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Sample records for quantitative carrier test

  1. Evaluation of a virucidal quantitative carrier test for surface disinfectants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger F Rabenau

    Full Text Available Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5 and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA, with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested.

  2. Quantitative Autonomic Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory shoul...

  3. Quantitative autonomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Peter

    2011-07-19

    Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well.

  4. Semi-Quantitative Group Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Emad, Amin

    2012-01-01

    We consider a novel group testing procedure, termed semi-quantitative group testing, motivated by a class of problems arising in genome sequence processing. Semi-quantitative group testing (SQGT) is a non-binary pooling scheme that may be viewed as a combination of an adder model followed by a quantizer. For the new testing scheme we define the capacity and evaluate the capacity for some special choices of parameters using information theoretic methods. We also define a new class of disjunct codes suitable for SQGT, termed SQ-disjunct codes. We also provide both explicit and probabilistic code construction methods for SQGT with simple decoding algorithms.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Quantitative Test Methods for Gases on a Hard Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE TEST METHODS FOR GASES ON A HARD SURFACE ECBC-TR-1426 Vipin Rastogi... Quantitative Test Methods for Gases on a Hard Surface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IAG DW-21-83021801-2 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT: In this study, two quantitative test methods were evaluated (the Three Step Method [TSM] and the Quantitative Disk Carrier Test [QCT]) for

  6. Test probe for surface mounted leadless chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry L.; Topolewski, John

    1989-05-23

    A test probe for a surface mounted leadless chip carrier is disclosed. The probed includes specially designed connector pins which allow size reductions in the probe. A thermoplastic housing provides spring action to ensure good mechanical and electrical contact between the pins and the contact strips of a leadless chip carrier. Other features include flexible wires molded into the housing and two different types of pins alternately placed in the housing. These features allow fabrication of a smaller and simpler test probe.

  7. Application of carrier testing to genetic counseling for X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; Nachtman, R.G.; Belmont, J.W.; Rosenblatt, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Bruton X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a phenotypically recessive genetic disorder of B lymphocyte development. Female carriers of XLA, although asymptomatic, have a characteristic B cell lineage-specific skewing of the pattern of X inactivation. Skewing apparently results from defective growth and maturation of B cell precursors bearing a mutant active X chromosome. In this study, carrier status was tested in 58 women from 22 families referred with a history of agammaglobulinemia. Primary carrier analysis to examine patterns of X inactivation in CD19[sup +] peripheral blood cells (B lymphocytes) was conducted using quantitative PCR at the androgen-receptor locus. Obligate carriers of XLA demonstrated >95% skewing of X inactivation in peripheral blood CD19[sup +] cells but not in CD19[sup [minus

  8. THE USE OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH-CARE SERVICES - CARRIER TESTING FOR THE GENETIC DISORDER HEMOPHILIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAREKAMP, [No Value; SUURMEIJER, TPBM; ROSENDAAL, FR; BROCKERVRIENDS, AHJT

    A retrospective study was performed to explore carrier testing among women who were possible or obligate carriers of the haemophilia gene. Knowledge of the possibility of carrier testing and use of carrier testing were studied separately. In our exploration we were guided by the diffusion theory and

  9. THE USE OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH-CARE SERVICES - CARRIER TESTING FOR THE GENETIC DISORDER HEMOPHILIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAREKAMP, [No Value; SUURMEIJER, TPBM; ROSENDAAL, FR; BROCKERVRIENDS, AHJT

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to explore carrier testing among women who were possible or obligate carriers of the haemophilia gene. Knowledge of the possibility of carrier testing and use of carrier testing were studied separately. In our exploration we were guided by the diffusion theory and

  10. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, William V.

    2008-01-01

    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  11. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  12. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, in

  13. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  14. SMA carrier testing: a meta-analysis of differences in test performance by ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, William Kim; Hamilton, David; Kuhle, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive genetic disease that occurs in about one in every 10 000 births. Prenatal carrier testing is available for SMA, and the utility of universal screening is actively debated. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of SMA genotype frequency, carrier frequency, and carrier test performance in different ethnic groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature for studies on SMA carrier screening test performance. Ethnicity-specific allele frequencies, carrier rates, and screening test performance were determined from data of 169 000 individuals in 14 published studies. Pooled estimates were calculated for each ethnic group using a random effects meta-analysis. The detection rate of SMA screening in the non-Black population was 87-95%; however, detection rates fell to 71% among the Black population. These results highlight that although SMA carrier testing generally performs well and could be considered as a routine prenatal screen, SMA testing should be used cautiously in the Black population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A quantitative lubricant test for deep drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    A tribological test for deep drawing has been developed by which the performance of lubricants may be evaluated quantitatively measuring the maximum backstroke force on the punch owing to friction between tool and workpiece surface. The forming force is found not to give useful information...

  16. Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.B. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 a level with <300 observations. 57 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases: impact on carrier children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M; Tibben, Aad; Mollema, Eline D; van Langen, Irene M; Wiegman, Albert; de Wert, Guido M; de Beaufort, Inez D; Wilde, Arthur A M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2008-12-15

    We studied the experiences of children identified by family screening who were found to be a mutation carrier for a genetic cardiovascular disease (Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)). We addressed the (a) manner in which they perceive their carrier status, (b) impact on their daily lives, and (c) strategy used to cope with these consequences. Children (aged 8-18) who tested positive for LQTS (n=11), HCM (n=6) or FH (n=16), and their parents participated in semi-structured audiotaped interviews. Interview topics included illness perception, use of medication, lifestyle modifications, worries, and coping. Each interview was coded by two researchers. The qualitative analysis was guided by Leventhal's model of self-regulation. The children were overall quite articulate about the disease they were tested for, including its mode of inheritance. They expressed positive future health perceptions, but feelings of controllability varied. Adherence and side-effects were significant themes with regard to medication-use. Refraining from activities and maintaining a non-fat diet were themes concerning lifestyle modifications. Some children spontaneously reported worries about the possibility of dying and frustration about being different from peers. Children coped with these worries by expressing faith in the effectiveness of medication, trying to be similar to peers or, in contrast, emphasizing their "being different." Children generally appeared effective in the way they coped with their carrier status and its implications. Nevertheless, dealing with the daily implications of their condition remains difficult in some situations, warranting continued availability of psychosocial support.

  18. Quantitative correlation between promoter methylation and messenger RNA levels of the reduced folate carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheradpour Albert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate (MTX uptake is mediated by the reduced folate carrier (RFC. Defective drug uptake in association with decreased RFC expression is a common mechanism of MTX resistance in many tumor types. Heavy promoter methylation was previously identified as a basis for the complete silencing of RFC in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, its role and prevalence in RFC transcription regulation are, however, not widely studied. Methods In the current study, RFC promoter methylation was assessed using methylation specific PCR in a panel of malignant cell lines (n = 8, including MDA-MB-231, and M805, a MTX resistant cell line directly established from the specimen of a patient with malignant fibrohistocytoma, whom received multiple doses of MTX. A quantitative approach of real-time PCR for measuring the extent of RFC promoter methylation was developed, and was validated by direct bisulfite genomic sequencing. RFC mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and were related to the extent of promoter methylation in these cell lines. Results A partial promoter methylation and RFC mRNA down-regulation were observed in M805. Using the quantitative approach, a reverse correlation (correlation coefficient = -0.59, p Conclusion This study further suggests that promoter methylation is a potential basis for MTX resistance. The quantitative correlation identified in this study implies that promoter methylation is possibly a mechanism involved in the fine regulation of RFC transcription.

  19. Quantitative Testing of Defect for Gun Barrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chang-long; JI Feng-zhu; WANG Jin; CHEN Zheng-ge

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method is commonly used in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of gun barrels. The key point of MFL testing is to estimate the crack geometry parameters based on the measured signal. The analysis of magnetic leakage fields can be obtained by solving Maxwell's equations using finite element method (FEM).The radial component of magnetic flux density is measured in MFL testing. The peak-peak value, the separation distance between positive and negative peaks of signal and the lift-off value of Hall-sensor are used as the main features of every sample. This paper establishes the multi-regression equations related to the width (the depth) of crack and the main characteristic values. The regression model is tested by use of the magnetic leakage data. The experimental results indicate that the regression equations can accurately predict the 2-D defect geometry parameters and the MFL quantitative testing can be achieved.

  20. Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing of MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Collette

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing (QALT is a solution for assessing thereliability of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS. A procedure for QALT is shownin this paper and an attempt to assess the reliability level for a batch of MEMSaccelerometers is reported. The testing plan is application-driven and contains combinedtests: thermal (high temperature and mechanical stress. Two variants of mechanical stressare used: vibration (at a fixed frequency and tilting. Original equipment for testing at tiltingand high temperature is used. Tilting is appropriate as application-driven stress, because thetilt movement is a natural environment for devices used for automotive and aerospaceapplications. Also, tilting is used by MEMS accelerometers for anti-theft systems. The testresults demonstrated the excellent reliability of the studied devices, the failure rate in the“worst case” being smaller than 10-7h-1.

  1. A Quantitative Assessment of Tremor and Ataxia in Female FMR1 Premutation Carriers Using CATSYS

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    Vivien Narcisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a relatively common cause of balance problems leading to gait disturbances in older males (40% with the premutation. FXTAS is less common in females. We utilized the CATSYS system, a quantitative measure of movement, in 23 women with FXTAS (mean age 62.7; SD 12.3, 90 women with the premutation without FXTAS (mean age 52.9; SD 9.4, and 37 controls (mean age 56.53; SD 7.8. CATSYS distinguished differences between carriers with and without FXTAS in postural tremor, postural sway, hand coordination, and reaction time tasks. Differences were also seen between carriers without FXTAS and controls in finger tapping, reaction time, and one postural sway task. However, these differences did not persist after statistical correction for multiple comparisons. Notably, there were no differences across groups in intention tremor. This is likely due to the milder symptoms in females compared to males with FXTAS.

  2. Population screening and cascade testing for carriers of SMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Melanie; Calabro, Vanessa; Chong, Belinda; Gardiner, Nicole; Cowie, Shannon; du Sart, Desiree

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal-recessive diseases, caused by absence of both copies of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Identification of SMA carriers has important implications for individuals with a family history and the general population. SMA carriers

  3. Test-retest studies in quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Petersen, M A; Bischoff, J M

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) investigates the graded psychophysical response to controlled thermal, mechanical, electrical or chemical stimuli, allowing quantification of clinically relevant perception and pain thresholds. The methods are ubiquitously used in experimental and clinical pain...... research, and therefore, the need for uniform assessment procedures has been emphasised. However, varying consistency and transparency in the statistical methodology seem to occur in the QST literature. Sixteen publications, evaluating aspects of QST variability, from 2010 to 2012, were critically reviewed...

  4. Next generation network based carrier ethernet test bed for IPTV traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Berger, Michael Stübert; Zheng, Yu;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Carrier Ethernet (CE) test bed based on the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework. After the concept of CE carried out by Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF), the carrier-grade Ethernet are obtaining more and more interests and being investigated as the low cost and high performance...... services of transport network to carry the IPTV traffic. This test bed is approaching to support the research on providing a high performance carrier-grade Ethernet transport network for IPTV traffic....

  5. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  6. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Survey of Perspectives on Carrier Testing and Communication Within the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brenna; Hassed, Susan; Chaloner, Jae Lindsay; Aston, Christopher E; Guy, Carrie

    2016-06-01

    Carrier testing is widely available for multiple genetic conditions, and several professional organizations have created practice guidelines regarding appropriate clinical application and the testing of minors. Previous research has focused on carrier screening, predictive testing, and testing for X-linked conditions. However, family perspectives on carrier testing for X-linked lethal diseases have yet to be described. In this study, we explored communication within the family about carrier testing and the perspectives of mothers of sons with an X-linked lethal disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Twenty-five mothers of sons with DMD participated in an anonymous online survey. Survey questions included multiple choice, Likert scale, and open ended, short answer questions. Analysis of the multiple choice and Likert scale questions revealed that most mothers preferred a gradual style of communication with their daughters regarding risk status. In addition, most participants reported having consulted with a genetic counselor and found it helpful. Comparisons between groups, analyzed using Fisher's exact tests, found no differences in preferred style due to mother's carrier status or having a daughter. Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to open ended questions. Themes identified included the impact of family implications, age and maturity, and a desire for autonomy regarding the decision to discuss and undergo carrier testing with at-risk daughters, particularly timing of these discussions. Implications for genetic counseling practice are discussed.

  7. Accurate radiation temperature and chemical potential from quantitative photoluminescence analysis of hot carrier populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, François; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    In order to characterize hot carrier populations in semiconductors, photoluminescence measurement is a convenient tool, enabling us to probe the carrier thermodynamical properties in a contactless way. However, the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra is based on some assumptions which will be discussed in this work. We especially emphasize the importance of the variation of the material absorptivity that should be considered to access accurate thermodynamical properties of the carriers, especially by varying the excitation power. The proposed method enables us to obtain more accurate results of thermodynamical properties by taking into account a rigorous physical description and finds direct application in investigating hot carrier solar cells, which are an adequate concept for achieving high conversion efficiencies with a relatively simple device architecture.

  8. Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, S S; Ranjan, R; Biswal, J K; Subramaniam, S; Mohapatra, J K; Sharma, G K; Rout, M; Dash, B B; Das, B; Prusty, B R; Sharma, A K; Stenfeldt, C; Perez, A; Rodriguez, L L; Pattnaik, B; VanderWaal, K; Arzt, J

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in October 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (Farm A) and adult dairy cattle (Farm B). Subsequent to the outbreak, FMD virus (FMDV) asymptomatic carriers were identified in both herds by seroreactivity to FMDV non-structural proteins and detection of FMDV genomic RNA in oropharyngeal fluid. Carriers' seroreactivity and FMDV genome detection status were subsequently monitored monthly for 23 months. The mean extinction time of the carrier state was 13.1 ± 0.2 months, with extinction having occurred significantly faster amongst adult dairy cattle at Farm B compared to younger animals at Farm A. The rate of decrease in the proportion of carrier animals was calculated to be 0.07 per month. Seroprevalence against FMDV non-structural proteins decreased over the course of the study period, but was found to increase transiently following repeated vaccinations. These data provide novel insights into viral and host factors associated with the FMDV carrier state under natural conditions. The findings reported herein may be relevant to field veterinarians and governmental regulatory entities engaged in FMD response and control measures.

  9. Quantitative Liver Function Tests: A Realizable Goal?

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Denis J; Susan L Elliott; Hany Ghabrial; Smallwood, Richard A

    1991-01-01

    A variety of tests has been used to assess liver function and predict hepatic functional reserve in patients with liver disease. These tests comprise clinical assessment, simple biochemical measurements and so-called ‘quantitative’ tests of liver function, ie, elimination rate measurements of exogenous markers such as drugs and other compounds. So far no single test or group of tests has proved to be a sufficiently sensitive and accurate measure of overall hepatic function across the whole sp...

  10. Public Perceptions of Recessive Carrier Testing in the Preconception and Prenatal Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroff, Jennifer J; Nemeth, Lynne S

    2015-01-01

    To explore public perceptions of preconception and prenatal recessive carrier testing. Qualitative, descriptive. Chat rooms located in four websites targeted to those who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy. Anonymous comments (N = 1925) in online chat rooms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Analytic validity, Clinical validity, Clinical utility, Ethical, legal, social implications Model Process (ACCE) for evaluating a genetic test guided this deductive-inductive content analysis. Participant perceptions of the clinical utility of recessive carrier screening with universal carrier panels are multidimensional. Data analysis revealed four a priori deductive themes present in the data. Secondary inductive analysis produced 20 themes, which exceeded the scope of the CDC's ACCE Model Process for assessing the clinical utility of a genetic test. Participant perceptions of carrier testing are important to consider in the clinical utility of carrier testing. Participant perceptions of clinical utility vary from those of the CDC's ACCE Model Process and should be considered in evaluation of the clinical utility of recessive carrier testing in the preconception and prenatal populations. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Quantitative Liver Function Tests: A Realizable Goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J Morgan

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of tests has been used to assess liver function and predict hepatic functional reserve in patients with liver disease. These tests comprise clinical assessment, simple biochemical measurements and so-called ‘quantitative’ tests of liver function, ie, elimination rate measurements of exogenous markers such as drugs and other compounds. So far no single test or group of tests has proved to be a sufficiently sensitive and accurate measure of overall hepatic function across the whole spectrum of liver disease. This may he due to diversity in the hepatic handling of these compounds and in changes in architecture, hemodynamics and cell function in liver disease. The absence of a satisfactory test emphasizes the value of clinical assessments (eg, the Child-Turcotte or Child-Pugh classifications, because of their relative simplicity.

