for obtaining quantitative sample topography data. System usage for the measurement of slopes on flat planar samples is also discussed. The discussion has been designed to provide the theoretical basis, a physical insight, and a cookbook procedure for implementation to allow these results to be of value to both those interested in the microscope theory and its practical usage in the metallography laboratory

  7. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  8. Variation of MODIS reflectance and vegetation indices with viewing geometry and soybean development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Fábio M; Galvão, Lênio S; Formaggio, Antônio R; Epiphanio, José C N

    2012-06-01

    Directional effects introduce a variability in reflectance and vegetation index determination, especially when large field-of-view sensors are used (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS). In this study, we evaluated directional effects on MODIS reflectance and four vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI; Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI; Normalized Difference Water Index - NDWI(1640) and NDWI(2120)) with the soybean development in two growing seasons (2004-2005 and 2005-2006). To keep the reproductive stage for a given cultivar as a constant factor while varying viewing geometry, pairs of images obtained in close dates and opposite view angles were analyzed. By using a non-parametric statistics with bootstrapping and by normalizing these indices for angular differences among viewing directions, their sensitivities to directional effects were studied. Results showed that the variation in MODIS reflectance between consecutive phenological stages was generally smaller than that resultant from viewing geometry for closed canopies. The contrary was observed for incomplete canopies. The reflectance of the first seven MODIS bands was higher in the backscattering. Except for the EVI, the other vegetation indices had larger values in the forward scattering direction. Directional effects decreased with canopy closure. The NDVI was lesser affected by directional effects than the other indices, presenting the smallest differences between viewing directions for fixed phenological stages.

  9. Hyperspectral indices for detecting changes in canopy reflectance as a result of underground natural gas leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.; Smith, K.L.; Colls, J.J.; Steven, M.D.; Skidmore, A.K.; Meer, van der F.D.

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas leakage from underground pipelines is known to affect vegetation adversely, probably by displacement of the soil oxygen needed for respiration. This causes changes in plant and canopy reflectance, which may serve as indicators of gas leakage. In this study, a covariance analysis was

  10. Behavior Drift Detection Based on Anomalies Identification in Home Living Quantitative Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Veronese; Andrea Masciadri; Sara Comai; Matteo Matteucci; Fabio Salice

    2018-01-01

    Home Automation and Smart Homes diffusion are providing an interesting opportunity to implement elderly monitoring. This is a new valid technological support to allow in-place aging of seniors by means of a detection system to notify potential anomalies. Monitoring has been implemented by means of Complex Event Processing on live streams of home automation data: this allows the analysis of the behavior of the house inhabitant through quantitative indicators. Different kinds of quantitative in...

  11. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  12. Attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a quantitative approach for kidney stone analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J; Haas, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Katherine A; Evan, Andrew P; Sommer, André J

    2009-07-01

    The impact of kidney stone disease is significant worldwide, yet methods for quantifying stone components remain limited. A new approach requiring minimal sample preparation for the quantitative analysis of kidney stone components has been investigated utilizing attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR). Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and hydroxylapatite (HAP), two of the most common constituents of urinary stones, were used for quantitative analysis. Calibration curves were constructed using integrated band intensities of four infrared absorptions versus concentration (weight %). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves range from 0.997 to 0.93. The limits of detection range from 0.07 +/- 0.02% COM/HAP where COM is the analyte and HAP is the matrix, to 0.26 +/- 0.07% HAP/COM where HAP is the analyte and COM is the matrix. This study shows that linear calibration curves can be generated for the quantitative analysis of stone mixtures provided the system is well understood especially with respect to particle size.

  13. Biodiversity Measurement Using Indices Based on Hyperspectral Reflectance on the Coast of Lagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, E. O.; Salami, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperspectral measurements provide explicit measurements which can be used in the analysis of biodiversity change. This study was carried out in the coastal area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine if gasoline seepage affects vegetation species distribution and reflectance; with the view to analyzing the vegetation condition. To evaluate the potential of different reflectance spectroscopy of species, the ASD Handheld2 Spectrometer was used. Three identified impacted plots of 30m by 30m were selected randomly and a control plot established in relatively undisturbed vegetated areas away from but perpendicular to the source of seepage. Each identified plot and the control consisted of five transects and measurement were taken at every 2m with about four reflectance measurement per sample point, to average out differences in reflectance as a result of different leaf angles. The radiance output of the spectrometer was converted into reflectance using the reflectance of a white reference over a standardized white spectralon panel. Indices such as Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, RedEdge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Ratio Vegetation Index and Volgelmann RedEdge Index 1 were calculated to accurately estimate the chlorophyll content in the vegetation within optimal band wavelength. Shannon-Weiner's index, Spearman's rank correlation and Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data. Cocos nucifera was observed to be the most dominant species with a relative abundance of 47.27% while Ananas comosus recorded the lowest relative abundance of 21.8%. In the control plot, Cocos nucifera had the highest relative abundance of 42.3% and Mangifera indica with the least relative abundance of 16.7%. The relationship between the indices and chlorophyll content of the vegetation were significantly higher at (p>0.01) for all the indices in all the plots; however, RedEdgeNDVI and VOG1 indices had the

  14. Biomass and quantitative indices of phytoplankton in Mandovi-Zuari estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KrishnaKumari, L.; John, J.

    Biomass in terms of Chlorophyll a, cell density and quantitative indices of phytoplankton, from two estuarine stations and a coastal station off Goa has been studied during 1997-98. Biomass in terms of Chlorophyll a averaged 1.1, 1.3 and 1.4 mg...

  15. Establishment of a Quantitative Medical Technology Evaluation System and Indicators within Medical Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo-Wei Wu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: As the two-round questionnaire survey of experts and statistical analysis were performed and credibility of the results was verified through consistency evaluation test, the study established a quantitative medical technology evaluation system model and assessment indicators within medical institutions based on the Delphi method and analytical hierarchy process. Moreover, further verifications, adjustments, and optimizations of the system and indicators will be performed in follow-up studies.

  16. Response of Spectral Reflectances and Vegetation Indices on Varying Juniper Cone Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Juniper trees are widely distributed throughout the world and are common sources of allergies when microscopic pollen grains are transported by wind and inhaled. In this study, we investigated the spectral influences of pollen-discharging male juniper cones within a juniper canopy. This was done through a controlled outdoor experiment involving ASD FieldSpec Pro Spectroradiometer measurements over juniper canopies of varying cone densities. Broadband and narrowband spectral reflectance and vegetation index (VI patterns were evaluated as to their sensitivity and their ability to discriminate the presence of cones. The overall aim of this research was to assess remotely sensed phenological capabilities to detect pollen-bearing juniper trees for public health applications. A general decrease in reflectance values with increasing juniper cone density was found, particularly in the Green (545–565 nm and NIR (750–1,350 nm regions. In contrast, reflectances in the shortwave-infrared (SWIR, 2,000 nm to 2,350 nm region decreased from no cone presence to intermediate amounts (90 g/m2 and then increased from intermediate levels to the highest cone densities (200 g/m2. Reflectance patterns in the Red (620–700 nm were more complex due to shifting contrast patterns in absorptance between cones and juniper foliage, where juniper foliage is more absorbing than cones only within the intense narrowband region of maximum chlorophyll absorption near 680 nm. Overall, narrowband reflectances were more sensitive to cone density changes than the equivalent MODIS broadbands. In all VIs analyzed, there were significant relationships with cone density levels, particularly with the narrowband versions and the two-band vegetation index (TBVI based on Green and Red bands, a promising outcome for the use of phenocams in juniper phenology trait studies. These results indicate that spectral indices are sensitive to certain juniper phenologic traits that can potentially be

  17. The Feeling of Agency: Empirical Indicators for a Pre-Reflective Level of Action Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nicole; Stenzel, Anna; Schneider, Till R.; Engel, Andreas K.

    2011-01-01

    The sense of agency has been defined as the sense that I am the author of my own actions. This sense, however, is usually not reflected upon but instead pre-reflectively experienced. Experimental approaches usually measure the sense of agency by judgments or verbal reports, despite evidence that the sense of agency is not sufficiently assessed on such a reflective level. Here we sought to identify non-verbal measures of the sense of agency, particularly testing the relevance of physiological activity such as skin conductance and heart rate. Manipulating the visual feedback to an executed movement, we investigated how well physiological activity and other movement parameters differed between real and false feedback (i.e., between actual agency and non-agency), and how they related to accuracy of agency judgments. Skin conductance and heart rate did not differ between agency and non-agency situations; neither did they inform agency judgments. In contrast, movement onsets – particularly, discrepancies between feedback and movement onsets – were related to agency judgments. Overall, our results indicate weak visceral–somatic associations with the sense of agency. Thus, physiological activity did not prove to be an empirical indicator for the feeling of agency. PMID:21779268

  18. Variation of MODIS reflectance and vegetation indices with viewing geometry and soybean development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio M. Breunig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Directional effects introduce a variability in reflectance and vegetation index determination, especially when large field-of-view sensors are used (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS. In this study, we evaluated directional effects on MODIS reflectance and four vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI; Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI; Normalized Difference Water Index - NDWI1640 and NDWI2120 with the soybean development in two growing seasons (2004-2005 and 2005-2006. To keep the reproductive stage for a given cultivar as a constant factor while varying viewing geometry, pairs of images obtained in close dates and opposite view angles were analyzed. By using a non-parametric statistics with bootstrapping and by normalizing these indices for angular differences among viewing directions, their sensitivities to directional effects were studied. Results showed that the variation in MODIS reflectance between consecutive phenological stages was generally smaller than that resultant from viewing geometry for closed canopies. The contrary was observed for incomplete canopies. The reflectance of the first seven MODIS bands was higher in the backscattering. Except for the EVI, the other vegetation indices had larger values in the forward scattering direction. Directional effects decreased with canopy closure. The NDVI was lesser affected by directional effects than the other indices, presenting the smallest differences between viewing directions for fixed phenological stages.Efeitos direcionais introduzem variabilidade na reflectância e na determinação de índices de vegetação, especialmente quando sensores de amplo campo de visada são usados (p.ex., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS. Neste estudo, nós avaliamos os efeitos direcionais sobre a reflectância e quatro índices de vegetação (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI; Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI; Normalized

  19. Indicators of Internet usage: does the Internet reflect regional inequalities within Hungary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Csótó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to examine whether or not traditional regional differences in Hungary can be perceived and if they can, in what way does this relate to the use of information communication technologies (ICT. The authors analysed data from the Hungarian sample of the World Internet Project, and the results indicate that internet-useage reflects the existing imbalances, and it is the different composition of individual characteristics between rural and urban populations and between populations of different regions that account for the regional digital divides.

  20. Characterization and quantitation of aprepitant drug substance polymorphs by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Roy; Zhou, George X; Chen, Yadan W; Crocker, Louis; Wang, Tao; Wenslow, Robert M; Vailaya, Anant

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we report the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) for the identification and quantitation of two polymorphs of Aprepitant, a substance P antagonist for chemotherapy-induced emesis. Mixtures of the polymorph pair were prepared by weight and ATR-FT-IR spectra of the powdered samples were obtained over the wavelength range of 700-1500 cm(-1). Significant spectral differences between the two polymorphs at 1140 cm(-1) show that ATR-FT-IR can provide definitive identification of the polymorphs. To investigate the feasibility of ATR-FT-IR for quantitation of polymorphic forms of Aprepitant, a calibration plot was constructed with known mixtures of the two polymorphs by plotting the peak ratio of the second derivative of absorbance spectra against the weight percent of form II in the polymorphic mixture. Using this novel approach, 3 wt % of one crystal form could be detected in mixtures of the two polymorphs. The accuracy of ATR-FT-IR in determining polymorph purity of the drug substance was tested by comparing the results with those obtained by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD). Indeed, polymorphic purity results obtained by ATR-FT-IR were found to be in good agreement with the predictions made by XRPD and compared favorably with actual values in the known mixtures. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of ATR-FT-IR as a quick, easy, and inexpensive alternative to XRPD for the determination of polymorphic identity and purity of solid drug substances. The technique is ideally suited for polymorph analysis, because it is precise, accurate, and requires minimal sample preparation.

  1. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2012-08-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A complementary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-07-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.

  4. Indicators validation for the improvement of environmental and social impact quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Monterde-Diaz, Rafael; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria-Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and social impact quantitative assessment is an essential tool for the correct location of economic activities within the territory. The main problem of impact quantification lies in establishing the appropriateness of the instruments (indicators) utilised, such that their level of objectivity is the highest possible. To improve the quality of this kind of studies, the present contribution discusses this problematic question and its consequences and proposes a methodology for the validation of indicators. Finally, the methodology proposed is subjected to an observational and experimental test to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal. The test is performed on four indicators, which are designed ad hoc to assess alternatives in industrial facility location problems where the decision-making process has to be supported by an environmental and social impact assessment

  5. Modeling and Mapping of Soil Salinity with Reflectance Spectroscopy and Landsat Data Using Two Quantitative Methods (PLSR and MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nawar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of soil salinity levels is necessary for the prevention and mitigation of land degradation in arid environments. To assess the potential of remote sensing in estimating and mapping soil salinity in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, two predictive models were constructed based on the measured soil electrical conductivity (ECe and laboratory soil reflectance spectra resampled to Landsat sensor’s resolution. The models used were partial least squares regression (PLSR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS. The results indicated that a good prediction of the soil salinity can be made based on the MARS model (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 6.53, and ratio of performance to deviation (RPD = 1.96, which performed better than the PLSR model (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 6.95, and RPD = 1.82. The models were subsequently applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to the reflectance values derived from two Landsat images (2006 and 2012 to generate quantitative maps of the soil salinity. The resulting maps were validated successfully for 37 and 26 sampling points for 2006 and 2012, respectively, with R2 = 0.72 and 0.74 for 2006 and 2012, respectively, for the MARS model, and R2 = 0.71 and 0.73 for 2006 and 2012, respectively, for the PLSR model. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity, especially in areas with high levels of salinity. The method developed in this paper can be used for other satellite data, like those provided by Landsat 8, and can be applied in other arid and semi-arid environments.

  6. Behavior Drift Detection Based on Anomalies Identification in Home Living Quantitative Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Veronese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Home Automation and Smart Homes diffusion are providing an interesting opportunity to implement elderly monitoring. This is a new valid technological support to allow in-place aging of seniors by means of a detection system to notify potential anomalies. Monitoring has been implemented by means of Complex Event Processing on live streams of home automation data: this allows the analysis of the behavior of the house inhabitant through quantitative indicators. Different kinds of quantitative indicators for monitoring and behavior drift detection have been identified and implemented using the Esper complex event processing engine. The chosen solution permits us not only to exploit the queries when run “online”, but enables also “offline” (re-execution for testing and a posteriori analysis. Indicators were developed on both real world data and on realistic simulations. Tests were made on a dataset of 180 days: the obtained results prove that it is possible to evidence behavior changes for an evaluation of a person’s condition.

  7. Methods for quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectance measurements using an FTIR and a commercial integrating sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Hanssen, Leonard; Gonzalez, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Infrared integrating sphere measurements of solid samples are important in providing reference data for contact, standoff and remote sensing applications. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) we have developed protocols to measure both the directional-hemispherical ( and diffuse (d) reflectances of powders, liquids, and disks of powders and solid materials using a commercially available, matte gold-coated integrating sphere and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Detailed descriptions of the sphere alignment and its use for making these reflectance measurements are given. Diffuse reflectance values were found to be dependent on the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of the sample and the solid angle intercepted by the sphere’s specular exclusion port. To determine how well the sphere and protocols produce quantitative reflectance data, measurements were made of three diffuse and two specular standards prepared by the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA), LabSphere Infragold and Spectralon standards, hand-loaded sulfur and talc powder samples, and water. The five NIST standards behaved as expected: the three diffuse standards had a high degree of “diffuseness,” d/ = D > 0.9, whereas the two specular standards had D ≤ 0.03. The average absolute differences between the NIST and PNNL measurements of the NIST standards for both directional-hemispherical and diffuse reflectances are on the order of 0.01 reflectance units. Other quantitative differences between the PNNL-measured and calibration (where available) or literature reflectance values for these standards and materials are given and the possible origins of discrepancies are discussed. Random uncertainties and estimates of systematic uncertainties are presented. Corrections necessary to provide better agreement between the PNNL reflectance values as measured for the NIST standards and the NIST reflectance values for these same standards are also

  8. The photochemical reflectance index provides an optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Y S; Gamon, John A

    2015-04-01

    In evergreens, the seasonal down-regulation and reactivation of photosynthesis is largely invisible and difficult to assess with remote sensing. This invisible phenology may be changing as a result of climate change. To better understand the mechanism and timing of these hidden physiological transitions, we explored several assays and optical indicators of spring photosynthetic activation in conifers exposed to a boreal climate. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf pigments for evergreen conifer seedlings were monitored over 1 yr of a boreal climate with the addition of gas exchange during the spring. PRI, electron transport rate, pigment levels, light-use efficiency and photosynthesis all exhibited striking seasonal changes, with varying kinetics and strengths of correlation, which were used to evaluate the mechanisms and timing of spring activation. PRI and pigment pools were closely timed with photosynthetic reactivation measured by gas exchange. The PRI provided a clear optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation that was detectable at leaf and stand scales in conifers. We propose that PRI might provide a useful metric of effective growing season length amenable to remote sensing and could improve remote-sensing-driven models of carbon uptake in evergreen ecosystems. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica - A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Martin Doring

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM, a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2* and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman's rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1. Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding.

  10. Spectral reflectance analysis of longkong (Lansium domesticum Corr. bunches as an indicator for optimal harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewtubtim, P.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the appropriate harvesting time of Longkong bunches, the spectral reflectance of ripening bunches was investigated from images taken by a digital camera using red LED and green LED. Every day images were taken from selected bunches at a Longkong estate during the growth of the bunches from immaturity to the over-ripe phase, to trace the changes in color that correlate with the process of ripening. The images were analyzed by measuring the changes in the three basic colors i.e. red, green and blue, using a specially developed Color Analysis computer program of Longkong "fruit" (CAOL, and then the obtained results were compared with the sweet in form of total soluble solid (TSS:TA.The result showed that the blue light reflectance from red LED source (Br was selected as an indicator for harvesting Longkong bunches. Br was inversely proportional to ripeness of Longkong. The blue color intensity decreases linearly while TSS:TA increases monotonously. From our investigations, we suggest that the time interval to harvest Longkong should be within 96 ±7 days after the first flower blossom of that bunch takes place while blue level per pixel was in the range of 8.67-2.39. If Longkong bunch was cut while the blue color level was in the range of 8.67-5.53, its taste will be sweet and sour and strong enough for long distance shipment. But if the blue level per pixel was in the range of 5.52-2.39, it has a very good taste and is suitable a for sale in the local area. In addition, it was also found that the blue level per pixel usually decreased at the rate of 0.45 per day. This made is possible to predict the harvesting day by this technique.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation of some quantitative indices of wheat and the ultrastructure of wheat chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J; Marek, J; Hraska, S [Vysoka Skola Polnohospodarska, Nitra (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Slachtenia a Obrany Rastlin

    1977-01-01

    The effects were observed of acute gamma irradiation on dry seeds of Triticum aestivum var. erythrospermum (Koern.) Mansf., variety Kosutska, and Triticum monococcum (L.). Gamma radiation doses ranged from 0.258 C.kg/sup -1/ (1 kR) to 5.160 C.kg/sup -1/ (20 kR). Plant samples from pot experiments were analyzed as to the lengths of the first three leaves, production of dry matter and chloroplast ultrastructure. The studied quantitative indices, their variability and correlations are substantially dependent on the genotype of the tested species and on the applied radiation dose. Gamma radiation caused vesiculation and increase of chloroplasts, an increase in the grain number, a decline in the number of disks, a reduction of stroma thylakoids and a grouping of grana in the chloroplasts. The frequency of these changes is significantly influenced by the genotype of the tested species and by the applied radiation dose level.

  12. Strategic design assessment of a hotel company through qualitative and quantitative indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategic design process and subsequent evaluation of results and their feedback and control are key moments in the management of an organization. This is therefore a topic of great relevance today in all publications in this subject area, especially empirical studies that provide both quantitative and qualitative information on the performance of companies in dynamic sectors such as tourism. That is why this article focuses on assessing the effectiveness of different strategies: generic, growth and diversification of a hotel company in the Caribbean area through the financial performance indicators and other qualitative. Results presented correspond to 100% of the study population, all of which made possible the information needed to detect major deviations from the strategic approach and possible alternatives for improving the performance and future competitiveness of the different facilities hotel. So empirical research of a tourist destination in growth and consolidation, as well as also a generalizable methodology for diagnosis and strategic design of organizations is provided.

  13. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science

  14. The association between bone health indicated by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound and metabolic syndrome in Malaysian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Aminuddin, Amilia; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between bone health and metabolic syndrome (MS) have revealed heterogeneous results. There are limited studies employing bone quantitative ultrasonometry in evaluating this relationship. This study aimed to determine the relationship between MS and bone health in a group of Malaysian middle-aged and elderly men using bone quantitative ultrasonometry. This cross-sectional study recruited 309 free living Chinese and Malay men aged 40 years and above residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their demographic and anthropometric data were collected. Their calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) was measured using a CM-200 bone ultrasonometer. Their blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile, total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The joint interim MS definition was used for the classification of subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between SOS and indicators of MS and the presence of MS, with suitable adjustment for confounders. There was no significant difference in SOS value between MS and non-MS subjects (p > 0.05). The SOS values among subjects with different MS scores did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). There were no significant associations between SOS values and indicators of MS or the presence of MS (p > 0.05). The relationship between bone health and MS is not significant in Malaysian middle-aged and elderly men. A longitudinal study should be conducted to evaluate the association between bone loss and MS to confirm this finding.

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy of biochemical components as indicators of tea, Camellia Sinensis, quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Fei, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of reflectance spectroscopy to estimate the concentration of biochemical compounds related to tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) quality (total tea polyphenols and free amino acids) is demonstrated. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed to establish the relationship between

  16. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  17. Thixotropic Phenomena in Water: Quantitative Indicators of Casimir-Magnetic Transformations from Vacuum Oscillations (Virtual Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Persinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ~1.5 × 10−20 J which is considered a universal quantity and is associated with the movement of protons in water also relates to the ratio of the magnetic moment of a proton divided by its unit charge, multiplied by viscosity and applied over the O-H distance. There is quantitative evidence that thixotropy, the “spontaneous” increased viscosity in water when undisturbed, originates from the transformation of virtual particles or vacuum oscillations to real states through conversion of Casimir-magnetic energies that involve the frequency of the neutral hydrogen line and the upper bound threshold value for intergalactic magnetic fields. The results indicate that ½ of a single electron orbit is real (particle and the other ½ is virtual (wave. The matter equivalent per s for virtual-to-real states for electrons in 1 mL of water with a neutral pH is consistent with the numbers of protons (H+ and the measured range of molecules in the coherent domains for both width and duration of growth and is similar to widths of intergalactic dust grains from which planets and stars may condense. The de Broglie momentum for the lower boundary of the width of coherent domains multiplied by the fine structure velocity of an electron is concurrent with the quantum when one proton is being removed from another and when the upper boundary of the rest mass of a photon is transformed by the product of velocities for putative “entanglement” and light. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that components of thixotropy, such as specific domains of intercalated water molecules, could display excess correlations over very large distances. Because the energies of the universal quantity and water converge it may be a special conduit for discrete transformations from virtual to real states.

  18. Quantitative structural analysis of lignin by diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, T.P.; Glasser, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Empirical quantitative relationships were established between infrared (IR) spectral information and several structural features in lignins as determined by conventional methods. The structural composition of average phenylpropane (C g ) units which significantly correlated (0.01 level) with IR peak intensities included methoxy content, aromatic hydrogen content, phenolic hydroxy content, guaiacyl/syringyl ratio, and ''hydrolysis'' and ''condensation'' ratios

  19. Quantitative Comparison of the Variability in Observed and Simulated Shortwave Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yolanda, L.; Pilewskie, P.; Kindel, B. C.; Feldman, D. R.; Collins, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system that has been designed to monitor the Earth's climate with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Climate Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) have been generated to simulate CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager measurements to help define the measurement characteristics needed for CLARREO to achieve its objectives. To evaluate how well the OSSE-simulated reflectance spectra reproduce the Earth s climate variability at the beginning of the 21st century, we compared the variability of the OSSE reflectance spectra to that of the reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). Principal component analysis (PCA) is a multivariate decomposition technique used to represent and study the variability of hyperspectral radiation measurements. Using PCA, between 99.7%and 99.9%of the total variance the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets can be explained by subspaces defined by six principal components (PCs). To quantify how much information is shared between the simulated and observed data sets, we spectrally decomposed the intersection of the two data set subspaces. The results from four cases in 2004 showed that the two data sets share eight (January and October) and seven (April and July) dimensions, which correspond to about 99.9% of the total SCIAMACHY variance for each month. The spectral nature of these shared spaces, understood by examining the transformed eigenvectors calculated from the subspace intersections, exhibit similar physical characteristics to the original PCs calculated from each data set, such as water vapor absorption, vegetation reflectance, and cloud reflectance.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative indicators of developing anticipation skills in wrestling athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex V. Isaev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actual problems of modern psychology are fundamental studies of the phenomenon of anticipation, the search for new methodological approaches to the study of its mechanisms and processes of development are considered. There is a particular interest in the anticipation issue in sport, where the probabilistic forecast of the situation is crucial for winning. The paper presents the results of testing methods for anticipation skills in wrestling. The main objective of the study was to find psycho-physiological and behavioral indicators to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the degree of anticipation. The skills formation procedure was based on the reinforcement of the correct choice of behaviour in simulated situations of decision-making using multiple choices technique. Stimuli were videos of simulated situations in wrestling. Simultaneous recording of oculomotor activity and registration of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG was carried out. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method. After completing training the number of errors and the decision taking time span reduced. Expert assessment of the main qualifying factors showed a significant increase of the test group. On the psychophysiological level, there is a reduction of oculomotor activity in selecting the right answers, reducing the number of fixations, the number of fixations and saccades reverse on the text of questions and answers. Analysis of EEG parameters showed a gradual decrease in the index of brain activation when analysing simulated situations and dynamic movement of the peaks of activity in the frontal areas of the temporal and occipital areas during the series of trainings.

  1. Near-infrared reflectance bull’s eye maculopathy as an early indication of hydroxychloroquine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong KL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keye L Wong,1 Scott E Pautler,2 David J Browning31Retina Associates of Sarasota, Sarasota, FL, USA; 2Retina Vitreous Associates of Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Charlotte Eye Ear Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USAImportance: In some patients, hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity may progress even following cessation of therapy. Any leverage the clinician may use to allow earlier detection may avert significant vision loss.Observation: We report three cases suggesting that bull’s eye maculopathy seen on near-infrared reflectance with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope could be an early, objective manifestation of hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity, and with progression of the disease this near-infrared “bull’s eye” change may disappear.Conclusion and relevance: Alerting clinicians to this observation may allow a larger case series to corroborate the hypothesis that bull’s eye maculopathy detected by near-infrared reflectance may represent an early sign of hydroxychloroquine toxicity.Keywords: confocal, scanning laser ophthalmoscope, multifocal ERG

  2. Creation of a reflecting formula to determine a patient's indication for undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing P; Hsu, Shu-Mei; Huang, Guo-Shu; Yao, Min-Szu; Chang, Yue-Chune; Ho, Wei-Pin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, from patients' characteristics and radiography, a formula reflecting the decision for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with a painful osteoarthritic knee. We reviewed medical records of 193 consecutive patients who had knee osteoarthritis and underwent primary TKA surgery and 133 consecutive patients with knee osteoarthritis who did not have surgery in one institution during the preceding 5 years. Two skeletal radiologists graded, from 0 to 3, radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN), osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The association between the variables and outcome were calculated by the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Women had more TKAs than men (P = 0.002), and the TKA and non-TKA groups differed in terms of self-care ability (P osteophytes in the medial compartment. The retrospective sensitivity and specificity for patients who underwent TKA surgery were 84% and 83%, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy in retrospect evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92. A formula reflecting the decision for TKA surgery in patients with a painful osteoarthritic knee has been developed with acceptable diagnostic efficacy obtained retrospectively. The formula should be validated by further study.

  3. Measurability of Social Development. Reflections on the Applicability of Social Progress Indices with Reference to Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanyos János

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question is how the global and local economic actors’ innovation-based local social and environmental objectives and results can modify the social cohesion strategies, how the disparities in economic and social development can be measured and evaluated at regional level in addition to a comparison across countries. We have seen that any one indicator in itself is not enough since it does not provide sufficient explanation for either the development disparities or their reasons. Anyway, in addition to GDP per capita, it is worth applying - and it is important to apply - such indicators as SPI and Well-Being, and various indices of social progress.

  4. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive reserve using common proxy indicators: Testing some tenable reflective and formative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikanga, Jean; Hill, Elizabeth M; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2017-02-01

    The examination of cognitive reserve (CR) literature reveals a lack of consensus regarding conceptualization and pervasive problems with its measurement. This study aimed at examining the conceptual nature of CR through the analysis of reflective and formative models using eight proxies commonly employed in the CR literature. We hypothesized that all CR proxies would significantly contribute to a one-factor reflective model and that educational and occupational attainment would produce the strongest loadings on a single CR factor. The sample consisted of 149 participants (82 male/67 female), with 18.1 average years of education and ages of 45-99 years. Participants were assessed for eight proxies of CR (parent socioeconomic status, intellectual functioning, level of education, health literacy, occupational prestige, life leisure activities, physical activities, and spiritual and religious activities). Primary statistical analyses consisted of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reflective models and structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models. CFA did not produce compelling support for a unitary CR construct when using all eight of our CR proxy variables in a reflective model but fairly cogent evidence for a one-factor model with four variable proxies. A second three-factor reflective model based upon an exploratory principal components analysis of the eight proxies was tested using CFA. Though all eight indicators significantly loaded on their assigned factors, evidence in support of overall model fit was mixed. Based upon the results involving the three-factor reflective model, two alternative formative models were developed and evaluated. While some support was obtained for both, the model in which the formative influences were specified as latent variables appeared to best account for the contributions of all eight proxies to the CR construct. While the findings provide partial support for our

  5. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica ? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Doring, Thomas Martin; Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwen...

  6. Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a Lagrangian approach to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed Lagrangian implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel approach is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the Lagrangian implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.