  12. Cascade testing for carrier status in cystic fibrosis in a large family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G; Meagher, W; Willis, C; Colley, P

    1993-08-02

    The offer to determine carrier status for cystic fibrosis (CF) was made to the 230 descendants of a couple who were presumed to carry the delta F508 mutation. "Cascade testing" was employed, in which the mutation is followed from the oldest generation down. Compliance was over 75% and family members were relieved of the anxiety engendered by uncertainty. In one couple considering having a family, both partners were found to be carriers.

  13. Quantitative accelerated degradation testing: Practical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, S. Hossein, E-mail: seyed-h.mohammadian.1@ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada) and Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Ait-Kadi, Daoud, E-mail: Daoud.Aitkadi@gmc.ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Routhier, Francois, E-mail: Francois.Routhier@rea.ulaval.c [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The concept of accelerated testing by tracking degradation of samples over test time needs to be developed for reliability estimation. This paper aims at proposing practical approaches to conduct accelerated degradation testing on new and available used samples. For this purpose, product failure is related to a suitable physical property. Then, its failure time is defined as the expected time in which its property reaches the critical level. Degradation model of field samples returned from service due to a degrading failure mode has been estimated based on the least square method, and available gap between manufacturer criterion and user's claim (to report a failure) has also been discussed. For a product under some stresses, a general formula has been proposed by the superposition principle in order to estimate its degradation for independent and dependent failure modes. If used samples are available, and acceleration factor of the related test is unknown, partial aging method has been presented to considerably shorten the test time.

  14. Quantitative tests for plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Phillips, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative comparisons are made between the characteristics of plate tectonics on the earth and those which are possible on Venus. Considerations of the factors influencing rise height and relating the decrease in rise height to plate velocity indicate that the rate of topographic dropoff from spreading centers should be about half that on earth due to greater rock-fluid density contrast and lower temperature differential between the surface and interior. Statistical analyses of Pioneer Venus radar altimetry data and global earth elevation data is used to identify 21,000 km of ridge on Venus and 33,000 km on earth, and reveal Venus ridges to have a less well-defined mode in crest heights and a greater concavity than earth ridges. Comparison of the Venus results with the spreading rates and associated heat flow on earth reveals plate creation rates on Venus to be 0.7 sq km/year or less and indicates that not more than 15% of Venus's energy is delivered to the surface by plate tectonics, in contrast to values of 2.9 sq km a year and 70% for earth.

  15. Preconceptional genetic carrier testing and the commercial offer directly-to-consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borry, Pascal; Henneman, Lidewij; Lakeman, Phillis; ten Kate, Leo P.; Cornel, Martina C.; Howard, Heidi C.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a number of commercial companies are offering preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. This offer raises a number of concerns and issues above and beyond those encountered with preconceptional tests offered within the traditional health care setting. In order to bring some of these issues to light and to initiate dialogue on this topic, this article discusses the following issues: the current offer of preconceptional carrier tests (until the end of 2010) through online commercial companies; the implications for the informed consent procedure and the need for good information; the need for medical supervision and follow-up; and the appropriate use of existing resources. The article concludes with some reflections about the potential sustainability of the offer of preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. PMID:21362685

  16. Efficiency assessment of immunochromatographic strip test for the diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevention and control of thalassemia in Thailand focus on the appropriate diagnosis with a simple, cheap, and practical tool for any staff to use. Aims: (1 To screen alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers among pregnant women and spouses by immunochromatographic (IC strip test and one tube osmotic fragility test (OFT and (2 to evaluate the accuracy of both screening methods. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study for 6 months duration from January to June 2013 at Kudjab Hospital located in Udonthani Province, Thailand. Subjects and Methods: Pregnant women and spouses attending the antenatal care clinic joined the study for blood sample collection ( n = 414. The specimens were then taken for screening by osmotic fragility and IC strip test to specify alpha-thalassemia carriers. Another set of the specimens was sent for testing using hemoglobin (Hb typing for thalassemia and abnormal Hb carriers and using multiplex polymerase chain reaction for alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers diagnosis as a gold standard. Results: There were 27 cases found as positive for alpha-thalassemia including alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers, South East Asian type, alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers, Thai deletion type, HbH and Hb constant spring, which were 18, 2, 3, and 2 cases, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of IC strip test were 92.6%, 95.1%, 56.8%, 99.4%, and 94.9%, respectively, which were higher than those of OFT. Conclusions: Accuracy of IC strip test was better than those of OFT. IC strip test may probably be very helpful in a massive thalassemia screening program.

  17. Efficiency Assessment of Immunochromatographic Strip Test for the Diagnosis of Alpha-Thalassemia-1 Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaroen, Yuttana

    2015-01-01

    Context: The prevention and control of thalassemia in Thailand focus on the appropriate diagnosis with a simple, cheap, and practical tool for any staff to use. Aims: (1) To screen alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers among pregnant women and spouses by immunochromatographic (IC) strip test and one tube osmotic fragility test (OFT) and (2) to evaluate the accuracy of both screening methods. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study for 6 months duration from January to June 2013 at Kudjab Hospital located in Udonthani Province, Thailand. Subjects and Methods: Pregnant women and spouses attending the antenatal care clinic joined the study for blood sample collection (n = 414). The specimens were then taken for screening by osmotic fragility and IC strip test to specify alpha-thalassemia carriers. Another set of the specimens was sent for testing using hemoglobin (Hb) typing for thalassemia and abnormal Hb carriers and using multiplex polymerase chain reaction for alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers diagnosis as a gold standard. Results: There were 27 cases found as positive for alpha-thalassemia including alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers, South East Asian type, alpha-thalassemia-1 carriers, Thai deletion type, HbH and Hb constant spring, which were 18, 2, 3, and 2 cases, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of IC strip test were 92.6%, 95.1%, 56.8%, 99.4%, and 94.9%, respectively, which were higher than those of OFT. Conclusions: Accuracy of IC strip test was better than those of OFT. IC strip test may probably be very helpful in a massive thalassemia screening program. PMID:25949052

  18. Unbiased quantitative testing of conventional orthodontic beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-03-01

    This study used a preexisting database to test in hypothesis from the appropriateness of some common orthodontic beliefs concerning upper first molar displacement and changes in facial morphology associated with conventional full bonded/banded treatment in growing subjects. In an initial pass, the author used data from a stratified random sample of 48 subjects drawn retrospectively from the practice of a single, experienced orthodontist. This sample consisted of 4 subgroups of 12 subjects each: Class I nonextraction, Class I extraction, Class II nonextraction, and Class II extraction. The findings indicate that, relative to the facial profile, chin point did not, on average, displace anteriorly during treatment, either overall or in any subgroup. Relative to the facial profile, Point A became significantly less prominent during treatment, both overall and in each subgroup. The best estimate of the mean displacement of the upper molar cusp relative to superimposition on Anterior Cranial Base was in the mesial direction in each of the four subgroups. In only one extraction subject out of 24 did the cusp appear to be displaced distally. Mesial molar cusp displacement was significantly greater in the Class II extraction subgroup than in the Class II nonextraction subgroup. Relative to superimposition on anatomical "best fit" of maxillary structures, the findings for molar cusp displacement were similar, but even more dramatic. Mean mesial migration was highly significant in both the Class II nonextraction and Class II extraction subgroups. In no subject in the entire sample was distal displacement noted relative to this superimposition. Mean increase in anterior Total Face Height was significantly greater in the Class II extraction subgroup than in the Class II nonextraction subgroup. (This finding was contrary to the author's original expectation.) The generalizability of the findings from the initial pass to other treated growing subjects was then assessed by

  19. Q-Analogies: A Test of Quantitative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Clinton I.; Johnson, Judith J.

    The initial steps necessary for constructing an analogies test are described. Basic mathematics being the context, the aim of the test is to predict student performance in research statistics courses characteristic of graduate education and social science programs. Items involving analogies in a quantitative context were built, sorted into two…

  20. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, F.; Pieters, W.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  1. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, in

  2. Application of magnetic carriers to two examples of quantitative cell analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Qian, Zhixi; Choi, Young Suk; David, Allan E.; Todd, Paul; Hanley, Thomas R.

    2017-04-01

    The use of magnetophoretic mobility as a surrogate for fluorescence intensity in quantitative cell analysis was investigated. The objectives of quantitative fluorescence flow cytometry include establishing a level of labeling for the setting of parameters in fluorescence activated cell sorters (FACS) and the determination of levels of uptake of fluorescently labeled substrates by living cells. Likewise, the objectives of quantitative magnetic cytometry include establishing a level of labeling for the setting of parameters in flowing magnetic cell sorters and the determination of levels of uptake of magnetically labeled substrates by living cells. The magnetic counterpart to fluorescence intensity is magnetophoretic mobility, defined as the velocity imparted to a suspended cell per unit of magnetic ponderomotive force. A commercial velocimeter available for making this measurement was used to demonstrate both applications. Cultured Gallus lymphoma cells were immunolabeled with commercial magnetic beads and shown to have adequate magnetophoretic mobility to be separated by a novel flowing magnetic separator. Phagocytosis of starch nanoparticles having magnetic cores by cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, a CHO line, was quantified on the basis of magnetophoretic mobility.

  3. Development of a quantitative lubricant test for deep drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    A tribological test for deep drawing has been developed by which the performance of lubricants may be evaluated quantitatively measuring the maximum backstroke force on the punch due to sliding friction between tool and work piece surface. The forming force is found not to give useful information...

  4. Development of a quantitative lubricant test for deep drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    A tribological test for deep drawing has been developed by which the performance of lubricants may be evaluated quantitatively measuring the maximum backstroke force on the punch due to sliding friction between tool and work piece surface. The forming force is found not to give useful information...

  5. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fründt, Odette; Grashorn, Wiebke; Schöttle, Daniel; Peiker, Ina; David, Nicole; Engel, Andreas K.; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Münchau, Alexander; Bingel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Altered sensory perception has been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be related to aberrant sensory perception thresholds. We used the well-established, standardized Quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain to investigate 13 somatosensory parameters including…

  6. Scoring Rod-and-Frame Tests: Quantitative and Qualitative Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Otto; Edgington, Eugene S.

    1982-01-01

    Current scoring procedures depend on unrealistic assumptions about subjects' performance on the rod-and-frame test. A procedure is presented which corrects for constant error, is sensitive to response strategy and consistency, and examines qualitative and quantitative aspects of performance and individual differences in laterality bias as defined…

  7. Testing a new multivariate GNSS carrier phase attitude determination method for remote sensing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Verhagen, Sandra; Buist, Peter J.

    2010-07-01

    GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems)-based attitude determination is an important field of study, since it is a valuable technique for the orientation estimation of remote sensing platforms. To achieve highly accurate angular estimates, the precise GNSS carrier phase observables must be employed. However, in order to take full advantage of the high precision, the unknown integer ambiguities of the carrier phase observables need to be resolved. This contribution presents a GNSS carrier phase-based attitude determination method that determines the integer ambiguities and attitude in an integral manner, thereby fully exploiting the known body geometry of the multi-antennae configuration. It is shown that this integral approach aids the ambiguity resolution process tremendously and strongly improves the capacity of fixing the correct set of integer ambiguities. In this contribution, the challenging scenario of single-epoch, single-frequency attitude determination is addressed. This guarantees a total independence from carrier phase slips and losses of lock, and it also does not require any a priori motion model for the platform. The method presented is a multivariate constrained version of the popular LAMBDA method and it is tested on data collected during an airborne remote sensing campaign.

  8. Could quantitative liver function tests gain wide acceptance among hepatologists?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Tarantino

    2009-01-01

    It has been emphasized that the assessment of residual liver function is of paramount importance to determine the following: severity of acute or chronic liver diseases independent of etiology; long-term prognosis; step-bystep disease progression; surgical risk; and efficacy of antiviral treatment. The most frequently used tools are the galactose elimination capacity to asses hepatocyte cytosol activity, plasma clearance of indocyanine green to assess excretory function, and antipyrine clearance to estimate microsomal activity. However, a widely accepted liver test (not necessarily a laboratory one) to assess quantitative functional hepatic reserve still needs to be established, although there have been various proposals. Furthermore, who are the operators that should order these tests? Advances in analytic methods are expected to allow quantitative liver function tests to be used in clinical practice.

  9. Quick Semi-quantitative Test for Lead in Processed Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Premavalli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, quick semi-quantitative test for the determination of lead metal in canned fruits,vegetables other than dehydrated onion, fish, and meat products, has been developed using theoptimised concentration of dithizone reagent under alkaline pH as the test solution, which onreaction with the sample solution gives green to blue to violet to red colour, depending on thelead concentration in the sample.  The quick test results were compared with atomic absorptionspectrophotometric analysis. A total of 80 samples were analysed and it was found that the leadcontent ranged from 0.001 ppm to 10.35 ppm in all the samples.

  10. Test data on leadless chip carriers with ceramic substrates in severe random vibration environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J.

    Relatively new in electronic packages are the hermetic chip carriers (HCC). LSI technology, coupled with the HCC packaging concept, offers density which is two to five times more dense than conventional dual-in-line or flatpack concepts. The present study is concerned with a research program which has been conducted in connection with the application of leadless hermetic chip carriers to a high reliability system design. Because of the thermal coefficient of expansion differential between the HCC and its substrate, the specific choice would be ceramic or porcelain steel technologies. The HCC can assemble to either a multilayer thick film or cofired ceramic substrate. An on-board computer with a 128K x 22 memory capacity is currently being developed. Two approaches are being considered. The first uses eight 16K trays, while the second employs four 32K trays. In vibration development tests, both the 16 and 32K trays were vibrated in the same fixture.

  11. Quantitative sensory testing using DFNS protocol in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) in accordance with the DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) protocol assesses the function of afferent nerve fibers on the basis of 13 parameters. Within the consortia IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative) Europain and Neuropain, QST results from...... ranging from 0% (no heterogeneity) to 100% (perfect heterogeneity). Data from healthy subjects were comparable with the existing reference data base. Patients with polyneuropathy mainly displayed loss of sensory function, whereas patients with peripheral nerve injury often showed sensory loss combined...

  12. ALTERED QUANTITATIVE SENSORY TESTING OUTCOME IN SUBJECTS WITH OPIOID THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that opioid exposure may induce a paradoxical decrease in the nociceptive threshold, commonly referred as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While OIH may have implications in acute and chronic pain management, its clinical features remain unclear. Using an office-based quantitative sensory testing (QST) method, we compared pain threshold, pain tolerance, and the degree of temporal summation of the second pain in response to thermal stimulation among three g...

  13. A method for determining the small-sample test length of carrier rocket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; Xiaojun(段晓君); WANG; Zhengming(王正明)

    2002-01-01

    To satisfy the demand of test evaluation of carrier rocket, the character of aerocraft and the primary flight error should be well considered. By making full use of tracking data and ground test data, a new method is provided to expand sample size through converting the system error of guidance instruments (SEGI) of special case into standard case. In terms of the prior distribution of the SEGI coefficients, a novel model, named Bayes spline model, is developed for precision evaluation, and its performance is analyzed subsequently. For a given threshold of precision,the test length can be determined by the posterior variance with the afore-mentioned model. Finally, it is proved by theoretical analysis and simulation that this method has clear engineering background and is able to fully exploit the test resources and enables us to draw a more reasonable conclusion.