  7. Quantitation without Calibration: Response Profile as an Indicator of Target Amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mrittika; Farace, Jessica M; Johnson, Kristopher D; Nesterova, Irina V

    2018-06-21

    Quantitative assessment of biomarkers is essential in numerous contexts from decision-making in clinical situations to food quality monitoring to interpretation of life-science research findings. However, appropriate quantitation techniques are not as widely addressed as detection methods. One of the major challenges in biomarker's quantitation is the need to have a calibration for correlating a measured signal to a target amount. The step complicates the methodologies and makes them less sustainable. In this work we address the issue via a new strategy: relying on position of response profile rather than on an absolute signal value for assessment of a target's amount. In order to enable the capability we develop a target-probe binding mechanism based on a negative cooperativity effect. A proof-of-concept example demonstrates that the model is suitable for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids over a wide concentration range. The general principles of the platform will be applicable toward a variety of biomarkers such as nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, and others.

  8. The Minimum Data Set Depression Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…

  9. Quantitative image variables reflect the intratumoral pathologic heterogeneity of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E-Ryung; Lee, Ho Yun; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Jhingook; Bae, Jungmin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-10-11

    We aimed to compare quantitative radiomic parameters from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of lung adenocarcinoma and pathologic complexity.A total 89 tumors with clinical stage I/II lung adenocarcinoma were prospectively included. Fifty one radiomic features were assessed both from iodine images and non-contrast images of DECT datasets. Comprehensive histologic subtyping was evaluated with all surgically resected tumors. The degree of pathologic heterogeneity was assessed using pathologic index and the number of mixture histologic subtypes in a tumor. Radiomic parameters were correlated with pathologic index. Tumors were classified as three groups according to the number of mixture histologic subtypes and radiomic parameters were compared between the three groups.Tumor density and 50th through 97.5th percentile Hounsfield units (HU) of histogram on non-contrast images showed strong correlation with the pathologic heterogeneity. Radiomic parameters including 75th and 97.5th percentile HU of histogram, entropy, and inertia on 1-, 2- and 3 voxel distance on non-contrast images showed incremental changes while homogeneity showed detrimental change according to the number of mixture histologic subtypes (all Ps heterogeneity, which may help in the prediction of intratumoral heterogeneity of the whole tumor.

  10. Quantitative analysis of skin reaction by reflectance spectrophotometer. Acute reaction following proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko.

    1994-01-01

    Acute reactions induced by proton irradiation were measured using a reflectance spectrophotometer, which is commonly used in the printing and textile industries. In this method, the skin color was expressed by three parameters, lightness (L * ), chroma (C * ) and hue (h). At first, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this spectrophotometer, the skin color of a normal volunteer was measured 100 times. The values of the three parameters for normal skin were as follows (mean values and standard deviation), L * : 68.64±0.29, C * : 19.08±0.13, h: 69.41±0.76. The standard deviations with regard to L * and h, were considered to be sufficiently small when compared with the changes of these parameters (prefix: Δ) in the irradiated sites (ΔL * * and h values significantly decreased with time, and the L * values were highly correlated with elapsed treatment days. The h values had a relatively low linear correlation compared with L * . The C * values had no trends as the treatment period was extended. Among these parameters, the L * values were the most valuable for assessment of proton-induced skin reactions, and it was suggested that the L * values measured with this spectrophotometer were a useful index for showing biological effects induced by proton irradiation. Further experiments are needed to apply this method to quantify the biological effects induced by other forms of ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  12. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  13. Do indices of coronary conductance after reperfusion reflect the extent of salvaged myocardium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hisashi; Tsurusaki, Tetsushi; Minai, Kousuke; Ogawa, Takayuki; Iwano, Keiji; Tamura, Tetsutarou; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mutou, Makoto; Imai, Kamon; Horie, Toshinobu; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2004-05-01

    Existing indices of coronary conductance (hyperemic flow-versus-pressure slope index, FPSI, and zero flow pressure, Pzf) have been developed as measures of microcoronary resistance. These indices, however, refer to cases of normal hearts, and there are no reports studying these indices following acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether FPSI and Pzf truly measure the extent of myocardial salvage after successful reperfusion therapy. We also developed a new index of zero pressure flow, Fzp. Nineteen patients who underwent successful reperfusion therapy to the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied. After successful reperfusion therapy, a Doppler wire was placed into the LAD. Aortic pressure was recorded in real time. Results from the aortic pressure and flow meter were combined to produce FPSI, Pzf, and Fzp. All cases underwent a resting thallium (Tl) and BMIPP scintigram within five days of successful reperfusion therapy. Infarcted myocardium was estimated using a severity score calculated from the Tl scintigraphy (TlSS), and the BMIPP (BMIPPSS) was estimated using a severity score. Patients with a TlSS/BMIPPSS ratio of less than 0.4 were assigned to the successful salvage group (group S), while the others were assigned to the failed salvage group (group F). FPSI of group F was 1.91 +/- 0.26 m/sec and of group S was 0.92 +/- 0.43 m/sec (P < 0.01). Pzf of group F was 51 +/- 3 mmHg and of group S was 51 +/- 5 mmHg (NS). Fzp of group F was -98 +/- 16 cm/sec and of group S was -46 +/- 4 cm/sec (P < 0.05). FPSI and the new index of Fzp were useful in estimating the extent of myocardial salvage. Our results suggest that the Pzf index could not differentiate between the two groups.

  14. Reflections of the Capitalization on Operational Leasing in Transport Subsector Companie's Structure Indicators Listed on Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Gomes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leasing is an alternative to financing the acquisition of assets for entities, and it has like modalities the operating procedures and financial leasing. This type of operation has caused several theoretical obstacles, among them the issue of off-balance sheet transactions. To reduce these accounting inconsistencies, the IASB and FASB have been working together to standardize the subject, this result was the publication of Exposure Draft 2010/09 (ED, which promises significant changes in the treatment of such transactions. Given this, this study aimed to analyze the impacts of the proposed changes contained in the ED, as the capitalization of operating leases, in the structure indicators at transportation subsector companies listed on the Bovespa. For this, we used the simulation methodology of the proposals in ED, confirming previous research. After the simulation accomplished, we proceeded with the Student's t test for paired samples, in order to check if the expected changes may cause significant differences in the indicators tested. The evidence points in the year of 2011, an amount of $ 3.8 billion, related to operating leases, not moved by the balance sheet (off-balance sheet of their respective companies. It was also observed that, on average, sample firms have operating leases to pay equivalent to 18.46% equity and 16.14% of debt. Finally, by simulating the proposals in the ED, it was found that the indicators of debt, equity and immobilization of the detention of non-current resources show significant variation from the statistical point of view, due to the capitalization of operating lease balances.

  15. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p humans.

  16. Human figure drawings and house tree person drawings as indicators of self-esteem: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Marnat, G; Roberts, L

    1998-02-01

    This study assessed the concurrent validity of Human Figure Drawings (HFD) and House-Tree-Person (HTP) drawings as measures of self-esteem. Adult subjects were requested to make HFD and HTP drawings and to complete measures of psychological adjustment which included the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The drawings were scored using a quantitative, composite rating scale derived from HFD and HTP empirical and theoretical literature on psychological health. Results indicated that neither the HFD nor the HTP quantitative composite ratings of psychological health related to the formal measures of self-esteem.

  17. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    ). In such abnormal NAWM regions, biexponential diffusion analysis and quantitative spectroscopy indicated extracellular edema and axonal loss, respectively. Repeated analysis 6 months later identified the same alterations. Such patchy alterations were not detectable in the NAWM of the 3 cases with short-term NMO......BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  18. A descriptive analysis of quantitative indices for multi-objective block layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Medina Palomera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Layout generation methods provide alternative solutions whose feasibility and quality must be evaluated. Indices must be used to distinguish the feasible solutions (involving different criteria obtained for block layout to identify s solution’s suitability, according to set objectives. This paper provides an accurate and descriptive analysis of the geometric indices used in designing facility layout (during block layout phase. The indices studied here have advantages and disadvantages which should be considered by an analyst before attempting to resolve the facility layout problem. New equations are proposed for measuring geometric indices. The analysis revealed redundant indices and that a minimum number of indices covering overall quality criteria may be used when selecting alternative solutions.

  19. Handbook of bibliometric indicators quantitative tools for studying and evaluating research

    CERN Document Server

    Todeschini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    At last, the first systematic guide to the growing jungle of citation indices and other bibliometric indicators. Written with the aim of providing a complete and unbiased overview of all available statistical measures for scientific productivity, the core of this reference is an alphabetical dictionary of indices and other algorithms used to evaluate the importance and impact of researchers and their institutions. In 150 major articles, the authors describe all indices in strictly mathematical terms without passing judgement on their relative merit. From widely used measures, such as the journal impact factor or the h-index, to highly specialized indices, all indicators currently in use in the sciences and humanities are described, and their application explained. The introductory section and the appendix contain a wealth of valuable supporting information on data sources, tools and techniques for bibliometric and scientometric analysis - for individual researchers as well as their funders and publishers.

  20. Facial Phenotyping by Quantitative Photography Reflects Craniofacial Morphology Measured on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Icelandic Sleep Apnea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Schwab, Richard J.; Maislin, Greg; Lee, Richard W.W.; Benedikstdsottir, Bryndis; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To determine whether facial phenotype, measured by quantitative photography, relates to underlying craniofacial obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk factors, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) To assess whether these associations are independent of body size and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: Landspitali, The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants: One hundred forty patients (87.1% male) from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who had both calibrated frontal and profile craniofacial photographs and upper airway MRI. Mean ± standard deviation age 56.1 ± 10.4 y, body mass index 33.5 ± 5.05 kg/m2, with on-average severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 45.4 ± 19.7 h-1). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relationships between surface facial dimensions (photos) and facial bony dimensions and upper airway soft-tissue volumes (MRI) was assessed using canonical correlation analysis. Photo and MRI craniofacial datasets related in four significant canonical correlations, primarily driven by measurements of (1) maxillary-mandibular relationship (r = 0.8, P photography and MRI. This study confirms that facial photographic phenotype reflects underlying aspects of craniofacial skeletal abnormalities associated with OSA. Therefore, facial photographic phenotyping may be a useful tool to assess intermediate phenotypes for OSA, particularly in large-scale studies. Citation: Sutherland K, Schwab RJ, Maislin G, Lee RW, Benedikstdsottir B, Pack AI, Gislason T, Juliusson S, Cistulli PA. Facial phenotyping by quantitative photography reflects craniofacial morphology measured on magnetic resonance imaging in icelandic sleep apnea patients. SLEEP 2014;37(5):959-968. PMID:24790275

  1. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, R.; Koshmak, K.; Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Nannarone, S.; Mahne, N.; Doyle, B. P.; Pasquali, L.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  2. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R.; Koshmak, K.; Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Nannarone, S. [IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Mahne, N. [Elettra, s.s. 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Doyle, B. P. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Pasquali, L., E-mail: luca.pasquali@unimore.it [IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dipartimento di Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari,” Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-07-14

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  3. Use of radioactive indicators for the quantitative determination of non-metall inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciuk, B.; Michalik, J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of determining and investigating the sources of non-metal inclusions in steel are presented together with some results of radiometric investigations. The experience of several years of research in industries as well as profound studies of world literature were used as a basis for systematic and critical discussion of the methods used. Optimum methods have been chosen for the quantitative determination of oxide inclusions and for the identification of their origin (e.g. from the refractory furnace lining, the tap-hole, the runner, the ladle or mold slag). Problems of tracers (type, quantity, condition, activity), of the labelling method suitable for the various origins of inclusions, of sampling, of chemical processing of the material sampled, as well as of radiometric measuring techniques (including possible activation) are discussed. Finally, a method for the determination of inclusions resulting from the deoxidation of steel is briefly outlined. (author)

  4. An assessment of Chironomidae as quantitative indicators of past climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, I.R.; Smol, J.P.; Engstrom, D.R.; Birks, H.J.B. (Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-06-01

    The distribution among Labrador (Canada) lakes of remains from 21 chironomid taxa (aquatic midges) was analysed by means of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tests with partial CCA of three hypotheses revealed that the distributions of chironomid taxa were significantly correlated with summer surface-water temperature and maximum lake depth, but not sediment organic content. In addition, an exploratory CCA revealed possible relationships of chironomid fauna with residual longitude and Fe concentration. A weighted-averaging-regression/calibration model of the chironomid-temperature relationship (derived from a temperature-constrained CCA) allowed the summer surface-water temperature of lakes to be inferred from chironomid remains. Accurate quantitative reconstructions of late glacial and Holocene temperature variations should be possible from fossil Chironomidae. 60 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra to determine electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Oh, Sukh Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). • The energy loss functions (ELF) are dominated by a plasmon peak at 23.6 eV for Fe and moves gradually to lower energies in Fe-Ni alloys towards the bulk plasmon energy of Ni at 20.5 eV. • Fe has a strong effect on the dielectric and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films even for an alloy with 72% Ni. Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). - Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) by ion beam sputter deposition were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). The analysis was carried out by using the QUASES-XS-REELS and QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS softwares to determine the energy loss function (ELF) and the dielectric functions and optical properties by analyzing the experimental spectra. For Ni, the ELF shows peaks around 3.6, 7.5, 11.7, 20.5, 27.5, 67 and 78 eV. The peak positions of the ELF for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2 are similar to those of Fe_5_1Ni_4_9, even though there is a small peak shift from 18.5 eV for Fe_5_1Ni_4_9 to 18.7 eV for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2. A plot of n, k, ε_1, and ε_2 shows that the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software for analysis of REELS spectra is useful for the study of optical properties of transition metal alloys. For Fe–Ni alloy with high Ni concentration (Fe_2_8Ni_7_2), ε_1, and ε_2 have strong similarities with those of Fe. This indicates that the presence of Fe in the Fe–Ni alloy thin films has a strong effect.

  6. Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound Indicates Reduced Bone Status Among Physically Active Adult Forager-Horticulturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Madimenos, Felicia; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary lifestyle contributes to osteoporosis and fragility fracture risks among modern humans, but whether such risks are prevalent in physically active preindustrial societies with lower life expectancies is unclear. Osteoporosis should be readily observable in preindustrial societies if it was regularly experienced over human history. In this study of 142 older adult Tsimane forager-horticulturalists (mean age ± SD, 62.1 ± 8.6 years; range, 50 to 85 years; 51% female) we used calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (qUS) to assess bone status, document prevalence of adults with reduced bone status, and identify factors (demographic, anthropometric, immunological, kinesthetic) associated with reduced bone status. Men (23%) are as likely as women (25%) to have reduced bone status, although age-related decline in qUS parameters is attenuated for men. Adiposity and fat-free mass positively co-vary with qUS parameters for women but not men. Leukocyte count is inversely associated with qUS parameters controlling for potential confounders; leukocyte count is positively correlated within adults over time, and adults with persistently low counts have higher adjusted qUS parameters (6% to 8%) than adults with a high count. Reduced bone status characteristic of osteoporosis is common among active Tsimane with minimal exposure to osteoporosis risk factors found in industrialized societies, but with energetic constraints and high pathogen burden. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  8. Quantitative analysis of lamellar bodies in amniotic fluid as fetal pulmonary maturity indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although lamellar bodies have been the center of interest over the last years, the published results of fetal pulmonary maturity determination according to their concentration in amniotic fluid are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of lamellar bodies, as well as the ratio lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S in amniotic fluid for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. Methods. This prospective 2-year study included 102 female examinees, ranging from 17 to 44 years of age, in whom lamellar bodies concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined to check the efficacy of the applied therapy for obtaining arteficial fetal pulmonary maturity. The shake test was applied as a comparative test for determining a quantitative L/S ratio. To determine a fetus maturity and development stage we followed up biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femure length, ponderal index at birth and body mass. Results. Out of a total of 102 amniocenteses within a period from 26th to 40th gestation week only 70 results were considered due to 32 unknown neonatal outcomes. Biparietal diameter was 224-362 mm, femur length 56 - 78 mm, ponderal index 1.22-2.84, fetus body mass 1300- 4 350 g. There was found a significant relation between gestation age and lamellar bodies concentration (R = 0.396398, p < 0.01, as well as between gestation age and the ratio L/S (R = 0.691297, p < 0.01. Also, there was a significant correlation of lamellar bodies concentration to the ratio L/S determined (R = 0.493609, p < 0.01. Conclusion. Determination of lamellar bodies concentration values is a reliable method to confirm fetal pulmonary maturity.

  9. Reflections Of Law 11.638/07 In The Accounting Indicators Of Textile Companies Listed On BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In December 2007, Law 11.638 (2007 was enacted in Brazil,which altered the Corporate Law. This law imposed significantchanges, including the adoption of the Brazilian accountingstandards in accordance with international standards, whichimplies different changes in the financial statements. Accordingto this perception of changes in the financial statements, changescan also take place in the accounting indicators used for thepurpose of financial statement analysis. In that context, in thispaper, the aim is to verify whether Law 11.638 (2007 entailedstatistically significant reflections in the accounting indicators.A descriptive study was undertaken with a quantitativeapproach. Data were collected from the Standardized FinancialStatements (SFSs for the period from 2000 till 2008, availableon the website of the Brazilian Securities Commission (CVM.The convenience sample consisted of 16 companies listed onBM&FBovespa, classified in the cyclical consumption sector, inthe subsector tissue, clothing and footwear, under the ply andtissue segment, with all SFSs in the period under study. Statisticallinear regression techniques were applied based on the KoyckModel and the canonical correlation model. The results showedthat a statistically significant canonical correlation exists betweenthe accounting indicators in force before Law 11.638 (2007 andthe accounting indicators after the same law came into force. Ingeneral, according to the companies analyzed, it is concludedthat the accounting indicators underwent no statisticallysignificant alterations as a result of the elaboration of the financialstatements in compliance with the premises of Law 11.638 (2007.

  10. A Quantitative Diffuse Reflectance Imaging (QDRI System for Comprehensive Surveillance of the Morphological Landscape in Breast Tumor Margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Nichols

    Full Text Available In an ongoing effort to address the clear clinical unmet needs surrounding breast conserving surgery (BCS, our group has developed a next-generation multiplexed optical-fiber-based tool to assess breast tumor margin status during initial surgeries. Specifically detailed in this work is the performance and clinical validation of a research-grade intra-operative tool for margin assessment based on diffuse optical spectroscopy. Previous work published by our group has illustrated the proof-of-concept generations of this device; here we incorporate a highly optimized quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (QDRI system utilizing a wide-field (imaging area = 17 cm(2 49-channel multiplexed fiber optic probe, a custom raster-scanning imaging platform, a custom dual-channel white LED source, and an astronomy grade imaging CCD and spectrograph. The system signal to noise ratio (SNR was found to be greater than 40 dB for all channels. Optical property estimation error was found to be less than 10%, on average, over a wide range of absorption (μa = 0-8.9 cm(-1 and scattering (μs' = 7.0-9.7 cm(-1 coefficients. Very low inter-channel and CCD crosstalk was observed (2% max when used on turbid media (including breast tissue. A raster-scanning mechanism was developed to achieve sub-pixel resolution and was found to be optimally performed at an upsample factor of 8, affording 0.75 mm spatially resolved diffuse reflectance images (λ = 450-600 nm of an entire margin (area = 17 cm(2 in 13.8 minutes (1.23 cm(2/min. Moreover, controlled pressure application at the probe-tissue interface afforded by the imaging platform reduces repeated scan variability, providing <1% variation across repeated scans of clinical specimens. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this device through a pilot 20-patient study of high-resolution optical parameter maps of the ratio of the β-carotene concentration to the reduced scattering coefficient. An empirical cumulative

  11. A Quantitative Diffuse Reflectance Imaging (QDRI) System for Comprehensive Surveillance of the Morphological Landscape in Breast Tumor Margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brandon S; Schindler, Christine E; Brown, Jonathon Q; Wilke, Lee G; Mulvey, Christine S; Krieger, Marlee S; Gallagher, Jennifer; Geradts, Joseph; Greenup, Rachel A; Von Windheim, Jesko A; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to address the clear clinical unmet needs surrounding breast conserving surgery (BCS), our group has developed a next-generation multiplexed optical-fiber-based tool to assess breast tumor margin status during initial surgeries. Specifically detailed in this work is the performance and clinical validation of a research-grade intra-operative tool for margin assessment based on diffuse optical spectroscopy. Previous work published by our group has illustrated the proof-of-concept generations of this device; here we incorporate a highly optimized quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (QDRI) system utilizing a wide-field (imaging area = 17 cm(2)) 49-channel multiplexed fiber optic probe, a custom raster-scanning imaging platform, a custom dual-channel white LED source, and an astronomy grade imaging CCD and spectrograph. The system signal to noise ratio (SNR) was found to be greater than 40 dB for all channels. Optical property estimation error was found to be less than 10%, on average, over a wide range of absorption (μa = 0-8.9 cm(-1)) and scattering (μs' = 7.0-9.7 cm(-1)) coefficients. Very low inter-channel and CCD crosstalk was observed (2% max) when used on turbid media (including breast tissue). A raster-scanning mechanism was developed to achieve sub-pixel resolution and was found to be optimally performed at an upsample factor of 8, affording 0.75 mm spatially resolved diffuse reflectance images (λ = 450-600 nm) of an entire margin (area = 17 cm(2)) in 13.8 minutes (1.23 cm(2)/min). Moreover, controlled pressure application at the probe-tissue interface afforded by the imaging platform reduces repeated scan variability, providing operative time scales with improved sensitivity to regions of focal disease that may otherwise be overlooked.

  12. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.P.; Sá, V.K. de; Martins, V. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, J.R.M. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabolismo, Laboratório de Endocrinologia Molecular e Translacional-LEMT, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parra, E.R. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mendes, A. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, P.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.M. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Longatto-Filho, A. [Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Guimarães (Portugal); Laboratório de Investigação Médica (LIM 14), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.Z. [Centro de Pesquisa em Oncologia Molecular, Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, Fundação Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Takagaki, T. [Divisão de Pneumologia, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carraro, D.M. [Centro Internacional de Pesquisa/CIPE, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nader, H.B. [Disciplina de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Capelozzi, V.L. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology.

  13. Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ρ exp(-mu;z +ɛ(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ρ, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(ɛ(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, μ. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

  14. Tissue hyaluronan expression, as reflected in the sputum of lung cancer patients, is an indicator of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, M.P.; Sá, V.K. de; Martins, V.; Martins, J.R.M.; Parra, E.R.; Mendes, A.; Andrade, P.C.; Reis, R.M.; Longatto-Filho, A.; Oliveira, C.Z.; Takagaki, T.; Carraro, D.M.; Nader, H.B.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) shows promise for detecting cancerous change in pleural effusion and urine. However, there is uncertainty about the localization of HA in tumor tissue and its relationship with different histological types and other components of the extracellular matrix, such as angiogenesis. We evaluated the association between HA and degree of malignancy through expression in lung tumor tissue and sputum. Tumoral tissue had significantly increased HA compared to normal tissue. Strong HA staining intensity associated with cancer cells was significant in squamous cell carcinoma compared to adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. A significant direct association was found between tumors with a high percentage of HA and MVD (microvessel density) in tumoral stroma. Similarly significant was the direct association between N1 tumors and high levels of HA in cancer cells. Cox multivariate analysis showed significant association between better survival and low HA. HA increased in sputum from lung cancer patients compared to cancer-free and healthy volunteers and a significant correlation was found between HA in sputum and HA in cancer tissue. Localization of HA in tumor tissue was related to malignancy and reflected in sputum, making this an emerging factor for an important diagnostic procedure in patients suspected to have lung cancer. Further study in additional patients in a randomized prospective trial is required to finalize these results and to validate our quantitative assessment of HA, as well as to couple it to gold standard sputum cytology

  15. [Effects of a physical training program on quantitative neurological indices in mild stage type 2 spinocerebelar ataxia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Avila, I; Fernández-Vieitez, J A; Martínez-Góngora, E; Ochoa-Mastrapa, R; Velázquez-Manresa, M G

    Type 2 spinocerebelar ataxia (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disease with higher prevalence and incidence in Holguín province, Cuba. At present, there is not any drug to counteract the loss of coordinative motor capacities of these patients. Thus physical training seems to be the only way to attenuate the course of disease. To evaluate the effectiveness of a physical training program on quantitative neurological indices in SCA2 patients. A samples of 87 SCA2 patients were studied. All subjects underwent a six month physical exercise program based on coordination, balance and muscular conditioning exercises. Quantitative tests were applied to all patients both before and after the application of the exercise program. Comparisons between pretest versus posttest values were made to evaluate the improvement in neurological indices. All neurological indices both with open eyes and closed eyes significantly improved from pretest to posttest. Static balance, evaluated by Romberg test, also enhanced with training. The exercise training program significantly improved the neurological indices in SCA2 patient with mild stage of disease.

  16. Deconvolving out indicator smearing in the right ventricle facilities left-to-right shunt quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eterovic, D.; Popovic, S.; Dujic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A simple algorithm is developed to enhance the resolution of components of multimodal pulmonary radiohistogram. Based on the assessed right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), it deconvolves out the effect of indicator smearing in the right ventricle on the heart rate samples of the pulmonary radiohistogram, c k . The output is the ideal curve, c k =c k /RVEF-(1-EF)xC k-1 /RVEF, that would be obtained if RVEF equalled unity. Since the formula is not a recursive one it does not suffer from error propagation pertinent to numerical deconvolution. Once RVEF is known, implementation of the algorithm is trivial. If RVEF is not known accurately it may be replaced with its upper estimate, RVEF upp > RVEF, yielding a partial deconvolution of the curve. When applied to patients with left-to-right shunt the method improves the accuracy and lessens the interobserver variation of the Maltz-Treves method. (author)

  17. Evaluation of pea varieties based on correlation of quantitative traits and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Присяжнюк

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate pea plants productivity and determine the degree of correlation among the main agronomic characters in pea varieties. Methods. Structural and statistical analysis. Results. Evaluation of pea samples in terms of indices of plant productivity elements level based on correlation analysis and single-factor indices appliance provided insight into the ratio of one trait share per unit of another one. It was defined that some correlations among the elements of productivity was not only moderate and weak, but they also changed their sign that could be the evidence of growth conditions influence on structural relationships bet­ween some traits and, consequently, redistribution of their contributions to the formation of variety productivity. Positive and very close relationship of many traits was revealed, particularly between plant height and the height of the plant up to the first bean, the number of nodes and the number of sterile nodes (r = 0,95–0,97. Methodological aspects of the variety model creation were considered, that may be useful not only in pea breeding but also for improving the techno­logy of its cultivation. Conclusions. Correlation relationships were established between the number of beans and the number of fruiting nodes and the number of carpophores containing 2 beans (r = 0,86–0,88, seed mass and plant mass (r = 0,81, the number of seeds per plant and plant mass and seed mass per plant (r = 0,78–0,81, the number of certified seeds and the number of seeds per plant (r = 0,84, the average number of beans per fertile node and the number of carpophores containing 2 beans (r = 0,74 that makes it possible to use them in assessing the productivity of plants.

  18. Studying flow close to an interface by total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: Quantitative data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R.; Yordanov, S.; Butt, H. J.; Koynov, K.; Dünweg, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCCS) has recently [S. Yordanov , Optics ExpressOPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.17.021149 17, 21149 (2009)] been established as an experimental method to probe hydrodynamic flows near surfaces, on length scales of tens of nanometers. Its main advantage is that fluorescence occurs only for tracer particles close to the surface, thus resulting in high sensitivity. However, the measured correlation functions provide only rather indirect information about the flow parameters of interest, such as the shear rate and the slip length. In the present paper, we show how to combine detailed and fairly realistic theoretical modeling of the phenomena by Brownian dynamics simulations with accurate measurements of the correlation functions, in order to establish a quantitative method to retrieve the flow properties from the experiments. First, Brownian dynamics is used to sample highly accurate correlation functions for a fixed set of model parameters. Second, these parameters are varied systematically by means of an importance-sampling Monte Carlo procedure in order to fit the experiments. This provides the optimum parameter values together with their statistical error bars. The approach is well suited for massively parallel computers, which allows us to do the data analysis within moderate computing times. The method is applied to flow near a hydrophilic surface, where the slip length is observed to be smaller than 10nm, and, within the limitations of the experiments and the model, indistinguishable from zero.

  19. Detection and quantitative determination of heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilari, Eleni; Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Poulas, Konstantinos; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Orkoula, Malvina G

    2018-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes are considered healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes containing tobacco. They produce vapor through heating of the refill liquids (e-liquids) which consist of propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, nicotine (in various concentrations), water and flavoring agents. Heavy metals may enter the refill liquid during the production, posing a risk for consumer's health due to their toxicity. The objective of the present study was the development of a methodology for the detection and quantitative analysis of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), employing Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF) as an alternative technique to ICP-MS or ICP-OES commonly used for this type of analysis. TXRF was chosen due to its advantages, which include short analysis time, promptness, simultaneous multi-element analysis capability and minimum sample preparation, low purchase and operational cost. The proposed methodology was applied to a large number of electronic cigarette liquids commercially available, as well as their constituents, in order to evaluate their safety. TXRF may be a valuable tool for probing heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids to serve for the protection of human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of novel conformity indices for quantitative comparison of radiation treatment plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Wu, Hong Gyun; Ye, Sung Joon; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The conformity index (CI) is an indicator to assess the degree of congruence between a shape of reference isodose volume (VRI) and a shape of the target volume (TV). Two concepts are included in the CI, which are the target coverage and the degree of normal tissue sparing in the proximity of the target. Even though this could be verified by a manual review of dose distributions calculated on patient CT images slice by slice, detailed comparisons among several treatment plans would be inconvenient. The conformity could be also verified by reviewing dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of each structure calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). The prerequisite for this is the contouring of not only organs at risk (OARs) but also every structure in a patient body, which is not practical in the clinic. Therefore, a value possible to quantify the conformity was needed, and various studies on CI have been performed. Various CIs have been developed since 1993. Most of them are based on the calculation of the volumes except for the CI suggested by Wu et al. and Cheung et al. which were based on the distance. The aim of this study was to develop new CIs based on the calculations of angles and distances. The CI angle based on the analysis of the angle differences as well as the CIabs{sub d}istance and the CIdistance based on the analysis of the distances between the TV and the VRI were developed and evaluated in this study. The CI distance with Sornatomedins better performances than the CIangle and the CIabs{sub d}istance as well as the conventional CIs in various situations.

  1. Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates' tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Jun; Hirose, Euichi

    2017-01-01

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is useful in predator avoidance. Transparent materials can be detected visually using light reflected from their surfaces, with the different refractive indices between two media, i.e., tunic and seawater, being the measure of reflectance. A larger difference in refractive indices thus provides a larger measure of reflectance. We measured the refractive indices of the transparent tunic of Thetys vagina (salp: Thaliacea) and Rhopalae a sp. (ascidian: Ascidiacea) using an Abbe refractometer and an ellipsometer to estimate the light reflection at the tunic surface and evaluate the anti-reflection effect of the nipple array structure on the tunic surface of T. vagina . At D-line light (λ = 589 nm), the refractive indices of the tunics were 0.002-0.004 greater than seawater in the measurements by Abbe refractometer, and 0.02-0.03 greater than seawater in the measurements by ellipsometer. The refractive indices of tunics were slightly higher than that of seawater. According to the simulation of light reflection based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), light at a large angle of incidence will be completely reflected from a surface when its refractive indices are smaller than seawater. Therefore, the refractive index of integument is important for enabling transparent organisms to remain invisible in the water column. In order to minimize reflectance, the refractive index should be similar to, but never smaller than, that of the surrounding seawater. The simulation also indicated that the presence or absence of a nipple array does not cause significant difference in reflectance on the surface. The nipple array on the tunic of the diurnal salp may have another function, such as bubble repellence, other than anti-reflection.