  14. Multicenter trial of the proficiency of smart quantitative sensation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Peter J; Argyros, Barbara; Russell, James W; Gahnstrom, Linde E; Nalepa, Susan; Albers, James W; Lodermeier, Karen A; Zafft, Andrew J; Dyck, P James B; Klein, Christopher J; Litchy, William J; Davies, Jenny L; Carter, Rickey E; Melton, L Joseph

    2014-05-01

    We assessed proficiency (accuracy and intra- and intertest reproducibility) of smart quantitative sensation tests (smart QSTs) in subjects without and with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). Technologists from 3 medical centers using different but identical QSTs independently assessed 6 modalities of sensation of the foot (or leg) twice in patients without (n = 6) and with (n = 6) DSPN using smart computer assisted QSTs. Low rates of test abnormalities were observed in health and high rates in DSPN. Very high intraclass correlations were obtained between continuous measures of QSTs and neuropathy signs, symptoms, or nerve conductions (NCs). No significant intra- or intertest differences were observed. These results provide proof of concept that smart QSTs provide accurate assessment of sensation loss without intra- or intertest differences useful for multicenter trials. Smart technology makes possible efficient testing of body surface area sensation loss in symmetric length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [A simple test for quantitative determination of LDL-cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P; Thuilot, G

    1986-05-01

    The subject of the report is a novel precipitation test for the quantitative recording of LDL cholesterol based on the precipitation of LDL by dextran sulphate. Parallel assays of LDL cholesterol according to the new method and using quantitative lipoprotein electrophoresis as reference showed the results, in terms of the individual values and collectively, to be practically identical for a wide concentration range of various lipids and lipoproteins in the serum. The concentration ratio of the means obtained according to the two methods is 1.014 +/- 0.102 (standard deviation). The regression function displays a correlation coefficient of 0.9470. Double assays with the new technique yield a variation coefficient of 1.7 +/- 0.4%. Limitations of the method, which are insignificant for application in practice, are pointed out. The new precipitation method is simple, safe and useful for the quantitative estimation of the LDL cholesterol concentration in freshly obtained human serum. The method requires only little time and equipment.

  16. Attitudes of families affected by adrenoleukodystrophy toward prenatal diagnosis, presymptomatic and carrier testing, and newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jean; Moser, Hugo; Begleiter, Michael L; Edwards, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Families affected by adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) were surveyed to elicit attitudes toward prenatal, presymptomatic and carrier testing, and newborn screening in order to determine the level of support that these families have for current and future genetic testing protocols. Identifying attitudes toward genetic testing, including newborn screening, is especially important because of new data regarding therapeutic options and the possible addition of ALD to newborn screening regimens. The Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) database identified 327 prospective participants. Families that were willing to participate in the study received an anonymous questionnaire for completion. Frequencies were generated using SPSS software for Windows. Questionnaires were returned from 128 families for a response rate of 39%. Sons who were at risk for inheriting the ALD gene would be tested by 93% of respondents, and 89.3% would ideally have this testing performed prenatally or in the newborn period. Eighty-nine percent would test an at-risk daughter and 51.2% would ideally have this testing performed prenatally or shortly after birth. ALD newborn screening for males and females was supported by 90% of respondents. If newborn screening for ALD/AMN commences, or there is a new diagnosis of ALD, genetic professionals need to be prepared to have extensive conversations with families regarding the benefits and limitations of current therapeutic and genetic testing options.

  17. Family-based bivariate association tests for quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available The availability of a large number of dense SNPs, high-throughput genotyping and computation methods promotes the application of family-based association tests. While most of the current family-based analyses focus only on individual traits, joint analyses of correlated traits can extract more information and potentially improve the statistical power. However, current TDT-based methods are low-powered. Here, we develop a method for tests of association for bivariate quantitative traits in families. In particular, we correct for population stratification by the use of an integration of principal component analysis and TDT. A score test statistic in the variance-components model is proposed. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the proposed method not only outperforms approaches limited to individual traits when pleiotropic effect is present, but also surpasses the power of two popular bivariate association tests termed FBAT-GEE and FBAT-PC, respectively, while correcting for population stratification. When applied to the GAW16 datasets, the proposed method successfully identifies at the genome-wide level the two SNPs that present pleiotropic effects to HDL and TG traits.

  18. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third......, the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  19. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third......Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation......, the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  20. Quantitative test of general theories of the intrinsic laser linewidth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Johnson, Steven G; Stone, A Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We perform a first-principles calculation of the quantum-limited laser linewidth, testing the predictions of recently developed theories of the laser linewidth based on fluctuations about the known steady-state laser solutions against traditional forms of the Schawlow-Townes linewidth. The numerical study is based on finite-difference time-domain simulations of the semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch lasing equations, augmented with Langevin force terms, and thus includes the effects of dispersion, losses due to the open boundary of the laser cavity, and non-linear coupling between the amplitude and phase fluctuations ($\\alpha$ factor). We find quantitative agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the noisy steady-state ab initio laser theory (N-SALT), both in the variation of the linewidth with output power, as well as the emergence of side-peaks due to relaxation oscillations.

  1. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: application to Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Wenger, G D; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Bartolo, C; Moore, J W; Highsmith, W E

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. This simple, rapid method does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. The method may be used for other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, and for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  2. Thermal quantitative sensory testing: a study of 101 control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jessica; Lee, Geoffrey; Joester, Jenna; Lynch, Mary; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Wrigley, Paul J; Ng, Karl

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing is useful for the diagnosis, confirmation and monitoring of small fibre neuropathies. Normative data have been reported but differences in methodology, lack of age-specific values and graphical presentation of data make much of these data difficult to apply in a clinical setting. We have collected normative age-specific thermal threshold data for use in a clinical setting and clarified other factors influencing reference values, including the individual machine or operator. Thermal threshold studies were performed on 101 healthy volunteers (21-70 years old) using one of two Medoc Thermal Sensory Analyser II machines (Medoc, Ramat Yishai, Israel) with a number of operators. A further study was performed on 10 healthy volunteers using both machines and one operator at least 3 weeks apart. Thermal threshold detection increases with age and is different for different body regions. There is no significant difference seen in results between machines of the same make and model; however, different operators may influence results. Normative data for thermal thresholds should be applied using only age- and region-specific values and all operators should be trained and strictly adhere to standard protocols. To our knowledge, this is the largest published collection of normal controls for thermal threshold testing presented with regression data which can easily be used in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa V Pham

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology.

  4. Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformation by use of a carrier method of large image-shearing shearography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Sun; Ruijin Liu; Qing Han; Xiaofeng Wang

    2006-01-01

    A carrier method for separating out-of-plane displacement from in-plane components based on large imageshearing shearography is presented. A reference surface is fixed on the side of a test object. They are illuminated by two expanded symmetric illuminations respectively. The carrier is introduced by rotating the reference surface to modulate the displacement of an object. By using Fourier transform to demodulate the modulated fringe pattern, two phase maps, which include out-of-plane and in-plane displacements, can be obtained. Then the out-of-plane displacement can be easily separated from in-plane displacement by subtraction and addition of the two unwrapped phase distributions. The principle of the method is presented and proved by a typical three-point-bending experiment. Experimental results show that the method enjoys high visibility of carrier fringes. The system does not need a special beam as a reference light and has simple optical setup.

  5. Quality control for quantitative PCR based on amplification compatibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichopad, Ales; Bar, Tzachi; Pecen, Ladislav; Kitchen, Robert R; Kubista, Mikael; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative qPCR is a routinely used method for the accurate quantification of nucleic acids. Yet it may generate erroneous results if the amplification process is obscured by inhibition or generation of aberrant side-products such as primer dimers. Several methods have been established to control for pre-processing performance that rely on the introduction of a co-amplified reference sequence, however there is currently no method to allow for reliable control of the amplification process without directly modifying the sample mix. Herein we present a statistical approach based on multivariate analysis of the amplification response data generated in real-time. The amplification trajectory in its most resolved and dynamic phase is fitted with a suitable model. Two parameters of this model, related to amplification efficiency, are then used for calculation of the Z-score statistics. Each studied sample is compared to a predefined reference set of reactions, typically calibration reactions. A probabilistic decision for each individual Z-score is then used to identify the majority of inhibited reactions in our experiments. We compare this approach to univariate methods using only the sample specific amplification efficiency as reporter of the compatibility. We demonstrate improved identification performance using the multivariate approach compared to the univariate approach. Finally we stress that the performance of the amplification compatibility test as a quality control procedure depends on the quality of the reference set.

  6. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... of the present study was to assess test-retest properties of QST after breast cancer surgery. METHODS: A total of 32 patients recruited from a larger ongoing prospective trial were examined with QST 12 months after breast cancer surgery and reexamined a week later. A standardized QST protocol was used, including...

  7. Regional brain metabolite abnormalities in inherited prion disease and asymptomatic gene carriers demonstrated in vivo by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, A.D.; Cordery, R.J.; Godbolt, A.; Rossor, M.N. [University College London, Dementia Research Group, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); MacManus, D.G. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Clinical Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Collinge, J. [University College London, MRC Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Inherited prion diseases are caused by mutations in the gene which codes for prion protein (PrP), leading to proliferation of abnormal PrP isomers in the brain and neurodegeneration; they include Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). We studied two patients with symptomatic inherited prion disease (P102L) and two pre-symptomatic P102L gene carriers using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time spectra were acquired from the thalamus, caudate region and frontal white matter, metabolite levels and ratios were measured and z-scores calculated for individual patients relative to age-matched normal controls. MRS data were compared with structural magnetic resonance imaging. One fCJD case had generalised atrophy and showed increased levels of myo-inositol (MI) in the thalamus (z=3.7). The other had decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (z=4) and diffuse signal abnormality in the frontal white matter. Both asymptomatic gene carriers had normal imaging, but increased frontal white matter MI (z=4.3, 4.1), and one also had increased MI in the caudate (z=5.3). Isolated MI abnormalities in asymptomatic gene carriers are a novel finding and may reflect early glial proliferation, prior to significant neuronal damage. MRS provides potential non-invasive surrogate markers of early disease and progression in inherited prion disease. (orig.)

  8. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2014-12-01

    To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after which inactivation of the pathogen by Suma Tab D4 (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 240 and 300 mg/liter), Suma Bac D10 (quaternary ammonium compound, 740 mg/liter), and bacteriophage suspension (Listex P100) was determined. Both chemical disinfectants performed well in suspension tests and in clean carrier tests according to the European standard with a reduction of more than 5 and 4 log units, respectively, of Listeria cells after 5 min of contact time. However, for the plates with grooves, the reduction could not meet the standard requirement, although a higher reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed in the shallow grooves compared with the deeper grooves. Furthermore, presence of food residues and biofilm reduced the effect of the disinfectants especially in the deep grooves, which was dependent on type of food substrate. Bacteriophages showed the best antimicrobial effect compared with the chemical disinfectants (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and quaternary ammonium compound) in most cases in the shallow grooves, but not in the deep grooves. The chlorine based disinfectants were usually less effective than quaternary ammonium compound. The results clearly demonstrate that surfaces with grooves influenced the antimicrobial effect of the chemical disinfectants and bacteriophages because the pathogen is protected in the deep grooves. The use of bacteriophages to inactivate pathogens on surfaces could be helpful in limited cases; however, use of large quantities in practice may be costly and phage-resistant strains may develop.

  9. Colour quantitation for chemical spot tests for a controlled substances presumptive test database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M; Weghorst, Alex C; Quinn, Alicia A; Acharya, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    Crime scene investigators (CSIs) often encounter unknown powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids at crime scenes, many of which are controlled substances. Because most drugs are white powders, however, visual determination of the chemical identity is difficult. Colourimetric tests are a well-established method of presumptive drug identification. Positive tests are often reported differently, however, because two analysts may perceive colour or record colourimetric results in different ways. In addition to perceiving colour differently, it is very common for there to be poor visibility conditions (e.g. rain, darkness) while performing these tests, further obscuring the results. In order to address these concerns and to create uniformity in the reporting of on-site colourimetric test results, this study has evaluated two of the state-of-the-art apps (ColorAssist® and Colorimeter®) for reporting the colour test results quantitatively in red-green-blue (RGB) format. The compiled library database of presumptive test results contains over 3300 data points including over 800 unique drug/test combinations. Variations observed between test replicates, from performing a test on different days, recording with a different device type (e.g. iPod Touch, iPhone models 4, 5c, 5s, or 6), and using different quantities of drug are discussed. Overall, the least variation in Euclidian norm was observed using ColorAssist® with the camera light (25.1±22.1) while the variation between replicates and data recorded using different devices was similar. The resulting library is uploaded to a smartphone application aimed to aid in identifying and interpreting suspected controlled substance evidence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... registration system, discloses the cumulative information to be collected in the URS, and provides a... January 13, 2014, to solicit ideas and information concerning sections 32101 and 32916 of the Moving Ahead... authority as motor carriers (property, passenger, and household goods (HHG)), freight forwarders and brokers...

  11. Postural stability in patients with decompression sickness evaluated by means of Quantitative Romberg testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedetoft, Morten; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the use of quantitative Romberg's testing on postural stability during the course of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in patients presenting with decompression sickness (DCS). METHODS: The Quantitative Romberg test was used to ...

  12. Postural stability in patients with decompression sickness evaluated by means of Quantitative Romberg testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedetoft, Morten; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the use of quantitative Romberg's testing on postural stability during the course of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in patients presenting with decompression sickness (DCS). METHODS: The Quantitative Romberg test was used...

  13. Joint tests for quantitative trait loci in experimental crosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, T Mark; Yang, Dongyan; Yi, Nengjun; Bullard, Daniel C; Travis, Elizabeth L; Amos, Christopher I; Xu, Shizhong; Allison, David B

    2004-01-01

    Selective genotyping is common because it can increase the expected correlation between QTL genotype and phenotype and thus increase the statistical power of linkage tests (i.e., regression-based tests). Linkage can also be tested by assessing whether the marginal genotypic distribution conforms to its expectation, a marginal-based test. We developed a class of joint tests that, by constraining intercepts in regression-based analyses, capitalize on the information available in both regression-based and marginal-based tests. We simulated data corresponding to the null hypothesis of no QTL effect and the alternative of some QTL effect at the locus for a backcross and an F2 intercross between inbred strains. Regression-based and marginal-based tests were compared to corresponding joint tests. We studied the effects of random sampling, selective sampling from a single tail of the phenotypic distribution, and selective sampling from both tails of the phenotypic distribution. Joint tests were nearly as powerful as all competing alternatives for random sampling and two-tailed selection under both backcross and F2 intercross situations. Joint tests were generally more powerful for one-tailed selection under both backcross and F2 intercross situations. However, joint tests cannot be recommended for one-tailed selective genotyping if segregation distortion is suspected. PMID:15496283

  14. Teaching to the Test: A Controversial Issue in Quantitative Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Styron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available discussion of the pros and cons of focusing curricular and pedagogical decisions primarily on mastery of those skills and concepts measured by standardized tests. This paper presents scholarly discourse based on testing systems and school accountability, along with a presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of what is commonly referred to as 'teaching to the test.' The authors of this document found research studies to be inconclusive with no clear indication of whether or not there is an advantage or disadvantage to the practice of teaching to the test. But most notably, the actual issue connected to this debate may be the lack of understanding of item-teaching and curricular teaching. In the mind of many educators, item teaching, curriculum teaching and teaching to the test are synonymous.

  15. Charge carrier transport in molecularly doped polycarbonate as a test case for the dipolar glass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S V; Tyutnev, A P

    2013-03-14

    We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the charge carrier transport in a disordered molecular system containing spatial and energetic disorders using the dipolar glass model. Model parameters of the material were chosen to fit a typical polar organic photoconductor polycarbonate doped with 30% of aromatic hydrazone, whose transport properties are well documented in literature. Simulated carrier mobility demonstrates a usual Poole-Frenkel field dependence and its slope is very close to the experimental value without using any adjustable parameter. At room temperature transients are universal with respect to the electric field and transport layer thickness. At the same time, carrier mobility does not depend on the layer thickness and transients develop a well-defined plateau where the current does not depend on time, thus demonstrating a non-dispersive transport regime. Tails of the transients decay as power law with the exponent close to -2. This particular feature indicates that transients are close to the boundary between dispersive and non-dispersive transport regimes. Shapes of the simulated transients are in very good agreement with the experimental ones. In summary, we provide a first verification of a self-consistency of the dipolar glass transport model, where major transport parameters, extracted from the experimental transport data, are then used in the transport simulation, and the resulting mobility field dependence and transients are in very good agreement with the initial experimental data.