  2. Quantitative risk analysis using vulnerability indicators to assess food insecurity in the Niayes agricultural region of West Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateugue Diack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to develop indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity to determine the robustness of response strategies over time and better understand the underlying processes. This study aimed to determine levels of risk of food insecurity using defined vulnerability indicators. For the purpose of this study, factors influencing food insecurity and different vulnerable indicators were examined using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Observations made on the physical environment (using tools for spatial analysis and socio-economic surveys conducted with local populations have quantified vulnerability indicators in the Niayes agricultural region. Application of the Classification and Regression Tree (CART model has enabled us to quantify the level of vulnerability of the zone. The results show that the decrease in agricultural surface areas is the most discriminant one in this study. The speed of reduction of the agricultural areas has specially increased between 2009 and 2014, with a loss of 65% of these areas. Therefore, a decision-making system, centred on the need for reinforcing the resilience of local populations, by preserving the agricultural vocation of the Niayes region and even in the Sahelian regions requires support and extension services for the farmers in order to promote sustainable agricultural practices.

  3. The dysfunctional side effects of quantitative indicator production: illustration from mental health care (a message from Chicken Little).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, P E

    1984-01-01

    In the current context of economic conservation, accountability and retrenchment from social programs, justification is required in order to maintain human service capacity. In this effort, evaluation is a key component. Yet desire to base action upon information resulting from evaluation must be tempered by increased attention to the effects of the evaluation process. All too often premature application of quantitative indicators formerly used for individual assessment and research to bureaucratic decision making produces side effects that are dysfunctional in nature. Frequently these side effects influence service delivery directly. More insidious, because they are less easily discerned, are distortions introduced into the data by evaluation pressure. These not only delay effects on service but also impair understanding of the very process they are meant to illuminate. In order to illustrate this phenomenon, the author reviews a general literature and utilized examples from mental health care. Common themes are identified and a tentative theory of side effect generation proposed.

  4. Quantitative modeling of clinical, cellular, and extracellular matrix variables suggest prognostic indicators in cancer: a model in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, Irene; Piqueras, Marta; Montaner, David; Villamón, Eva; Berbegall, Ana P; Cañete, Adela; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Risk classification and treatment stratification for cancer patients is restricted by our incomplete picture of the complex and unknown interactions between the patient's organism and tumor tissues (transformed cells supported by tumor stroma). Moreover, all clinical factors and laboratory studies used to indicate treatment effectiveness and outcomes are by their nature a simplification of the biological system of cancer, and cannot yet incorporate all possible prognostic indicators. A multiparametric analysis on 184 tumor cylinders was performed. To highlight the benefit of integrating digitized medical imaging into this field, we present the results of computational studies carried out on quantitative measurements, taken from stromal and cancer cells and various extracellular matrix fibers interpenetrated by glycosaminoglycans, and eight current approaches to risk stratification systems in patients with primary and nonprimary neuroblastoma. New tumor tissue indicators from both fields, the cellular and the extracellular elements, emerge as reliable prognostic markers for risk stratification and could be used as molecular targets of specific therapies. The key to dealing with personalized therapy lies in the mathematical modeling. The use of bioinformatics in patient-tumor-microenvironment data management allows a predictive model in neuroblastoma.

  5. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan & SE Brazilian margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Horn, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been applied to the S Angolan and SE Brazilian margins to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type. Knowledge of these margin parameters are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan and SE Brazilian rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Gravity anomaly inversion, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated for profiles Lusigal 12 and ISE-01 on the Iberian margin. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola deep seismic reflection lines. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along the seismic profiles. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the ION-GXT BS1-575 profile, which crosses the Sao Paulo Plateau and Florianopolis Ridge of the SE Brazilian margin, predict the COB to be located SE of the Florianopolis Ridge. Integrated quantitative analysis shows no evidence for exhumed mantle on this margin profile. The joint inversion technique predicts oceanic crustal thicknesses of between 7 and 8 km thickness with

  6. The differentiation of benign from malignant soft tissue lesions using FDG-PET: comparison between semi-quantitative indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Choe, Yearn Seong; Choi, Yong; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Byung Tae; Seo, Jae Gon

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various quantitative indices for the differentiation of benign from malignant primary soft tissue tumors by FDG-EPT. A series of 32 patients with a variety of histologically or clinically confirmed benign (20) or malignant (12) soft tissue lesions were evaluated with emission whole body (5min/bed position) PET after injection of [ 18 F]FDG. Regional 20min transmission scan for the attenuation correction and calculation of SUV was performed in 16 patients (10 benign, 6 malignnant) followed by dynamic acquisition for 56 min. Postinjection transmission scan for the attenuation correction and calculation of SUV was executed in the other 16 patients (10 benign, 6 malignant ). The following indices were obtained: the peak and average SUV (pSUV, aSUV) of lesions, tumor-to-background ratio acquired at images of 51 min p.i. (TBR 51 ), tumor-to-background ratio of areas under time-activity curves (TBR area ) and the ratio between the activities of tumor ROI at 51 min p.i. and at the time which background ROI reaches maximum activity on the time-activity curves (T 51 /T max ). The pSUV, aSUV, TBR 51 , and TBR area in malignant lesions were significantly higher than those in benign lesions. We set the cut-off values of pSUV, aSUV, TBR 51 , TBR area and T 51 /max for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions at 3.5, 2.8, 5.1, 4.3 and 1.55, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7%, 80.0%, 84.4% by pSUV and aSUV, 83.3%, 85.0%, 84.4% by TBR 51 , 83.3%, 100%, 93.8% by TBR area and 66.7%, 70.0%, 68.8% by T 51 /T max . The time-activity curves did not give additional information compared to SUV or TBR. The one false negative was a case with low-grade fibrosarcoma and all four false positives were cases with inflammatory change on histology. The visual analysis of FDG-PET also detected the metastatic lesions in malignant cases with comparable accuracy. In conclusion, all pSUV, a

  7. Changes in Quantitative Indicators of Concentration in the Countries of this Region during the Transformation Period of Banking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šubić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The reshaping processes of the banking systems in the countries of this region that involved the reorganization and restructuring of insolvent banks as well as the privatization of the state banks were aimed at setting up a framework within which banks would operate according to the modern market principles. With the opening of the banking market to foreign capital, the foreign banks have gained access to the banking market and have over a ten-year period significantly increased their market share. Due to the existing barriers to entry into the market, foreign-owned banks tended to use the strategy of buying shares in already-established banks rather than starting up a new bank. Comparisons between concentration indicators showed that there are differences among countries and mostly these differences result from the differences in the size of the banking systems and the size of national economies. Still, the values of quantitative indicators of concentration in countries with larger banking systems are lower than in countries with fewer banks.

  8. Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean.

  9. Bayesian estimation and use of high-throughput remote sensing indices for quantitative genetic analyses of leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Leong, Wen Fung; An, Nan; Brock, Marcus T; Rubin, Matthew J; Welch, Stephen; Weinig, Cynthia

    2018-02-01

    We develop Bayesian function-valued trait models that mathematically isolate genetic mechanisms underlying leaf growth trajectories by factoring out genotype-specific differences in photosynthesis. Remote sensing data can be used instead of leaf-level physiological measurements. Characterizing the genetic basis of traits that vary during ontogeny and affect plant performance is a major goal in evolutionary biology and agronomy. Describing genetic programs that specifically regulate morphological traits can be complicated by genotypic differences in physiological traits. We describe the growth trajectories of leaves using novel Bayesian function-valued trait (FVT) modeling approaches in Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines raised in heterogeneous field settings. While frequentist approaches estimate parameter values by treating each experimental replicate discretely, Bayesian models can utilize information in the global dataset, potentially leading to more robust trait estimation. We illustrate this principle by estimating growth asymptotes in the face of missing data and comparing heritabilities of growth trajectory parameters estimated by Bayesian and frequentist approaches. Using pseudo-Bayes factors, we compare the performance of an initial Bayesian logistic growth model and a model that incorporates carbon assimilation (A max ) as a cofactor, thus statistically accounting for genotypic differences in carbon resources. We further evaluate two remotely sensed spectroradiometric indices, photochemical reflectance (pri2) and MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (mtci) as covariates in lieu of A max , because these two indices were genetically correlated with A max across years and treatments yet allow much higher throughput compared to direct leaf-level gas-exchange measurements. For leaf lengths in uncrowded settings, including A max improves model fit over the initial model. The mtci and pri2 indices also outperform direct A max measurements. Of particular

  10. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS REGARDING THE TOURIST TRAFFIC INDICATORS IN THE HUMAN SETTLEMENTS LOCATED ON THE BLACK SEA COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. JUGANARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human settlements located on the Black Sea coast, between Navodari and Vama Veche, have developed over time, especially after 1970, both as localities/administrative units, as well as Romanian tourist resorts of national interest. The objective of this study is to statistically process the quantitative aspects of the widely used tourist traffic indicators, in order to capture the existence of similarities or differences between the 17 analyzed tourist resorts and locations. Moreover, based on the results triggered by the application of statistical methods, we also aim at achieving a qualitative analysis, encompassing the interpretations related to the attractiveness, image and perception of each resort/location and the motivation for the choice made by different segments of tourists. The interdisciplinary nature of this work is underlying the presentation and understanding the aspects related to the tourist supply, tourist demand/consumption, consumer/tourist behavior and effects/ results. Also, th\te information obtained from processing the available database on the 17 tourist resorts and locations, by means of the selected statistical methods, allows us to express our own views as proposals for local decision makers, in order to improve the activity and the economic performance and image of the respective tourist location/resort.

  11. DST Indices - Reflection Variations in the Magnetospheric Tail Current and Field-aligned Currents in the Magnetosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The file is comprised of monthly DST indices. These indices are derived from a network of eight stations in the equatorial latitudes. Hourly DST indices provide an...

  12. Some quantitative indicators of postovulatory aging and its effect on larval and juvenile development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommens, Maren; Storset, Arne; Babiak, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Modern out-of-season egg production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the risk of postovulatory aging (POA) of oocytes. Postovulatory aging is known to influence oocyte quality in salmonids, but reliable tests for POA are lacking in Atlantic salmon egg production. To address this problem, we have collected oocytes from the same 20 Atlantic salmon females sequentially in approximately 1-week intervals, from the start of ovulation until 28 days postovulation (dpo), to determine the effect of natural retention of matured oocytes in body coelomic cavity on further performance of embryos and juveniles produced from those oocytes. Also, we investigated oocyte water hardening and several coelomic fluid parameters as potential quantitative indicators of POA. Oocyte quality decreased significantly from 22 dpo onward, as inferred from decrease in fertilization success and survival of embryos, alevins, and juveniles and increase in alevin and juvenile deformity rates. The occurrence of head deformities was significantly related to postovulatory age of oocytes. Coelomic fluid pH decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated positively with fertilization rates (r = 0.45), normal eyed embryo rates (r = 0.67), and alevin relative survival rates (r = 0.63) and negatively correlated with total alevin deformity rates (r = -0.59). Oocyte weight gain at 60 minutes decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated negatively with total alevin deformities and the occurrence of cranial nodules (r = -0.99). Generally, quality of ovulated oocytes remained stable for the first 2 weeks after ovulation. Later on, POA negatively influenced Atlantic salmon embryo, alevin, and juvenile performance. For the first time, we show a long-term effect of POA on salmonid juvenile performance. Standardized pH measurements of coelomic fluid could potentially improve embryo and juvenile production by identifying low-quality oocytes at an early stage during the production. Copyright © 2015

  13. Quantifying the Extent of Emphysema : Factors Associated with Radiologists' Estimations and Quantitative Indices of Emphysema Severity Using the ECLIPSE Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietema, Hester A.; Mueller, Nestor L.; Fauerbach, Paola V. Nasute; Sharma, Sanjay; Edwards, Lisa D.; Camp, Pat G.; Coxson, Harvey O.

    Rationale and Objectives: This study investigated what factors radiologists take into account when estimating emphysema severity and assessed quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of low attenuation areas. Materials and Methods: CT scans and spirometry were obtained on 1519 chronic

  14. Soft-sediment deformations (convolute lamination and load structures) in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections against bounding slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, Roberto; Muzzi Magalhaes, Pierre; Tagliaferri, Alessio; Cunha, Rogerio S.; Laporta, Michele

    2015-04-01

    turbidites containing these deformative structures show that they are genetically linked to contained-reflected beds in structurally-confined basins, suggesting a trigger mechanism associated with the cyclic-wave loading produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to ponded turbidity currents. The data that can demonstrate this hypothesis come from the foredeep turbidites of the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (southwestern France), where a basin scale high-resolution stratigraphic framework with bed-by-bed correlations is now available. These data show that the lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures is not random but has an evident depositional logic related to reflection processes against bounding slopes. Therefore, the main objectives of this work are: 1) to show that convolute laminae and load structures are strictly associated with other sedimentary structures that are unequivocally related to reflection and rebound processes of turbidity currents against morphological obstacles; 2) to show that their lateral and vertical distribution increases concomitantly with the number of contained-reflected beds in the proximity of structurally-controlled morphological highs; 3) to show that the increase in contained-reflected beds with convolute laminae is strictly related to the increase in the synsedimentary-structural uplifts producing more pronounced morphologic highs; 4) to discuss the processes that link soft-sediment deformations with cyclic-wave loading related to internal waves and bores produced by reflection processes.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  16. The application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative analysis of hydrocortisone in primary materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. PITTAS; C. SERGIDES; K. NIKOLICH

    2001-01-01

    Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with fiber optic probes, has been shown to be a quick and reliable analytical tool for quality assurance and quality control in the pharmaceutical industry, both for verifications of raw materials and quantification of the active ingredients in final products. In this paper, a typical pharmaceutical product, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, is used as an example for the application of NIR spectroscopy for quality control. In order to deve...

  17. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  18. Changes in vertical distribution of spectral reflectance within Spring barley canopy as an indicator of nitrogen nutrition, canopy structure and yield parametrs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Rajsnerová, Petra; Novotná, Kateřina; Míša, P.; Křen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 50-59 ISSN 0551-3677 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133; GA TA ČR TA02010780 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare * spectral reflectance * vertical gradient * vegetation indices * nitrogen * grain yield * protein content Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  19. The Effect of Trait Self-Awareness, Self-Reflection, and Perceptions of Choice Meaningfulness on Indicators of Social Identity within a Decision-Making Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Noam; Oldmeadow, Julian A; Critchley, Christine; Kaufman, Jordy

    2017-01-01

    Theorists operating from within a narrative identity framework have suggested that self-reflective reasoning plays a central role in the development of the self. Typically, however, narrative identity researchers have investigated this relationship using correlational rather than experimental methods. In the present study, leveraging on a classic research paradigm from within the social identity literature we developed an experiment to test the extent to which self-reflection might have a causal impact on the self-concept within a decision-making context. In a minimal group paradigm participants were prompted to reflect on their painting choices either before or after allocating points to in-group∖ out-group members. As anticipated, self-reflection augmented social identification, but only when participants felt their choices were personally meaningful. Participants who reasoned about their choices and felt they were subjectively meaningful showed stronger similarity and liking for in-group members compared to those who did not reflect on their choices or found them to be subjectively meaningless. Hence, reflecting on and finding meaning in one's choices may be an important step in linking behavior with in-group identification and thus the self-concept in turn. The absence of any effects on in-group favoritism (a third indicator of social identification measured) as well as implications of the study's findings for self-perception, cognitive dissonance and social identity processes are also discussed.

  20. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  1. Reflection of the Geomagnetic Activity Occurring in the Earth's Northern and Southern Hemisphere (KM, KN, KS Indices)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives on a monthly basis, the KM, KN, KS indices from Institue...

  2. Responses of the reflectance indices PRI and NDVI to experimental warming and drought in European shrublands along a north–south climatic gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänd, Pille; Hallik, Lea; Peñuelas, Josep

    2010-01-01

    NDVI680 [780 nm; 680 nm] using red spectral region, and NDVI570 [780 nm; 570 nm] using the same green spectral region as PRI. All three reflectance indices were significantly related to green LAIe and were able to detect changes in shrubland vegetation among treatments. In general warming treatment...... increased PRI and drought treatment reduced NDVI values. The significant treatment effect on photochemical efficiency of plants detected with PRI could not be detected by fluorescence measurements. However, we found canopy level measured PRI to be very sensitive to soil reflectance properties especially...

  3. Quantitative analysis of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling using live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heath E; Haugh, Jason M

    2013-12-02

    This unit focuses on the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and image analysis methods to study the dynamics of signal transduction mediated by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in mammalian cells. The first four protocols cover live-cell imaging experiments, image acquisition parameters, and basic image processing and segmentation. These methods are generally applicable to live-cell TIRF experiments. The remaining protocols outline more advanced image analysis methods, which were developed in our laboratory for the purpose of characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of PI3K signaling. These methods may be extended to analyze other cellular processes monitored using fluorescent biosensors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Quantitative determination of iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel in electronic waste samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaseer, A. S.; Musbah, A. S; Ammar, M. M. G.; Salah, M. A.; Aisha, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with microwave assisted extraction technique was used for the analysis of twenty electronic waste samples. The analysis was limited to the printed circuit boards of electronic devices. Iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel were quantitatively determined in the samples. The samples were carefully milled to fine powder and 50mg was digested by acid using microwave digestion procedure. The digested samples solution was spread together with gallium as internal standard on the reflection disk and analyzed. The results showed that the cassette recorder boards contain the highest concentration of iron, lead and nickel. The average concentrations of these metals were 78, 73 and 71g/Kg respectively. Computer boards contained the highest copper average concentration 39g/Kg. the highest chromium average concentration 3.6 g/Kg was in mobile phone boards. Measurements were made using PicoTAX portable x-ray device. the instrument was used for quantitative multi-element analysis. An air cooled x-ray tube (40KV, 1 mA) with Mo target and Be window was used as x-ray source. The optics of the device was a multilayer Ni/C, 17.5 keV, 80% reflectivity provides analysis of elements from Si to Zr (K series) and Rh to U (L series). A Si PIN-diode detector (7mm"2, 195eV) was used for the elements detection. In this study heavy metals average concentration in electronic circuit boards in the in the order of iron (35.25g/kg), copper (21.14g/Kg), lead (16.59g/Kg), nickel (16.01g/Kg) and chromium (1.07g/Kg).(author)

  5. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2017-01-01

    physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study......The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10− 5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different...... attempts to fit a QMRA model to genome copies of norovirus data. The model estimates the risk of norovirus infection from the intake of vegetables irrigated with wastewater from different sources. The results were compared to the results of a corresponding model using the fecal indicator conversion ratio...

  6. Testing novel quantitative indicators of research ‘quality’, esteem and ‘user engagement’: an economics pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Donovan; Linda Butler

    2007-01-01

    Applying ‘standard’ publication and citation measures to the social sciences is fast becoming an outmoded practice, yet we have still to develop credible quantitative alternatives to inform research evaluation exercises. This paper reports the outcomes of a comparative pilot study of five Australian economics departments which tested data produced using novel bibliometric, esteem, and ‘user engagement’ measures. The results were presented to a group of expert peers drawn from the economics gr...

  7. Quantitative Clinical Diagnostic Analysis of Acetone in Human Blood by HPLC: A Metabolomic Search for Acetone as Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Akgul Kalkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH as a derivatizing reagent, an analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone in human blood. The determination was carried out at 365 nm using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis diode array detector (DAD. For acetone as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative, a good separation was achieved with a ThermoAcclaim C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm × 3 μm at retention time (tR 12.10 min and flowrate of 1 mL min−1 using a (methanol/acetonitrile water elution gradient. The methodology is simple, rapid, sensitive, and of low cost, exhibits good reproducibility, and allows the analysis of acetone in biological fluids. A calibration curve was obtained for acetone using its standard solutions in acetonitrile. Quantitative analysis of acetone in human blood was successfully carried out using this calibration graph. The applied method was validated in parameters of linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, and precision. We also present acetone as a useful tool for the HPLC-based metabolomic investigation of endogenous metabolism and quantitative clinical diagnostic analysis.

  8. Clinical use of quantitative cardiac perfusion PET: rationale, modalities and possible indications. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Lindner, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Agostini, Denis; Uebleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, PET was regarded as a luxurious way of performing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, with excellent image quality and diagnostic capabilities that hardly justified the additional cost and procedural effort. Quantitative perfusion PET was considered a major improvement over standard qualitative imaging, because it allows the measurement of parameters not otherwise available, but for many years its use was confined to academic and research settings. In recent years, however, several factors have contributed to the renewal of interest in quantitative perfusion PET, which has become a much more readily accessible technique due to progress in hardware and the availability of dedicated and user-friendly platforms and programs. In spite of this evolution and of the growing evidence that quantitative perfusion PET can play a role in the clinical setting, there are not yet clear indications for its clinical use. Therefore, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, decided to examine the current literature on quantitative perfusion PET to (1) evaluate the rationale for its clinical use, (2) identify the main methodological requirements, (3) identify the remaining technical difficulties, (4) define the most reliable interpretation criteria, and finally (5) tentatively delineate currently acceptable and possibly appropriate clinical indications. The present position paper must be considered as a starting point aiming to promote a wider use of quantitative perfusion PET and to encourage the conception and execution of the studies needed to definitely establish its role in clinical practice. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2013-10-15

    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS for the quantitative analysis of hydrocortisone in primary materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PITTAS

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS, coupled with fiber optic probes, has been shown to be a quick and reliable analytical tool for quality assurance and quality control in the pharmaceutical industry, both for verifications of raw materials and quantification of the active ingredients in final products. In this paper, a typical pharmaceutical product, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, is used as an example for the application of NIR spectroscopy for quality control. In order to develop an NIRS method with higher precision and accuracy than the official UV/VIS spectroscopic method (BP '99, 19 samples, taken from one year’s production and several prepared in the laboratory, having a hydrocortisone sodium succinate concentration in the range from 89.05%to 95.83 %, were analysed by NIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy. Three frequency ranges: 5939.73–5627.32 cm-1; 4863.64 – 4574.36 cm-1; 4308.23–4200.24 cm-1, with the best positive correlation between the changes in the spectral and concentration data, were chosen. The validity of the developed NIRS chemometric method for the determination of the hydrocortisone sodium succinate concentration, constructed by the partial least squares (PLS regression technique, is discussed. A correlation coefficient of 0.9758 and a standard error of cross validation (RMSECVof 1.06%were found between the UV/VI Sand òhe NIR spectroscopic results of the hydrocortisone sodium succinate concentration in the samples.

  11. [Study of building quantitative analysis model for chlorophyll in winter wheat with reflective spectrum using MSC-ANN algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Ji, Hai-yan; Wang, Peng-xin; Rao, Zhen-hong; Shen, Bing-hui

    2010-01-01

    Preprocess method of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) was used to reject noises in the original spectra produced by the environmental physical factor effectively, then the principal components of near-infrared spectroscopy were calculated by nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) before building the back propagation artificial neural networks method (BP-ANN), and the numbers of principal components were calculated by the method of cross validation. The calculated principal components were used as the inputs of the artificial neural networks model, and the artificial neural networks model was used to find the relation between chlorophyll in winter wheat and reflective spectrum, which can predict the content of chlorophyll in winter wheat. The correlation coefficient (r) of calibration set was 0.9604, while the standard deviation (SD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.187 and 5.18% respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of predicted set was 0.9600, and the standard deviation (SD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.145 and 4.21% respectively. It means that the MSC-ANN algorithm can reject noises in the original spectra produced by the environmental physical factor effectively and set up an exact model to predict the contents of chlorophyll in living leaves veraciously to replace the classical method and meet the needs of fast analysis of agricultural products.

  12. Canopy reflectance indices and its relationship with yield in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with phosphorus supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.G.; Escalante-Estrada, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.T.R.; Reynolds, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under three phosphorous levels (0,100 & 200 kg ha-1) and under rain fed conditions with the objective to examine the association between vegetative indices (NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index; and GNDVI, green normalized difference vegetation index) and intercepted radiation, leaf area index, biomass and yield during the growing season. The maximum intercepted radiation, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were reached during the pod filling stage {80 days after sowing (DAS)}, and the P treatment of 200 kg ha-1 showed the highest values. The high intercepted radiation was derived from an increase in LAI inducing a major biomass accumulation. Near to physiological maturity LAI decreased as a result of leaf abscission. NDVI and GNDVI were higher with P supply than without P at anthesis and pod filling stage (50 - 80 DAS). Near to physiological maturity, NDVI and GNDVI decreased in all the treatments . When the maximum intercepted radiation, LAI, and biomass production were reached during anthesis and pod filling stage, NDVI and GNDVI also had the highest values. The association between the vegetative indices and seed yield during the pod filling stage showed a linear relationship by the P supply. The relationship between GNDVI and seed yield was higher (r2 = 0.77) than the relationship between NDVI and seed yield (r2 = 0.61)

  13. Quantitative Clinical Diagnostic Analysis of Acetone in Human Blood by HPLC: A Metabolomic Search for Acetone as Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Akgul Kalkan, Esin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Ulker Cakir, Dilek; Alpaslan, Duygu; Yilmaz, Selehattin

    2016-01-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) as a derivatizing reagent, an analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone in human blood. The determination was carried out at 365?nm using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diode array detector (DAD). For acetone as its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative, a good separation was achieved with a ThermoAcclaim C18 column (15?cm ? 4.6?mm ? 3??m) at retention time (t R) ...

  14. Estrogen receptor quantitation and staging as complementary prognostic indicators in breast cancer: a study of 583 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Elwood, J M; Spinelli, J J

    1981-12-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) quantity was measured at the time of primary diagnosis on 583 patients with breast cancer seen at the major treatment centre in British Columbia between 1975 and 1979. Survival rates (overall, recurrence-free and post-recurrence) were assessed relative to ER concentration, staging, menopausal status, age, differentiation, and therapy. A linear trend in increased survival was demonstrable through variations in ER concentration from less than 1 to greater than 260 fmoles/mg cytosol protein. This trend was highly significant and remained after adjustment for stage, menopausal status, and age, and was seen for all groups of patients except those with metastatic disease. The association of high ER concentration with increased recurrence-free survival was not due to differing responses to adjuvant therapy, but the trend in post-recurrence survival was only significant in patients who had received hormonal therapy. Survival was as strongly associated with receptor concentration as with staging, and these two factors were almost completely independent. A proportional hazards model was fitted to produce predictions of survival, and showed that TNM stage III patients with high ER concentrations have a better survival than stage I or II patients with lower ER concentrations. This suggests that quantitative assessment of ER status is essential to definition of risk in breast cancer patients and that stratification in clinical trials and consideration for adjuvant therapy ought to be guided, in part, by a standardized ER-quantitative determination performed on the primary tumor.

  15. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  16. Quantitative assessments of municipal waste management systems: using different indicators to compare and rank programs in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Krista L; Tonjes, David J

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of waste management technologies and policies in the United States is to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of waste, particularly those relating to energy consumption and climate change. Performance indicators are frequently used to evaluate the environmental quality of municipal waste systems, as well as to compare and rank programs relative to each other in terms of environmental performance. However, there currently is no consensus on the best indicator for performing these environmental evaluations. The purpose of this study is to examine the common performance indicators used to assess the environmental benefits of municipal waste systems to determine if there is agreement between them regarding which system performs best environmentally. Focus is placed on how indicator selection influences comparisons between municipal waste management programs and subsequent system rankings. The waste systems of ten municipalities in the state of New York, USA, were evaluated using each common performance indicator and Spearman correlations were calculated to see if there was a significant association between system rank orderings. Analyses showed that rank orders of waste systems differ substantially when different indicators are used. Therefore, comparative system assessments based on indicators should be considered carefully, especially those intended to gauge environmental quality. Insight was also gained into specific factors which may lead to one system achieving higher rankings than another. However, despite the insufficiencies of indicators for comparative quality assessments, they do provide important information for waste managers and they can assist in evaluating internal programmatic performance and progress. To enhance these types of assessments, a framework for scoring indicators based on criteria that evaluate their utility and value for system evaluations was developed. This framework was used to construct an improved model for

  17. Quantitative analysis of active compounds in pharmaceutical preparations by use of attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrophotometry and the internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre Toraño, J; van Hattum, S H

    2001-10-01

    A new method is presented for the quantitative analysis of compounds in pharmaceutical preparations Fourier transform (FT) mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) module. Reduction of the quantity of overlapping absorption bands, by interaction of the compound of interest with an appropriate solvent, and the employment of an internal standard (IS), makes MIR suitable for quantitative analysis. Vigabatrin, as active compound in vigabatrin 100-mg capsules, was used as a model compound for the development of the method. Vigabatrin was extracted from the capsule content with water after addition of a sodium thiosulfate IS solution. The extract was concentrated by volume reduction and applied to the FTMIR-ATR module. Concentrations of unknown samples were calculated from the ratio of the vigabatrin band area (1321-1610 cm(-1)) and the IS band area (883-1215 cm(-1)) using a calibration standard. The ratio of the area of the vigabatrin peak to that of the IS was linear with the concentration in the range of interest (90-110 mg, in twofold; n=2). The accuracy of the method in this range was 99.7-100.5% (n=5) with a variability of 0.4-1.3% (n=5). The comparison of the presented method with an HPLC assay showed similar results; the analysis of five vigabatrin 100-mg capsules resulted in a mean concentration of 102 mg with a variation of 2% with both methods.

  18. A quantitative sensitivity analysis on the behaviour of common thermal indices under hot and windy conditions in Doha, Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Human thermal perception is best described through thermal indices. The most popular thermal indices applied in human bioclimatology are the perceived temperature (PT), the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). They are analysed focusing on their sensitivity to single meteorological input parameters under the hot and windy meteorological conditions observed in Doha, Qatar. It can be noted, that the results for the three indices are distributed quite differently. Furthermore, they respond quite differently to modifications in the input conditions. All of them show particular limitations and shortcomings that have to be considered and discussed. While the results for PT are unevenly distributed, UTCI shows limitations concerning the input data accepted. PET seems to respond insufficiently to changes in vapour pressure. The indices should therefore be improved to be valid for several kinds of climates.

  19. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  20. Nursing students' evaluation of a new feedback and reflection tool for use in high-fidelity simulation - Formative assessment of clinical skills. A descriptive quantitative research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Elisabeth; Plathe, Hilde Syvertsen; Eide, Hilde

    2017-11-01

    Clinical skills training is an important part of nurses' education programmes. Clinical skills are complex. A common understanding of what characterizes clinical skills and learning outcomes needs to be established. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a new reflection and feedback tool for formative assessment. The study has a descriptive quantitative design. 129 students participated who were at the end of the first year of a Bachelor degree in nursing. After highfidelity simulation, data were collected using a questionnaire with 19 closed-ended and 2 open-ended questions. The tool stimulated peer assessment, and enabled students to be more thorough in what to assess as an observer in clinical skills. The tool provided a structure for selfassessment and made visible items that are important to be aware of in clinical skills. This article adds to simulation literature and provides a tool that is useful in enhancing peer learning, which is essential for nurses in practice. The tool has potential for enabling students to learn about reflection and developing skills for guiding others in practice after they have graduated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  2. Variations of reflectance and vegetation indices as a function of the topographic modeling parameter of the Parque Estadual do Turvo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gaida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques have been widely used in forestry studies because they allow evaluation and monitoring of large areas. The Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET (17.491 ha is the largest fragment of preserved subtropical deciduous forest of South Brazil, representing an extension of the Misiones forest in Argentina (10.000 km². This area has great environmental importance and is adequate for performing remote sensing studies using high or even coarse-to-moderate spatial resolution data as well as related vegetation indices. Both, the reflectance and vegetation indices, are affected by external factors that change the spectral response of the surface components. Among the factors that can introduce errors in the interpretation of the images, topographic effects add spectral variability in satellite products. In addition, previous studies in subtropical forests showed that the geometry of data acquisition affects significantly the estimates of vegetation parameters derived from images acquired at off-nadir viewing or by large field-of-view (FOV sensors. This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of the bidirectional reflectance variations and of the derived vegetation indices as a function of local topography using high spatial resolution data acquired by the RapidEye constellation of satellites.

  3. An attempt and significance of using scandium (Sc) indication for quantitative estimation of soil ingested by pastured cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Takeo; Sudo, Madoka; Miyamoto, Susumu; Kikuchi, Takeaki; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Kuma, Tadashi.

    1985-01-01

    Pastured beef cattle constantly ingest soil together with grass. Dried grass and silage used in winter also contain some soil. Sc occurs in soil in much greater amounts than in grass and is not absorbed by digestive canals, and the Sc content can be determined accuretely by the activation analysis method. In view of this, a technique is devised which uses Sc as an indication in estimating the amount of soil ingested by cattle, and this new method is found to be better than the conventional one with Ti indication. Accordingly, dung is collected from the same cattle at the end of the pastured and housed periods. The dung samples are dried, ground, activated and analysed. On the basis of results of this analysis, the amount of soil ingested at the end of the pastured and housed periods is estimated at 106 +- 120 and 129 +- 171 g/day, respectively, which broadly agree with values previously reported. An evaluation of the amounts of Se and Zn taken by cattle from soil is also carried out. (Nogami, K.)

  4. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  5. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  6. Quantitative measurements of fly ash, slag, and cement in limestone-based blends by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Claghorn, R.D.; Voogd, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    The disposal of the low-level radioactive liquids involves mixing the liquid waste with pozzolanic blend to form grout. Since the long-term performance of the grout depends on the composition of the blend, a rapid and reliable quantitative method to monitor blend compositions is needed. Earlier studies by Westinghouse Hanford Company demonstrated the utility of a Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method for the analysis of cement blends. A sequential spectral subtraction technique was used to analyze the blend; however, its reproducibility depends on the operator's skill to perform spectral subtractions. A partial-least-squares (PLS) algorithm has replaced spectral subtraction. The PLS method is a statistical quantitative method suitable for analysis of multicomponent systems. Calibration blends are prepared by mixing the blend components in various proportions following a carefully designed calibration model. For the model, limestone content ranges from 30-50 wt%; blast furnace slag from 18-38 wt%; fly ash from 18-38 wt%; and cement from 0-16 wt%. Use of the large concentration range will enhance the chance that the calibration will be useful when target concentration change. The ability of the PLS method to predict limestone, slag, fly ash, and cement values in test blends was assessed. The prediction step of the PLS algorithm required only a few seconds to analyze the test spectra. The best and worst results for each component of the blends calculated by this method are shown in tables. The standard error of prediction of the true value is <2 wt% for limestone, <4 wt% for both fly ash and blast furnace slag, and <10 wt% for cement. 2 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes....... In particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31...... Holstein cows divided into 4 groups representing repeated experiments and, within group, divided according to quantitative trait locus haplotype. All cows were inoculated with viable E. coli, and milk samples were collected 27 times from −6 to 396 h post-E. coli inoculation (PI). Activity of the 4 enzymes...

  8. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hald, Tine

    2017-12-01

    The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10 -5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study attempts to fit a QMRA model to genome copies of norovirus data. The model estimates the risk of norovirus infection from the intake of vegetables irrigated with wastewater from different sources. The results were compared to the results of a corresponding model using the fecal indicator conversion ratio to estimate the norovirus count. In all scenarios of using different water sources, the application of the fecal indicator conversion ratio underestimated the norovirus disease burden, measured by the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), when compared to results using the genome copies norovirus data. In some cases the difference was >2 orders of magnitude. All scenarios using genome copies met the 10 -4 DALY per person per year for consumption of vegetables irrigated with wastewater, although these results are considered to be highly conservative risk estimates. The fecal indicator conversion ratio model of stream-water and drain-water sources of wastewater achieved the 10 -6 DALY per person per year threshold, which tends to indicate an underestimation of health risk when compared to using genome copies for estimating the dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal changes in quantitative and qualitative indicators of word and story recall in young-old and old-old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, B J; Dixon, R A; Hultsch, D F; Hertzog, C

    1999-03-01

    The present study examined longitudinal changes in quantitative and qualitative measures of episodic memory. The sample, taken from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, consisted of 158 young-old adults (initially 55 to 70 years old) and 84 old-old adults (initially 71 to 86 years old) who were tested three times over six years. Average word and text recall, as well as five indicators of qualitative aspects of word recall (e.g., number of categories recalled) and one indicator of structure of text recall (i.e., levels of information) were used. For word recall, although both age groups exhibited negative longitudinal changes in quantitative performance, overall qualitative performance was generally stable. Two qualitative indicators (number of categories and intrusions) showed modest decline and one (organization at recall) showed improvement. Results for overall text recall showed significant performance increments for the young-old group, whereas the old-old group exhibited slight declines in overall performance. Analyses of qualitative measures showed stable structure of hierarchical recall, with the old-old being impaired at all levels of detail in the stories. Overall results suggest that some underlying structural characteristics of word and text recall may be maintained into late life even when significant overall decline is observed.

  10. Validation of a stability-indicating hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of vitamin k3 (menadione sodium bisulfite) in injectable solution formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mashhour M; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A; Hallak, Hussein O

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of menadione sodium bisulfite in the injectable solution formulation. The method is based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) coupled with a photodiode array detector. The desired separation was achieved on the ZIC-HILIC column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 25°C temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of 200mM ammonium acetate (NH4AC) solution and acetonitrile (ACN) (20:80; v/v) pH-adjusted to 5.7 by glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.5 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 261 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peak retention, peak USP tailing factor, and column efficiency were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing menadione sodium bisulfite standard and the injectable solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and the excipients, thus proving that the method is a reliable, stability-indicating tool. The method was validated as per ICH and USP guidelines (USP34/NF29) and found to be adequate for the routine quantitative estimation of menadione sodium bisulfite in commercially available menadione sodium bisulfite injectable solution dosage forms.

  11. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian & S Angolan margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Horn, B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and magmatic type are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian and S Angolan rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been used to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type for the SE Brazilian and S Angolan margins. Gravity inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated on the Iberian margin for profiles IAM9 and ISE-01. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along profile. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the S Angolan ION-GXT CS1-2400 profile has been used to determine OCT structure and COB location. Analysis suggests that exhumed mantle, corresponding to a magma poor margin, is absent beneath the allochthonous salt. The thickness of earliest oceanic crust, derived from gravity and deep seismic reflection data is approximately 7km. The joint inversion predicts crustal basement densities and seismic velocities which are

  12. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio

    2015-01-21

    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  13. Development and validation of stability indicating method for the quantitative determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride in extended release formulation using high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Venlafaxine,hydrochloride is a structurally novel phenethyl bicyclic antidepressant, and is usually categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI but it has been referred to as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It inhibits the reuptake of dopamine. Venlafaxine HCL is widely prescribed in the form of sustained release formulations. In the current article we are reporting the development and validation of a fast and simple stability indicating, isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride in sustained release formulations. Materials and Methods : The quantitative determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride was performed on a Kromasil C18 analytical column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size with 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 4.5: methanol (40: 60 as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. For HPLC methods, UV detection was made at 225 nm. Results : During method validation, parameters such as precision, linearity, accuracy, stability, limit of quantification and detection and specificity were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Conclusions : The method has been successfully applied for the quantification and dissolution profiling of Venlafaxine HCL in sustained release formulation. The method presents a simple and reliable solution for the routine quantitative analysis of Venlafaxine HCL.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on some quantitative indices of wheat and the ultrast of wheat and the ultrast of wheat and the ultrastructure of wheat chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.; Marek, J.; Hraska, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effects were observed of acute gamma irradiation on dry seeds of Triticum aestivum var. erythrospermum (Koern.) Mansf., variety Kosutska, and Triticum monococcum (L.). Gamma radiation doses ranged from 0.258 C.kg -1 (1 kR) to 5.160 C.kg -1 (20 kR). Plant samples from pot experiments were analyzed as to the lengths of the first three leaves, production of dry matter and chloroplast ultrastructure. The studied quantitative indices, their variability and correlations are substantially dependent on the genotype of the tested species and on the applied radiation dose. Gamma radiation caused vesiculation and increase of chloroplasts, an increase in the grain number, a decline in the number of disks, a reduction of stroma thylakoids and a grouping of grana in the chloroplasts. The frequency of these changes is significantly influenced by the genotype of the tested species and by the applied radiation dose level. (author)

  15. Quantitative determination of polyphosphate in sediments using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Aazam; Cook, Perran L M; Wood, Bayden R

    2012-08-21

    Phosphorus (P) is a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality in freshwater ecosystems. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. Despite the broad relevance of polyphosphate (Poly-P) in bioremediation and P release processes in the environment, its quantification is not yet well developed for sediment samples. Current methods possess significant disadvantages because of the difficulties associated with using a single extractant to extract a specific P compound without altering others. A fast and reliable method to estimate the quantitative contribution of microorganisms to sediment P release processes is needed, especially when an excessive P accumulation in the form of polyphosphate (Poly-P) occurs. Development of novel approaches for application of emerging spectroscopic techniques to complex environmental matrices such as sediments significantly contributes to the speciation models of P mobilization, biogeochemical nutrient cycling and development of nutrient models. In this study, for the first time Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) was used to quantify Poly-P in sediments. To reduce the high absorption matrix components in sediments such as silica, a physical extraction method was developed to separate sediment biological materials from abiotic particles. The aim was to achieve optimal separation of the biological materials from sediment abiotic particles with minimum chemical change in the sample matrix prior to ATR-FTIR analysis. Using a calibration set of 60 samples for the PLS prediction models in the Poly-P concentration range of 0-1 mg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight of sediment) (R(2) = 0.984 and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.041 at Factor-1) Poly-P could be detected at less than 50 μg g(-l) d.w. Using this technique, there is no solvent extraction or chemical

  16. A cross-sectional study on the relationship between hematological data and quantitative morphological indices from kidney biopsies in different glomerular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Michelangelo; Viggiano, Davide; Ragone, Vincenzo; Trabace, Tiziana; di Palma, Annamaria; Rossini, Michele; Capasso, Giovambattista; Gesualdo, Loreto; Gigliotti, Giuseppe

    2018-03-14

    The classical approach to the analysis of kidney biopsies is based on semi-quantitative scores of the amount of sclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and vascular damage. However, advanced renal lesions may be accompanied by a paucity of clinical features and, conversely, important clinical abnormalities may be accompanied by minimal histopathological changes. The objective of this study is to correlate new, semiautomatic, quantitative features of kidney biopsies (e.g. fractal analysis) with clinical and hematological parameters using a cross-sectional design. Whole slide images from sixty-seven biopsies of patients diagnosed for diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or IgA nephropathy have been used. The images have been semi-automatically quantified in the ImageJ environment, in order to derive the glomerular density, the tubular density, the number of tubules per glomerulus and the fractal dimension of the tubular lumen in the cortex (an index of complexity of the tubular lumen). For each patient, hemato-chemical data have been retrieved, including the uric acid level and the creatinine-based eGFR. A linear relationship between eGFR and glomerular density was observed in hypertension and FSGS, but not in diabetic nephropathy. Conversely, the eGFR correlated with the tubular density across different glomerular conditions. Moreover, the tubular density was linearly correlated with uric acid levels in different pathological conditions. The fractal dimension of tubular lumen was correlated with the eGFR but only in hypertensive patients. Finally, blood pressure was not correlated to any of the morphological indices tested. We propose the use of the fractal dimension as a new morphological descriptor of the nephron integrity.

  17. Semi-Quantitative Assessment of the Health Risk of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Evaluation of Spirometry Indices on the Staff of Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Dazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Petrochemical industry is an important industry in the economic development of the country that causes employees have exposure with several kinds of contamination. The aim of this study was Semi-quantitative assessment of the health risk of occupational exposure to chemical materials and investigation of spirometry indices between employees of petrochemical industry. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the petrochemical industry complex in a special area of Assaluyeh in Iran in 2016. Health risk assessment of exposure to harmful chemical agents was performed in all of units and during three stages (identification of harmful material, determination of hazard rate of the chemical material, exposure rate and estimate of risk rate. Spirometry indices were measured using spirometry. Results: The results of chemical materials risk assessment showed that Raffinate in Butadiene unit has identified the highest amount of risk rank among 27 chemical materials in investigated units. In comparison with spirometry indices in Olefine unit between age with FVC parameter and history work with FVC and FEV1 parameters has observed a significant and negative correlation (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of risk assessment in all of the petrochemical units showed that 48.14% of materials were at low risk level, 29.62% medium risk, 18.51% high risk and 3.7% had very high risk level. The variables affecting on spirometry employees such as age and work experience play an important role in reducing the pulmonary function tests in exposed subjects.

  18. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  19. Interrelationships Among Several Variables Reflecting Quantitative Thinking in Elementary School Children with Particular Emphasis upon Those Measures Involving Metric and Decimal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Delon; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The relationships among measures of quantitative thinking in first through fifth grade children assigned either to an experimental math program emphasizing tactile, manipulative, or individual activity in learning metric and decimal concepts, or to a control group, were examined. Tables are presented and conclusions discussed. (Author/JKS)

  20. Stability indicating HPLC-DAD method for analysis of Ketorolac binary and ternary mixtures in eye drops: Quantitative analysis in rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazbi, Fawzy A; Hassan, Ekram M; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Hamdy, Mohamed M A

    2017-11-15

    Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis). For analysis in aqueous humor, Guaifenesin (GUF) was used as internal standard and the method was validated according to FDA regulation for analysis in biological fluids. Agilent 5 HC-C18(2) 150×4.6mm was used as stationary phase with a gradient eluting solvent of 20mM phosphate buffer pH 4.6 containing 0.2% triethylamine and acetonitrile. The drugs were resolved with retention times of 2.41, 5.26, 7.92 and 9.64min for PHE, GUF, KTC and CPM, respectively. The method was sensitive and selective to analyze simultaneously the three drugs in presence of possible forced degradation products and dosage form excipients (in vitro analysis) and also with the internal standard, in presence of aqueous humor interferences (analysis in biological fluid), at a single wavelength (261nm). No extraction procedure was required for analysis in aqueous humor. The simplicity of the method emphasizes its capability to analyze the drugs in vivo (in rabbit aqueous humor) and in vitro (in pharmaceutical formulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The evaluation value of the quantitative electroencephalogram for the prognosis of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and its relationship with serological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Mei Dou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the evaluation value of the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG for the prognosis of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE and its relationship with serological indicators. Methods: 76 children with HIE who were born and treated in our hospital between April 2013 and February 2017 were collected as observation group, and 50 healthy newborns who were born in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. qEEG parameter values of two groups of children were determined, serum levels of nerve injury indexes, nerve apoptosis indexes and oxidative stress indexes were compared between the two groups, and Pearson test was used to evaluate the inner link between qEEG parameter values and disease severity in children with HIE. Results: qEEG Fp1, Fp2, C3, C4, T3, T4, O1 and O2 loci power spectrum values of observation group were significantly lower than those of normal control group. Serum NSE, NPY, S-100B and MBP contents in observation group were higher than those in normal control group; nerve apoptosis indexes sFas, sFasL and Caspase-3 contents were higher than those in normal control group while Bcl-2 content was lower than that in normal control group; serum oxidative stress indexes AOPP and MDA contents were higher than those in normal control group while SOD content was lower than that in normal control group. Pearson test showed that qEEG Fp1, Fp2, C3, C4, T3, T4, O1 and O2 loci power spectrum values in children with HIE were directly correlated with the contents of nerve injury indexes, nerve apoptosis indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Conclusion: The qEEG parameter values in children with HIE are lower than those in normal children, and the specific values are closely related to the severity of the disease.

  2. Clinical use of quantitative cardiac perfusion PET : rationale, modalities and possible indications. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Lindner, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Agostini, Denis; Uebleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus

    Until recently, PET was regarded as a luxurious way of performing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, with excellent image quality and diagnostic capabilities that hardly justified the additional cost and procedural effort. Quantitative perfusion PET was considered a major improvement over standard

  3. Clinical use of quantitative cardiac perfusion PET: rationale, modalities and possible indications. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciagrà, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Lindner, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, PET was regarded as a luxurious way of performing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, with excellent image quality and diagnostic capabilities that hardly justified the additional cost and procedural effort. Quantitative perfusion PET was considered a major improvement over standard

  4. Optimization of the quantitative direct solid total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of glass microspheres functionalized with Zr organometallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, Ramon, E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.e [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Andres, Roman; Jesus, Ernesto de [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Terreros, Pilar [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleo-Quimica, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Quantitative determination of Zr in the system constituted by quartz microspheres functionalized with two kinds of organometallic compounds has been studied due to the importance of the correct quantization of the Zr from a catalytic point of view. Two parallel approximations were done, i.e. acid leaching and direct solid quantization. To validate the acid leaching TXRF measures, ICP-MS analysis were carried out. The results obtained by means of the optimization of the quantitative direct solid procedure show that, with a previous particle size distribution modification, TXRF obtain the same analytical results as ICP-MS and TXRF by acid leaching way but without previous chemical acid manipulation. This fact implies an important improvement for the analysis time, reagents costs and analysis facility and it proves again the versatility of TXRF to solve analytical problems in an easy, quick and accurate way. Additionally and for the direct solid TXRF measurements, a deeper study was done to evaluate the intrinsic analytical parameters of the Zr TXRF analysis of this material. So, the influence of the particle size distributions (modified by means of a high power ultrasound probe) with respect to uncertainty and detection limits for Zr were developed. The main analytical conclusion was the strong correlation between the average particle sizes and the TXRF analytical parameters of Zr measurements, i.e. concentration, accuracy, uncertainty and detection limits.

  5. Biofilms as bio-indicator for polluted waters? Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of biofilms of the Tisza river (Hungary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mages, Margarete; Ovari, Mihaly; Tuempling, Wolf v. [Department of Inland Water Research Magdeburg, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114, Magdeburg (Germany); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, 1117, Budapest (Hungary)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the heavy metal accumulation by natural biofilms living in the catchment area of the Tisza river in Hungary, as well as in biofilms cultivated in vitro. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that metals can be adsorbed on biofilms, depending on their concentration and on the availability of free sorptive places. Biofilms were cultivated in vitro in natural freshwater from the Saale river, Germany. After reaching the plateau phase, Cu was added to reach a concentration of 100 {mu}g/L. An increase of its mass fraction in the biofilm was observed, which caused the decrease of the concentration in the water phase. Unfortunately, the reactor wall was also found to act as adsorbent for Cu. More detailed results of our in vitro experiments will be published in a forthcoming paper. Naturally grown biofilm samples from exposed as well as background places at the Hungarian rivers Szamos and Tisza were collected in 2000 and 2002 after the cyanide spill, and analysed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Metal mass fraction differences as high as two orders of magnitude were found between polluted and unpolluted (background) sampling points. Extremely high concentration values, e.g. 5600 {mu}g/g Zn in biofilm, were found at highly polluted sampling points. This means an enrichment factor of ca. 10,000 compared to the water phase. (orig.)

  6. IMAGING OF A TRANSITIONAL DISK GAP IN REFLECTED LIGHT: INDICATIONS OF PLANET FORMATION AROUND THE YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG LkCa 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, C.; Goto, M.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Grady, C. A.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Janson, M.; Fukagawa, M.; Honda, M.; Mulders, G. D.; Min, M.; Moro-MartIn, A.; McElwain, M. W.; Hodapp, K. W.; Abe, L.; Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Fukue, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present H- and K s -band imaging data resolving the gap in the transitional disk around LkCa 15, revealing the surrounding nebulosity. We detect sharp elliptical contours delimiting the nebulosity on the inside as well as the outside, consistent with the shape, size, ellipticity, and orientation of starlight reflected from the far-side disk wall, whereas the near-side wall is shielded from view by the disk's optically thick bulk. We note that forward scattering of starlight on the near-side disk surface could provide an alternate interpretation of the nebulosity. In either case, this discovery provides confirmation of the disk geometry that has been proposed to explain the spectral energy distributions of such systems, comprising an optically thick disk with an inner truncation radius of ∼46 AU enclosing a largely evacuated gap. Our data show an offset of the nebulosity contours along the major axis, likely corresponding to a physical pericenter offset of the disk gap. This reinforces the leading theory that dynamical clearing by at least one orbiting body is the cause of the gap. Based on evolutionary models, our high-contrast imagery imposes an upper limit of 21 M Jup on companions at separations outside of 0.''1 and of 13 M Jup outside of 0.''2. Thus, we find that a planetary system around LkCa 15 is the most likely explanation for the disk architecture.

  7. Comparison of the Quantitative Values of C-14 and C-13 UBT to Reflect the Presence and Degree of Ongoing Helicobacter pylori Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2008-01-01

    A urea breath test (UBT) using C-14 or C-13 has been developed for identifying Helicobacter (H) pylori infection on the basis of urease production with release of labeled CO 2 . We investigated if the C-14 and C-13 UBT have the difference to reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori infection detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx) in the same patients. Thirty eight patients (M:F=28:10, age 53.4±13.0 yrs) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as indigestion, gastric fullness or pain consecutively underwent C-14 UBT, GBx and C-13 UBT within one week before medications. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (37 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive (≥200 dpm), intermediate (50∼199 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm). For the C-13 UBT, the results were classified as positive (≥2.5) or negative (<2.5). The results of GBx with Giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4 (diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT and C-13 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. The prevalence of H. pylori infection by GBx with Giemsa stain was 25/38 (65.8%). In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.0%, 92.3%, 95.8%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. However, the C-13 UBT had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 96.0%, 84.6%, 92.3%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. The more significant correlation in C-14 than C-13 UBT (r=0.948 vs r=0.819, p<0.001) was found between the value of UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection. We conclude that the diagnostic performance between C-14 and C-13 UBT to detect H. pylori infection is not significantly different, but the value of C-14 UBT more

  8. Comparison of the Quantitative Values of C-14 and C-13 UBT to Reflect the Presence and Degree of Ongoing Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A urea breath test (UBT) using C-14 or C-13 has been developed for identifying Helicobacter (H) pylori infection on the basis of urease production with release of labeled CO{sub 2}. We investigated if the C-14 and C-13 UBT have the difference to reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori infection detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx) in the same patients. Thirty eight patients (M:F=28:10, age 53.4{+-}13.0 yrs) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as indigestion, gastric fullness or pain consecutively underwent C-14 UBT, GBx and C-13 UBT within one week before medications. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (37 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive ({>=}200 dpm), intermediate (50{approx}199 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm). For the C-13 UBT, the results were classified as positive ({>=}2.5) or negative (<2.5). The results of GBx with Giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4 (diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT and C-13 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. The prevalence of H. pylori infection by GBx with Giemsa stain was 25/38 (65.8%). In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.0%, 92.3%, 95.8%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. However, the C-13 UBT had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 96.0%, 84.6%, 92.3%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. The more significant correlation in C-14 than C-13 UBT (r=0.948 vs r=0.819, p<0.001) was found between the value of UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection. We conclude that the diagnostic performance between C-14 and C-13 UBT to detect H. pylori infection is not significantly different, but the value of C-14 UBT

  9. Quantitative assessment of hemodynamic and structural characteristics of in vivo brain tissue using total diffuse reflectance spectrum measured in a non-contact fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinchen; Garcia, Sarahy; Frometa, Yisel; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Soltani, Mohammad; Almadi, Mohamed; Riera, Jorge J; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (R TD (λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to R TD (λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target. Estimation errors of the proposed methodology were computationally evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model for photon migration under various conditions. It was discovered that this new methodology could handle moderate noise and achieve very high accuracy, but only if the refractive index of the target is known. The accuracy of the technique was also validated using a series of tissue phantom studies, and consistent and accurate estimates of μ s '(λ)/μ a (λ) were obtained from all the phantoms tested. Finally, a small-scale animal study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical utility of the reported method, wherein a forepaw stimulation model was utilized to induce transient hemodynamic responses in somatosensory cortices. With this approach, significant stimulation-related changes (p < 0.001) in cortical hemodynamic and structural characteristics were successfully measured.

  10. Quantitative indexes of gas-steam thermo electrical power plants thermodynamical cycles; Indices quantitativos de ciclos termodinamicos de centrais termoeletricas de gas-vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlassov, D.; Vargas, J.V.C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: vlassov@demec.ufpr.br; jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses various thermal schemes of the world wide most used cycles in gas-steam thermoelectric power plants. The combination of gas turbine cycle with the steam-gas cycle in thermoelectric power plants is performed in several ways, resulting in different thermal schemes, used equipment and operation plant basic characteristics. The thermal scheme of a gas-steam power plant is a determinant factor for the definition of energetic, economic and ecological characteristics. For the comparative analysis various quantitative indexes are presented, as for example: the heat fraction supplied to the gas turbine cycle and the cycle binary rate.

  11. Quantitative cerebral blood flow calculation method using xenon CT. Introduction of a factor reflecting diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Shigeru; Honda, Mitsuru; Noguchi, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    In calculating cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the Fick principle, time-course information on arterial tracer concentration is indispensable and exerts considerable influence on the accuracy of CBF. In xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT), the time-course change rate for end-tidal xenon concentration (Ke), which can be measured, and that for arterial xenon concentration (Ka) have been assumed to be equal. However, it has been pointed out that there are large differences between Ke and Ka in many cases. We have introduced a single factor (γ) which correlates Ke with Ka in the equation Ka=γ x (1-e -Ke/γ ). This factor, γ, reflects the diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon; larger γ values correspond to larger diffusing capacities and Ka is equal to Ke when γ is infinity. Kety's equation contains two parameters: CBF and xenon solubility coefficient We added a third parameter, γ, to Kety's equation, and developed an efficient method to obtain the γ value for each Xe-CT study. Applying this method to ten normal subjects (35.4±16.3 years, mean±standard deviation (SD)), we obtained γ value of 1.01±0.17 and the average CBF value of 38.8±7.5 mL/100 g/min in basal ganglia. The wash-in period could be shortened to two minutes using this method. Xe-CT with this factor (γ) as a parameter enhances its clinical availability as well as the accuracy of CBF. (author)

  12. Quantitative remote sensing study indicates doubling of coastal erosion rate in past 50 yr along a segment of the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J.C.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    A new quantitative coastal land gained-and-lost method uses image analysis of topographic maps and Landsat thematic mapper short-wave infrared data to document accelerated coastal land loss and thermokarst lake expansion and drainage. The data span 1955-2005 along the Beaufort Sea coast north of Teshekpuk Lake in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Some areas have undergone as much as 0.9 km of coastal erosion in the past 50 yr. Land loss attributed to coastal erosion more than doubled, from 0.48 km2 yr-1 during 1955-1985 to 1.08 km2 yr-1 during 1985-2005. Coastal erosion has breached thermokarst lakes, causing initial draining of the lakes followed by marine floodng. Although inland thermokarst lakes show some uniform expansion, lakes breached by coastal erosion display lake expansion several orders of magnitude greater than inland lakes. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  13. New method for determination of quantitative indices of zooplankton feeding with the use of phosphorus isotopes under close to ''in situ'' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zesenko, A.Ja.; Pavlovskaya, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    A new method determining food rations, duration of food digestion and elements of food balance in case of zooplankton fed on natural plankton was elaborated. A feature of radioactive mineral phosphorus entering into all components of plankton in natural marine water is a basis of this method. Fractionating the natural plankton according to the size of food particles with determination of specific radioactivity in them give a possibility to elucidate selectivity of feeding in zooplankton, its role in grazing and transforming the matter as well as regeneration of mineral phosphorus in pelagial ecosystems. High sensitivity (1 x 10 -4 μg P/indiv.) of the method allows to carry out experiments on separate individuals and estimate quantitatively variability of their food rations and separate elements of food balance. 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  14. Quantitative analysis of TEM-8 and CEA tumor markers indicating free tumor cells in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisossadati, Reza; Farshchian, Moein; Ganji, Azita; Tavassoli, Alieza; Velayati, Arash; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Chavoshi, Somaye; Mehrabi Bahar, Mostafa; Memar, Bahram; Rajabi Mashhadi, Mohammad Taghi; Naseh, Hossein; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Moghbeli, Meysam; Moaven, Omeed; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2011-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer in the world. Approximately in 50 percent of patients, metastatic disease is a major cause of death. Therefore, early diagnosis of CRC is crucial for a successful outcome. For the detection of circulating cancer cells, this study applied a sensitive method that employed specific tumor markers for early detection. A total of 80 blood samples from 40 CRC patients and 40 age-matched healthy controls were collected for the study. The circulating mRNA levels of two CRC tumor markers, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM-8) and carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) were evaluated using an absolute quantitative real-time PCR assay in a Stratagene Mx-3000P real-time PCR system. GAPDH was used as the endogenous control. TEM-8 and CEA were primarily detected more in the CRC patients rather than in the controls: 22/40 vs 9/40, p=0.009 and 30/40 vs 11/40, p=0.00054, respectively. In the CRC patients, the mRNA level of these markers was significantly higher in comparison to the normal controls (p=0.018 and 0.01). The overall sensitivity of this panel was 65% with a specificity of 75%. Statistical analysis for demographic variants did not reach significant values. TEM-8 and CEA markers were detected more frequently and in significantly higher levels in the blood samples of patients compared with samples from age-matched healthy controls. The copy number of CEA and TEM-8 mRNA, as detected by a real-time quantitative PCR, appears to be a promising marker for evaluating the risk of tumor spread.