  16. Chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus in Bangladesh: a comparative analysis of HBV-DNA, HBeAg/anti-HBe, and liver function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, K N; Rumi, M A K; Hasanat, M A; Azam, M G; Ahmed, S; Salam, M A; Islam, L N; Hassan, M S

    2002-03-01

    Serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV), liver function tests and quantitative estimation of HBV-DNA are important in the assessment of the state of infection and prognosis following treatment for hepatitis B. This study aimed to determine whether low-cost assays, eg hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and liver function tests, could be used for the assessment of infectivity as an alternative to HBV-DNA estimation. We tested 125 hepatitis B carriers for HBeAg, antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe), and serum HBV-DNA; we also carried out a range of standard liver function tests. Seventy-three subjects were positive and 52 were negative for HBeAg. Of the HBeAg positive cases, 3 were also positive for anti-HBe; of the HBeAg negative cases, 5 were also negative for anti-HBe. Of these 8 cases, 7 had no detectable HBV-DNA. Most of the HBeAg positive but anti-HBe negative subjects were positive for HBV-DNA (74.3%; 52/ 70) whereas most of the HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive subjects (93.6%; 44/47) were also negative for HBV-DNA. Of 56 HBV-DNA positive individuals, alanine transaminase (ALT) was found to be raised in 69.6% (p=0.066) and aspartate transaminase (AST) was raised in 66.1% (p=0.011), while 67.9% had normal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p=0.054). HBeAg (p=0.018) and raised ALT (p=0.008) were found to be independent predictors for HBV-DNA positivity among HBV carriers. This study suggests that HBeAg positive and anti-HBe negative hepatitis B carriers with raised ALT and AST are likely to be positive for HBV-DNA; the combination of routine serology and biochemical tests may be considered as an alternative to HBV-DNA in evaluating the state of chronic HBV infection. However, HBV-DNA should be specifically assessed if discordance is observed between seromarkers and transaminases.

  17. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...... concords with equilibrating carrier systems in all characteristic kinetical features is taken to indicate that the carrier mechanism contributes more to the characteristic transport features than the connection with metabolism....

  18. Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually appear to have normal skin and hair pigment. Results We identified three previously undescribed mutations consisting of two intragenic deletions (one encompassing exon 6, the other encompassing exons 7–8, and a point mutation (310delG in exon 2. We report the development of a new method for diagnosis of heterozygous deletions in OA1 gene based on measurement of gene copy number using real-time quantitative PCR from genomic DNA. Conclusion The identification of OA1 mutations in families earlier reported as families with hereditary nystagmus indicate that ocular albinism type 1 is probably underdiagnosed. Our method of real-time quantitative PCR of OA1 exons with DMD exon as external standard performed on the LightCycler™ allows quick and accurate carrier-status assessment for at-risk females.

  19. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  20. Requirements for an Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Fire Fighting Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    PEO Carriers 614 Sicard Street SE Stop 7007 11. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S REPORT Washington Navy Yard DC 20376-7007 NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY...nozzles are installed every 8 feet (alternately 5 feet and 3 feet apart). > Every point on the flight deck must be reachable by a minimum of two AFFF...nozzle rated at 125 gpm. > AFFF solution flow rates for each flight deck demand point are as follows: AFFF System Nominal Flow Rate Flush Deck/Deck Edge

  1. A retrospective study of long-term psychosocial consequences and satisfaction after carrier testing in childhood in an autosomal recessive disease: aspartylglucosaminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, O; Hietala, M; Aalto, A M; Arvio, M; Uutela, A; Aula, P; Kääriäinen, H

    2000-12-01

    Genetic carrier testing of children is usually not recommended. However, there are no data concerning long-term psychological consequences, experience, and satisfaction of those tested as well as their recall of the test results. We evaluated these items retrospectively 10-24 years after carrier testing performed in childhood. Study material comprised 25 families with aspatylglucosaminuria (AGU), an autosomal recessive disorder, with 35 healthy sibs from all parts of Finland tested for carriership during childhood between 1973 and 1987. Of these sibs, 25 participated in our study. The questionnaire comprised multiple-choice and open-ended questions. The psychosocial well-being of the study subjects measured by the RAND 36 item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND) was, in general, at least as good as that of controls, and showed no significant differences between carriers and non-carriers (p > 0.154). All tested individuals were satisfied with the fact that they had been tested and stated that the decision to perform carrier testing on a child can be made by the parents. Of the 25 tested, 23 knew and understood their test result correctly at the time of our study. Most of the tested individuals (60%) stated that the best time for carrier testing would be in the childhood or in the teen years. This study indicates that carrier testing in childhood for an autosomal recessive disorder (AGU) had caused no measurable disturbance of quality of life in adulthood, and those tested reported being satisfied. However, we do not recommend testing in childhood, as the result is not needed prior to the time for reproductive decisions.

  2. Multiplexed paper test strip for quantitative bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Zakir; Ozimok, Cory; Sicard, Clémence; Aguirre, Sergio D; Ali, M Monsur; Li, Yingfu; Brennan, John D

    2012-06-01

    Rapid, sensitive, on-site detection of bacteria without a need for sophisticated equipment or skilled personnel is extremely important in clinical settings and rapid response scenarios, as well as in resource-limited settings. Here, we report a novel approach for selective and ultra-sensitive multiplexed detection of Escherichia coli (non-pathogenic or pathogenic) using a lab-on-paper test strip (bioactive paper) based on intracellular enzyme (β-galactosidase (B-GAL) or β-glucuronidase (GUS)) activity. The test strip is composed of a paper support (0.5 × 8 cm), onto which either 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D: -glucuronide sodium salt (XG), chlorophenol red β-galactopyranoside (CPRG) or both and FeCl(3) were entrapped using sol-gel-derived silica inks in different zones via an ink-jet printing technique. The sample was lysed and assayed via lateral flow through the FeCl(3) zone to the substrate area to initiate rapid enzyme hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a change from colorless-to-blue (XG hydrolyzed by GUS, indication of nonpathogenic E. coli) and/or yellow to red-magenta (CPRG hydrolyzed by B-GAL, indication of total coliforms). Using immunomagnetic nanoparticles for selective preconcentration, the limit of detection was ~5 colony-forming units (cfu) per milliliter for E. coli O157:H7 and ~20 cfu/mL for E. coli BL21, within 30 min without cell culturing. Thus, these paper test strips could be suitable for detection of viable total coliforms and pathogens in bathing water samples. Moreover, inclusion of a culturing step allows detection of less than 1 cfu in 100 mL within 8 h, making the paper tests strips relevant for detection of multiple pathogens and total coliform bacteria in beverage and food samples.

  3. Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing to Characterize Central Pain Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ian G.; Dixon, Eric A.; Johnson, Kevin; Kong, Jiang-Ti

    2017-01-01

    Central facilitation and modulation of incoming nociceptive signals play an important role in the perception of pain. Disruption in central pain processing is present in many chronic pain conditions and can influence responses to specific therapies. Thus, the ability to precisely describe the state of central pain processing has profound clinical significance in both prognosis and prediction. Because it is not practical to record neuronal firings directly in the human spinal cord, surrogate behavior tests become an important tool to assess the state of central pain processing. Dynamic QST is one such test, and can probe both the ascending facilitation and descending modulation of incoming nociceptive signals via TS and CPM, respectively. Due to the large between-individual variability in the sensitivity to noxious signals, standardized TS and CPM tests may not yield any meaningful data in up to 50% of the population due to floor or ceiling effects. We present methodologies to individualize TS and CPM so we can capture these measures in a broader range of individuals than previously possible. We have used these methods successfully in several studies at the lab, and data from one ongoing study will be presented to demonstrate feasibility and potential applications of the methods. PMID:28287532

  4. Postural stability in patients with decompression sickness evaluated by means of Quantitative Romberg testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedetoft, Morten; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2015-01-01

    obtained with the Quantitative Romberg test were observed in the group of DCS with vertigo relative to DCS without vertigo and healthy controls. A stepwise improvement in postural instability for DCS patients with vertigo was found following HBO2 therapy. After three treatments of HBO2, postural stability...... was found to be within the normal range of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The Quantitative Romberg test offers the the clinician a fast, reliable and objective set of parametrical data to document postural instability in patients with either confirmed or suspected DCS.......OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the use of quantitative Romberg's testing on postural stability during the course of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in patients presenting with decompression sickness (DCS). METHODS: The Quantitative Romberg test was used...

  5. Reliability of static and dynamic quantitative sensory testing in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olesen, S.S.; Goor, H. van; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has proven to be an important instrument to characterize mechanisms underlying somatic and neuropathic pain disorders. However, its reliability has not previously been established in patients with visceral pain. We investigated the

  6. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients With Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, Thomas K; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -retest variability of thermal thresholds in patients (n=14) with the postthoracotomy pain syndrome. METHODS:: Sensory mapping with a metal roller (25°C) on the surgical side delineated an area with cool sensory dysfunction. In this area and in a contralateral area, 4 prespecified sites (2.6 cm) were outlined......, in addition to the maximum pain site on the surgical side. In these total 9 sites, warmth detection threshold, cool detection threshold, and heat pain threshold were assessed. RESULTS:: Comparisons of thermal test-retest assessments did not demonstrate any significant intraside differences. The SDs...... of the thermal assessments in nonpain sites and in the maximum pain site ranged from 1.9 to 2.5°C and 3.5 to 6.9°C, respectively. The estimated within-patient and between-patient variances were 5% to 28% and 72% to 95%, respectively, of the total variances. Although a generally poor test-retest agreement...

  7. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, S.S.; Lange-de Klerk, E.S.M. de; Rijmen, F.; Cornel, M.C.; Kinderen, M. de; Plass, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduc

  8. Quantitative testing of robustness on superomniphobic surfaces by drop impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Brunet, Philippe; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2010-12-07

    The quality of a liquid-repellent surface is quantified by both the apparent contact angle θ(0) that a sessile drop adopts on it and the value of the liquid pressure threshold the surface can withstand without being impaled by the liquid, hence maintaining a low-friction condition. We designed surfaces covered with nanowires obtained by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique that are able to repel most of the existing nonpolar liquids including those with very low surface tension as well as many polar liquids with moderate to high surface tension. These superomniphobic surfaces exhibit apparent contact angles ranging from 125 to 160° depending on the liquid. We tested the robustness of the surfaces against impalement by carrying out drop impact experiments. Our results show how this robustness depends on Young's contact angle θ(0) related to the surface tension of the liquid and that the orientational growth of nanowires is a favorable factor for robustness.

  9. Narcissism and childhood recollections: a quantitative test of psychoanalytic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otway, Lorna J; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2006-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic theories provide contradictory accounts of adult narcissism as the product of either parental coldness or excessive parental admiration during childhood. Yet, none of these theories has been tested systematically in a nonclinical sample. The authors compared four structural equation models predicting overt and covert narcissism among 120 United Kingdom adults. Both forms of narcissism were predicted by both recollections of parental coldness and recollections of excessive parental admiration. Moreover, a suppression relationship was detected between these predictors: The effects of each were stronger when modeled together than separately. These effects were found after controlling for working models of attachment; covert narcissism was predicted also by attachment anxiety. This combination of childhood experiences may help to explain the paradoxical combination of grandiosity and fragility in adult narcissism.

  10. Statistic Analysis on Quantitative Characteristics for Developing the DUS Test Guideline of Ranunculus asiaticus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-fang; ZHANG Jian-hua; L Bo; YANG Xiao-hong; LI Yan-gang; WANG Ye; WANG Jiang-min; ZHANG Hui; GUAN Jun-jiao

    2013-01-01

    Selection of quantitative characteristics, division of their expression ranges, and selection of example varieties are key issues on developing DUS Test Guidelines, which are more crucial for quantitative characteristics since their expressions vary in different degrees. Taking the development of DUS Test Guideline of Ranunculus asiaticus L. as an example, this paper applied statistic-based approaches for the analyses of quantitative characteristics. We selected 9 quantitative characteristics from 18 pre-selected characteristics, based on within-variety uniformity, stability between different growing cycles, and correlation among characteristics, by the analyses of coefficient of variation, paired-samples t-test and partial correlation. The expression ranges of the 9 selected quantitative characteristics were divided into different states using descriptive statistics and distribution frequency of varieties. Eight of the 9 selected quantitative characteristics were categorized as standard characteristics as they showed one peak in distribution frequency of 120 varieties in various expressions of the characteristics, whereas, plant height can be categorized as grouping characteristic since it gave two peaks, and can group the varieties into pot and cut varieties. Finally, box-plot was applied to visually select the example varieties, and varieties 7, 12, and 28 were determined as the example varieties for plant height. The methods described in this paper are effective for the selection of quantitative characteristics, division of expression ranges, and selection of example varieties in Ranunculus asiaticus L. for DUS test, and may also be interest for other plant genera.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose cryogels and their testing as carriers for a bioactive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduraru, Oana Maria; Ciolacu, Diana; Darie, Raluca Nicoleta; Vasile, Cornelia, E-mail: cvasile@icmpp.ro

    2012-12-01

    Novel physically cross-linked cryogels containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained by freezing/thawing technique. The main goal of this study was to improve the properties and the performances of the pure PVA cryogels. The morphological aspects of the cryogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to reveal the presence of the interactions between the two polymers. Changes in crystallinity of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The modification of the thermal behavior induced by cellulose was studied by thermogravimetry. Rheological analysis revealed higher values of storage modulus (G Prime ) for the cryogels containing higher amounts of cellulose. The degree and rate of swelling were controlled by the presence of the natural polymer in the network. The potential application as bioactive compound carriers was tested, using vanillin as an active agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PVA/microcrystalline cellulose cryogels were obtained by freezing/thawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main advantage of this technique is that no chemical crosslinker is being used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cellulose improves the swelling properties and the cryogels' strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential application as carriers for bioactive components was tested.

  12. Using probit regression to disclose the analytical performance of qualitative and semi-quantitative tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg, Arne; Johnsen, Harald; Mikkelsen, Gustav; Hov, Gunhild Garmo

    2016-11-01

    The analytical performance of qualitative and semi-quantitative tests is usually studied by calculating the fraction of positive results after replicate testing of a few specimens with known concentrations of the analyte. We propose using probit regression to model the probability of positive results as a function of the analyte concentration, based on testing many specimens once with a qualitative and a quantitative test. We collected laboratory data where urine specimens had been analyzed by both a urine albumin ('protein') dipstick test (Combur-Test strips) and a quantitative test (BN ProSpec System). For each dipstick cut-off level probit regression was used to estimate the probability of positive results as a function of urine albumin concentration. We also used probit regression to estimate the standard deviation of the continuous measurement signal that lies behind the binary test response. Finally, we used probit regression to estimate the probability of reading a specific semi-quantitative dipstick result as a function of urine albumin concentration. Based on analyses of 3259 specimens, the concentration of urine albumin with a 0.5 (50%) probability of positive result was 57 mg/L at the lowest possible cut-off limit, and 246 and 750 mg/L at the next (higher) levels. The corresponding standard deviations were 29, 83, and 217 mg/L, respectively. Semi-quantitatively, the maximum probability of these three readings occurred at a u-albumin of 117, 420, and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Probit regression is a useful tool to study the analytical performance of qualitative and semi-quantitative tests.