  15. Quantitative measurement of 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake reflects the expansion of circulating plasmablasts in IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Alvise; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Gallivanone, Francesca; Canevari, Carla; Milani, Raffaella; Lanzillotta, Marco; Campochiaro, Corrado; Ramirez, Giuseppe Alvise; Bozzalla Cassione, Emanuele; Bozzolo, Enrica; Pedica, Federica; Castiglioni, Isabella; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Falconi, Massimo; Gianolli, Luigi; Dagna, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT is increasingly used to assess organ involvement and response to treatment in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but clear correlations between 18F-FDG uptake and disease activity have not been established yet. We aimed to correlate the intensity and distribution of 18F-FDG uptake with validated clinical, serological and immunological parameters of IgG4-RD activity. Twenty patients with active IgG4-RD underwent a baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT. Ten patients repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT after immunosuppressive treatments. 18F-FDG tissue uptake was measured using the standardized uptake value corrected for the partial volume effect (PVC-SUV) and the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) with (TLGtot+ln) and without (TLGtot-ln) lymph nodes. Disease activity was assessed by means of clinical parameters [IgG4-RD Responder Index (RI)], serological (ESR and CRP) and immunological (serum IgG4 and circulating plasmablasts) biomarkers. The enhanced liver fibrosis score was exploited as a biomarker for fibroblast activation. Thirteen (65%) patients had two or more organs affected by IgG4-RD. All patients had active IgG4-RD as defined by a median IgG4-RD RI value of 9 (range 6-15; normal IgG4 and plasmablasts were elevated in 85% of patients. Circulating plasmablasts positively correlated with PVC-SUV (P = 0.027), inversely correlated with TLGtot-ln (P = 0.023) and did not correlate with TLGtot+ln (P > 0.05). No statistically significant correlation was found between PVC-SUV or TLG and IgG4-RD RI, ESR, CRP, serum IgG4 or enhanced liver fibrosis score (P > 0.05). Clinical response to immunosuppressive therapies was associated with a consensual reduction of circulating plasmablasts, PVC-SUV, TLGtot+ln and TLGtot-ln values (P IgG4-RD lesions reflects immunological perturbations of the B cell compartment rather than fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix deposition. Conventional biomarkers of disease activity, namely IgG4-RD RI, ESR, CRP and serum IgG4

  16. The effect of bi-directional reflectance distribution function on the estimation of vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI): A case study of the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire in northwestern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Matsuyama, H.; Tsuzuki, H.; Sweda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dependence of the satellite data on sun/sensor geometry must be considered in the case of monitoring vegetation from satellites. Vegetation structure causes uneven scattering of sunlight, which is expressed by bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of BRDF of monitoring vegetation using the reflectance of visible and near-infrared bands. We investigated the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire (main species: spruce) in the northwestern Canada. BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) was measured in the seven sites of some succession stages, along with the measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and biomass. The main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) In each site, the difference of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value around 0.1-0.2 was caused by BRDF when the sensor angle was changed from -15deg to 15 deg, being equivalent to the standard image of IKONOS. Also, LAI estimated by NDVI varied from 22% to 65% of the average. (2) The robustness of other vegetation indices to BRDF was compared. The reflectance of the near-infrared band normalized by the sum of other bands (nNIR), and Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI) were investigated along with NDVI. It is clarified that nNIR was most robust in the site where vegetation existed. GEMI was most robust in the sites of scarce vegetation, while NDVI was strongly affected by BRDF in such sites

  17. Moving from technical to critical reflection in journalling: an investigation of students' ability to incorporate three levels of reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, K; Tollefson, J; Francis, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project aimed at changing the levels of reflection of preregistration nursing students in a tertiary institution. Whilst reflection is widely espoused now in nursing, few studies have been found that identify whether the level of reflective writing can be identified or developed by students. Anecdotal and research evidence (Powell 1989; van Manen 1977) however indicates that most student reflective writing occurs at the technical level. A descriptive exploratory study using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was undertaken to apply van Manen's (1977) levels in a structured way in an attempt to facilitate the student's understanding and use of the levels in their reflective writing. The findings of the study indicate that student self evaluation and identification of the levels in their own writing can lead to change in the levels of critical reflective writing achieved by undergraduate students.

  18. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS OF THE ATTACK PHASIS AT THE WORLD CUP IN GERMANY 2006th AND SOUTH AFRICA 2010th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peko Vujović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the recording of predefined hypothetical significant predictors for achieving goals in modern football. Concretely, the object of this study is the mode of play of top teams and individual characteristics of ellite players and comparative analysis of the last two world championships. The aim of the research was to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences between the successfully completed attacks on the World Cup in Germany in 2006 and South Africa in 2010, using a pre-defined variables. Task of the paper is to identify the set of variables that represent a good predictor for efficacy in attack phase, and which tendencies of play can be seen using of variables recorded on the sample matches in the last two world championships. The steps of work are the followers. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the positions of the players in the team, who scored a goals and assisted on two observed world championships. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the time intervals in which the goals was scored in the two above-mentioned competition. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the number of contacts with the ball at players just before successfuly implementation of attack on the mentioned competitions. And to determine whether there are a significant differences in the positions on the ground from which the goal has been scored, and from which is assisted for the goal. On the basis on the processed variables, the conclusions which have a foothold in the relevant and reliable parameters were drawn.

  19. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  20. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  1. Using Print Media Indicators in Researching Organization Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, J.; Nijholt, J.; Heusinkveld, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative empirical research into 'management fashions' or 'organization concepts' is dominated by studies using print media indicators (PMI). Such research builds on the simple premise that the number of publications on an organization concept in the course of time reflects managerial interest

  2. Monitoring leaf photosynthesis with canopy spectral reflectance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the quantitative relationships between leaf photosynthetic characteristics (LPC) and canopy spectral reflectance under different water supply and nitrogen application rates in rice plants. The responses of reflectance at red radiation (680 nm) to different water contents and N rates were parallel to those of leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN). The relationships of reflectance at 680 nm and ratio index of R(810,680) (near infrared/red) to PN of different leaf positions and layers indicated that the top two full leaves were the best positions for quantitative monitoring of PN with remote sensing technique, and the index R(810,680) was the best ratio index for evaluating LPC. Testing of the models with independent data sets indicated that R(810,680) could well estimate PN of the top two leaves and canopy leaf photosynthetic potential. Hence R(810,680) can be used to monitor LPC in rice under diverse growing conditions

  3. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  4. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  5. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  6. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  7. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  8. Variance in total levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) in human sperm may limit the applicability of quantitative immunofluorescent analysis as a diagnostic indicator of oocyte activation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Mounce, Ginny; Ramadan, Walaa M; Lemmon, Bernadette; Heindryckx, Bjorn; de Sutter, Petra; Parrington, John; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether similar levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) protein are present in sperm from men whose ejaculates resulted in normal oocyte activation, and to examine whether a predominant pattern of PLC-ζ localization is linked to normal oocyte activation ability. Laboratory study. University laboratory. Control subjects (men with proven oocyte activation capacity; n = 16) and men whose sperm resulted in recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure (oocyte activation deficient [OAD]; n = 5). Quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of PLC-ζ protein in human sperm. Total levels of PLC-ζ fluorescence, proportions of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunoreactivity, and proportions of PLC-ζ localization patterns in sperm from control and OAD men. Sperm from control subjects presented a significantly higher proportion of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunofluorescence compared with infertile men diagnosed with OAD (82.6% and 27.4%, respectively). Total levels of PLC-ζ in sperm from individual control and OAD patients exhibited significant variance, with sperm from 10 out of 16 (62.5%) exhibiting levels similar to OAD samples. Predominant PLC-ζ localization patterns varied between control and OAD samples with no predictable or consistent pattern. The results indicate that sperm from control men exhibited significant variance in total levels of PLC-ζ protein, as well as significant variance in the predominant localization pattern. Such variance may hinder the diagnostic application of quantitative PLC-ζ immunofluorescent analysis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  10. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  11. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  12. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  13. Selection of Hyperspectral Narrowbands (HNBs) and Composition of Hyperspectral Twoband Vegetation Indices (HVIs) for Biophysical Characterization and Discrimination of Crop Types Using Field Reflectance and Hyperion-EO-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mariotto, Isabella; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Landis, David R.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2013-01-01

    .g., biophysical characterization of crops). The findings of this study will make a significant contribution to future hyperspectral missions such as NASA's HyspIRI. Index Terms-Hyperion, field reflectance, imaging spectroscopy, HyspIRI, biophysical parameters, hyperspectral vegetation indices, hyperspectral narrowbands, broadbands.

  14. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  15. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  16. Using anonymized reflection to teach ethics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Gaye

    2008-01-01

    Anonymized reflection was employed as an innovative way of teaching ethics in order to enhance students' ability in ethical decision making during a Care of the Dying Patient and Family' module. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the first two student cohorts who experienced anonymized reflection ( n = 24). The themes identified were the richness and relevance of scenarios, small-group work and a team approach to teaching. Students indicated that they preferred this style of teaching. This finding was verified by a postal questionnaire conducted four months later. The conclusions drawn from this study suggest that using anonymized reflection is an effective method for teaching ethics to nurses and indicates that learning about ethical issues in this way reduces uncertainties.

  17. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  18. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  19. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  20. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  1. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  2. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  3. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  4. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  5. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  6. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  7. Quantitative Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.

  8. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  9. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  10. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  11. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  12. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  13. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, Sofia [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Luisa, E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von [Institute for analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  14. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  15. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  16. Optimal safety levels via social indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, N.C.; Nathwani, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    In the management of natural or technological hazards in a society, the objective should be to serve the public interest in a rational manner. Decisions with regard to risk levels for the public - if they are to be defensible and self-consistent - require an integrated system of values that covers the entire range of hazards under public regulation. The process for setting risk levels (or safety goals) should ideally involve a thorough consideration of cost and benefit of all kinds, supported by explicit quantified comparison on a widely acceptable scale. The purpose of the paper is to show how quantitative criteria within the context of an appropriate framework can be used to guide risk management decisions. Social indicators are time series, statistics that reflect some aspect of the quality of life in a society or group of individuals. Development, validation, and use of social indicators is an important current research activity, as exemplified by journals such as Social Indicators Research. The basic objective is to provide quantitative measures for assessing the rationales and effectiveness of public decision-making. The concept is applicable to the nuclear industry

  17. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. Behavioural and physiological indicators of shelter dogs' welfare: reflections on the no-kill policy on free-ranging dogs in Italy revisited on the basis of 15 years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafazzo, S; Maragliano, L; Bonanni, R; Scholl, F; Guarducci, M; Scarcella, R; Di Paolo, M; Pontier, D; Lai, O; Carlevaro, F; Bucci, E; Cerini, N; Carlevaro, L; Alfieri, L; Fantini, C; Natoli, E

    2014-06-22

    The Italian National Law 281 of 1991 forbids the euthanatization of free-ranging dogs, unless they have an incurable illness or are proved to be dangerous. Without neglecting the undeniable benefits of the "no-kill" policy, nevertheless it has brought about a chronic overpopulation in shelters and, as a result, higher costs of management and welfare problems since some dogs remain in the shelter for life. In 2004-2008, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of the Lazio and Tuscany regions carried out a survey in the Lazio Region to verify the effects of the Italian National Law 281/91 on free-ranging dog management following 15 years from its implementation. One of the aims of the study was an assessment of the welfare of dogs in a shelter sample (8 shelters out of 47 censused in the Lazio Region). 97 mixed-breed dogs were selected, their behaviour was studied and a blood sample was taken for each dog in order to determine the individual blood concentration of cortisol and the amount of oxidative damage (level of dRoms), as well as the amount of antioxidants to cope with it. Moreover, the total leukocyte count (leukogram) was accomplished. We ran general backward stepwise regression models using "level of antioxidant", "level of dRoms" and "level of serum cortisol" as dependent variables respectively. The results showed that the most important variable that improved the level of welfare of dogs consisted in having the opportunity to regularly go out of the cage for a walk, whereas other variables like gender, size of the cage (small, medium, large), being alone in the cage, and being neutered/entire, had no significant effect on the physiological indicators of welfare. Dogs that enjoyed the regular walk had a higher total antioxidant capacity, and performed a lower frequency of displacing activities and stereotyped behaviour. Moreover, oxidative stress parameters seem to be indicators well matched with behavioural indicators of stress. Thus, for the first time

  19. Quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brase, J.M.; Martz, H.E.; Waltjen, K.E.; Hurd, R.L.; Wieting, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic techniques have been used in nondestructive evaluation primarily to develop qualitative information (i.e., defect detection). This project applies and extends the techniques developed in medical x-ray imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT), to develop quantitative information (both spatial dimensions and material quantities) on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of solids. Accomplishments in FY 86 include (1) improvements in experimental equipment - an improved microfocus system that will give 20-μm resolution and has potential for increased imaging speed, and (2) development of a simple new technique for displaying 3D images so as to clearly show the structure of the object. Image reconstruction and data analysis for a series of synchrotron CT experiments conducted by LLNL's Chemistry Department has begun

  20. Quantitative lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostbeck, A.; Lofferer, O.; Kahn, P.; Partsch, H.; Koehn, H.; Bialonczyk, Ch.; Koenig, B.

    1984-01-01

    Labelled colloids and macromolecules are removed lymphatically. The uptake of tracer in the regional lymphnodes is a parameter of lymphatic flow. Due to great variations in patient shape - obesity, cachexia - and accompanying variations in counting efficiencies quantitative measurements with reasonable accuracy have not been reported to date. A new approach to regional absorption correction is based on the combination of transmission and emission scans for each patient. The transmission scan is used for calculation of an absorption correction matrix. Accurate superposition of the correction matrix and the emission scan is achieved by computing the centers of gravity of point sources and - in the case of aligning opposite views - by cross correlation of binary images. In phantom studies the recovery was high (98.3%) and the coefficient of variation of repeated measurement below 1%. In patient studies a standardized stress is a prerequisite for reliable and comparable results. Discrimination between normals (14.3 +- 4.2D%) and patients with lymphedema (2.05 +- 2.5D%) was highly significant using praefascial lymphography and sc injection. Clearence curve analysis of the activities at the injection site, however, gave no reliable data for this purpose. In normals, the uptake in lymphnodes after im injection is by one order of magnitude lower then the uptake after sc injection. The discrimination between normals and patients with postthromboic syndrome was significant. Lymphography after ic injection was in the normal range in 2/3 of the patients with lymphedema and is therefore of no diagnostic value. The difference in uptake after ic and sc injection demonstrated for the first time by our quantitative method provides new insights into the pathophysiology of lymphedema and needs further investigation. (Author)

  1. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  2. Modelling Dynamics of Main Economic Indicators of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstennykov Yurii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and mathematical model of dynamics of main economic indicators of an enterprise, reflected in six book-keeping accounts with consideration of logistics and interrelation with current market characteristics and needs of products consumers. It applies this model for a quantitative study of influence of an advertising campaign and seasonality upon quantitative indicators of economic activity of the enterprise. The enterprise operation programme includes internal financial and economic procedures, which ensure the production process, and also connection with suppliers and buyers (customers. When setting different initial conditions, it is possible to trace transitional processes and enterprise entering (under favourable conditions the stationary mode of operation or its laying-off (in case of insufficiency of circulating funds. The developed model contains many parameters, which allow not only study of dependence of enterprise operation on alteration of one of them but also optimisation of economic conditions of functioning.

  3. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  4. Selection of hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) and composition of hyperspectral twoband vegetation indices (HVIs) for biophysical characterization and discrimination of crop types using field reflectance and Hyperion/EO-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Mariotto, I.; Gumma, M.K.; Middleton, E.M.; Landis, D.R.; Huemmrich, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy ~70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using ~20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was ~ 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or “the curse of high dimensionality”) in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysi- al

  5. Reconstruction of MODIS Spectral Reflectance under Cloudy-Sky Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clouds usually cause invalid observations for sensors aboard satellites, which corrupts the spatio-temporal continuity of land surface parameters retrieved from remote sensing data (e.g., MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and prevents the fusing of multi-source remote sensing data in the field of quantitative remote sensing. Based on the requirements of spatio-temporal continuity and the necessity of methods to restore bad pixels, primarily resulting from image processing, this study developed a novel method to derive the spectral reflectance for MODIS band of cloudy pixels in the visual–near infrared (VIS–NIR spectral channel based on the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF and multi-spatio-temporal observations. The proposed method first constructs the spatial distribution of land surface reflectance based on the corresponding BRDF and the solar-viewing geometry; then, a geographically weighted regression (GWR is introduced to individually derive the spectral surface reflectance for MODIS band of cloudy pixels. A validation of the proposed method shows that a total root-mean-square error (RMSE of less than 6% and a total R2 of more than 90% are detected, which indicates considerably better precision than those exhibited by other existing methods. Further validation of the retrieved white-sky albedo based on the spectral reflectance for MODIS band of cloudy pixels confirms an RMSE of 3.6% and a bias of 2.2%, demonstrating very high accuracy of the proposed method.

  6. The PAr index, an indicator reflecting altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis, is associated with long-term risk of stroke in the general population: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Tell, Grethe S; Ueland, Per M; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein E; Midttun, Øivind; Meyer, Klaus; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 homeostasis is altered during inflammation and immune activation. It is unknown whether altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis is associated with the risk of stroke. We investigated the relation between the ratio plasma 4-pyridoxic acid: (pyridoxal + pyridoxal-5'-phosphate) (PAr) as an indicator of altered vitamin B-6 homeostasis and the risk of stroke in the general population. We conducted a prospective analysis of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in 6891 adults (born during 1925-1927 and 1950-1951) without known stroke at baseline (1998-1999). Participants were followed via linkage to the CVDNOR (Cardiovascular Disease in Norway) project and the Cause of Death Registry. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards analyses. A total of 390 participants (193 men and 197 women) developed stroke over a median follow-up period of 11 y. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced a higher risk of incident stroke in an essentially linear dose-response fashion. The HR (95% CI) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of PAr was 1.97 (1.42, 2.73; P-trend trend <0.001) for ischemic stroke after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, education, physical activity, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, and statin use. PAr had greater predictive strength than did C-reactive protein, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity. The associations were similar in subgroups stratified by age group, sex, BMI, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and statin use at baseline. Higher plasma PAr was independently associated with increased risk of incident stroke in all participants and across all subgroups stratified by conventional risk predictors. Our novel findings point to and expand the range of inflammation and immune activation processes that may be relevant for the pathogenesis and prevention of stroke

  7. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The eight EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone Traffic Proximity...

  8. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  9. Quantitative Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; van der Beek, Peter; Batt, Geoffrey

    2006-05-01

    Thermochronology, the study of the thermal history of rocks, enables us to quantify the nature and timing of tectonic processes. Quantitative Thermochronology is a robust review of isotopic ages, and presents a range of numerical modeling techniques to allow the physical implications of isotopic age data to be explored. The authors provide analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical solutions to the heat transfer equation in a range of tectonic settings and under varying boundary conditions. They then illustrate their modeling approach built around a large number of case studies. The benefits of different thermochronological techniques are also described. Computer programs on an accompanying website at www.cambridge.org/9780521830577 are introduced through the text and provide a means of solving the heat transport equation in the deforming Earth to predict the ages of rocks and compare them directly to geological and geochronological data. Several short tutorials, with hints and solutions, are also included. Numerous case studies help geologists to interpret age data and relate it to Earth processes Essential background material to aid understanding and using thermochronological data Provides a thorough treatise on numerical modeling of heat transport in the Earth's crust Supported by a website hosting relevant computer programs and colour slides of figures from the book for use in teaching

  10. [Quantitative assessment of fungal risk in the case of construction works in healthcare establishments: Proposed indicators for the determination of the impact of management precautions on the risk of fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangneux, J-P; Adjidé, C-C; Bernard, L; Botterel, F; Carel, A; Castel, O; Derouin, F; Hoarau, G; Labussière, H; Lafaurie, M; Millon, L; Pottecher, B; Thiebaut, A; Turco, M; Baron, R

    2012-03-01

    Construction works in healthcare establishments produce airborne fungal spores and considerably increase the risk of exposure of immunosuppressed patients. It is necessary to reinforce protective measures, or even to implement specific precautions, during this critical phase. The aim of these precautions is to protect both those areas, which are susceptible to dust, and patients at risk of a fungal infection particularly invasive aspergillosis. When construction works are planned in healthcare establishments, the first step consists in the characterisation of the environmental fungal risk and the second one in proposing risk management methods. It is then essential to establish impact indicators in order to evaluate the risk management precautions applied. The working group promoted by the French societies of medical mycology and hospital hygiene (SFMM & SF2H) details here both environmental and epidemiological impact indicators that can be used. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. The quantitative Morse theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Ta Le; Phien, Phan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give a proof of the quantitative Morse theorem stated by {Y. Yomdin} in \\cite{Y1}. The proof is based on the quantitative Sard theorem, the quantitative inverse function theorem and the quantitative Morse lemma.

  12. Lateral Cortical Thickening and Bone Heterogeneity of the Subtrochanteric Femur Measured With Quantitative CT as Indicators for Early Detection of Atypical Femoral Fractures in Long-Term Bisphosphonate Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to compare subtrochanteric femur bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality of long-term bisphosphonate (BP) users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture (AFF) with BP users who did not sustain a femoral fracture and BP-naïve patients with no history of femoral fracture using quantitative CT (QCT). Fourteen female BP users with an AFF (mean age, 72.6 years; mean duration of BP use, 6.2 years; mean body mass index, 21.9) who had undergone QCT before fracture events were sex-, age-, BP use duration-, and body mass index-matched to 14 BP users who did not sustain a fracture and 14 BP-naïve patients. The lateral cortical thickness index (CTI) and the mean BMD (BMD mean ) and SD of the BMD (BMD SD ) within the lateral cortex and within the entire cross-sectional area of the subtrochanteric femur were measured on axial QCT. Femoral neck-shaft angles were measured on the QCT scout image. Parameters were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Lateral CTIs were greater in the BP users with an AFF (median, 0.28) than in the BP users without a femoral fracture (median, 0.21) (p = 0.038) and the BP-naïve group (median, 0.21) (p = 0.009). The lateral cortex BMD SD was significantly higher in the BP users with an AFF (median, 59.59 mg/cm 3 ) than the BP users without a femoral fracture (median, 39.27 mg/cm 3 ; p = 0.049) and the BP-naïve group (median, 31.02 mg/cm 3 ; p = 0.037). There was no significant difference among groups in lateral cortex BMD mean , BMD mean and BMD SD of the entire cross-sectional area, and femoral neck-shaft angle. Long-term BP users with a subsequent AFF had a thicker lateral cortex and higher lateral cortex BMD SD at the subtrochanteric area before the fracture on QCT than BP users who did not sustain a femoral fracture and BP-naïve patients.

  13. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  14. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  15. Measuring thin films using quantitative frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirota, Minori; van Limbeek, Michiel A.J.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.: In the study of interactions between liquids and solids, an accurate measurement of the film thickness between the two media is essential to study the dynamics. As interferometry is restricted by the wavelength of the light source used, recent studies of thinner films have prompted the

  16. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  17. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  18. Quantitative XRD analysis of {110} twin density in biotic aragonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michio; Kim, Hyejin; Mukai, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2012-12-01

    {110} Twin densities in biotic aragonite have been estimated quantitatively from the peak widths of specific reflections in powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, as well as direct confirmation of the twins using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Influence of the twin density on the peak widths in the XRD pattern was simulated using DIFFaX program, regarding (110) twin as interstratification of two types of aragonite unit layers with mirrored relationship. The simulation suggested that the twin density can be estimated from the difference of the peak widths between 111 and 021, or between 221 and 211 reflections. Biotic aragonite in the crossed-lamellar microstructure (three species) and nacreous microstructure (four species) of molluscan shells, fish otoliths (two species), and a coral were investigated. The XRD analyses indicated that aragonite crystals in the crossed-lamellar microstructure of the three species contain high density of the twins, which is consistent with the TEM examination. On the other hand, aragonite in the nacre of the four species showed almost no difference of the peak widths between the paired reflections, indicating low twin densities. The results for the fish otoliths were varied between the species. Such variation of the twin density in biotic aragonites may reflect different schemes of crystal growth in biomineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflections on Empowerment Evaluation: Learning from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on empowerment evaluation, the use of evaluation to foster improvement and self-determination. Empowerment evaluation uses quantitative and qualitative methods, and usually focuses on program evaluation. Discusses the growth in empowerment evaluation as a result of interest in participatory evaluation. (SLD)

  20. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  1. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  2. Cytogenetic effects as quantitative indicators of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    Scoring of dicentrics in metaphase preparations of human T lymphocytes is the method of choice for estimating individual whole-body doses of radiation exposure. A quantification of partial-body exposures or non-uniform distribution of the dose is more complicated but it can be achieved by using specific mathematical approaches. For retrospective biodosimetry, conventional scoring of dicentrics is less precise because these unstable aberrations are eliminated with time post-exposure. Symmetrical translocations are not selected against during mitotic division in the haematopoietic cell reproductive centres, so the frequencies of these stable aberrations are generally assumed to remain constant even for decades. They can now be analysed precisely by fluorescence in situ hybridization using whole chromosome-specific DNA probes (chromosome painting) with a α-satellite DNA probe for centromere detection. Based on in vitro calibration curves established with single or multicolour paints covering 4-22% of the total human genomic DNA content, scoring of translocations has been applied for dose construction in smaller groups of atomic bomb survivors and victims of the Chernobyl and Goiania radiation accidents. However, prior to routine use, the method requires further validation. Such work includes the precise evaluation of the unexpectedly high frequency of complex exchanges (≥ 3 breaks in ≥ 2 chromosomes) found both at > 2 Gy doses of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and generally for high LET α-particles. Data on the long-term stability of translocations and the appearance of clonal aberrations, as well as improved measurements of the linear coefficient of standard calibration curves, are also required. (Author)

  3. Monitoring indicators in a dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Lanuza, A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing yourself know the processes (Manual process), knows as the more quantitative possible, as are things (table of indicators), document and manage incidents and finds (integrated system of improvements), will allow us to carry to term two important tasks: the tracking and the continuous improvement of the project.

  4. Performance indicators for roadway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, A.; Vidovic, A.; Zambon, I.; Dengg, F.; Tanasic, N.; Matos, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Publicado em "Maintenance, monitoring, safety, risk and resilience of bridges and bridge networks". ISBN 978-1-138-02851-7 The performance indicators should, by its definition, allow capturing the life-cycle degradation processes affecting maintenance plans or the remaining lifetime. The qualitative or quantitative performance indicators are obtained through visual inspections, non-destructive tests or monitoring systems. After their quantification and the comparison with the resp...

  5. Cycling indices for ecosystem models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J.H.; Gardner, R.H.; Mankin, J.B.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The study of ecosystems is aided by representing structural and functional groups of organisms or processes as discrete components. A complex compartment model will explicitly map pathways from one compartment to another and specify transfer rates. This quantitative description allows insight into the dynamics of flow of nutrients, toxic chemicals, radionuclides, or energy. Three new indices that calculate compartment-specific probabilities of occurrence and recycling and illustrate the problem of applying these indices to ecosystem models are presented

  6. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  7. Cytological indicators: Haematopoetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1986-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper, intended more as a general outline than a comprehensive review, to elucidate the most prominent events in the sequence of radiation induced cytological changes in the hemopoietic system taking its functional organisation and the cytokinetics of blood cell production into consideration. As could be shown, there are about ten different categories of quantitative and qualitative parameters based on methods ranging from stem cell determinations to tests for mature blood cell function that in principle are available for assessment of radiation damage to the bone marrow and that have been applied to men exposed to ionizing radiation. Some of these indicator systems have proven for a long period of time to be of essential value and to be quite feasible in practice under routine conditions. Considerable methodological progress, however, is needed for others before decisions about their practical applicability can be made. (orig.)

  8. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  9. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  10. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station operation and management indicators system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Chunfa

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the commercial operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), dynamic objective management concept that features modern enterprises has been adopted by the station to manage all operational activities with the guidance of business plan. And some quantitative indicators have been employed in order to measure effectively the progress status of these operational activities. After several years' evolvement, a hierarchical and standard performance indicators system has been developed and is playing an active part in the plant's efforts towards top quartile of world nuclear power industry. Structured hierarchically with higher levels resolving into lower levels and lower levels committing to higher levels, the indicator system represents the corporate vision, WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) performance indicators, plant integrated indicators and departmental key indicators, covering such areas as safety, production, environment, human resource and cost control. The indicator system not only reflects performance-centered management concept, but also shows the controllability of the whole operational process of the station. Indicators of a certain level serve as both early warnings to superior indicators (lagging indicators in this case) and effects to inferior indicators (leading indicators in this case). The dynamic status of these indicators, numbered more than 230, will eventually be fed back to the business plan and realized through daily work of every branch, and even every member of the workforce. With the indicator system as a quantitative management tool, and an effective tracking system, GNPS has achieved great success in self-assessment, objective definition, improvement follow up, resource re-allocation, and management-staff communication. Periodic plant performance assessment is performed through spider chart and other pictorial diagrams. Indicators are displayed at the plant entrance, offices, Main Control Room and SIS network

  11. Microdosimetry: Reflections on Harald Rossi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This and twelve previous Symposia reflect the evolution of microdosimetry, a field of research that has determined major new developments in radiation research, radiation protection, and radiology during the past four decades. The concepts of microdosimetry and its techniques were developed almost single handedly by H.H. Rossi. This memorial lecture outlines some of the ideas and some of the work of Harald Rossi that led to microdosimetry. It describes its major impact on radiobiology and, especially, its impact on studies with fast neutrons and on risk assessment. Microdosimetry was primarily designed as a tool for the elucidation of basic mechanisms of radiation action, but it has found its most important applications in the dosimetric measurement techniques that have become indispensable in radiation protection and in the dosimetry for radiation therapy. The advances of molecular biology are now providing new possibilities for a quantitative application of microdosimetry to radiobiology along the lines that Harald Rossi defined. (author)

  12. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  13. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  14. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  15. Experimental and model based investigation of the links between snow bidirectional reflectance and snow microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M.; Flin, F.; Malinka, A.; Brissaud, O.; Hagenmuller, P.; Dufour, A.; Lapalus, P.; Lesaffre, B.; Calonne, N.; Rolland du Roscoat, S.; Ando, E.