  13. Role of quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen in predicting inactive carriers and HBsAg seroclearance in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Sriprayoon, Tassanee; Kusuman, Pattama; Chunnuan, Pitchayachuda; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Auewarakul, Chirayu U.; Tanwandee, Tawesak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) as a diagnostic marker for inactive carriers (ICs) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We retrospectively studied 300 HBeAg-negative CHB patients with initial serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels <2000 IU/mL. Serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were monitored every 6 months for 24 months. ICs were identified as having persistent HBV DNA levels <2000 IU/mL and normal ALT levels, whereas active carriers (ACs) were identified as having HBV DNA levels ≥2000 IU/mL, with or without elevated ALT levels. The serum qHBsAg level was defined at baseline and evaluated as a diagnostic predictor using a receiver-operating characteristic curve. The study group comprised 134 men and 166 women with a median age of 41.5 years. At baseline, 200 ICs displayed lower levels of qHBsAg (1492 IU/mL) compared with 100 ACs (2936 IU/mL) (P = 0.005). The qHBsAg level was independently associated with the IC state and HBsAg seroclearance. Baseline qHBsAg levels <1000 IU/mL and HBV DNA levels <2000 IU/mL, when detected simultaneously, allowed for identification of ICs with 41% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Fifteen patients (5%) displayed HBsAg seroclearance after 24 months. A qHBsAg cutoff value of <50 IU/mL provided 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity in predicting HBsAg seroclearance. The qHBsAg level at a single timepoint among HBeAg-negative CHB patients with low HBV DNA levels at baseline was not a predictive marker for ICs; however, it accurately predicted spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance at 24 months. PMID:28353619

  14. Genetic counseling and cardiac care in predictively tested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers: The patients' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, Imke; Van Langen, Irene M.; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with sudden cardiac death. Predictive genetic counseling and testing are performed using adapted Huntington guidelines, that is, psychosocial care and time for reflection are not obligatory and the test result can be d

  15. Genetic counseling and cardiac care in predictively tested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers: The patients' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, Imke; Van Langen, Irene M.; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with sudden cardiac death. Predictive genetic counseling and testing are performed using adapted Huntington guidelines, that is, psychosocial care and time for reflection are not obligatory and the test result can be

  16. Quantitative investigation of ligament strains during physical tests for sacroiliac joint pain using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Yao, Zhidong; Kim, Kyungsoo; Park, Won Man

    2014-06-01

    It may be assumed that the stability is affected when some ligaments are injured or loosened, and this joint instability causes sacroiliac joint pain. Several physical examinations have been used to diagnose sacroiliac pain and to isolate the source of the pain. However, more quantitative and objective information may be necessary to identify unstable or injured ligaments during these tests due to the lack of understanding of the quantitative relationship between the physical tests and the biomechanical parameters that may be related to pains in the sacroiliac joint and the surrounding ligaments. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the sacroiliac joint was developed and the biomechanical conditions for six typical physical tests such as the compression test, distraction test, sacral apex pressure test, thigh thrust test, Patrick's test, and Gaenslen's test were modelled. The sacroiliac joint contact pressure and ligament strain were investigated for each test. The values of contact pressure and the combination of most highly strained ligaments differed markedly among the tests. Therefore, these findings in combination with the physical tests would be helpful to identify the pain source and to understand the pain mechanism. Moreover, the technology provided in this study might be a useful tool to evaluate the physical tests, to improve the present test protocols, or to develop a new physical test protocol.

  17. Quantitative predictivity of the transformation in vitro assay compared with the Ames test. [Hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, S.; Taningher, M.; Russo, P.; Pala, M.; Vecchio, D.; Fassina, G.; Santi, L.

    For 59 chemical compounds, homogeneous data on transformation in vitro, mutagenicity in the Ames test, and carcinogenicity was reviewed. The potency in inducing transformation in vitro in hamster fibroblast cells was compared with the carcinogenic potency and a modest correlation coefficient was found between the two parameters. For these same 59 compounds it was also possible to compare mutagenic potency in the Ames test with carcinogenic potency. The correlation level was very similar. The predictivity of transformation in vitro increased significantly when only compounds for which some kind of dose-response relationship was available were utilized. This result stresses the importance of the quantitative aspect of the response in predictivity studies. The present study is compared with previous studies on the quantitative predictivity of different short-term tests. The work is not definitive, but gives an idea of the possible type of approach to the problem of comparing quantitative predictivities.

  18. Quantitative cognitive-test characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, I V; Ivashkina, O I; Pochechuev, M S; Roshchina, M A; Toropova, K A; Fedotov, A B; Anokhin, K V; Zheltikov, A M

    2017-02-23

    Cognitive tests on representative groups of freely behaving transgenic mice are shown to enable a quantitative characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation. A systematic analysis of such tests provides a robust quantitative measure for the cognitive effects induced by fiber-optic neurostimulation, validating the performance of fiber-optic neurointerfaces for long-term optogenetic brain stimulations and showing no statistically significant artifacts in the behavior of transgenic mice due to interface implantation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Using ISOS consensus test protocols for development of quantitative life test models in ageing of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Stoichkov, V.; Kumar, D.

    2017-01-01

    As Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) development matures, the demand grows for rapid characterisation of degradation and application of Quantitative Accelerated Life Tests (QALT) models to predict and improve reliability. To date, most accelerated testing on OPVs has been conducted using ISOS consensus...... standards. This paper identifies some of the problems in using and interpreting the results for predicting ageing based upon ISOS consensus standard test data. Design of Experiments (DOE) in conjunction with data from ISOS consensus standards are used as the basis for developing life test models for OPV...

  20. Comparison of two quantitative fit-test methods using N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietsema, Margaret; Brosseau, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Current regulations require annual fit testing before an employee can wear a respirator during work activities. The goal of this research is to determine whether respirator fit measured with two TSI Portacount instruments simultaneously sampling ambient particle concentrations inside and outside of the respirator facepiece is similar to fit measured during an ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test. Sixteen subjects (ten female; six male) were recruited for a range of facial sizes. Each subject donned an N95 filtering facepiece respirator, completed two fit tests in random order (ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter quantitative fit test and two-instrument real-time fit test) without removing or adjusting the respirator between tests. Fit tests were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The real-time two-instrument method fit factors were similar to those measured with the single-instrument quantitative fit test. The first four exercises were highly correlated (r > 0.7) between the two protocols. Respirator fit was altered during the talking or grimace exercise, both of which involve facial movements that could dislodge the facepiece. Our analyses suggest that the new real-time two-instrument methodology can be used in future studies to evaluate fit before and during work activities.

  1. The use of carrier solvents in regulatory aquatic toxicology testing: practical, statistical and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John; Wheeler, James R

    2013-11-15

    Solvents are often used to aid test item preparation in aquatic ecotoxicity experiments. This paper discusses the practical, statistical and regulatory considerations. The selection of the appropriate control (if a solvent is used) for statistical analysis is investigated using a database of 141 responses (endpoints) from 71 experiments. The advantages and disadvantages of basing the statistical analysis of treatment effects to the water control alone, solvent control alone, combined controls, or a conditional strategy of combining controls, when not statistically significantly different, are tested. The latter two approaches are shown to have distinct advantages. It is recommended that this approach continue to be the standard used for regulatory and research aquatic ecotoxicology studies. However, wherever technically feasible a solvent should not be employed or at least the concentration minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Life insurance and genetic test results: a mutation carrier's fight to achieve full cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is debate about life insurance companies' use of genetic information for assessing applicants. In his early 20s, James (pseudonym) was denied full life insurance cover because he revealed that he had discussed genetic testing with a genetic counsellor. He was later tested and found to carry a mutation in the MSH6 gene; after disclosing this, he was denied cover for cancer by two other life insurance companies. Unsatisfied with the insurance companies' risk assessments, and based on his understanding that regular colonoscopy significantly reduced his risk of cancer, James made a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission. After informing the third insurance company that he had done so, he was offered full coverage, which suggests that the company did not have actuarial data to justify its decision. This case provides evidence of the high level of initiative and proactivity required for a consumer to achieve a fair result. Few Australians would be in a position to pursue the level of research and advocacy undertaken by James (a professional with scientific training). We call on a collaborative approach between industry, government and researchers to address the issues that James's case raises about genetic testing and life insurance.

  3. Which Psychological Factors are Related to HIV Testing? A Quantitative Systematic Review of Global Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Pady, Kirsten; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    Deciding to test for HIV is necessary for receiving HIV treatment and care among those who are HIV-positive. This article presents a systematic review of quantitative studies on relationships between psychological (cognitive and affective) variables and HIV testing. Sixty two studies were included (fifty six cross sectional). Most measured lifetime testing. HIV knowledge, risk perception and stigma were the most commonly measured psychological variables. Meta-analysis was carried out on the relationships between HIV knowledge and testing, and HIV risk perception and testing. Both relationships were positive and significant, representing small effects (HIV knowledge, d = 0.22, 95 % CI 0.14-0.31, p testing included: perceived testing benefits, testing fear, perceived behavioural control/self-efficacy, knowledge of testing sites, prejudiced attitudes towards people living with HIV, and knowing someone with HIV. Research and practice implications are outlined.

  4. Selecting the most appropriate inferential statistical test for your quantitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Whittaker, Victoria Jane

    2014-06-01

    To discuss the issues and processes relating to the selection of the most appropriate statistical test. A review of the basic research concepts together with a number of clinical scenarios is used to illustrate this. Quantitative nursing research generally features the use of empirical data which necessitates the selection of both descriptive and statistical tests. Different types of research questions can be answered by different types of research designs, which in turn need to be matched to a specific statistical test(s). Discursive paper. This paper discusses the issues relating to the selection of the most appropriate statistical test and makes some recommendations as to how these might be dealt with. When conducting empirical quantitative studies, a number of key issues need to be considered. Considerations for selecting the most appropriate statistical tests are discussed and flow charts provided to facilitate this process. When nursing clinicians and researchers conduct quantitative research studies, it is crucial that the most appropriate statistical test is selected to enable valid conclusions to be made. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Quantitative relationships between patch test reactivity and use test reactivity: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Danny; Maibach, Howard I

    2008-01-01

    Use tests such as the provocative use test (PUT) or repeated open application test (ROAT) have been created to better understand the clinical significance of patch test results. It has been suggested that since these tests typically utilize only one substance at a time and avoid occlusion, they minimize the occurrence of irritation and false positives and, thus, are more reflective of real-life exposure to an allergen. In this analysis, we compare and analyze different studies comparing patch test and use test reactivity. With regard to colophony, cinnamic aldehyde, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, and isoeugenol, increased patch test sensitivity resulted in increased use test sensitivity. However, this was not true for formaldehyde or chromium. The reason for the latter allergens' divergence from the trend is not yet understood. Additionally, we note the presence of an increasing slope in the relationship between use test reactivity and minimum eliciting concentration on patch testing for methyldibromo glutaronitrile. Expansion of databases relating serial dilution patch test reactivity and use test data should aid dermatologic management, public health policy, and an understanding of the complexity of allergic contact dermatitis in humans.

  6. Testing the Protestant Ethic Thesis with Quantitative Historical Data: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen K.; Abrutyn, Seth B.; Proctor, Kristopher R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a test of the thesis that Protestantism influenced the development of modern capitalism by using quantitative data from 1500 through 1870. Results show that during this period the percentage of a country's population that is Protestant is unrelated to both its level of per capita GDP and the average rate of its annual growth in per…

  7. Testing the Protestant Ethic Thesis with Quantitative Historical Data: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen K.; Abrutyn, Seth B.; Proctor, Kristopher R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a test of the thesis that Protestantism influenced the development of modern capitalism by using quantitative data from 1500 through 1870. Results show that during this period the percentage of a country's population that is Protestant is unrelated to both its level of per capita GDP and the average rate of its annual growth in per…

  8. A Critical Assessment of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing in Quantitative Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Timothy R.; Weber, Rene; Hullett, Craig; Park, Hee Sun; Lindsey, Lisa L. Massi

    2008-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most widely accepted and frequently used approach to statistical inference in quantitative communication research. NHST, however, is highly controversial, and several serious problems with the approach have been identified. This paper reviews NHST and the controversy surrounding it. Commonly…

  9. HGMF model tests for heat carrier cleaning on Leningrad Nuclear Power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhanov, K.R.; Mikhailov, N.N.; Smirnova, M.N.; Cheremnykh, P.A. (I.V. Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (SU)); Kalashnikov, V.V.; Orlov, A.K.; Srelnikov, V.S. (Inst. of Energetic Technology, Leningrad (SU)); Klyuchnikov, B.V.; Sergeev, E.G.; Sukhorukhov, O.P. (Leningrad NPP (SU))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the results of High Gradient Magnetic Filter (HGMF) model tests for coolant cleaning on Channel High Power Reactor multiple forced circulation line are presented. This coolant (water) was cleaned from iron and radionuclides corrosion products. Extracted particles size was 0.1-5 microns. The numerous experiments showed that the average efficiency for nuclides {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr and {sup 60}Co was equal to 95-99% in cases when their initial radioactivity was more than 10{sup {minus}7}Cu/1. most of them being extracted at the filter inlet. The obtained results show that this type of HGMF is better than iron balls magnetic filter as the product quality and specific capacity are higher.

  10. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well...... as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power...

  11. Rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging by a novel method: theory, simulation testing and proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Black

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological challenge imaging has mapped, but rarely quantified, the sensitivity of a biological system to a given drug. We describe a novel method called rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging. This method combines pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling, repeated small doses of a challenge drug over a short time scale, and functional imaging to rapidly provide quantitative estimates of drug sensitivity including EC50 (the concentration of drug that produces half the maximum possible effect. We first test the method with simulated data, assuming a typical sigmoidal dose-response curve and assuming imperfect imaging that includes artifactual baseline signal drift and random error. With these few assumptions, rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging reliably estimates EC50 from the simulated data, except when noise overwhelms the drug effect or when the effect occurs only at high doses. In preliminary fMRI studies of primate brain using a dopamine agonist, the observed noise level is modest compared with observed drug effects, and a quantitative EC50 can be obtained from some regional time-signal curves. Taken together, these results suggest that research and clinical applications for rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging are realistic.

  12. QUANTITATIVE BUFFY COAT (QBC TEST AND OTHER DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR DIAGNOSIG MALARIA: REVIEW OF LITRATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuladeepa Ananda Vaidya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The technical capability to perform a correct and timely diagnosis of malaria infection in an ill patient is of critical importance since symptoms of complicated malaria may suddenly develop, leading to death of the patient. Even though peripheral blood smear examination is considered as the gold standard technique, tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC test and Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are widely used and more sensitive in detecting malaria parasite. Here we are briefly highlighting the importance of QBC and other useful diagnostic methods for diagnosing malaria. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 386-388

  13. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  14. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  15. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: A quantitative sensory testing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Gitte Irene; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Nørholt, Svend Erik;

    2008-01-01

    impacted third molar. RESULTS: Central sensitization for at least one week was indicated by significantly increased pain intensity evoked by intraoral repetitive pinprick and electrical stimulation (p...BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central...... sensitization) after orofacial trauma using quantitative sensory testing (QST). METHODS: A total of 32 healthy men (16 patients and 16 age-matched control subjects) underwent a battery of quantitative tests adapted to the trigeminal area at baseline and 2, 7, and 30 days following surgical removal of a lower...

  16. [The quantitative testing of V617F mutation in gen JAK2 using pyrosequencing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaeva, E A; Mironov, K O; Dribnokhodova, T E; Subbotina, E E; Bashmakova; Ol'hovskiĭ, I A; Shipulin, G A

    2014-11-01

    The somatic mutation V617F in gen JAK2 is a frequent cause of chronic myeloprolific diseases not conditioned by BCR/ABL mutation. The quantitative testing of relative percentage of mutant allele can be used in establishing severity of disease and its prognosis and in prescription of remedy inhibiting activity of JAK2. To quantitatively test mutation the pyrosequencing technique was applied. The developed technique permits detecting and quantitatively, testing percentage of mutation fraction since 7%. The "gray zone" is presented by samples with percentage of mutant allele from 4% to 7%. The dependence of expected percentage of mutant fraction in analyzed sample from observed value of signal is described by equation of line with regression coefficients y = - 0.97, x = -1.32 and at that measurement uncertainty consists ± 0.7. The developed technique is approved officially on clinical material from 192 patients with main forms of myeloprolific diseases not conditioned by BCR/ABL mutation. It was detected 64 samples with mautant fraction percentage from 13% to 91%. The developed technique permits implementing monitoring of therapy of myeloprolific diseases and facilitates to optimize tactics of treatment.

  17. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefel, Denis; Stoessel, Rainer; Grosse, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  18. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefel, Denis, E-mail: Denis.Kiefel@airbus.com, E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Stoessel, Rainer, E-mail: Denis.Kiefel@airbus.com, E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com [Airbus Group Innovations, Munich (Germany); Grosse, Christian, E-mail: Grosse@tum.de [Technical University Munich (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  19. Application of quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit to measure ethanol concentration in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwasaka, H; Tokuta, T; Sasaki, Y; Niitsu, H; Kumagai, R; Aoki, Y

    2001-12-27

    In this paper, the applicability of the quantitative ethanol detector (QED) test kit for screening of ethanol concentrations in blood samples was investigated. The pretreatment of blood using the sulfosalicylic acid solution and the three-way stopcock followed by membrane filtration gave satisfactory results. The ethanol concentrations in whole blood samples (n=61) determined by QED correlated well with those determined by gas chromatography; the correlation coefficient indicated 0.990. Because a high correlation coefficient (0.928) was also confirmed in trial by investigators, QED test should be highly considered for ethanol screening in forensic praxis.

  20. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Nicole; Kahn, Maria; Murray, Marjorie; Leader, Brandon T; Bansil, Pooja; McGray, Sarah; Kalnoky, Michael; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Huiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2014-10-01

    A barrier to eliminating Plasmodium vivax malaria is inadequate treatment of infected patients. 8-Aminoquinoline-based drugs clear the parasite; however, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for hemolysis from these drugs. Understanding the performance of G6PD deficiency tests is critical for patient safety. Two quantitative assays and two qualitative tests were evaluated. The comparison of quantitative assays gave a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7585 with significant difference in mean G6PD activity, highlighting the need to adhere to a single reference assay. Both qualitative tests had high sensitivity and negative predictive value at a cutoff G6PD value of 40% of normal activity if interpreted conservatively and performed under laboratory conditions. The performance of both tests dropped at a cutoff level of 45%. Cytochemical staining of specimens confirmed that heterozygous females with > 50% G6PD-deficient cells can seem normal by phenotypic tests. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR RESULTS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS APPLICATION BY MEANS OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Kon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The problem actuality for creation, control and estimation of results for competence-oriented educational programs is formulated and proved. Competences elements and components, assembled in modules, course units and parts of educational program, are defined as objects of control. Specific tasks of proficiency examination for competences and their components are stated; subject matter of the paper is formulated. Methods of Research. Some adapted statements and methods of technical science are offered to be applied for control tasks solution, decoding and estimation of education results. The approach to quantitative estimation of testing results with the use of additive integrated differential criterion of estimation is offered. Main Results. Statements, defining conditions of certain and uncertain (indeterminacy decision-making about proficiency examination for elements of discipline components controlled by test according to test realization results, are formulated and proved. Probabilistic characteristicsof both decision-making variants are estimated. Variants of determinate and fuzzy logic mathematic methods application for decreasing decision-making indeterminancy are offered; further research direction is selected for development of methods and algorithms for results decoding of diagnostic tests set realization. Practical Relevance. It is shown, that proposed approach to quantitative estimation of testing results will give the possibility to automate the procedure of formation and analysis for education results, specified in the competence format.

  2. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  3. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihanian, F; Basirjafari, S; Darbandi, B; Saeidinia, A; Jafroodi, M; Sharafi, R; Shakiba, M

    2017-06-01

    Considering the high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among newborns, different screening methods have been established in various countries. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among newborns in Rasht, Iran, and compare G6PD activity in cord blood samples, using quantitative and qualitative tests. This cross-sectional, prospective study was performed at five largest hospitals in Rasht, Guilan Province, Iran. The screening tests were performed for all the newborns, referred to these hospitals. Specimens were characterized in terms of G6PD activity under ultraviolet light, using the kinetic method and the qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST). We also determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of the qualitative assay. Blood samples were collected from 1474 newborns. Overall, 757 (51.4%) subjects were male. As the findings revealed, 1376 (93.4%) newborns showed normal G6PD activity, while 98 (6.6%) had G6PD deficiency. There was a significant difference in the mean G6PD level between males and females (P = 0.0001). Also, a significant relationship was detected between FST results and the mean values obtained in the quantitative test (P < 0.0001). According to the present study, FST showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity for G6PD activity, although it appeared inefficient for diagnostic purposes in some cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of the anesthetic effect of epinephrine-free articaine and mepivacaine through quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said Yekta-Michael, Sareh; Stein, Jamal M; Marioth-Wirtz, Ernst

    2015-02-07

    Long lasting anesthesia of the soft tissue beyond the dental treatment affects patients in daily routine. Therefore a sophisticated local anesthesia is needed. The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the clinical use of epinephrine-free local anesthetic solutions in routine short-time dental treatments. In a prospective, single-blind, non-randomized and controlled clinical trial, 31 patients (16 male, 15 female patients) undergoing short-time dental treatment under local anesthesia (plain solutions of articaine 4% and mepivacaine 3%) in area of maxillary canine were tested with quantitative sensory testing QST. Paired-Wilcoxon-testing (signed-rank-test) and Mc Nemar tests have been used for statistical results. Significant differences in all tested parameters to the time of measurements were found. Mepivacaine showed a significantly stronger impact for the whole period of measurement (128 min) on thermal and mechanical test parameters and to the associated nerve fibers. Plain articaine shows a faster onset of action associated with a shorter time of activity in comparison to plain mepivacaine. In addition to this articaine shows a significant low-graded effect on the tested nerve-fibers and therefore a least affected anesthesia to the patient. The clinical use of an epinephrine-free anesthetic solution can be stated as possible option in short dental routine treatments to the frequently used vasoconstrictor containing local anesthetics. Patients may benefit from shorter numbness.

  5. Statistical distributions of test statistics used for quantitative trait association mapping in structured populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teyssèdre Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spurious associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes are a major issue in genome-wide association studies and have led to underestimation of type 1 error rate and overestimation of the number of quantitative trait loci found. Many authors have investigated the influence of population structure on the robustness of methods by simulation. This paper is aimed at developing further the algebraic formalization of power and type 1 error rate for some of the classical statistical methods used: simple regression, two approximate methods of mixed models involving the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and a random polygenic effect (GRAMMAR and FASTA and the transmission/disequilibrium test for quantitative traits and nuclear families. Analytical formulae were derived using matrix algebra for the first and second moments of the statistical tests, assuming a true mixed model with a polygenic effect and SNP effects. Results The expectation and variance of the test statistics and their marginal expectations and variances according to the distribution of genotypes and estimators of variance components are given as a function of the relationship matrix and of the heritability of the polygenic effect. These formulae were used to compute type 1 error rate and power for any kind of relationship matrix between phenotyped and genotyped individuals for any level of heritability. For the regression method, type 1 error rate increased with the variability of relationships and with heritability, but decreased with the GRAMMAR method and was not affected with the FASTA and quantitative transmission/disequilibrium test methods. Conclusions The formulae can be easily used to provide the correct threshold of type 1 error rate and to calculate the power when designing experiments or data collection protocols. The results concerning the efficacy of each method agree with simulation results in the literature but were

  6. Quantitative analysis of deformation in hollow cylinder tests on anisotropic clay formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Shuang; Ji Hongguang; Labiouse Vincent; Hall Stephen A.; Viggiani Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    A series of triaxial laboratory experiments are performed on thick-walled hollow cylindrical samples of boom clay. The aim of this testing program is to better understand the anisotropic deformation during the excavation. The testing conditions are similar to those to be experienced by host rocks around disposal galleries for radioactive waste. X-ray computed tomography is performed at different steps for each test with the samples remaining inside the loading cell. Initial analysis of the tomography images allows of the observation of the deformation of the central hole. In addition, particles manual tracking and 3D volumetric digital image correlation processing methods are considered being used to analyze the parti-cles displacements and the boundary deformation of the sample quantitatively. An unsymmetrical dam-aged zone is induced around the hole, with a reverse deformation trend being found at the boundary after unloading, which indicates that the significant anisotropic deformation of boom clay can be induced by mechanical unloading.

  7. Quantitative sensory testing in patients with postthoracotomy pain syndrome: Part 2: variability in thermal threshold assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, Thomas K; Kehlet, Henrik; Werner, Mads U

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative sensory testing is a reference method for characterization of postsurgical neuropathic components. Correct interpretation of data requires detailed information concerning the validity of the testing methods. The objective of the study was to assess the test-retest variability of thermal thresholds in patients (n = 14) with the postthoracotomy pain syndrome. Sensory mapping with a metal roller (25°C) on the surgical side delineated an area with cool sensory dysfunction. In this area and in a contralateral area, 4 prespecified sites (2.6 cm) were outlined, in addition to the maximum pain site on the surgical side. In these total 9 sites, warmth detection threshold, cool detection threshold, and heat pain threshold were assessed. Comparisons of thermal test-retest assessments did not demonstrate any significant intraside differences. The SDs of the thermal assessments in nonpain sites and in the maximum pain site ranged from 1.9 to 2.5°C and 3.5 to 6.9°C, respectively. The estimated within-patient and between-patient variances were 5% to 28% and 72% to 95%, respectively, of the total variances. Although a generally poor test-retest agreement was demonstrated, the much lower within-patient than between-patient variances facilitated estimations of highly statistical significant, within-patient differences in thermal thresholds. In patients with postthoracotomy pain syndrome, several statistical methods indicated an excessively high variability in thermal thresholds, questioning the use of single quantitative sensory testing in assessments to characterize patients with chronic pain states.

  8. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds.

  9. Postural stability in patients with decompression sickness evaluated by means of Quantitative Romberg testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedetoft, Morten; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate postural stability in 33 patients with DCS treated between May 2009 and August 2014. Postural stability was assessed before and after each session of HBO2 therapy. Patients were allocated into groups according to whether they presented with vertigo or not. RESULTS: Significantly higher sway values...... obtained with the Quantitative Romberg test were observed in the group of DCS with vertigo relative to DCS without vertigo and healthy controls. A stepwise improvement in postural instability for DCS patients with vertigo was found following HBO2 therapy. After three treatments of HBO2, postural stability...

  10. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein using quantum dots and immunochromatographic test strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Xianglin Cheng,1,* Xu Pu,2,* Pen Jun,3 XiaoBo Zhu,3 Di Zhu,4 Ming Chen1 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, RenMin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 3Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this study and share first authorship Background: Rapid immunochromatographic tests can detect disease markers in 10–15 minutes, which facilitates clinical diagnosis and treatment programs. However, most immunochromatographic tests employ gold nanoparticles as reporters, and these have only moderate sensitivity and act as qualitative methods for analyzing high biomarker concentrations. Methods: In this study, we introduce quantum dots (QDs as fluorescent probes and immunochromatographic strips to develop quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (QF-POCT to analyze C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Goat anti-rabbit IgG and rabbit IgG were used as control antibodies, and mouse monoclonal CRP antibody pairs were used for disease marker detection. One monoclonal CRP antibody was conjugated with QDs and served as a signal antibody, and the other monoclonal CRP antibody was dispensed onto the nitrocellulose membrane and served as a capturing antibody. In the presence of CRP, the fluorescence intensity of the monoclonal antibody-CRP-monoclonal antibody sandwich complex captured on the nitrocellulose membrane was determined using the fluorescence strip reader. Results: QF-POCT assays could quantitatively analyze the concentration of CRP in 15 minutes had a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L, and had a wide detection linearity range (0.5–300 mg/L. The intra-assay and interassay

  11. Quantitative analysis of the Trendelenburg test and invention of a modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kenji; Kabata, Tamon; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Iwai, Shintaro; Kuroda, Kazunari; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    While the Trendelenburg test has been used for 120 years to detect hip abductor muscle weakness, the methodology has not been standardised. This study undertook to quantitatively analyze the relation between abductor muscle activity and pelvic tilt angle in the Trendelenburg one-leg stance, examine the pitfalls associated with performing the T-test, and develop a modified method that will produce reliable results. A convenience sample of 15 healthy males was asked to assume a one-leg stance in ten different postures, five with mild flexion on the unsupported side, and five with severe flexion. Trunk sway angle, pelvic tilt angle, and the pelvic on femur (POF) angle were measured for each posture. Statistical analysis was used to assess differences in hip abductor activity and public tilt angle between the control posture and the test postures. With minimum trunk sway, hip abductor muscle activity increases when the pelvis is elevated and decreases when it is dropped. With trunk sway toward the test side, abductor muscle activity decreased when the pelvis was elevated; with trunk sway toward the non-test side, muscle activity stayed approximately constant when the pelvis was dropped. Based on the results we developed a modified T-test methodology that would improve reliability. This test should be performed with minimum trunk sway and severe flexion on the non-test side. The assessment of muscle weakness is based on whether the patient can keep the single-leg standing posture when forced to elevate the pelvis, not simply on the pelvic drop. In future research, we will perform the modified T-test on patients with a suspected hip abductor deficiency, and assess the usefulness of the modified test. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualitative point-of-care D-dimer testing compared with quantitative D-dimer testing in excluding pulmonary embolism in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, W A M; Erkens, P M G; Geersing, G J; Büller, H R; Moons, K G M; Stoffers, H E J H; van Weert, H C P M

    2015-06-01

    General practitioners can safely exclude pulmonary embolism (PE) by using the Wells PE rule combined with D-dimer testing. To compare the accuracy of a strategy using the Wells rule combined with either a qualitative point-of-care (POC) D-dimer test performed in primary care or a quantitative laboratory-based D-dimer test. We used data from a prospective cohort study including 598 adults suspected of PE in primary care in the Netherlands. General practitioners scored the Wells rule and carried out a qualitative POC test. All patients were referred to hospital for reference testing. We obtained quantitative D-dimer test results as performed in hospital laboratories. The primary outcome was the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in low-risk patients. Prevalence of PE was 12.2%. POC D-dimer test results were available in 582 patients (97%). Quantitative test results were available in 401 patients (67%). We imputed results in 197 patients. The quantitative test and POC test missed one (0.4%) and four patients (1.5%), respectively, with a negative strategy (Wells ≤ 4 points and D-dimer test negative) (P = 0.20). The POC test could exclude 23 more patients (4%) (P = 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the Wells rule combined with a POC test were 94.5% and 51.0% and, combined with a quantitative test, 98.6% and 47.2%, respectively. Combined with the Wells PE rule, both tests are safe to use in excluding PE. The quantitative test seemed to be safer than the POC test, albeit not statistically significant. The specificity of the POC test was higher, resulting in more patients in whom PE could be excluded. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. PopPAnTe: population and pedigree association testing for quantitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Alessia; Al-Shafai, Mashael; Al Muftah, Wadha A; Zaghlool, Shaza B; Mangino, Massimo; Suhre, Karsten; Falchi, Mario

    2017-02-10

    Family-based designs, from twin studies to isolated populations with their complex genealogical data, are a valuable resource for genetic studies of heritable molecular biomarkers. Existing software for family-based studies have mainly focused on facilitating association between response phenotypes and genetic markers, and no user-friendly tools are at present available to straightforwardly extend association studies in related samples to large datasets of generic quantitative data, as those generated by current -omics technologies. We developed PopPAnTe, a user-friendly Java program, which evaluates the association of quantitative data in related samples. Additionally, PopPAnTe implements data pre and post processing, region based testing, and empirical assessment of associations. PopPAnTe is an integrated and flexible framework for pairwise association testing in related samples with a large number of predictors and response variables. It works either with family data of any size and complexity, or, when the genealogical information is unknown, it uses genetic similarity information between individuals as those inferred from genome-wide genetic data. It can therefore be particularly useful in facilitating usage of biobank data collections from population isolates when extensive genealogical information is missing.

  14. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  15. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Waibel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule. In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory.

  16. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Milk Production in Dairy Cattle by Exploiting Progeny Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Pasquino, A. T.; Sargeant, L. S.; Sorensen, A.; Steele, M. R.; Zhao, X.; Womack, J. E.; Hoeschele, I.