    2017-12-01

    Snow optical properties are unique among Earth surface and crucial for a wide range of applications. The bi-directional reflectance, hereafter BRDF, of snow is sensible to snow microstructure. However the complex interplays between different parameters of snow microstructure namely size parameters and shape parameters on reflectance are challenging to disentangle both theoretically and experimentally. An accurate understanding and modelling of snow BRDF is required to correctly process satellite data. BRDF measurements might also provide means of characterizing snow morphology. This study presents one of the very few dataset that combined bi-directional reflectance measurements over 500-2500 nm and X-ray tomography of the snow microstructure for three different snow samples and two snow types. The dataset is used to evaluate the approach from Malinka, 2014 that relates snow optical properties to the chord length distribution in the snow microstructure. For low and medium absorption, the model accurately reproduces the measurements but tends to slightly overestimate the anisotropy of the reflectance. The model indicates that the deviation of the ice chord length distribution from an exponential distribution, that can be understood as a characterization of snow types, does not impact the reflectance for such absorptions. The simulations are also impacted by the uncertainties in the ice refractive index values. At high absorption and high viewing/incident zenith angle, the simulations and the measurements disagree indicating that some of the assumptions made in the model are not met anymore. The study also indicates that crystal habits might play a significant role for the reflectance under such geometries and wavelengths. However quantitative relationship between crystal habits and reflectance alongside with potential optical methodologies to classify snow morphology would require an extended dataset over more snow types. This extended dataset can likely be obtained

  16. Do photographs, older adults’ narratives and collaborative dialogue foster anticipatory reflection (“preflection” in medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Brand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In changing higher education environments, medical educators are increasingly challenged to prepare new doctors to care for ageing populations. The Depth of Field: Exploring Ageing resource (DOF uses photographs, reflective questioning prompts, older adults’ narratives and collaborative dialogue to foster anticipatory reflection or ‘preflection’ in medical students prior to their first geriatric medicine clinical placement. The aim of this research is to explore whether photographs, narratives and small group collaborative dialogue fosters reflective learning, enhances reflective capacity and has the potential to shift medical students’ attitudes towards caring for older adults. Methods This study used a mixed method evaluation design, measuring attitudes using pre and post questionnaire responses and individual written reflections drawn from 128 second year medical students, exploring their perceptions toward older adults. Results Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that the DOF session generated reflective learning that resulted in positive shifts in medical students’ perceptions towards older adults. The qualitative reflections were captured in four main themes: the opportunity provided to Envision working with older adults; the Tension created to challenge learners’ misinformed assumptions, and the work of Dismantling those assumptions, leading to Seeing older people as individuals. Conclusions These findings highlight how visual and narrative methodologies can be used as an effective reflective learning tool to challenge medical students’ assumptions around ageing and how these may influence their care of older adults.

  17. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  18. Rigour in quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  19. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  20. Quantitation: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography may be used quantitatively if its limitations are recognized and quantitation is made in relation to some reference area on the image. Relative quantitation is discussed in outline in relation to the liver, brain and pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and heart. (U.K.)

  1. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  2. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  3. [Cross comparison of ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral measurements for NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han-qiu; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2011-07-01

    The present paper investigates the quantitative relationship between the NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of Landsat and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs. The study examines how well ASTER sensor vegetation observations replicate ETM+ vegetation observations, and more importantly, the difference in the vegetation observations between the two sensors. The DN values of the three image pairs were first converted to at-sensor reflectance to reduce radiometric differences between two sensors, images. The NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of the two sensors were then calculated using the converted reflectance. The quantitative relationship was revealed through regression analysis on the scatter plots of the vegetation index values of the two sensors. The models for the conversion between the two sensors, vegetation indices were also obtained from the regression. The results show that the difference does exist between the two sensors, vegetation indices though they have a very strong positive linear relationship. The study found that the red and near infrared measurements differ between the two sensors, with ASTER generally producing higher reflectance in the red band and lower reflectance in the near infrared band than the ETM+ sensor. This results in the ASTER sensor producing lower spectral vegetation index measurements, for the same target, than ETM+. The relative spectral response function differences in the red and near infrared bands between the two sensors are believed to be the main factor contributing to their differences in vegetation index measurements, because the red and near infrared relative spectral response features of the ASTER sensor overlap the vegetation "red edge" spectral region. The obtained conversion models have high accuracy with a RMSE less than 0.04 for both sensors' inter-conversion between corresponding vegetation indices.

  4. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  5. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  6. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  7. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-02-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences.

  8. The system of indicators for regional cluster formation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mantsaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the result of working-out the cluster formation assessment system, and each indicator of this system reflect the specific clusters property - cooperation and efficiency Completeness and depth of the system of indicators provided by systematic approach and a representing of quantitative and qualitative aspects of cluster formation process. A feature of the technique is the use of indicators that require a special accounting and enable tracking of a certain stage of cluster development. Testing the system of indicators produced by the example on the tourism industry, which is due, firstly, the high development rate of the tourist services sphere in comparison with the branches of material production, and, secondly, the increased interest in the establishment of regional tourism and recreation clusters with the country's leadership. Quantitative indicators of the formation and development of tourism and recreation clusters – geographic proximity of companies cluster members, the effectiveness of the sector for the regional economy, innovation activity, exports of goods and services, intended for the regions of the South and the North Caucasian Federal District. Universality technique ensures its empirical base - official data from Rosstat, the Federal Agency for Tourism, as well as the results of mass opinion polls carried out in all regions of the country as part of the annual “"Monitoring the quality of public and municipal services” (on the Republic of Kalmykia material. In general, we believe that the application of the developed system of indicators will contribute to intensify and improve the quality of cluster policy, implemented by the regional executive bodies and local authorities.

  9. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  10. Pixel Statistical Analysis of Diabetic vs. Non-diabetic Foot-Sole Spectral Terahertz Reflection Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Salas-Gutierrez, I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present a series of hydration mapping images of the foot soles of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects measured by terahertz reflectance. In addition to the hydration images, we present a series of RYG-color-coded (red yellow green) images where pixels are assigned one of the three colors in order to easily identify areas in risk of ulceration. We also present the statistics of the number of pixels with each color as a potential quantitative indicator for diabetic foot-syndrome deterioration.

  11. Wall reflection modeling for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements on Textor and ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Vasu, P; Von Hellermann, M; Jaspers, R J E

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of optical signals by reflections from the tokamak vessel wall is a matter of great concern. For machines such as ITER and future reactors, where the vessel wall will be predominantly metallic, this is potentially a risk factor for quantitative optical emission spectroscopy. This is, in particular, the case when bremsstrahlung continuum radiation from the bulk plasma is used as a common reference light source for the cross-calibration of visible spectroscopy. In this paper the reflected contribution to the continuum level in Textor and ITER has been estimated for the detection channels meant for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS). A model assuming diffuse reflection has been developed for the bremsstrahlung which is a much extended source. Based on this model, it is shown that in the case of ITER upper port 3, a wall with a moderate reflectivity of 20% leads to the wall reflected fraction being as high as 55-60% of the weak signals in the edge channels. In contrast, a complete bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) based model has been developed in order to estimate the reflections from more localized sources like the charge exchange (CX) emission from a neutral beam in tokamaks. The largest signal contamination of ∼15% is seen in the core CX channels, where the true CX signal level is much lower than that in the edge channels. Similar values are obtained for Textor also. These results indicate that the contributions from wall reflections may be large enough to significantly distort the overall spectral features of CX data, warranting an analysis at different wavelengths.

  12. Wall reflection modeling for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements on Textor and ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Vasu, P [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Von Hellermann, M [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Jaspers, R J E, E-mail: sbanerje@ipr.res.i [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Contamination of optical signals by reflections from the tokamak vessel wall is a matter of great concern. For machines such as ITER and future reactors, where the vessel wall will be predominantly metallic, this is potentially a risk factor for quantitative optical emission spectroscopy. This is, in particular, the case when bremsstrahlung continuum radiation from the bulk plasma is used as a common reference light source for the cross-calibration of visible spectroscopy. In this paper the reflected contribution to the continuum level in Textor and ITER has been estimated for the detection channels meant for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS). A model assuming diffuse reflection has been developed for the bremsstrahlung which is a much extended source. Based on this model, it is shown that in the case of ITER upper port 3, a wall with a moderate reflectivity of 20% leads to the wall reflected fraction being as high as 55-60% of the weak signals in the edge channels. In contrast, a complete bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) based model has been developed in order to estimate the reflections from more localized sources like the charge exchange (CX) emission from a neutral beam in tokamaks. The largest signal contamination of {approx}15% is seen in the core CX channels, where the true CX signal level is much lower than that in the edge channels. Similar values are obtained for Textor also. These results indicate that the contributions from wall reflections may be large enough to significantly distort the overall spectral features of CX data, warranting an analysis at different wavelengths.

  13. Quantitative Methods for Teaching Review

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Milnikova; Tamara Shioshvili

    2011-01-01

    A new method of quantitative evaluation of teaching processes is elaborated. On the base of scores data, the method permits to evaluate efficiency of teaching within one group of students and comparative teaching efficiency in two or more groups. As basic characteristics of teaching efficiency heterogeneity, stability and total variability indices both for only one group and for comparing different groups are used. The method is easy to use and permits to rank results of teaching review which...

  14. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  15. Fracture diagnostics with tube wave reflection logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Tube Wave Reflection Log (TWRL) which is acoustic logging method which provides information about the height, location and conductivity of hydraulically induced fractures behind perforated casing. The TWRL tool consists of a transmitter and closely spaced receiver. The transmitter is driven with a short, low frequency tone burst to generate long wavelength tube waves which are little attenuated in unperforated casing. They are partially reflected when they pass perforated intervals communicating with a hydraulically induced fracture. The tool listens for such reflections for 0.1 seconds following each excitation burst. As the tool is moved uphole at logging speed, the transmitter is excited at each foot of depth. VDL displays of the TWRL records provide reflection traces whose projections define the uppermost and lower-most perforations communicating with the fracture. The strength of the reflections depends on the ease of fluid flow into the fracture and thus, is an indicator of fracture conductivity

  16. Ultraviolet reflectance by the cere of raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, François; Arroyo, Beatriz E

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) signals have been shown to play key roles in social and sexual signalling in birds. Using a spectrophotometer, we analysed the colour of the cere (skin above the beak) of a diurnal raptor, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), and show that it reflects in the UV part of the spectrum. The cere is a well-known sexual signal in raptors, with carotenoid based pigmentation being indicative of quality. We thus hypothesized that UV reflectance also signals quality. Accordingly, we found that in our sample of wild males, the location of the UV peak was related to the orangeness of cere and correlated with male body mass and condition (mass corrected for size). Also, males with brighter UV were mated to females that laid earlier, as expected if UV reflectance relates to a male's quality and attractiveness. Future studies should investigate the relationships between UV reflectance and carotenoid pigmentation of cere, and test how UV reflectance influences mate choice. PMID:17148356

  17. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  18. Three Cs in Measurement Models: Causal Indicators, Composite Indicators, and Covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Bauldry, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades attention to causal (and formative) indicators has grown. Accompanying this growth has been the belief that we can classify indicators into two categories, effect (reflective) indicators and causal (formative) indicators. This paper argues that the dichotomous view is too simple. Instead, there are effect indicators and three types of variables on which a latent variable depends: causal indicators, composite (formative) indicators, and covariates (the “three Cs”). Caus...

  19. Development of safety performance indicators for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear facilities need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. An operating organization should conduct its operation and utilization important to the safety in accordance with approved procedures and regulations. The general aims of a management system for nuclear facilities are to improve the safety performance through a planning, control and supervision of safety related activities and to foster a strong safety culture. The effectiveness of a management system can be monitored and measured to confirm the ability of its processes to achieve the intended safety performance by an assessment of the operational performance. The Operational Safety Performance Indicators, also known as SPI, help an organization define and measure a progress with regard to safety activity goals. The elements of a SPI are quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors of an organizational safety. Since 1995, efforts have been directed towards the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator program in nuclear power plants (NPP). IAEA-TECDOC-1141, 'Operational safety performance indicators for NPP' attempted to provide a frame work for an identification of performance indicators which have a relationship to the desired safety attributes, and therefore, to a safe plant operation. Three key attributes of a smooth operation, an operation with a low risk, and an operation with a positive safety attitude, were recommended, which are associated with a safe operation. Because these attributes cannot be directly measured, an indicator structure is expanded further until a level of easily quantifiable or directly measurable indicators is identified. The intention of this approach is to use quantitative information provided by the specific indicators and to analyze performance trends relative to established goals. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. HANARO

  20. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  1. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms

  2. Mute swans: Natural (?) environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Chesapeake Bay's population of feral mute swans (Cygnus olar), coupled with a dramatic Bay-wide decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), has fueled much of the current debate surrounding the need for a management plan to protect the aquatic food resources that are critical to many species native to the Bay. Crucial to this decision process is a sound understanding of the ecological ramifications of having the year-round presence of a large, nonnative, aquatic herbivore on the Bay. Ultimately, this will require a quantitative assessment of the ecological harm currently posed by mute swans before a biologically defensible management strategy can be developed. Unfortunately, very little new information specific to the Bay's mute swan population has been gathered since Reese first studied them in the late 1960s and 1970s. While the debate over what to do about the rapidly expanding mute swan population continues, there is much that can be gained from study of this beautiful intruder. Several recent studies of the feeding habits of mute swans have shown that mutes can provide a unique barometer, or indicator, of environmental conditions. Because of their reliance on SAV as a primary food source, monitoring the density of swans utilizing a particular area can give some indication of the status of the area's grass beds. This phenomenon was clearly demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when there was a dramatic decline in the number of swans observed around the Eastern Neck NWR, a traditional population stronghold. The shift in bird use was precipitated by a rapid, large-scale collapse of the area's aquatic grass beds, possibly the result of a prolonged drought. During the winter of 2000/2001, a similar ecological assessment was conducted by comparing body weights of swans collected from Tangier Sound, an area with relatively abundant grass beds, and swans from the waters adjacent to Eastern Neck Island. Swans weights tended to reflect the

  3. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  4. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  5. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  6. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  7. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  8. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  9. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  10. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  11. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  12. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  13. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  14. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  15. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  16. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  17. Sparkling feather reflections of a bird-of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-03-25

    Birds-of-paradise are nature's prime examples of the evolution of color by sexual selection. Their brilliant, structurally colored feathers play a principal role in mating displays. The structural coloration of both the occipital and breast feathers of the bird-of-paradise Lawes' parotia is produced by melanin rodlets arranged in layers, together acting as interference reflectors. Light reflection by the silvery colored occipital feathers is unidirectional as in a classical multilayer, but the reflection by the richly colored breast feathers is three-directional and extraordinarily complex. Here we show that the reflection properties of both feather types can be quantitatively explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling using realistic feather anatomies and experimentally determined refractive index dispersion values of keratin and melanin. The results elucidate the interplay between avian coloration and vision and indicate tuning of the mating displays to the spectral properties of the avian visual system.

  18. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao; Liang, Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300∼2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R 2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R 2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil

  19. Quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms into Tabar's patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, N [Medical Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Ng, K-H [Department of Radiology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Looi, L-M [Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); McLean, D [Medical Physics Department, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2145 (Australia); Zulfiqar, A [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Tan, S-P [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Liew, W-F [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Malaysia); Shantini, A [Department of Radiology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, 50586 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ranganathan, S [Department of Radiology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-11-21

    We describe a semi-automated technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms in comparison with patterns suggested by Tabar. It was developed using the MATLAB-based graphical user interface applications. It is based on an interactive thresholding method, after a short automated method that shows the fibroglandular tissue area, breast area and breast density each time new thresholds are placed on the image. The breast density is taken as a percentage of the fibroglandular tissue to the breast tissue areas. It was tested in four different ways, namely by examining: (i) correlation of the quantitative assessment results with subjective classification, (ii) classification performance using the quantitative assessment technique, (iii) interobserver agreement and (iv) intraobserver agreement. The results of the quantitative assessment correlated well (r{sup 2} = 0.92) with the subjective Tabar patterns classified by the radiologist (correctly classified 83% of digitized mammograms). The average kappa coefficient for the agreement between the readers was 0.63. This indicated moderate agreement between the three observers in classifying breast density using the quantitative assessment technique. The kappa coefficient of 0.75 for intraobserver agreement reflected good agreement between two sets of readings. The technique may be useful as a supplement to the radiologist's assessment in classifying mammograms into Tabar's pattern associated with breast cancer risk.

  20. Quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms into Tabar's patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, N; Ng, K-H; Looi, L-M; McLean, D; Zulfiqar, A; Tan, S-P; Liew, W-F; Shantini, A; Ranganathan, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a semi-automated technique for the quantitative assessment of breast density from digitized mammograms in comparison with patterns suggested by Tabar. It was developed using the MATLAB-based graphical user interface applications. It is based on an interactive thresholding method, after a short automated method that shows the fibroglandular tissue area, breast area and breast density each time new thresholds are placed on the image. The breast density is taken as a percentage of the fibroglandular tissue to the breast tissue areas. It was tested in four different ways, namely by examining: (i) correlation of the quantitative assessment results with subjective classification, (ii) classification performance using the quantitative assessment technique, (iii) interobserver agreement and (iv) intraobserver agreement. The results of the quantitative assessment correlated well (r 2 = 0.92) with the subjective Tabar patterns classified by the radiologist (correctly classified 83% of digitized mammograms). The average kappa coefficient for the agreement between the readers was 0.63. This indicated moderate agreement between the three observers in classifying breast density using the quantitative assessment technique. The kappa coefficient of 0.75 for intraobserver agreement reflected good agreement between two sets of readings. The technique may be useful as a supplement to the radiologist's assessment in classifying mammograms into Tabar's pattern associated with breast cancer risk

  1. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  2. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  3. System of Strategic Priorities and Indicators of Ecologically Sustainable Subsoil Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of strategic priorities and indicators of ecologically sustainable subsoil use is based on a fundamental basis - biotic regulation and it has a systematic character defined by conceptual, ideological, political and economic levels of management. It also possesses strict priorities and is based on interrelated ecological, economic and social factors, it reflects space-time dynamics of development and subsoil use. The indicators of ecologically sustainable subsoil use are indicators that characterize the change of natural, social and economic environment at different times; they provide qualitative and quantitative characteristic of subsoil use problem. The majority of existing sets of indicators of sustainable subsoil use doesn’t give a complete picture, is weakly connected with each other and no priorities are distinguished among them.

  4. Infrared thermography quantitative image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, A.; Kalatzis, I.; Kalyvas, N.; Grivas, TB

    2017-11-01

    Infrared thermography is an imaging technique that has the ability to provide a map of temperature distribution of an object’s surface. It is considered for a wide range of applications in medicine as well as in non-destructive testing procedures. One of its promising medical applications is in orthopaedics and diseases of the musculoskeletal system where temperature distribution of the body’s surface can contribute to the diagnosis and follow up of certain disorders. Although the thermographic image can give a fairly good visual estimation of distribution homogeneity and temperature pattern differences between two symmetric body parts, it is important to extract a quantitative measurement characterising temperature. Certain approaches use temperature of enantiomorphic anatomical points, or parameters extracted from a Region of Interest (ROI). A number of indices have been developed by researchers to that end. In this study a quantitative approach in thermographic image processing is attempted based on extracting different indices for symmetric ROIs on thermograms of the lower back area of scoliotic patients. The indices are based on first order statistical parameters describing temperature distribution. Analysis and comparison of these indices result in evaluating the temperature distribution pattern of the back trunk expected in healthy, regarding spinal problems, subjects.

  5. Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars: Relationship Between ISM and TES for Compositional Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Mustard, John

    2004-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated that high albedo surfaces on Mars contain heavily altered materials with some component of hematite, poorly crystalline ferric oxides, and an undefined silicate matrix. The spectral properties of many low albedo regions indicate crystalline basalts containing both low and high calcium pyroxene, a mineralogy consistent with the basaltic SNC meteorites. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on the Mars Geochemical Surveyor has acquired critical new data relevant to surface composition and mineralogy, but in a wavelength region that is complementary to reflectance spectroscopy. The essence of the completed research was to analyze TES data in the context of reflectance data obtained by the French ISM imaging spectrometer experiment in 1989. This approach increased our understanding of the complementary nature of these wavelength regions for mineralogic determinations using actual observations of the martian surface. The research effort focused on three regions of scientific importance: Syrtis Major-Isidis Basin, Oxia Palus-Arabia, and Valles Marineris. In each region distinct spatial variations related to reflectance, and in derived mineralogic information and interpreted compositional units were analyzed. In addition, specific science questions related to the composition of volcanics and crustal evolution, soil compositions and pedogenic processes, and the relationship between pristine lithologies and weathering provided an overall science-driven framework for the work. The detailed work plan involved colocation of TES and ISM data, extraction of reflectance and emissivity spectra from areas of known reflectance variability, and quantitative analysis using factor analysis and statistical techniques to determine the degree of correspondence between these different wavelength regions. Identified coherent variations in TES spectroscopy were assessed against known atmospheric effects to validate that the variations

  6. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  7. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to real-world materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  8. Quantitative criticism of literary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Joseph P; Katz, Theodore; Tripuraneni, Nilesh; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Kannan, Ajay; Brofos, James A; Bonilla Lopez, Jorge A; Schroeder, Lea A; Casarez, Adriana; Rabinovich, Maxim; Haimson Lushkov, Ayelet; Chaudhuri, Pramit

    2017-04-18

    Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships ("intertextuality") and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus marked by an extraordinary concentration of intertextuality. Our work, which we term "quantitative criticism," focuses on case studies involving two influential Roman authors, the playwright Seneca and the historian Livy. We find that four plays related to but distinct from Seneca's main writings are differentiated from the rest of the corpus by subtle but important stylistic features. We offer literary interpretations of the significance of these anomalies, providing quantitative data in support of hypotheses about the use of unusual formal features and the interplay between sound and meaning. The second part of the paper describes a machine-learning approach to the identification and analysis of citational material that Livy loosely appropriated from earlier sources. We extend our approach to map the stylistic topography of Latin prose, identifying the writings of Caesar and his near-contemporary Livy as an inflection point in the development of Latin prose style. In total, our results reflect the integration of computational and humanistic methods to investigate a diverse range of literary questions.

  9. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard; Garnett, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  10. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  11. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  12. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  13. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  14. Macrofinancial Indicators in the Economic Strategy of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyk Nataliia V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the effectiveness of the set strategic objectives of the state and the fact of their implementation. On the basis of the analysis and systematization of the existing practical and theoretical framework the place and the importance of macrofinancial indicators in the public finance management system has been determined. The definition of MFI in the broad and narrow sense is suggested. In the broad sense it is a quantitative measure assessing the condition of public finances at the moment of decision-making and reflecting the results of its impact on achieving the objectives of the state financial policy. The narrow sense reduces it to understanding the indicator as the one adapted for the purposes of specific analysis. The experience of previous strategies of the administrative apparatus is studied. On the basis of analyzing the priority macrofinancial indicators the assessment of current practices of implementing the state economic strategy has been carried out. The study found a discrepancy between the objectives set by the Strategy for Sustainable Development “Ukraine – 2020” with the real situation in the country’s economy. It is noted that the use of macrofinancial indicators aimed at achieving a particular limit only within a single reporting period negatively affects the system character of management.

  15. A quantitative philology of introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eDiuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural evolution of introspective thought has been recognized to undergo a drastic change during the middle of the first millennium BC. This period, known as the ``Axial Age'', saw the birth of religions and philosophies still alive in modern culture, as well as the transition from orality to literacy - which led to the hypothesis of a link between introspection and literacy. Here we set out to examine the evolution of introspection in the Axial Age, studying the cultural record of the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian literary traditions. Using a statistical measure of semantic similarity, we identify a single ``arrow of time'' in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, and a more complex non-monotonic dynamics in the Greco-Roman tradition reflecting the rise and fall of the respective societies. A comparable analysis of the 20th century cultural record shows a steady increase in the incidence of introspective topics, punctuated by abrupt declines during and preceding the First and Second World Wars. Our results show that (a it is possible to devise a consistent metric to quantify the history of a high-level concept such as introspection, cementing the path for a new quantitative philology and (b to the extent that it is captured in the cultural record, the increased ability of human thought for self-reflection that the Axial Age brought about is still heavily determined by societal contingencies beyond the orality-literacy nexus.

  16. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  17. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  18. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  19. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  20. Shack-Hartmann reflective micro profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hai; Soloviev, Oleg; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantitative phase imaging microscope based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor, that directly reconstructs the optical path difference (OPD) in reflective mode. Comparing with the holographic or interferometric methods, the SH technique needs no reference beam in the setup, which simplifies the system. With a preregistered reference, the OPD image can be reconstructed from a single shot. Also, the method has a rather relaxed requirement on the illumination coherence, thus a cheap light source such as a LED is feasible in the setup. In our previous research, we have successfully verified that a conventional transmissive microscope can be transformed into an optical path difference microscope by using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor under incoherent illumination. The key condition is that the numerical aperture of illumination should be smaller than the numerical aperture of imaging lens. This approach is also applicable to characterization of reflective and slightly scattering surfaces.

  1. Evaluation of mental stress by physiological indices derived from finger plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Emiko; Ohnishi, Eriko; Ohnishi, Junji; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Hori, Miyo; Motomura, Miwa; Hoshino, Junichi; Murakami, Kazuo; Kawaguchi, Takayasu

    2013-10-12

    Quantitative evaluation of mental stress is important to prevent stress-related disorders. Finger plethysmography (FPG) is a simple noninvasive method to monitor peripheral circulation, and provides many physiological indices. Our purpose is to investigate how FPG-derived indices reflect on mental stress, and to clarify any association between these physiological indices and subjective indices of mental stress. Thirty-one healthy women (mean age, 22 years ± 2) participated. The participants rested by sitting on a chair for 10 min. They then performed a computerized version of the Stroop color-word conflict test (CWT) for 10 min. Finally, they rested for 10 min. FPG was recorded throughout the experiment. The participants completed a brief form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire before and after the test. Using the FPG data, we conducted chaos analysis and fast Fourier transform analysis, and calculated chaotic attractors, the largest Lyapunov exponent, a high-frequency (HF) component, a low-to-high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio, finger pulse rate and finger pulse wave amplitude. The HF component decreased and the LF/HF ratio increased significantly during the test (P stress. Our findings indicate that FPG is one of the easiest methods to evaluate mental stress quantitatively. In particular, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the LF/HF ratio might be associated with acute mental stress. Farther examination is needed to find any association between the physiological indices and various types of mental stress.

  2. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  3. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A quantitative analysis of the causes of the global climate change research distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Strange, Niels

    2013-01-01

    investigates whether the need for knowledge on climate changes in the most vulnerable regions of the world is met by the supply of knowledge measured by scientific research publications from the last decade. A quantitative analysis of more than 15,000 scientific publications from 197 countries investigates...... the poorer, fragile and more vulnerable regions of the world. A quantitative keywords analysis of all publications shows that different knowledge domains and research themes dominate across regions, reflecting the divergent global concerns in relation to climate change. In general, research on climate change...... the distribution of climate change research and the potential causes of this distribution. More than 13 explanatory variables representing vulnerability, geographical, demographical, economical and institutional indicators are included in the analysis. The results show that the supply of climate change knowledge...

  5. A magneto-optical microscope for quantitative measurement of magnetic microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W C; Garraud, N; Shorman, E E; Arnold, D P

    2015-09-01

    An optical system is presented to quantitatively map the stray magnetic fields of microscale magnetic structures, with field resolution down to 50 μT and spatial resolution down to 4 μm. The system uses a magneto-optical indicator film (MOIF) in conjunction with an upright reflective polarizing light microscope to generate optical images of the magnetic field perpendicular to the image plane. A novel single light path construction and discrete multi-image polarimetry processing method are used to extract quantitative areal field measurements from the optical images. The integrated system including the equipment, image analysis software, and experimental methods are described. MOIFs with three different magnetic field ranges are calibrated, and the entire system is validated by measurement of the field patterns from two calibration samples.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of TDLUs using Adaptive Morphological Shape Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Adrian; Caban, Jesus J; Figueroa, Jonine; Gierach, Gretchen; Linville, Laura; Hewitt, Stephen; Sherman, Mark

    2013-03-29

    Within the complex branching system of the breast, terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the anatomical location where most cancer originates. With aging, TDLUs undergo physiological involution, reflected in a loss of structural components (acini) and a reduction in total number. Data suggest that women undergoing benign breast biopsies that do not show age appropriate involution are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. To date, TDLU assessments have generally been made by qualitative visual assessment, rather than by objective quantitative analysis. This paper introduces a technique to automatically estimate a set of quantitative measurements and use those variables to more objectively describe and classify TDLUs. To validate the accuracy of our system, we compared the computer-based morphological properties of 51 TDLUs in breast tissues donated for research by volunteers in the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank and compared results to those of a pathologist, demonstrating 70% agreement. Secondly, in order to show that our method is applicable to a wider range of datasets, we analyzed 52 TDLUs from biopsies performed for clinical indications in the National Cancer Institute's Breast Radiology Evaluation and Study of Tissues (BREAST) Stamp Project and obtained 82% correlation with visual assessment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to uncover novel measures when researching the structural properties of the acini by applying machine learning and clustering techniques. Through our study we found that while the number of acini per TDLU increases exponentially with the TDLU diameter, the average elongation and roundness remain constant.

  7. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Tobino, Kazunori; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Doi, Tokuhide; Hoshika, Yoshito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm 2 and 5–10 mm 2 and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL CO /VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p CO /VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  8. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  9. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  10. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  11. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  12. Bridging the gap : reflections on theorizing with managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reflect on Nenonen et al.'s paper on theorizing with managers. This paper discusses differences between marketing science and marketing practice and gives suggestions to reduce the theory-praxis gap. It gives examples of quantitative studies that have been

  13. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  14. The Relationship between Quantitative and Qualitative Measures of Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Mary Lou P.; And Others

    The relationships of quantitative measures of writing skills to overall writing quality as measured by the E.T.S. Composition Evaluation Scale (CES) were examined. Quantitative measures included indices of language productivity, vocabulary diversity, spelling, and syntactic maturity. Power of specific indices to account for variation in overall…

  15. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  16. Choices and Changes: Eccles’ Expectancy-Value Model and Upper-Secondary School Students’ Longitudinal Reflections about their Choice of a STEM Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, Eccles’ comprehensive social-psychological Expectancy-Value Model of Motivated Behavioural Choices (EV-MBC model) has been proven suitable for studying educational choices related to Science, Technology, Engineering and/or Mathematics (STEM). The reflections of 15 students...... in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model......, and that significant changes in the students’ reflections were not captured by the factors of the EV-MBC model. This questions the validity of the EVMBC surveys. Moreover, the quantitative factors from the EV-MBC model did not sufficiently explain students’ dynamical educational choice processes where students...