    1995-01-01

    We have exploited ``progeny testing'' to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of > 150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score >/= 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:7713441

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X. [Genmark Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pasquino, A.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Pilot Test for Oil Displacement with Combined Heat Carrier in HYS Oilfield%HYS 油田复合热载体驱油先导试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁小红; 马哲斌; 肖见; 刘江林; 侯庆宇

    2012-01-01

    HYS油田是国内最早进行热采的超浅层稠油区块,但是常规热采技术开发超浅层稠油难度大,为提高原油采收率,开展了复合热载体试验.第一批试验井主要依靠复合热载体,辅以少量蒸汽,驱油效果差;第二批试验井综合应用了复合热载体、蒸汽和发泡剂,驱油效果较好.试验结果表明,复合热载体主要为非凝结气体,本身焓值低,需要蒸汽辅助方能起作用.组合注汽可以防止汽窜、形成规模效应,是复合热载体的最佳注汽方式,并在HYS油田克上组油藏取得了比较好的驱油效果.先导试验结果表明,复合热载体技术可以改善超浅层稠油驱油效果,提高采收率,可进行现场应用试验.%HYS Oilfield is the first area of thermal recovery for heavy oil in ultra-shallow formations in China,but it is hard to develop heavy oil from ultra-shallow reservoir by conventional thermal recovery. In order to enhance recovery, experiment of combined thermal carriers has been carried out. The first sets of tests are made by combined heat carrier and a small amount of steam,the effect is poor in displacement of oil;the second sets of tests are made by combined heat carrier, steam and foamer,with better results ob-tained. The testing results show that combined thermal carrier is mainly non-condensed gas, with low en-thalpy value,requiring the assistance of steam to work well. Combined steam injection can prevent steam channeling,and produce scale effect,that is the best method of steam injection by combined heat carrier, and has obtained good effect in T2k formation of HYS Oilfield. Combined heat carrier technique can im-prove heavy oil displacement effect in ultra-shallow formations,enhance oil recovery,and provide guidance for its application in the future.

  20. Laser Doppler Flare Imaging and Quantitative Thermal Thresholds Testing Performance in Small and Mixed Fiber Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdali, Majed; Alsulaiman, Abdulla; Breiner, Ari; Barnett, Carolina; Katzberg, Hans D.; Lovblom, Leif E.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Bril, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Small fiber neuropathy might be a part of typical mixed small and large fiber neuropathy, or a distinct entity, affecting exclusively small nerve fibers. Objectives Explore the utility of small nerve fiber testing in patients with clinical presentation suggesting small fiber neuropathy, with and without evidence for concomitant large fiber neuropathy. Methods Patients attending the neuromuscular clinic from 2012 to 2015 with a clinical presentation suggesting small nerve fiber impairment, who had Laser Doppler flare imaging (LDIFlare) and quantitative thermal testing (QTT) were evaluated for this study. Patients with clinical or electrophysiological evidence for concomitant large fiber neuropathy were not excluded. Results The sensitivities of LDIFlare, cooling and heat threshold testing were 64%, 36%, and 0% respectively for clinically highly suggestive small fiber neuropathy, 64%, 56%, and 19% respectively for mixed fiber neuropathy, and 86%, 79%, and 29% respectively for diabetic mixed fiber neuropathy. Discussion LDIFlare and cooling thresholds testing are non-invasive small nerve fiber testing modalities, with moderate performance in patients with small and mixed fiber neuropathy, and excellent performance in diabetic mixed fiber neuropathy. PMID:27824912

  1. Targeted sequencing identifies a novel SH2D1A pathogenic variant in a Chinese family: Carrier screening and prenatal genetic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yao; Li, Shu-Yuan; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Shen, Ying-Hua; Chang, Chun-Xin; Xiang, Yu-Qian; Huang, He-Feng; Xu, Chen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a clinical triad consisting of severe EBV-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, B-cell lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. Mutations in SH2D1A gene have been revealed as the cause of XLP1. In this study, a pregnant woman with recurrence history of birthing immunodeficiency was screened for pathogenic variant because the proband sample was unavailable. We aimed to clarify the genetic diagnosis and provide prenatal testing for the family. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene panel was used in carrier screening of the pregnant woman. Variants of immunodeficiency related genes were analyzed and prioritized. Candidate variant was verified by using Sanger sequencing. The possible influence of the identified variant was evaluated through RNA assay. Amniocentesis, karyotyping, and Sanger sequencing were performed for prenatal testing. We identified a novel de novo frameshift SH2D1A pathogenic variant (c.251_255delTTTCA) in the pregnant carrier. Peripheral blood RNA assay indicated that the mutant transcript could escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and might encode a C-terminal truncated protein. Information of the variant led to success prenatal diagnosis of the fetus. In conclusion, our study clarified the genetic diagnosis and altered disease prevention for a pregnant carrier of XLP1. PMID:28231257

  2. Prognostic value of quantitative sensory testing in low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcuzzi A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Marcuzzi,1,2 Catherine M Dean,1,2 Paul J Wrigley,3,4 Rosemary J Chakiath,3,4 Julia M Hush1,2 1Discipline of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Professions, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2The Centre for Physical Health, Macquarie University, Sydney, 3Pain Management Research Institute, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, 4Sydney Medical School – Northern, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Quantitative sensory testing (QST measures have recently been shown to predict outcomes in various musculoskeletal and pain conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the emerging body of evidence investigating the prognostic value of QST measures in people with low back pain (LBP. The protocol for this review was prospectively registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. An electronic search of six databases was conducted from inception to October 2015. Experts in the field were contacted to retrieve additional unpublished data. Studies were included if they were prospective longitudinal in design, assessed at least one QST measure in people with LBP, assessed LBP status at follow-up, and reported the association of QST data with LBP status at follow-up. Statistical pooling of results was not possible due to heterogeneity between studies. Of 6,408 references screened after duplicates removed, three studies were finally included. None of them reported a significant association between the QST measures assessed and the LBP outcome. Three areas at high risk of bias were identified which potentially compromise the validity of these results. Due to the paucity of available studies and the methodological shortcomings identified, it remains unknown whether QST measures are predictive of outcome in LBP. Keywords: prognosis, quantitative sensory testing, low back pain, cohort studies, pain, sensory testing

  3. Subtle Sensory Abnormalities Detected by Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta; Rasche, Dirk; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Rolko, Claudia; Yilmaz, Pinar; Ruppolt, Marc; Capelle, H Holger; Tronnier, Volker; Krauss, Joachim K

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls. Observational study. University Hospital, Departments of Neurosurgery, Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. QST was conducted on 48 patients with idiopathic TN and 27 controls matched for age and gender using the standardized protocol of the German Neuropathic Pain Network. Stimulations were performed bilaterally in the distribution of the trigeminal branches. The patients had no prior invasive treatment, and medications at the time of examination were noted. In patients with TN deficits in warm and cold sensory detection thresholds in the affected and also the non-affected nerve branches were found. Tactile sensation thresholds were elevated in the involved nerve branches compared to the contralateral side. More data are needed on the correlation of such findings with the length of history of TN and with changes of the morphology of the trigeminal nerve. QST shows subtle sensory abnormalities in patients with TN despite not being detected in routine clinical examination. Our data may provide a basis for further research on the development of TN and also on improvement after treatment. Quantitative sensory testing, trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, neuropathic pain, microvascular decompression, cranial nerve.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative progression of peripheral arterial disease by non-invasive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C E; Criqui, M H; Fronek, A; Denenberg, J O; Klauber, M R; Langer, R D

    1999-01-01

    There is little information on the progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) over time. A series of 508 patients with a prior examination for PAD were contacted and brought in for follow-up to evaluate the natural history of PAD. A total of 85 patients were excluded because they had interventions in both limbs prior to their return visit. Progression was assessed in the remaining 423 patients for a total of 755 limbs, both quantitatively and qualitatively using six categories of PAD severity. There was a modest overall categorical progression of disease: 228 limbs (30.2%) displayed categorical progression, while 172 limbs (22.8%) improved over a 4.6-year average follow-up. Through analysis of quantitative change, it was determined that more quantitative progression occurred than was evident from categorical progression. Two of the three non-invasive tests employed, the ankle/brachial index (ABI) and posterior tibial peak forward flow velocity (peak PT), showed statistically significant progression during follow-up: mean ABI change = -0.019, 95% confidence interval (CI)= -0.031 to -0.007; mean peak PT change = -2.32 cm/s, 95% CI = -3.20 to -1.44. The toe/brachial index (TBI) also suggested progression: mean change= -0.013, but the 95% CI included no change. Standard scores (sum of the Z-scores for ABI, peak PT and TBI) were calculated. The standard score progressed approximately 0.34 units (standard deviations), p-value amputation status. Thus, in this cohort of PAD patients, PAD on average progressed significantly over 4.6 years. This progression was independently related to age, diabetes and several markers of disease severity.

  5. DVD technology-based molecular diagnosis platform: quantitative pregnancy test on a disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochun; Weng, Samuel; Ge, Bixia; Yao, Zhihui; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2014-05-21

    A diagnosis platform based entirely on DVD technology was developed for on-site quantitation of molecular analytes of interest, e.g., human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in urine samples ("quantitative pregnancy test on a disc"). An hCG-specific monoclonal antibody-binding assay prepared on a regular DVD-R was labeled with nanogold-streptavidin conjugates for signal enhancement with a customized silver-staining protocol. An unmodified, conventional computer optical drive was used for assay reading, and free disc-quality analysis software for data processing. The performance (sensitivity and selectivity) of this DVD assay is comparable to that of well-established colorimetric methods (determination of optical darkness ratios) and standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). As validated by examining its linear correlation with the ELISA results on the same set of samples, the DVD assay promises to be a low-cost, multiplex, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tool for physicians and even for individuals at home, producing prompt results.

  6. Spiked proteomic standard dataset for testing label-free quantitative software and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Claire; Hovasse, Agnès; Marcellin, Marlène; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Mouton-Barbosa, Emmanuelle; Bouyssié, David; Vaca, Sebastian; Carapito, Christine; Chaoui, Karima; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Cianférani, Sarah; Ferro, Myriam; Dorssaeler, Alain Van; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Schaeffer, Christine; Couté, Yohann; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne

    2016-03-01

    This data article describes a controlled, spiked proteomic dataset for which the "ground truth" of variant proteins is known. It is based on the LC-MS analysis of samples composed of a fixed background of yeast lysate and different spiked amounts of the UPS1 mixture of 48 recombinant proteins. It can be used to objectively evaluate bioinformatic pipelines for label-free quantitative analysis, and their ability to detect variant proteins with good sensitivity and low false discovery rate in large-scale proteomic studies. More specifically, it can be useful for tuning software tools parameters, but also testing new algorithms for label-free quantitative analysis, or for evaluation of downstream statistical methods. The raw MS files can be downloaded from ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001819. Starting from some raw files of this dataset, we also provide here some processed data obtained through various bioinformatics tools (including MaxQuant, Skyline, MFPaQ, IRMa-hEIDI and Scaffold) in different workflows, to exemplify the use of such data in the context of software benchmarking, as discussed in details in the accompanying manuscript [1]. The experimental design used here for data processing takes advantage of the different spike levels introduced in the samples composing the dataset, and processed data are merged in a single file to facilitate the evaluation and illustration of software tools results for the detection of variant proteins with different absolute expression levels and fold change values.

  7. Replicate effects and test-retest reliability of quantitative sensory threshold testing in dogs with and without chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knazovicky, David; Helgeson, Erika S; Case, Beth; Thomson, Andrea; Gruen, Margaret E; Maixner, William; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate replicate effects and test-retest reliability of mechanical and thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) in normal dogs and dogs with osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain. A prospective clinical study. A total of 54 client owned dogs (OA, n=31; controls, n=23). Mechanical [electronic von Frey (EVF) and blunt pressure] and thermal (hot and cold) sensory thresholds were obtained in dogs with OA-associated pain and control dogs at two visits, 7 days apart, to assess test-retest reliability. Thresholds were measured at the OA-affected joint (hip or stifle), over the tibial muscle and over the midpoint of the metatarsals. Five replicates were obtained for each modality at each site bilaterally. Overall, there was no significant effect of replicates on QST response. EVF thresholds were significantly lower at the second visit in OA dogs at the affected and metatarsal sites (p=0.0017 and p=0.0014, respectively). Similarly for control dogs, EVF thresholds were significantly lower at the second visit at the metatarsal site (p=0.001). Significantly higher hot thermal latencies were seen in OA dogs at the affected and tibial testing sites (p=0.014 and p=0.012, respectively), and in control dogs at the tibial site (p=0.004). In QST, a replicate does not show a strong effect. However, QST results show variability over time, particularly for EVF and hot thermal stimuli. If QST is to be used clinically to evaluate a sensitized state, the variability over time needs to be accounted for in the study design. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic, carrier and prenatal genetic testing for fragile X syndrome and other FMR-1-related disorders in Johannesburg, South Africa: a 20-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essop, Fahmida B; Krause, Amanda

    2013-10-11

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability (ID) worldwide, is caused by the expansion of a CGG repeat in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR-1) gene. OBJECTIVES; To review, retrospectively, the genetic services for FXS and other FMR-1-related disorders - including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and FMR-1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) - at the Division of Human Genetics, Johannesburg, for diagnostic, carrier and prenatal genetic testing.Methods. The records of 2 690 patients with ID and suspected FXS (ID/?FXS) who had genetic testing for FMR-1 between 1992 and 2012 were reviewed. Of these, 2 239 had diagnostic testing, 430 carrier or cascade testing and 17 prenatal testing for FXS. Four had FXTAS or POI testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or Southern blotting techniques were used to test the patients' samples for FMR-1 and FMR-2 expansions. RESULTS; Of the 2 239 patients who had diagnostic testing, 128 (5.7%) had a full mutation, 12 (0.5%) had a premutation and 43 (1.9%) an intermediate allele. In 17 prenatal tests, eight fetuses tested positive for FXS. FMR-1 CGG repeat distribution analysis in 1 532 males negative for the FMR-1 expansion showed that 29 and 30 CGG repeats were the most common (61.1%), but distribution was significantly different in the black and white populations.CONCLUSION; The findings support the presence of FXS, as the most common cause of ID, in all local populations. The FMR-1 CGG repeat distribution varied from that found in other studies. The number of family members tested was relatively low suggesting that many at-risk individuals are not being referred.

  9. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures: MB-31-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about ATMP - SOP Quantitative Disk Carrier Test Method (QCT-2) Modified for Testing Antimicrobial Products Against Spores of Clostridium difficile (ATCC 43598) on Inanimate, Hard, Non-porous Surfaces - MB-31-03

  10. The long-term reliability of static and dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Anna; Wrigley, Paul J; Dean, Catherine M; Adams, Roger; Hush, Julia M

    2017-03-21

    Quantitative sensory tests (QST) have been increasingly used to investigate alterations in somatosensory function in a wide range of painful conditions. The interpretation of these findings is based on the assumption that the measures are stable and reproducible. To date, reliability of QST has been investigated for short test-retest intervals. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term reliability of a multimodal QST assessment in healthy people, with testing conducted on three occasions over 4-months. Forty-two healthy people were enrolled in the study. Static and dynamic tests were performed, including cold and heat pain threshold (CPT, HPT), mechanical wind up (WUR), pressure pain threshold (PPT), two-point discrimination (TPD) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Systematic bias, relative reliability and agreement were analysed using repeated measure ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs3,1) and standard error of the measurement (SEM), respectively. Static QST (CPT, HPT, PPT and TPD) showed good to excellent reliability (ICCs: 0.68 to 0.90). Dynamic QST (WUR and CPM) showed poor to good reliability (ICCs: 0.35 to 0.61). A significant linear decrease over time was observed for mechanical QST at the back (PPT and TPD) and for CPM (p<0.01). Static QST were stable over a period of 4 months; however, a small systematic decrease over time has been observed for mechanical QST. Dynamic QST showed considerable variability over time; in particular, CPM using PPT as the test stimulus did not show adequate reliability, suggesting that this test paradigm may be less useful for monitoring individuals over time.