  17. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  18. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  19. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  20. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  1. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  2. Source-specific sewage pollution detection in urban river waters using pharmaceuticals and personal care products as molecular indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Osamu; Sato, Go; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Source-specific elucidation of domestic sewage pollution caused by various effluent sources in an urban river water, as conducted for this study, demands knowledge of the relation between concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular indicators (caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan) and water quality concentrations of total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorous (T-P). River water and wastewater samples from the Asahikawa River Basin in northern Japan were analyzed using derivatization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Caffeine, used as an indicator of domestic sewage in the Asahikawa River Basin, was more ubiquitous than either carbamazepine or triclosan (92-100 %). Its concentration was higher than any target compound used to assess the basin: caffeine, caffeine concentrations detected in wastewater effluents and the strongly positive mutual linear correlation between caffeine and T-N or T-P (R 2  > 0.759) reflect the contribution of septic tank system effluents to the lower Asahikawa River Basin. Results of relative molecular indicators in combination with different molecular indicators (caffeine/carbamazepine and triclosan/carbamazepine) and cluster analysis better reflect the contribution of sewage than results obtained using concentrations of respective molecular indicators and cluster analysis. Relative molecular indicators used with water quality parameters (e.g., caffeine/T-N ratio) in this study provide results more clearly, relatively, and quantitatively than results obtained using molecular indicators alone. Moreover, the caffeine/T-N ratio reflects variations of caffeine flux from effluent sources. These results suggest strongly relative molecular indicators are also useful indicators, reflecting differences in spatial contributions of domestic sources for PPCPs in urban areas.

  3. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  4. Energy loss from internal reflection off metal layers on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Bezuidenhout, D. F.; Klee, H. W.; Theron, E.

    1983-12-01

    The reflection characteristics of metal layers are considered for the situation where the electromagnetic radiation is incident from the glass side. Theoretical and measured reflectance values are presented which indicate that for some metals the reflection has a strong dependence on the refractive index of the incident medium. Some examples are given of recent cases where the above results were an important consideration in the choice of the metallic reflecting material. These results indicate that aluminium should not be automatically considered the best choice for the visible region nor gold for the infra-red.

  5. Reflections on the value concept in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Buys

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent meltdown in global finances and the reasons for it may make people doubtful about the stewardship function of accounting. In the global financial markets, there is a great fascination with the reality that accounting values intend to reflect. However, what many people considered valuable is now suddenly of no value. The question can therefore be asked what is meant by the value concept as a foundation to modern-day accountancy. “Value” is a concept that is open to different interpretations, based on the needs, perspectives and personal values of the interpreter. This article aims to reflect on the value concept from an accounting perspective in analysing the fundamental quali-tative perspectives and how these perspectives might affect the quantitative value measurements, as reported in the financial statements. From a quantitative perspective, accounttancy aims to measure and report the monetary values of items. However, there is a move towards a mixed valuation model with many financial statements, including both historical cost and value-based accounting information. The article concludes that this questionable development opens up many additional and subjective interpretations of accounting value measurement and reporting. Both valuation measurement methods have merit when considered in the overall purpose of accounting information. However, subjective value-based mea-surements may cast a shadow of doubt on the reliability and comparability requirements of accounting value information.

  6. Quantitative secondary electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  7. [Methods of quantitative proteomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G

    2007-01-01

    In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.

  8. Guided and Unguided Student Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Amanda; Wood, Laura; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Self-reflection is important metacognitive skill, enabling students to build coherence into their learning and embed content in a broader context. While various pedagogical techniques exist to encourage student reflection, little research has examined the differences between formally guided, partially guided and unguided reflections. This study focuses on student responses to online Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) from students in a first-semester non-physics class and, separately, a sophomore...

  9. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  10. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Is it conceivable that models run on 2007 computer hardware could provide robust and credible probabilistic information for decision support and user guidance at the ZIP code level for sub-daily meteorological events in 2060? In 2090? Retrospectively, how informative would output from today’s models have proven in 2003? or the 1930’s? Consultancies in the United Kingdom, including the Met Office, are offering services to “future-proof” their customers from climate change. How is a US or European based user or policy maker to determine the extent to which exciting new Bayesian methods are relevant here? or when a commercial supplier is vastly overselling the insights of today’s climate science? How are policy makers and academic economists to make the closely related decisions facing them? How can we communicate deep uncertainty in the future at small length-scales without undermining the firm foundation established by climate science regarding global trends? Three distinct aspects of the communication of the uses of climate model output targeting users and policy makers, as well as other specialist adaptation scientists, are discussed. First, a brief scientific evaluation of the length and time scales at which climate model output is likely to become uninformative is provided, including a note on the applicability the latest Bayesian methodology to current state-of-the-art general circulation models output. Second, a critical evaluation of the language often employed in communication of climate model output, a language which accurately states that models are “better”, have “improved” and now “include” and “simulate” relevant meteorological processed, without clearly identifying where the current information is thought to be uninformative and misleads, both for the current climate and as a function of the state of the (each) climate simulation. And thirdly, a general approach for evaluating the relevance of quantitative climate model output

  11. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  12. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  13. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF SUICIDE RESEARCH IN OLD AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ojagbemi, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the quantitative and qualitative divide as well as the social, economic, and cultural boundaries between the elderly living in sub-Saharan...

  14. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  15. Sieve-based device for MALDI sample preparation. III. Its power for quantitative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Laura; Cristoni, Simone; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2011-02-01

    The solid sample inhomogeneity is a weak point of traditional MALDI deposition techniques that reflects negatively on quantitative analysis. The recently developed sieve-based device (SBD) sample deposition method, based on the electrospraying of matrix/analyte solutions through a grounded sieve, allows the homogeneous deposition of microcrystals with dimensions smaller than that of the laser spot. In each microcrystal the matrix/analyte molar ratio can be considered constant. Then, by irradiating different portions of the microcrystal distribution an identical response is obtained. This result suggests the employment of SBD in the development of quantitative procedures. For this aim, mixtures of different proteins of known molarity were analyzed, showing a good relationship between molarity and intensity ratios. This behaviour was also observed in the case of proteins with quite different ionic yields. The power of the developed method for quantitative evaluation was also tested by the measurement of the abundance of IGPP[Oxi]GPP[Oxi]GLMGPP (m/z 1219) present in the collagen-α-5(IV) chain precursor, differently expressed in urines from healthy subjects and diabetic-nephropathic patients, confirming its overexpression in the presence of nephropathy. The data obtained indicate that SBD is a particularly effective method for quantitative analysis also in biological fluids of interest. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Extending Quantitative Easing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Fiedler, Salomon; Kooths, Stefan

    The notes in this compilation address the pros and cons associated with the extension of ECB quantitative easing programme of asset purchases. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the February 2017 session of the Monetary Dialogue....

  17. Quantitative Moessbauer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of Moessbauer data, as in the measurement of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ concentration, has not been possible because of the different mean square velocities (x 2 ) of Moessbauer nuclei at chemically different sites. A method is now described which, based on Moessbauer data at several temperatures, permits the comparison of absorption areas at (x 2 )=0. (Auth.)

  18. Environmental indicators for evaluating properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Grosso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Property evaluation for tax purposes has traditionally relied on urban and building criteria, mostly resulting from concepts driven by the commercial attractiveness of the property under evaluation, its building and the site itself. Due to the world climate and ecological crisis, awareness has risen about the need for other indicators, which can evaluate the quality of a property, even referring to its potential environmental impact. Technical standards for the evaluation of buildings’ environmental sustainability, which have been developed since the first years of this century, both nationally and internationally, take into account the impact of the building and its relevance for the life-cycle of materials and elements, with reference to the three sectors of sustainability: environmental, economic and social. The social sector includes indicators referring to the user’s health and comfort, which also interact with the morphological and spatial characteristics of the building. However, there is a lack of methodological tools for the evaluation of said indicators and existing ones are mainly of a qualitative type. This paper suggests a methodological approach for the quantitative evaluation of sustainability indicators, relying on the accessibility of a site’s climate resources by the property, as a criterion to evaluate the potential for the reduction of negative environmental impact, as well as a criterion to improve users’ life quality.

  19. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  20. Reply to 'Comment on 'The evidence for a pentaquark signal and kinematic reflections''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierba, A.R.; Krop, D.; Swat, M.; Teige, S.; Szczepaniak, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative aspects of the model used, together with kinematic reflections to explain the K + n spectrum in K + K - photoproduction on deuterium, were recently criticized. Here we respond to these criticisms

  1. Assessing Pearl Quality Using Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Does the Same Donor Produce Consistent Pearl Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Southgate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of commercial quality (“acceptable” pearls produced using two donors, and a group of “acceptable” pearls from other donors were analyzed using reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Three pearls with different colors produced by the same donor showed different absorption spectra. Cream and gold colored pearls showed a wide absorption from 320 to about 460 nm, while there was just slight reflectance around 400 nm by the white pearl with a pink overtone. Cream and gold pearls reached a reflectance peak at 560 to 590 nm, while the white pearl with pink overtone showed slightly wider absorption in this region. Both cream and gold pearls showed an absorption peak after the reflectance peak, at about 700 nm for the cream pearl and 750 nm for the gold pearl. Two other pearls produced by the same donor (white with cream overtone and cream with various overtones showed similar spectra, which differed in their intensity. One of these pearls had very high lustre and its spectrum showed a much higher percentage reflectance than the second pearl with inferior lustre. This result may indicate that reflectance is a useful quantitative indicator of pearl lustre. The spectra of two white pearls resulting from different donors with the same color nacre (silver showed a reflectance at 260 nm, followed by absorption at 280 nm and another reflectance peak at 340 nm. After this peak the spectra for these pearls remained flat until a slight absorption peak around 700 nm. Throughout the visible region, all white pearls used in this study showed similar reflectance spectra although there were differences in reflectance intensity. Unlike the spectral results from white pearls, the results from yellow and gold pearls varied according to color saturation of the pearl. The results of this study show that similarities between absorption and reflectance spectra of cultured pearls resulting from the same saibo donor are negligible and could not be detected

  2. Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models

    CERN Document Server

    Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...

  3. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  4. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  5. Implementing reflection: insights from pre-registration mental health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Moira O

    2007-08-01

    Reflection and reflective practice continues to be contentious issues in nursing. The focus of this article is the use of reflection by pre-registration mental health students. The broad aim of this preliminary study was to discover student mental health nurses' perceptions of reflection as a learning strategy during clinical placement. Using a constructivist grounded theory methodology [Charmaz, K., 2000. Grounded theory: Objectivist and Constructivist Methods. In: Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y. (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, second ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California], five students were interviewed individually in their clinical placements. Data analysis revealed three major categories: understanding the process of reflection, using reflection in clinical practice, and needing support and guidance. Findings indicated that students were primarily using reflection-on-action, but to varying extents. Overall, students felt that reflection facilitated their learning. Factors were discovered that both helped and hindered students' use of reflection. These included level of preparation to reflect, a limited culture of reflection and the level of support from preceptors, clinical staff, clinical placement co-ordinators, and lecturers. In conclusion, it appears that a collaborative approach between students, Health Service Providers and institutes of nursing is vital for the successful development and implementation of reflective learning strategies in clinical placement. Suggestions are made as to how a collaborative approach may be developed to enhance this process.

  6. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  7. Science & Engineering Indicators 2016. National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI includes an overview and seven chapters that follow a generally consistent pattern. The chapter titles are as follows: (1) Elementary and…

  8. Reflective journal writing: how it promotes reflective thinking in clinical nursing education: a students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J; Chabeli, M M

    2002-08-01

    According to the outcomes-based education and training system of education (OBET) in the country and the South African Nursing Council, education should focus on "creating" reflective learners and practitioners. This article seeks to determine the effectiveness of reflective journal writing in promoting the reflective thinking of learners in clinical nursing education and to validate the guidelines described in a bigger study on how to facilitate reflective thinking using reflective journal writing. A qualitative, contextual, explorative, descriptive research design was used to determine the learners' perceptions on whether reflective journal writing did promote their higher-level thinking skills during the six-month placement in a psychiatric clinical practice using the reflective diaries. From a population of seventeen fourth-year students, six volunteered to participate in a focus group interview. The data was analysed by means of the descriptive method of open coding of Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:154-156). Positive and negative results from the perceptions of the participants and a literature review served as a basis for deducing and describing guidelines for the effective use of reflective journal writing in promoting reflective thinking in clinical nursing education. The positive perception was the development of problem-solving skills attained through reflection by using analytical critical thinking, synthesis and the evaluation of situations. Self-evaluation leading to intellectual growth and self-awareness indicated a positive perception. Negative perceptions were that reflective journal writing is time consuming, content based with a lack of clear expectations from the teacher, and distrust of students about the information written. Guba's model of ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research as described in Krefting (1991:215-222) was employed. It is concluded that reflective journal writing in clinical nursing education does promote reflective

  9. Indicators and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... for indicators and assessments. As the decision making context influences the perceived and actual needs for indicators and methods, we also analysed the dimensions and context of decision making. We derived criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators of environmental sustainability......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...

  10. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  11. Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) wood were carried out. Forty five wood specimens were prepared from the three ecological zones of north eastern Nigeria, viz: sahel savanna, sudan savanna and guinea savanna for the research. The results indicated that the wood ...

  12. Cognitive Reflection Versus Calculation in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr eSinayev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005. In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT’s ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes; Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1 or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2. These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.

  13. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.

  14. Applied quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cathy; Overbeck, Ludger

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides practical solutions and introduces recent theoretical developments in risk management, pricing of credit derivatives, quantification of volatility and copula modeling. This third edition is devoted to modern risk analysis based on quantitative methods and textual analytics to meet the current challenges in banking and finance. It includes 14 new contributions and presents a comprehensive, state-of-the-art treatment of cutting-edge methods and topics, such as collateralized debt obligations, the high-frequency analysis of market liquidity, and realized volatility. The book is divided into three parts: Part 1 revisits important market risk issues, while Part 2 introduces novel concepts in credit risk and its management along with updated quantitative methods. The third part discusses the dynamics of risk management and includes risk analysis of energy markets and for cryptocurrencies. Digital assets, such as blockchain-based currencies, have become popular b ut are theoretically challenging...

  15. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haushofer, R.

    1982-01-01

    330 patients were examined by skeletal scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate and sup(99m)methylene diphosphonate in the years between 1977 and 1979. Course control examinations were carried out in 12 patients. The collective of patients presented with primary skeletal tumours, metastases, inflammatory and degenerative skeletal diseases. Bone scintiscanning combined with the ''region of interest'' technique was found to be an objective and reproducible technique for quantitative measurement of skeletal radioactivity concentrations. The validity of nuclear skeletal examinations can thus be enhanced as far as diagnosis, course control, and differential diagnosis are concerned. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning by means of the ''region of interest'' technique has opened up a new era in skeletal diagnosis by nuclear methods. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Enhancing nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation through socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.

    There is a distinct divide between theory and practice in American science education. Research indicates that a constructivist philosophy, in which students construct their own knowledge, is conductive to learning, while in many cases teachers continue to present science in a more traditional manner. This study sought to explore possible relationships between a socioscientific issues based curriculum and three outcome variables: nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation skill. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine both whole class differences as well as individual differences between the beginning and end of a semester of high school Biology I. Results indicated that the socioscientific issues based curriculum did not produce statistically significant changes over the course of one semester. However, the treatment group scored better on all three instruments than the comparison group. The small sample size may have contributed to the inability to find statistical significance in this study. The qualitative interviews did indicate that some students provided more sophisticated views on nature of science and reflective judgment, and were able to provide slightly more complex argumentation structures. Theoretical implications regarding the use of explicit use of socioscientific issues in the classroom are presented.

  17. Quantitative FDG in depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, P.; O`Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Dept of Psychiatry and Centre for PET

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual``s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals.

  18. Quantitative FDG in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, P.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual''s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals

  19. NRC performance indicator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission

  20. Quantitative traits and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  1. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  2. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  3. The Effect of Self Reflections through Electronic Journals (E-Journals) on the Self Efficacy of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavýl, Zekiye Müge

    2014-01-01

    This study aims both to provide information about the self-reflections of pre-service teachers keeping self-reflective e-journals during the practicum period and to determine the relationship between their self-reflection and self-efficacy levels. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed in integration to gain deeper insight into the…

  4. Mapping of colored-snow area on glaciers by using spectral reflectance of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaga, D.; Yasumoto, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Imai, M.; Bilesan, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Sugiyama, S.; Terashima, M.; Kawamata, H.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    One of the reasons for accelerating recent glacier retreat is reported that algae generated on glaciers gives color to snow; Red snow algae on the Harding icefield in Alaska, and cryoconite, a black colored substance formed by algae tangling with mineral particles. The distribution of algae on the glacier can vary widely from year to year, depending on the season. Remote sensing will play an important role to know the area of colored snow. In previous studies, however, since the satellite images of low gradation were used, the brightness in the specific area was saturated due to the high reflectance of snow. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish the colored snow area from that of water and shadows. We aim to map using Landsat8 data and quantitatively evaluate the distribution of colored snow area on glaciers by newly creating a colored-snow-sensitive index from spectral reflectance of algae. Cryoconite has low (high) reflectance in the range of 450-500nm (850-900nm) corresponding to Band2 (Band5) in Landsat8.On the other hand, the reflectance of glacier ice exhibits the opposite tendency. Focusing on the difference in reflectance between the two wavelength ranges, we can create indices sensitive to cryoconite area. The image, mapped as the cryoconite region with large difference in brightness between band 2 and 5, was different from the water and shadow areas. The cryoconite area is also consistent with the results obtained in the filed survey of qaanaaq Glacier in Greenland. Using the similar analytical method, we will also present the map of red snow observed on the glacier.

  5. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  6. Impacts of dust aerosol and adjacency effects on the accuracy of Landsat 8 and RapidEye surface reflectances

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric correction of satellite data is challenging over desert agricultural systems, due to the relatively high aerosol optical thicknesses (τ550), bright soils, and a heterogeneous surface reflectance field. Indeed, the contribution of reflected radiation from adjacent pixels scattered into the field of view of a target pixel is considerable and can significantly affect the fidelity of retrieved reflectances. In this study, uncertainties and quantitative errors associated with the atmospheric correction of multi-spectral Landsat 8 and RapidEye data were characterized over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia. Surface reflectances were retrieved using an implementation of the 6SV atmospheric correction code, and validated against field collected spectroradiometer measurements over desert, cultivated soil, and vegetated surface targets. A combination of satellite and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data were used to parameterize aerosol properties and atmospheric state parameters. With optimal specification of τ550 and aerosol optical properties and correction for adjacency effects, the relative Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) for all bands combined was 5.4% for RapidEye and 6.8% for Landsat 8. However uncertainties associated with satellite-based τ550 retrievals were shown to introduce significant error into the reflectance estimates. With respect to deriving common vegetation indices from corrected reflectance data, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was associated with the smallest errors (3–8% MAD). Surface reflectance errors were highest for bands in the visible part of the spectrum, particularly the blue band (5–16%), while there was more consistency within the red-edge (~ 5%) and near-infrared (5–7%). Results were generally better constrained when a τ550-dependent aerosol model for desert dust particles, parameterized on the basis of nearby AERONET site data, was used in place of a generic rural or background

  7. Impacts of dust aerosol and adjacency effects on the accuracy of Landsat 8 and RapidEye surface reflectances

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2017-03-29

    The atmospheric correction of satellite data is challenging over desert agricultural systems, due to the relatively high aerosol optical thicknesses (τ550), bright soils, and a heterogeneous surface reflectance field. Indeed, the contribution of reflected radiation from adjacent pixels scattered into the field of view of a target pixel is considerable and can significantly affect the fidelity of retrieved reflectances. In this study, uncertainties and quantitative errors associated with the atmospheric correction of multi-spectral Landsat 8 and RapidEye data were characterized over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia. Surface reflectances were retrieved using an implementation of the 6SV atmospheric correction code, and validated against field collected spectroradiometer measurements over desert, cultivated soil, and vegetated surface targets. A combination of satellite and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data were used to parameterize aerosol properties and atmospheric state parameters. With optimal specification of τ550 and aerosol optical properties and correction for adjacency effects, the relative Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) for all bands combined was 5.4% for RapidEye and 6.8% for Landsat 8. However uncertainties associated with satellite-based τ550 retrievals were shown to introduce significant error into the reflectance estimates. With respect to deriving common vegetation indices from corrected reflectance data, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was associated with the smallest errors (3–8% MAD). Surface reflectance errors were highest for bands in the visible part of the spectrum, particularly the blue band (5–16%), while there was more consistency within the red-edge (~ 5%) and near-infrared (5–7%). Results were generally better constrained when a τ550-dependent aerosol model for desert dust particles, parameterized on the basis of nearby AERONET site data, was used in place of a generic rural or background

  8. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  9. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  10. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  11. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  12. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  13. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  14. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  15. Practical quantitative measures of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Larson, H.V.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty specific quantitative measures to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) programs are described along with their applicability, practicality, advantages, disadvantages, and potential for misinterpretation or dortion. Although no single index or combination of indices is suitable for all facilities, generally, these five: (1) mean individual dose equivalent (MIDE) to the total body from penetrating radiations; (2) statistical distribution of MIDE to the whole body from penetrating radiations; (3) cumulative penetrating whole body dose equivalent; (4) MIDE evaluated by job classification; and (5) MIDE evaluated by work location-apply to most programs. Evaluation of other programs may require other specific dose equivalent based indices, including extremity exposure data, cumulative dose equivalent to organs or to the general population, and nonpenetrating radiation dose equivalents. Certain nondose equivalent indices, such as the size of the radiation or contamination area, may also be used; an airborne activity index based on air concentration, room volume, and radiotoxicity is developed for application in some ALARA programs

  16. Far infrared reflectivity study of ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.; Khan, M.N.; Al-Dallal, S.; Tanner, D.B.; Porter, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on a study of the far-infrared reflectivity of mixed rare earths and lanthnides ceramic superconductors RBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 in the normal state. The authors' results show that the strength of the phonon modes is reduced when yttrium is partially replaced by gadolinium and europium. Also the critical temperature of these mixed materials is reduced as indicated by the four probe technique

  17. Float level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru

  18. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang Shuzhe; Huang Yanping; Zheng Yongping [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: simo.saarakkala@uku.fi, E-mail: ypzheng@ieee.org

    2009-11-21

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  19. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  20. Use of Reflective Journals in Development of Teachers' Leadership and Teaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göker, Suleyman Davut

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the contribution of reflective practice to teaching practice amongst student teachers, this study examines the impact of reflective journal entries of 16 student teachers from Faculty of Education at the Artvin Coruh University in Turkey. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were employed for this study including open-ended…

  1. Application of the surface reflection seismic method to shallow coal exploration in the plains of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyatsky, H.V.; Lawton, D.C. (University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1988-12-01

    A study was done to make a quantitative interpretation of reflection seismic data from the Highvale-Whitewood shallow coal deposit in central Alberta. Results showed that the data is useful in demonstrating coal thickness and stratigraphy as well as structural formation. Reflection character is affected by nature of the strata surrounding the coal deposit. 22 refs., 1 tab., 23 figs.

  2. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  3. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations. On the ......This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations...

  4. Thor, a thorium-reflected plutonium-metal critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.; Paxton, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Critical specifications of Thor, an old assembly of thorium-reflected plutonium, have been refined. These specifications are brought together with void coefficients, Rossi-alpha values, fission traverses, and spectral indices

  5. An electronic portfolio for quantitative assessment of surgical skills in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Serafín; Ostos, Elisa María Cabot; Solano, Juan Manuel Maza; Salado, Tomás Francisco Herrero

    2013-05-06

    the maximum scores for participation as an observer or assistant. Medical students reported that use of an electronic portfolio that provided quantitative feedback on their progress was useful when the number and complexity of targets were appropriate, but not when the portfolio offered only formative evaluations based on reflection. Students felt that use of the e-Portfolio guided their learning process by indicating knowledge gaps to themselves and teachers.

  6. Validating the Persian Version of Reflective Thinking Questionnaire and Probing Iranian University Students' Reflective Thinking and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Ghanizadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in higher education deem reflective thinking as integral to the development of professional disciplinary practices. One of the major issues in studying reflective thinking pivots around its conceptualization and assessment. Over the years, researchers have used several methods and scales to measure reflective thinking. One of the most widely known scales of reflective thinking was constructed and validated by Kember et al. (2000. It is entitled 'Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ' and includes 16 items measuring four types of reflective thinking: understanding (UND; reflection (REF; critical reflection (CREF; habitual action (HA. The present study aimed at validating the Persian version of RTQ among one hundred ninety six English as a foreign language (EFL university students. It then scrutinized the role of reflective thinking in academic achievements measured by grade point average (GPA. The association of learners' reflective thinking style with their educational level and gender was also estimated. To conduct the research, the scale was first translated into Persian and its validity (computed via confirmatory factor analysis, convergent, and divergent validity estimates and reliability (computed via Cronbach's alpha were substantiated. It was indicated that among the comprising factors of reflective thinking, UND received the highest mean followed by REF and CREF

  7. Self-rumination, self-reflection, and depression: self-rumination counteracts the adaptive effect of self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-03-01

    Self-focused attention has adaptive and maladaptive aspects: self-reflection and self-rumination [Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284-304]. Although reflection is thought to be associated with problem solving and the promotion of mental health, previous researches have shown that reflection does not always have an adaptive effect on depression. Authors have examined the causes behind this inconsistency by modeling the relationships among self-reflection, self-rumination, and depression. One hundred and eleven undergraduates (91 men and 20 women) participated in a two-time point assessment with a 3-week interval. Statistical analysis with structural equation modeling showed that self-reflection significantly predicted self-rumination, whereas self-rumination did not predict self-reflection. With regard to depression, self-reflection was associated with a lower level of depression; self-rumination, with a higher level of depression. The total effect of self-reflection on depression was almost zero. This result indicates that self-reflection per se has an adaptive effect, which is canceled out by the maladaptive effect of self-rumination, because reflectors are likely to ruminate and reflect simultaneously.

  8. Assessing Viability and Sustainability: a Systems-based Approach for Deriving Comprehensive Indicator Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Bossel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessment in holistic approaches such as integrated natural resource management has to deal with a complex set of interacting and self-organizing natural and human systems and agents, all pursuing their own "interests" while also contributing to the development of the total system. Performance indicators must therefore reflect the viability of essential component systems as well as their contributions to the viability and performance of other component systems and the total system under study. A systems-based derivation of a comprehensive set of performance indicators first requires the identification of essential component systems, their mutual (often hierarchical or reciprocal relationships, and their contributions to the performance of other component systems and the total system. The second step consists of identifying the indicators that represent the viability states of the component systems and the contributions of these component systems to the performance of the total system. The search for performance indicators is guided by the realization that essential interests (orientations or orientors of systems and actors are shaped by both their characteristic functions and the fundamental and general properties of their system environments (e.g., normal environmental state, scarcity of resources, variety, variability, change, other coexisting systems. To be viable, a system must devote an essential minimum amount of attention to satisfying the "basic orientors" that respond to the properties of its environment. This fact can be used to define comprehensive and system-specific sets of performance indicators that reflect all important concerns. Often, qualitative indicators and the study of qualitative systems are sufficient for reliable performance assessments. However, this approach can also be formalized for quantitative computer-assisted assessment. Examples are presented of indicator sets for the sustainable development of

  9. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  10. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  11. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  12. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  13. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  14. Ultraviolet spectral reflectance of carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Daniel M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Pitman, Karly M.; Roush, Ted L.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Lucey, Paul G.

    2018-06-01

    A number of planetary spacecraft missions have carried instruments with sensors covering the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. However, there exists a general lack of relevant UV reflectance laboratory data to compare against these planetary surface remote sensing observations in order to make confident material identifications. To address this need, we have systematically analyzed reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials in the 200-500 nm spectral range, and found spectral-compositional-structural relationships that suggest this wavelength region could distinguish between otherwise difficult-to-identify carbon phases. In particular (and by analogy with the infrared spectral region), large changes over short wavelength intervals in the refractive indices associated with the trigonal sp2π-π* transition of carbon can lead to Fresnel peaks and Christiansen-like features in reflectance. Previous studies extending to shorter wavelengths also show that anomalous dispersion caused by the σ-σ* transition associated with both the trigonal sp2 and tetrahedral sp3 sites causes these features below λ = 200 nm. The peak wavelength positions and shapes of π-π* and σ-σ* features contain information on sp3/sp2, structure, crystallinity, and powder grain size. A brief comparison with existing observational data indicates that the carbon fraction of the surface of Mercury is likely amorphous and submicroscopic, as is that on the surface of the martian satellites Phobos and Deimos, and possibly comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while further coordinated observations and laboratory experiments should refine these feature assignments and compositional hypotheses. The new laboratory diffuse reflectance data reported here provide an important new resource for interpreting UV reflectance measurements from planetary surfaces throughout the solar system, and confirm that the UV can be rich in important spectral information.

  15. Quantitative cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M.; Dueber, C.; Wolff, P.; Erbel, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    1985-06-01

    The scope and limitations of quantitative cardiac CT have been evaluated in a series of experimental and clinical studies. The left ventricular muscle mass was estimated by computed tomography in 19 dogs (using volumetric methods, measurements in two axes and planes and reference volume). There was good correlation with anatomical findings. The enddiastolic volume of the left ventricle was estimated in 22 patients with cardiomyopathies; using angiography as a reference, CT led to systematic under-estimation. It is also shown that ECG-triggered magnetic resonance tomography results in improved visualisation and may be expected to improve measurements of cardiac morphology.

  16. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  17. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  18. Transmission and reflection properties of terahertz fractal metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Cooke, David

    2010-01-01

    We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial.......We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial....

  19. Key performance indicators to benchmark hospital information systems - a delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner-Bloder, G; Ammenwerth, E

    2009-01-01

    To identify the key performance indicators for hospital information systems (HIS) that can be used for HIS benchmarking. A Delphi survey with one qualitative and two quantitative rounds. Forty-four HIS experts from health care IT practice and academia participated in all three rounds. Seventy-seven performance indicators were identified and organized into eight categories: technical quality, software quality, architecture and interface quality, IT vendor quality, IT support and IT department quality, workflow support quality, IT outcome quality, and IT costs. The highest ranked indicators are related to clinical workflow support and user satisfaction. Isolated technical indicators or cost indicators were not seen as useful. The experts favored an interdisciplinary group of all the stakeholders, led by hospital management, to conduct the HIS benchmarking. They proposed benchmarking activities both in regular (annual) intervals as well as at defined events (for example after IT introduction). Most of the experts stated that in their institutions no HIS benchmarking activities are being performed at the moment. In the context of IT governance, IT benchmarking is gaining importance in the healthcare area. The found indicators reflect the view of health care IT professionals and researchers. Research is needed to further validate and operationalize key performance indicators, to provide an IT benchmarking framework, and to provide open repositories for a comparison of the HIS benchmarks of different hospitals.

  20. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  1. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  2. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  3. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  4. [Analysis of influencing factors of snow hyperspectral polarized reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-Qiu; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qian; Ning, Yan-Ling; Zhong, Gui-Xin

    2010-02-01

    Due to the need of snow monitoring and the impact of the global change on the snow, on the basis of the traditional research on snow, starting from the perspective of multi-angle polarized reflectance, we analyzed the influencing factors of snow from the incidence zenith angles, the detection zenith angles, the detection azimuth angles, polarized angles, the density of snow, the degree of pollution, and the background of the undersurface. It was found that these factors affected the spectral reflectance values of the snow, and the effect of some factors on the polarization hyperspectral reflectance observation is more evident than in the vertical observation. Among these influencing factors, the pollution of snow leads to an obvious change in the snow reflectance spectrum curve, while other factors have little effect on the shape of the snow reflectance spectrum curve and mainly impact the reflection ratio of the snow. Snow reflectance polarization information has not only important theoretical significance, but also wide application prospect, and provides new ideas and methods for the quantitative research on snow using the remote sensing technology.

  5. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  6. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  7. Quantitative performance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    In the recently published update of NUREG/CR 3883, it was shown that Japanese plants of size and design similar to those in the US have significantly fewer trips in a given year of operation. One way to reduce such imbalance is the efficient use of available plant data. Since plant data are recorded and monitored continuously for management feedback and timely resolution of problems, this data should be actively used to increase the efficiency of operations and, ultimately, for a reduction of plant trips in power plants. A great deal of information is lost, however, if the analytical tools available for the data evaluation are misapplied or not adopted at all. This paper deals with a program developed to use quantitative techniques to monitor personnel performance in an operating power plant. Visual comparisons of ongoing performance with predetermined quantitative performance goals are made. A continuous feedback is provided to management for early detection of adverse trends and timely resolution of problems. Ultimately, costs are reduced through effective resource management and timely decision making

  8. Quantitative clinical radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a series of recent papers, a status is given of our current ability to quantify the radiobiology of human tumors and normal tissues. Progress has been made in the methods of analysis. This includes the introduction of 'direct' (maximum likelihood) analysis, incorporation of latent-time in the analyses, and statistical approaches to allow for the many factors of importance in predicting tumor-control probability of normal-tissue complications. Quantitative clinical radiobiology of normal tissues is reviewed with emphasis on fractionation sensitivity, repair kinetics, regeneration, latency, and the steepness of dose-response curves. In addition, combined modality treatment, functional endpoints, and the search for a correlation between the occurrence of different endpoints in the same individual are discussed. For tumors, quantitative analyses of fractionation sensitivity, repair kinetics, reoxygenation, and regeneration are reviewed. Other factors influencing local control are: Tumor volume, histopathologic differentiation and hemoglobin concentration. Also, the steepness of the dose-response curve for tumors is discussed. Radiobiological strategies for improving radiotherapy are discussed with emphasis on non-standard fractionation and individualization of treatment schedules. (orig.)

  9. urrent status and assessment of quantitative and qualitative one leg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of only a quantitative assessment. These findings indicate that, when evaluating the one leg balance in children aged 3-6 years, a quantitative and qualitative assessment should be used in combination together to assure a more accurate assessment. (S. African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Ed. and Recreation: 2001 ...

  10. Mapcurves: a quantitative method for comparing categorical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Hargrove; M. Hoffman Forrest; Paul F. Hessburg

    2006-01-01

    We present Mapcurves, a quantitative goodness-of-fit (GOF) method that unambiguously shows the degree of spatial concordance between two or more categorical maps. Mapcurves graphically and quantitatively evaluate the degree of fit among any number of maps and quantify a GOF for each polygon, as well as the entire map. The Mapcurve method indicates a perfect fit even if...

  11. Students' reflections in a portfolio pilot: highlighting professional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffling, Ann-Christin; Beckman, Anders; Pahlmblad, Annika; Edgren, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    Portfolios are highlighted as potential assessment tools for professional competence. Although students' self-reflections are considered to be central in the portfolio, the content of reflections in practice-based portfolios is seldom analysed. To investigate whether students' reflections include sufficient dimensions of professional competence, notwithstanding a standardized portfolio format, and to evaluate students' satisfaction with the portfolio. Thirty-five voluntary final-year medical students piloted a standardized portfolio in a general practice (GP) attachment at Lund University, Sweden. Students' portfolio reflections were based upon documentary evidence from practice, and aimed to demonstrate students' learning. The reflections were qualitatively analysed, using a framework approach. Students' evaluations of the portfolio were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Among professional issues, an integration of cognitive, affective and practical dimensions in clinical practice was provided by students' reflections. The findings suggested an emphasis on affective issues, particularly on self-awareness of feelings, attitudes and concerns. In addition, ethical problems, clinical reasoning strategies and future communication skills training were subjects of several reflective commentaries. Students' reflections on their consultation skills demonstrated their endeavour to achieve structure in the medical interview by negotiation of an agenda for the consultation, keeping the interview on track, and using internal summarizing. The importance of active listening and exploration of patient's perspective was also emphasized. In students' case summaries, illustrating characteristic attributes of GP, the dominating theme was 'patient-centred care', including the patient-doctor relationship, holistic modelling and longitudinal continuity. Students were satisfied with the portfolio, but improved instructions were needed. A standardized portfolio in a

  12. Safety performance indicators program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) initiated a program to define and implement a Safety Performance Indicators System for the two operating nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse. The objective of the program was to incorporate a set of safety performance indicators to be used as a new regulatory tool providing an additional view of the operational performance of the nuclear power plants, improving the ability to detect degradation on safety related areas. A set of twenty-four safety performance indicators was developed and improved throughout pilot implementation initiated in July 1998. This paper summarises the program development, the main criteria applied in each stage and the results obtained. (author)

  13. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István

    2016-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  14. The robustness of pollination networks to the loss of species and interactions: a quantitative approach incorporating pollinator behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Muff, Stefanie; Memmott, Jane; Müller, Christine B; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2010-04-01

    Species extinctions pose serious threats to the functioning of ecological communities worldwide. We used two qualitative and quantitative pollination networks to simulate extinction patterns following three removal scenarios: random removal and systematic removal of the strongest and weakest interactors. We accounted for pollinator behaviour by including potential links into temporal snapshots (12 consecutive 2-week networks) to reflect mutualists' ability to 'switch' interaction partners (re-wiring). Qualitative data suggested a linear or slower than linear secondary extinction while quantitative data showed sigmoidal decline of plant interaction strength upon removal of the strongest interactor. Temporal snapshots indicated greater stability of re-wired networks over static systems. Tolerance of generalized networks to species extinctions was high in the random removal scenario, with an increase in network stability if species formed new interactions. Anthropogenic disturbance, however, that promote the extinction of the strongest interactors might induce a sudden collapse of pollination networks.

  15. Live Cell Refractometry Using Hilbert Phase Microscopy and Confocal Reflectance Microscopy†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Niyom; Choi, Wonshik; Popescu, Gabriel; Yaqoob, Zahid; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative chemical analysis has served as a useful tool for understanding cellular metabolisms in biology. Among many physical properties used in chemical analysis, refractive index in particular has provided molecular concentration that is an important indicator for biological activities. In this report, we present a method of extracting full-field refractive index maps of live cells in their native states. We first record full-field optical thickness maps of living cells by Hilbert phase microscopy and then acquire physical thickness maps of the same cells using a custom-built confocal reflectance microscope. Full-field and axially averaged refractive index maps are acquired from the ratio of optical thickness to physical thickness. The accuracy of the axially averaged index measurement is 0.002. This approach can provide novel biological assays of label-free living cells in situ. PMID:19803506

  16. Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Niyom; Choi, Wonshik; Popescu, Gabriel; Yaqoob, Zahid; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2009-11-26

    Quantitative chemical analysis has served as a useful tool for understanding cellular metabolisms in biology. Among many physical properties used in chemical analysis, refractive index in particular has provided molecular concentration that is an important indicator for biological activities. In this report, we present a method of extracting full-field refractive index maps of live cells in their native states. We first record full-field optical thickness maps of living cells by Hilbert phase microscopy and then acquire physical thickness maps of the same cells using a custom-built confocal reflectance microscope. Full-field and axially averaged refractive index maps are acquired from the ratio of optical thickness to physical thickness. The accuracy of the axially averaged index measurement is 0.002. This approach can provide novel biological assays of label-free living cells in situ.

  17. Experimental analysis of bruises in human volunteers using radiometric depth profiling and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2015-07-01

    We combine pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) depth profiling with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements for a comprehensive analysis of bruise evolution in vivo. While PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin), DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths and thus offers an additional insight into dynamics of the hemoglobin degradation products. Combining the two approaches enables us to quantitatively characterize bruise evolution dynamics. Our results indicate temporal variations of the bruise evolution parameters in the course of bruise self-healing process. The obtained parameter values and trends represent a basis for a future development of an objective technique for bruise age determination.

  18. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  19. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  20. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  1. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  2. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  4. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  5. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  6. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  7. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  12. A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; McCubbin, Ian B.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah R.; Sarture, Charles M.; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Bradley, Eliza S.; Roberts, Dar A.; ,

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a method to create color-composite images indicative of thick oil:water emulsions on the surface of clear, deep ocean water by using normalized difference ratios derived from remotely sensed data collected by an imaging spectrometer. The spectral bands used in the normalized difference ratios are located in wavelength regions where the spectra of thick oil:water emulsions on the ocean's surface have a distinct shape compared to clear water and clouds. In contrast to quantitative analyses, which require rigorous conversion to reflectance, the method described is easily computed and can be applied rapidly to radiance data or data that have been atmospherically corrected or ground-calibrated to reflectance. Examples are shown of the method applied to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data collected May 17 and May 19, 2010, over the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    H. 1990. Strategy for monitoring the effects of land use change on atmospheric CO2 concentrations . In Proceedings of “Global Natural Resource...Working Group in Santiago , Chile , February 1995, ten nations agreed to a comprehensive set of criteria and indicators for forest conservation and...chemistry variables, the concentrations of total and inorganic suspended sediments during baseflow and storm periods were excellent indicators of

  14. Diffuse and goniochromatic reflectance of translucent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdon, William M.

    Although the mechanical stability of dental restorations remains a priority, research is currently being pursued to improve the esthetics of restorations. This includes the technology of color matching and the general understanding of the appearance of natural teeth. Before the appearance of natural teeth can be mimicked, it must first be reduced to quantifiable parameters. Teeth and dental restorations typically have their appearance defined by their three-dimensional color, which then becomes the basis for appearance matching. However, standard color measurements cannot account for differences in translucency between materials, while a human observer readily can. Furthermore, teeth are translucent, multi-layered, biological composites that have aligned microstructures. These translucent layers and aligned microstructure make the color dependant upon the observation angle---a property known as goniochromism. This research shows how translucent materials exhibit significant goniochromatic behaviors. Since the translucency typically results in goniochromatic behavior, goniochromatic behavior is thought to be how translucency is perceived, and consequently, how color matching in translucent materials can potentially fail to match the appearance. To better understand the causes of goniochromism, fiber filler alignment, layering, and specularly reflecting backings were investigated as mechanisms of goniochromism. These same three mechanisms are also likely to affect the diffuse reflectance of translucent materials, which were also quantitatively studied. Another particularly odd property of human enamel is its ability to produce multiple-slit, Fraunhofer diffraction patterns, which this work reproduced using aligned, E-glass-fiber composites.

  15. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  16. Quantitative autistic trait measurements index background genetic risk for ASD in Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Joshua; Constantino, John Nicholas; Zambrana, Katherine; Martin, Eden; Tunc, Ilker; Zhang, Yi; Abbacchi, Anna; Messinger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that quantitative autistic traits (QATs) of parents reflect inherited liabilities that may index background genetic risk for clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their offspring. Moreover, preferential mating for QATs has been observed as a potential factor in concentrating autistic liabilities in some families across generations. Heretofore, intergenerational studies of QATs have focused almost exclusively on Caucasian populations-the present study explored these phenomena in a well-characterized Hispanic population. The present study examined QAT scores in siblings and parents of 83 Hispanic probands meeting research diagnostic criteria for ASD, and 64 non-ASD controls, using the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2). Ancestry of the probands was characterized by genotype, using information from 541,929 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. In families of Hispanic children with an ASD diagnosis, the pattern of quantitative trait correlations observed between ASD-affected children and their first-degree relatives (ICCs on the order of 0.20), between unaffected first-degree relatives in ASD-affected families (sibling/mother ICC = 0.36; sibling/father ICC = 0.53), and between spouses (mother/father ICC = 0.48) were in keeping with the influence of transmitted background genetic risk and strong preferential mating for variation in quantitative autistic trait burden. Results from analysis of ancestry-informative genetic markers among probands in this sample were consistent with that from other Hispanic populations. Quantitative autistic traits represent measurable indices of inherited liability to ASD in Hispanic families. The accumulation of autistic traits occurs within generations, between spouses, and across generations, among Hispanic families affected by ASD. The occurrence of preferential mating for QATs-the magnitude of which may vary across cultures-constitutes a mechanism by which background genetic liability

  17. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Katsutoshi, E-mail: kando@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Tobino, Kazunori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshio-Machi, Iizuka-City, Fukuoka 820-8505 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Doi, Tokuhide [Fukuoka Clinic, 7-18-11 Umeda, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo 123-0851 (Japan); Hoshika, Yoshito [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm{sup 2} and 5–10 mm{sup 2} and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p < 0.05). Pulmonary function correlated negatively with LAA% (p < 0.001) in both groups, yet the correlation with %CSA was significant only in COPD (p < 0.001). When the same analysis was conducted in two groups with equal levels of LAA% and DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  18. Assessment of autonomic nervous system by using empirical mode decomposition-based reflection wave analysis during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C C; Hsiao, T C; Kao, S C; Hsu, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important indicator of cardiovascular circulation and presents various intrinsic regulations. It has been found that the intrinsic characteristics of blood vessels can be assessed quantitatively by ABP analysis (called reflection wave analysis (RWA)), but conventional RWA is insufficient for assessment during non-stationary conditions, such as the Valsalva maneuver. Recently, a novel adaptive method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was proposed for non-stationary data analysis. This study proposed a RWA algorithm based on EMD (EMD-RWA). A total of 51 subjects participated in this study, including 39 healthy subjects and 12 patients with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The results showed that EMD-RWA provided a reliable estimation of reflection time in baseline and head-up tilt (HUT). Moreover, the estimated reflection time is able to assess the ANS function non-invasively, both in normal, healthy subjects and in the patients with ANS dysfunction. EMD-RWA provides a new approach for reflection time estimation in non-stationary conditions, and also helps with non-invasive ANS assessment. (paper)

  19. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Brand

    1985-01-01

    Plants are indicators of environmental factors like moisture, nutrients, heat, and light. Semi-quantitative indices for these four factors were developed for 90 Michigan trees and shrubs. The indices and a tally of species present provide a simple evaluation of the environment of a forest stand and a useful management aid.

  20. Temporal Variability of Observed and Simulated Hyperspectral Earth Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yolanda; Pilewskie, Peter; Kindel, Bruce; Feldman, Daniel; Collins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system designed to study Earth's climate variability with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) were developed using GCM output and MODTRAN to simulate CLARREO reflectance measurements during the 21st century as a design tool for the CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager. With OSSE simulations of hyperspectral reflectance, Feldman et al. [2011a,b] found that shortwave reflectance is able to detect changes in climate variables during the 21st century and improve time-to-detection compared to broadband measurements. The OSSE has been a powerful tool in the design of the CLARREO imager and for understanding the effect of climate change on the spectral variability of reflectance, but it is important to evaluate how well the OSSE simulates the Earth's present-day spectral variability. For this evaluation we have used hyperspectral reflectance measurements from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY), a shortwave spectrometer that was operational between March 2002 and April 2012. To study the spectral variability of SCIAMACHY-measured and OSSE-simulated reflectance, we used principal component analysis (PCA), a spectral decomposition technique that identifies dominant modes of variability in a multivariate data set. Using quantitative comparisons of the OSSE and SCIAMACHY PCs, we have quantified how well the OSSE captures the spectral variability of Earth?s climate system at the beginning of the 21st century relative to SCIAMACHY measurements. These results showed that the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets share over 99% of their total variance in 2004. Using the PCs and the temporally distributed reflectance spectra projected onto the PCs (PC scores), we can study the temporal variability of the observed and simulated reflectance spectra. Multivariate time

  1. Volume reflection efficiency for negative particles in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biryukov, V.M., E-mail: valery.biryukov@ihep.ru

    2017-02-10

    We suggest a formula for the efficiency of a single volume reflection of negatively charged particles in bent crystal planes and compare it to recent experiments at SLAC, MAMI and CERN with electrons and negative pions in the energy range from 0.855 to 150 GeV in Si crystals. We show that Lindhard reversibility rule provides sufficient basis for quantitative understanding of these experiments.

  2. Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange through the ... ceratophthalmus (Crustacea: Decapoda) during rest and exercise in water and ... intersects zero time on the x-axis, indicating rapid gas exchange at the lung surface.

  3. Quantitative Determination of Germinability of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Urediospores Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is an important disease on wheat. In this study, quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores was investigated by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS combined with quantitative partial least squares (QPLS and support vector regression (SVR. The near infrared spectra of the urediospore samples were acquired using FT-NIR MPA spectrometer and the germination rate of each sample was measured using traditional spore germination method. The best QPLS model was obtained with vector correction as the preprocessing method of the original spectra and 4000–12000 cm−1 as the modeling spectral region while the modeling ratio of the training set to the testing set was 4 : 1. The best SVR model was built when vector normalization was used as the preprocessing method, the modeling ratio was 5 : 1 and the modeling spectral region was 8000–11000 cm−1. The results showed that the effect of the best model built using QPLS or SVR was satisfactory. This indicated that quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores using near infrared spectroscopy technology is feasible. A new method based on NIRS was provided for rapid, automatic, and nondestructive determination of germinability of Pst urediospores.

  4. Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.; Hayns, M.R.

    1984-08-01

    We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x 0 , for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station

  5. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  6. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... estate sector each addressing three interlinked levels: building/ projects level, company or enterprise level and benchmarking system level. Additionally it has been based on dialogue with researchers and professional organisation, international research and standardisation work and national building...

  7. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Understory Spectral Reflectance Within the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Supronowicz, Jan; Edwards, Geoffrey; Viau, Alain; Thomson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. Spectral reflection coefficients of the forest understory at the ground level, in three boreal forest sites of Northern Manitoba (56 N latitude and 98 W longitude), were obtained and analyzed in 1994. In particular, angular variation of the reflection coefficients in the old jack pine and young jack pine forests, as well as nadir reflection coefficient in the young aspen forest, were investigated. The complexity of understory composition and the light patterns limited quantitative conclusions; however, a number of interesting trends in the behavior of the measured values can be inferred. In particular, the unique spectral profiles of lichens show very strongly in the old jack pine understory, yet are definitely less conspicuous for young jack pine, and virtually absent in the aspen forest. The angular variation of the reflection coefficient by the young pine understory seems to be significantly toned down by fine-structured branches and their shadows. Our study also indicates how difficult the ground reflection coefficient problem in a forest is, compared to certain previously investigated areas that have a more uniform appearance, such as prairie grassland, bare soil, or agricultural crops. This is due to several factors, generally typical of a forest environment, that may influence the overall understory reflection coefficient, including: (1) a strong diversity of the forest floor due to the presence of dead tree trunks, holes in the ground, patches of different types of vegetation or litter, etc.; (2) pronounced 3-D structures at the ground level, such as shrubs, bushes, and young trees; and (3) an irregular shadow mosaic, which not only varies with the time of the day, causing intensity variations, but likely also effectively modifies the spectrum of the

  8. Measuring resilience of coupled human-water systems using ecosystem services compatible indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Mao, F.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Clark, J.; Buytaert, W.

    2017-12-01

    To explore the dynamics of socio-hydrological systems under change, the concepts of resilience and ecosystem services serve as useful tools. In this context, resilience refers to the capacity of a socio-hydrological system to retain its structural and functional state despite perturbations, while ecosystem services offer a good proxy of the state that reflects human-water intersections. Efforts are needed to maintain and improve socio-hydrological resilience for future contingencies to secure hydrological ecosystem services supply. This requires holistic indicators of resilience for coupled human-water systems that are essential for quantitative assessment, change tracking, inter-case comparison, as well as resilience management. However, such indicators are still lacking. Our research aims to propose widely applicable resilience indicators that are suitable for the coupled human-water context, and compatible with ecosystem services. The existing resilience indicators for both eco-hydrological and socio-economic sectors are scrutinised, screened and analysed to build these new indicators. Using the proposed indicators, we compare the resilience and its temporal change among a set of example regions, and discusses the linkages between socio-hydrological resilience and hydrological ecosystem services with empirical cases.

  9. Study on Evaluation Indicators System of Crowd Management for Transfer Stations Based on Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety and convenience of transfer is one of the most vital tasks in subway system planning, design and operation management. Because of complicated space layout and crowded pedestrian, crowd control is a big challenge for management of transfer stations. Thus, a quantitative evaluation should be done before improvement measures are carried out. Literature review showed that present evaluation indicators about crowd management in subway system were all based on fixed value or experience. Dynamic effect caused by pedestrian congestion and various facility combination cannot be represented based on these indicators. Thus, in this paper, based on the pedestrian simulation tool, dynamic evaluation indicators system of crowd management was established from the point of safety, cost-effectiveness and comfort. In order to aid decision makers to identify the most appropriate scenario to improve the effectiveness of crowd management, Matter-Element Analysis (MEA was used to rate different scenarios. A pedestrian simulation model of a designing intermodal transfer station was built and four different scenarios were tested to demonstrate how to use this indicators system. Simulation results were evaluated based on the dynamic indicators system and MEA. The application results show that the dynamic evaluation indicators system is operational and can reflect level of the crowd management in transfer station comprehensively and precisely.

  10. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  11. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  12. [Teaching quantitative methods in public health: the EHESP experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; Astagneau, Pascal; Desvarieux, Moïse; Chambaud, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Many scientific disciplines, including epidemiology and biostatistics, are used in the field of public health. These quantitative sciences are fundamental tools necessary for the practice of future professionals. What then should be the minimum quantitative sciences training, common to all future public health professionals? By comparing the teaching models developed in Columbia University and those in the National School of Public Health in France, the authors recognize the need to adapt teaching to the specific competencies required for each profession. They insist that all public health professionals, whatever their future career, should be familiar with quantitative methods in order to ensure that decision-making is based on a reflective and critical use of quantitative analysis.

  13. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  14. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  15. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  16. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  17. High-resolution reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloy, Martial

    1997-01-01

    In this article some recent developments in selective reflection spectroscopy is reviewed and the various ways to extend Doppler free techniques to this spectroscopic field is discussed. Its main feature is to probe atomic gas close to the cell boundaries

  18. Temperature indicating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.P.; Salt, D.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature indicating device comprises a plurality of planar elements some undergoing a reversible change in appearance at a given temperature the remainder undergoing an irreversible change in appearance at a given temperature. The device is useful in indicating the temperature which an object has achieved as well as its actual temperature. The reversible change is produced by liquid crystal devices. The irreversible change is produced by an absorbent surface carrying substances e.g. waxes which melt at predetermined temperatures and are absorbed by the surface; alternatively paints may be used. The device is used for monitoring processes of encapsulation of radio active waste. (author)

  19. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  20. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  1. Indications for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.

    1985-01-01

    Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Generalized indices for radiation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.A.; Demin, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to ensuring nuclear safety has begun forming since the early eighties. The approach based on the probabilistic safety analysis, the principles of acceptable risk, the optimization of safety measures, etc. has forced a complex of adequate quantitative methods of assessment, safety analysis and risk management to be developed. The method of radiation risk assessment and analysis hold a prominent place in the complex. National and international research and regulatory organizations ICRP, IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR, OECD/NEA have given much attention to the development of the conceptual and methodological basis of those methods. Some resolutions of the National Commission of Radiological Protection (NCRP) and the Problem Commission on Radiation Hygiene of the USSR Ministry of Health should be also noted. Both CBA (cost benefit analysis) and other methods of radiation risk analysis and safety management use a system of natural and socio-economic indices characterizing the radiation risk or damage. There exist a number of problems associated with the introduction, justification and use of these indices. For example, the price, a, of radiation damage, or collective dose unit, is a noteworthy index. The difficulties in its qualitative and quantitative determination are still an obstacle for a wide application of CBA to the radiation risk analysis and management. During recent 10-15 years these problems have been a subject of consideration for many authors. The present paper also considers the issues of the qualitative and quantitative justification of the indices of radiation risk analysis

  3. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  4. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  5. Maslov indices and monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullin, H R; Robbins, J M; Waalkens, H; Creagh, S C; Tanner, G

    2005-01-01

    We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived. (letter to the editor)

  6. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  7. A general theory of multimetric indices and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William

    2012-01-01

    1. Stewardship of biological and ecological resources requires the ability to make integrative assessments of ecological integrity. One of the emerging methods for making such integrative assessments is multimetric indices (MMIs). These indices synthesize data, often from multiple levels of biological organization, with the goal of deriving a single index that reflects the overall effects of human disturbance. Despite the widespread use of MMIs, there is uncertainty about why this approach can be effective. An understanding of MMIs requires a quantitative theory that illustrates how the properties of candidate metrics relates to MMIs generated from those metrics. 2. We present the initial basis for such a theory by deriving the general mathematical characteristics of MMIs assembled from metrics. We then use the theory to derive quantitative answers to the following questions: Is there an optimal number of metrics to comprise an index? How does covariance among metrics affect the performance of the index derived from those metrics? And what are the criteria to decide whether a given metric will improve the performance of an index? 3. We find that the optimal number of metrics to be included in an index depends on the theoretical distribution of signal of the disturbance gradient contained in each metric. For example, if the rank-ordered parameters of a metric-disturbance regression can be described by a monotonically decreasing function, then an optimum number of metrics exists and can often be derived analytically. We derive the conditions by which adding a given metric can be expected to improve an index. 4. We find that the criterion defining such conditions depends nonlinearly of the signal of the disturbance gradient, the noise (error) of the metric and the correlation of the metric errors. Importantly, we find that correlation among metric errors increases the signal required for the metric to improve the index. 5. The theoretical framework presented in this

  8. Progress towards in vitro quantitative imaging of human femur using compound quantitative ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasaygues, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Edgard; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Gindre, Marcel; Talmant, Marilyne; Laugier, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to make cross-sectional ultrasonic quantitative tomography of the diaphysis of long bones. Ultrasonic propagation in bones is affected by the severe mismatch between the acoustic properties of this biological solid and those of the surrounding soft medium, namely, the soft tissues in vivo or water in vitro. Bone imaging is then a nonlinear inverse-scattering problem. In this paper, we showed that in vitro quantitative images of sound velocities in a human femur cross section could be reconstructed by combining ultrasonic reflection tomography (URT), which provides images of the macroscopic structure of the bone, and ultrasonic transmission tomography (UTT), which provides quantitative images of the sound velocity. For the shape, we developed an image-processing tool to extract the external and internal boundaries and cortical thickness measurements. For velocity mapping, we used a wavelet analysis tool adapted to ultrasound, which allowed us to detect precisely the time of flight from the transmitted signals. A brief review of the ultrasonic tomography that we developed using correction algorithms of the wavepaths and compensation procedures are presented. Also shown are the first results of our analyses on models and specimens of long bone using our new iterative quantitative protocol

  9. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  10. Methodology for development of risk indicators for offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeien, K.; Sklet, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a generic methodology for development of risk indicators for petroleum installations and a specific set of risk indicators established for one offshore platform. The risk indicators should be used to control the risk during operation of platforms. The methodology is purely risk-based and the basis for development of risk indicators is the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). In order to identify high risk contributing factors, platform personnel are asked to assess whether and how much the risk influencing factors will change. A brief comparison of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants and quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for petroleum platforms is also given. (au)

  11. The evaluation of research by scientometric indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Vinkler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academics, academic managers and administrators, professionals in scientometrics, information scientists and science policy makers at all levels. This book reviews the principles, methods and indicators of scientometric evaluation of information processes in science and assessment of the publication activity of individuals, teams, institutes and countries. It provides scientists, science officers, librarians and students with basic and advanced knowledge on evaluative scientometrics. Especially great stress is laid on the methods applicable in practice and on the clarification of quantitative aspects of impact of scientific publications measured by citation indicators.

  12. [Comparative study of reflectance spectroscopy of women's acupoints around menstruation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xing-Hui; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Meng, Yao-Yong; Zeng, Chang-Chun; Liu, Song-Hao

    2010-12-01

    Acupoint was reaction of viscera and its optical parameter was an important characteristic of tissue. In the present work, in order to discuss specificity of acupuncture on the response of qi and blood in human body, we compared the diffuse reflectance of Taichong (LV3), Taibai (SP3), and Chongyang (ST42) before, during and after menstruation. All the acupoints had the same shape of the spectrum and troughs were all at 423.16, 544.06 and 577.47 nm. The values of reflectance during menstruation were greater than before and after menstruation, especially for SP3 and ST42 (P menstruation. Diffuse reflectance may be possibly used in the quantitative analysis of qi and blood.

  13. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filosi

    Full Text Available The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules, and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC and False Discovery Rate (FDR strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects, and we

  14. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics, and to whom he always remained close - his sister Maja. .... moved to Munich at the beginning of 1882, when Albert was barely two years old. ... This was demonstrated during a further change in the sphere of activity of .... As is well known, in Germany one uses the polite form "Sie" for adults and for people who.

  15. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... journal Current Science, Vol 61, 1991, pp.594-600. It is an ... could be explained as mere imperfections in the fossil record. .... would almost seem that exposure to the rigours of the climate had quickened the pace ... would be interesting to know whether this telescoping effect is the outward manifesta-.

  16. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and ... discussed the problems of control and communication in the living organism and the machine. ... To be effective in warding off disastrous consequences, our understanding.

  17. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not only in linguistics hut also in allied fields, splitting social scientists into t\\VO groups, Chomskyan and others. ... views on language, IlO\\\\"knoVv'Il as 'Standard Theory', generated a ... For the human mind, learning is a kind of reminiscence.

  18. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    future seemed secure, and there was such complete harmony of character between ... was at once so taken with the idea that he was able to persuade Hermann Einstein to .... A liberal spirit, undogmatic in matters of religion, brought by both.

  19. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Of what lasting benefit has been man's use of science and of the new instruments which his research .... future moves about the laboratory or the field, every time he looks at something worthy of ... Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of .... physician, puzzled by a patient's reactions, strikes the trail established in studying an.

  20. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ‘change’ has become pervasive in contemporary organizational discourse. On the one hand, change is represented as an organizational imperative that increasingly appears to trump all other concerns. On the other hand, change is addressed as an abstract, generic entity that can be the...