  11. Quantitative sensory testing measures individual pain responses in emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy KJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Duffy, Katharyn L Flickinger, Jeffrey T Kristan, Melissa J Repine, Alexandro Gianforcaro, Rebecca B Hasley, Saad Feroz, Jessica M Rupp, Jumana Al-Baghli, Maria L Pacella, Brian P Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: Refining and individualizing treatment of acute pain in the emergency department (ED is a high priority, given that painful complaints are the most common reasons for ED visits. Few tools exist to objectively measure pain perception in the ED setting. We speculated that variation in perception of fixed painful stimuli would explain individual variation in reported pain and response to treatment among ED patients. Materials and methods: In three studies, we 1 describe performance characteristics of brief quantitative sensory testing (QST in 50 healthy volunteers, 2 test effects of 10 mg oxycodone versus placebo on QST measures in 18 healthy volunteers, and 3 measure interindividual differences in nociception and treatment responses in 198 ED patients with a painful complaint during ED treatment. QST measures adapted for use in the ED included pressure sensation threshold, pressure pain threshold (PPT, pressure pain response (PPR, and cold pain tolerance (CPT tests. Results: First, all QST measures had high inter-rater reliability and test–retest reproducibility. Second, 10 mg oxycodone reduced PPR, increased PPT, and prolonged CPT. Third, baseline PPT and PPR revealed hyperalgesia in 31 (16% ED subjects relative to healthy volunteers. In 173 (88% ED subjects who completed repeat testing 30 minutes after pain treatment, PPT increased and PPR decreased (Cohen’s dz 0.10–0.19. Verbal pain scores (0–10 for the ED complaint decreased by 2.2 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.9, 2.6 (Cohen’s dz 0.97 but did not covary with the changes in PPT and PPR (r=0.05–0.13. Treatment effects were greatest in ED subjects

  12. Preferences for Prenatal Tests for Cystic Fibrosis: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Compare the Views of Adult Patients, Carriers of Cystic Fibrosis and Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Hill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As new technologies enable the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD for cystic fibrosis (CF, research examining stakeholder views is essential for the preparation of implementation strategies. Here, we compare the views of potential service users with those of health professionals who provide counselling for prenatal tests. A questionnaire incorporating a discrete choice experiment examined preferences for key attributes of NIPD and explored views on NIPD for CF. Adult patients (n = 92 and carriers of CF (n = 50 were recruited from one children’s and one adult NHS specialist CF centre. Health professionals (n = 70 were recruited via an e-mail invitation to relevant professional bodies. The key attribute affecting service user testing preferences was no miscarriage risk, while for health professionals, accuracy and early testing were important. The uptake of NIPD by service users was predicted to be high and includes couples that would currently decline invasive testing. Many service users (47% and health professionals (55.2% thought the availability of NIPD for CF would increase the pressure to undergo prenatal testing. Most service users (68.5% thought NIPD for CF should be offered to all pregnant women, whereas more health professionals (68.2% thought NIPD should be reserved for known carrier couples. The implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  13. Effect of conditioned pain modulation on trigeminal somatosensory function evaluated by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Yuka; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically investigate the effect of craniofacially evoked conditioned pain modulation on somatosensory function using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol applied to the trigeminal area in healthy humans. Pressure pain evoked by a mechanical compressive device was applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) in the craniofacial region, with a pain intensity of 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10 cm) (painful session) or with VAS score of 0 (control session). A full QST battery of 13 parameters was performed as test stimuli on the dominant-side cheek. The individual QST data from 11 men and 12 women were transformed into z scores, and the QST data and z scores were tested using analyses of variance. Analyses of variance of pressure pain threshold (PPT) data (log-transformed values and z scores) indicated significant session (P ≤ .003) and time (P painful session were associated with significantly higher log-transformed PPT values and significantly lower z scores compared with the control session at the time point during CS (hypoalgesia) (P pain inhibitory mechanisms.

  14. The overall impact of testing on medical student learning: quantitative estimation of consequential validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiter, Clarence D; Green, Joseph; Lenoch, Susan; Saiki, Takuya

    2013-10-01

    Given medical education's longstanding emphasis on assessment, it seems prudent to evaluate whether our current research and development focus on testing makes sense. Since any intervention within medical education must ultimately be evaluated based upon its impact on student learning, this report seeks to provide a quantitative accounting of the learning gains attained through educational assessments. To approach this question, we estimate achieved learning within a medical school environment that optimally utilizes educational assessments. We compare this estimate to learning that might be expected in a medical school that employs no educational assessments. Effect sizes are used to estimate testing's total impact on learning by summarizing three effects; the direct effect, the indirect effect, and the selection effect. The literature is far from complete, but the available evidence strongly suggests that each of these effects is large and the net cumulative impact on learning in medical education is over two standard deviations. While additional evidence is required, the current literature shows that testing within medical education makes a strong positive contribution to learning.

  15. Simple but novel test method for quantitatively comparing robot mapping algorithms using SLAM and dead reckoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Neil S.; Godil, Haris

    2013-05-01

    This article presents a comparative study between a well-known SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm, called Gmapping, and a standard Dead-Reckoning algorithm; the study is based on experimental results of both approaches by using a commercial skid-based turning robot, P3DX. Five main base-case scenarios are conducted to evaluate and test the effectiveness of both algorithms. The results show that SLAM outperformed the Dead Reckoning in terms of map-making accuracy in all scenarios but one, since SLAM did not work well in a rapidly changing environment. Although the main conclusion about the excellence of SLAM is not surprising, the presented test method is valuable to professionals working in this area of mobile robots, as it is highly practical, and provides solid and valuable results. The novelty of this study lies in its simplicity. The simple but novel test method for quantitatively comparing robot mapping algorithms using SLAM and Dead Reckoning and some applications using autonomous robots are being patented by the authors in U.S. Patent Application Nos. 13/400,726 and 13/584,862.

  16. Quantitative post-coital test: sperm counts in cervical mucus after enzymatic liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Tawfik, E; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test involves direct microscopic examination of sperm number and motility in cervical mucus. The results depend on the quality of the mucus and the distribution of spermatozoa within the sample. To progress from such qualitative data to quantitative measurements of the spermatozoa present in post-coital mucus, we have developed methods to measure sperm concentrations in enzymatically liquefied post-coital cervical mucus. The mucus score and sperm motility were measured prior to mucus liquefaction, and, together with sperm concentration, they allowed the calculation of the total number of motile spermatozoa present. A combination of bromelin and glycosidases proved to be more efficient in achieving reliable mucus liquefaction than treatment with bromelin alone, and was used to liquefy a series of 36 post-coital test samples. Total sperm numbers ranged between 19 x 10(3) and 16.8 x 10(6). Of the samples, 75% contained post-coital test, and to estimate the number of motile spermatozoa reaching the upper female genital tract.

  17. Determination of a quantitative parameter to evaluate swimming technique based on the maximal tethered swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncin, Rafael; Mezêncio, Bruno; Ferreira, Jacielle Carolina; Rodrigues, Sara Andrade; Huebner, Rudolf; Serrão, Julio Cerca; Szmuchrowski, Leszek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique. Two parameters showed significant correlations with swimming velocity: the mean force during the tethered swimming (r = 0.85) and the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation (r = 0.86). However, the intercept coefficient was significantly different from zero only for the mean force, suggesting that although the correlation coefficient of the parameters was similar, part of the mean velocity magnitude that was not associated with the mean force was associated with the product of the mean force square root and the oscillation. Thus, force fluctuation during tethered swimming can be used as a quantitative index of swimmers' technique.

  18. Agreement between quantitative and qualitative sensory testing of changes in oro-facial somatosensory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, J; De Laat, A; Constantinus, P; Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative somatosensory testing (QualST) is a simple chairside test. It can be used to roughly assess the presence or absence of altered somatosensory function. To use QualST clinically, it is important to assess its agreement with quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of this study were to assess the agreement between QST and QualST when testing the modulation of facial sensitivity by capsaicin in healthy participants and to explore the agreement between QST and QualST in assessing the intraoral sensory function in clinical atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. Eighteen healthy pain-free adults and data from 27 AO patients were included in the study. Thirteen QST and three QualST parameters were evaluated at each site. Z-scores were computed for healthy participants, and Loss-Gain scores were created. The agreement observed between QST and QualST in participants with no alterations in facial sensation (placebo) was good, that is ranging from 89% to 94%. A poorer agreement was seen after capsaicin application in all test modalities with agreement ranging from 50% to 72%. The commonest misclassification observed was participants classified as normal according to QST, but hyper- or hyposensitive according to QualST after capsaicin application, especially for cold and pinprick. A similar trend was observed in AO patients where patients classified as normal using QST were misclassified as hypersensitive and in few patients as hyposensitive by QualST. In conclusion, the study showed that QualST may be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting, especially to show that subjects have normal sensory function.

  19. Quantitative analysis of γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Synnöve; Tolonen, Teemu; Laasanen, Satu-Leena; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Isola, Jorma; Mäenpää, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an increased lifetime risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Increased lifetime ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers can be substantially decreased by risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), which also provides material for molecular research on early pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer. RRSO studies have suggested fallopian tube as a primary site of serous high-grade ovarian cancer. In this study, the nuclear expression levels of γ-H2AX and p53 using immunohistochemical (IHC) study was quantitatively assessed in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSOs in 29 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and in 1 patient with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer but showing an unknown BRCA status. Both p53 and γ-H2AX nuclear staining levels were significantly higher in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with the control fallopian tube epithelium (Pepithelium and controls. Both γ-H2AX and p53 showed significantly higher nuclear expression levels in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium (Pepithelium showed a positive correlation between the γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels (Pearson r=0.508, P=0.003). Our results of quantitative nuclear p53 and γ-H2AX expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSO in high-risk patients support the previously suggested role of fallopian tube epithelium serving as a possible site of initial serous ovarian carcinogenesis.

  20. Methods to measure peripheral and central sensitization using quantitative sensory testing: A focus on individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Angela R; Heineman, Amy; Storey, Shannon; Rubia, Gil; Lyon, Debra E; Greenspan, Joel; Dorsey, Susan G

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative sensory testing can be used to assess peripheral and central sensitization; important factors that contribute to the individual's experience of pain and disability. Many studies use quantitative sensory testing in patients with low back pain to detect alterations in pain sensitivity, however, because investigators employ different protocols, interpretation of findings across studies can become problematic. The purpose of this article is to propose a standardized method of testing peripheral and central pain sensitization in patients with low back pain. Video clips are provided to demonstrate correct procedures for measuring the response to experimental pain using mechanical, thermal and pressure modalities. As nurse researchers and clinicians increase utilization of quantitative sensory testing to examine pain phenotypes, it is anticipated that more personalized methods for monitoring the trajectory of low back pain and response to treatment will improve outcomes for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecosystem functioning and maximum entropy production: a quantitative test of hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysman, Filip J R; Bruers, Stijn

    2010-05-12

    The idea that entropy production puts a constraint on ecosystem functioning is quite popular in ecological thermodynamics. Yet, until now, such claims have received little quantitative verification. Here, we examine three 'entropy production' hypotheses that have been forwarded in the past. The first states that increased entropy production serves as a fingerprint of living systems. The other two hypotheses invoke stronger constraints. The state selection hypothesis states that when a system can attain multiple steady states, the stable state will show the highest entropy production rate. The gradient response principle requires that when the thermodynamic gradient increases, the system's new stable state should always be accompanied by a higher entropy production rate. We test these three hypotheses by applying them to a set of conventional food web models. Each time, we calculate the entropy production rate associated with the stable state of the ecosystem. This analysis shows that the first hypothesis holds for all the food webs tested: the living state shows always an increased entropy production over the abiotic state. In contrast, the state selection and gradient response hypotheses break down when the food web incorporates more than one trophic level, indicating that they are not generally valid.

  2. Quantitative determination of minerals in Nevada Test Site samples by x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1983-07-01

    The external standard intensity ratio technique has been developed into a routine procedure for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of Nevada Test Site (NTS) samples by x-ray diffraction. This technique used ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from the same run which eliminates many possible errors. Constants have been determined for each of thirteen minerals commonly found in NTS samples - quartz, montmorillonite, illite, clinoptilolite, cristobalite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, hornblende, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite, and amorphous glass. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of quartz are used to calculate sample composition. The technique has been tested on samples with three to eleven components representative of geologic environments at NTS, and is accurate to 7.0 wt % of the total sample. The minimum amount of each of these minerals detectable by x-ray diffraction has also been determined. QUANTS is a computer code that calculates mineral contents and produces a report sheet. Constants for minerals in NTS samples other than those listed above can easily be determined, and added to QUANTS at any time.

  3. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: clinical characteristics, conventional electrophysiology and quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Roman; Rolke, Silke; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Geber, Christian; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Workers exposed to vibrating tools may develop hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). We assessed the somatosensory phenotype using quantitative sensory testing (QST) in comparison to electrophysiology to characterize (1) the most sensitive QST parameter for detecting sensory loss, (2) the correlation of QST and electrophysiology, and (3) the frequency of a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in HAVS. QST, cold provocation tests, fine motor skills, and median nerve neurography were used. QST included thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Thirty-two patients were examined (54 ± 11 years, 91% men) at the more affected hand compared to 16 matched controls. Vibration detection threshold was the most sensitive parameter to detect sensory loss that was more pronounced in the sensitivity range of Pacinian (150 Hz, x12) than Meissner's corpuscles (20 Hz, x3). QST (84% abnormal) was more sensitive to detect neural dysfunction than conventional electrophysiology (37% abnormal). Motor (34%) and sensory neurography (25%) were abnormal in HAVS. CTS frequency was not increased (9.4%). Findings are consistent with a mechanically-induced, distally pronounced motor and sensory neuropathy independent of CTS. HAVS involves a neuropathy predominantly affecting large fibers with a sensory damage related to resonance frequencies of vibrating tools. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics during quantitative autonomic testing using NIRS (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Zephaniah; Paik, Seung-Ho; Kim, Yoohwan; Kim, Byung-Jo; Choi, Youngwoon; Kim, Beop-Min

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we analyzed the clinical applicability of NIRS for use during Quantitative Autonomic Testing (QAT). QAT is a protocol consisting of deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and tilt table examination. It is used to diagnose a patient with disorders of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disorders of ANS includes orthostatic hyper/hypotension, vasovagal syncope, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. The results of QAT are typically analyzed with the use of blood pressure and heart rate data, however these metrics may be influenced by factors such as arrhythmia, making the data interpretation and diagnosis difficult for clinicians. We tested our custom built 108-channel NIRS probe on 26 elderly patients during the QAT protocol with various ANS disorders. We found that prefrontal cerebral oxygenation correlated well with blood pressure and heart rate changes for all three tasks, making it a clinically feasible tool for observing ANS functionality. During the Valsalva maneuver, we observed a longer delayed and lower amplitude response of cerebral oxygenation to the prefrontal area in orthostatic intolerant patients. During the tilt table examination, we saw a larger response in cerebral oxygenation and less equal transient cerebral oxygenation during tilt up and tilt down in tilt table examinations that were positive (unhealthy), compared to tilt table examinations that were negative (healthy). Overall, our study showcases NIRS as an enhanced tool for understanding ANS disorders.

  5. Reliability and validity of quantitative sensory testing in persons with spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elizabeth R; Widerström-Noga, Eva G

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to assess neurological function in various chronic pain patient populations. In the present study, we investigated the ability of QST to reliably characterize somatosensory dysfunction in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and neuropathic pain by measuring mechanical, vibration, and thermal detection and pain thresholds. Test-retest reliability was determined based on data collected from 10 subjects with SCI and neuropathic pain who underwent QST on two occasions approximately 3 weeks apart. The intraclass correlation coefficients for mechanical, vibration, warm, and cool detection thresholds were in the "substantial" range, while thresholds for cold pain and hot pain demonstrated "fair" stability in this sample of patients. To determine the validity of QST in persons with SCI-related neuropathic pain, we evaluated the relationship between somatosensory thresholds and severity of neuropathic pain symptoms with multiple linear regression analysis. Thermal pain threshold was the only QST variable significantly related to the severity of neuropathic pain symptoms. The present study provides preliminary evidence that QST is a reliable and valid adjunct measurement strategy for quantifying the neurological dysfunction associated with neuropathic pain in persons with SCI.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative agar invasion test based on bacterial colony/biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, María Teresa; Gómez-Aguado, Fernando; Gómez-Lus, María Luisa; Ramos, Carmen; de la Parte, María Antonia; Alonso, María José; Prieto, José

    2013-09-01

    Invasion of the culture medium is a feature frequently studied in yeasts, in which it has been related to a greater virulence, but it is practically unknown in bacteria. Recently, it has been demonstrated that several clinically relevant bacterial species were also able of invading agar media, so it was necessary to design a microbiological assay to study the expression of this character in bacteria. Accordingly, a bacterial agar invasion test based on colony/biofilm development was designed, which allows qualitative and quantitative characterization of bacterial growth into the agar culture medium. Once the culture conditions were optimized, the test was applied to 90 strains from nine bacterial species, validating its usefulness for differentiating invasive strains (positive) from those non invasive (negative). The test also allows sorting invasive strains according to agar invasion intensity (low, moderate, high) and topographic invasion pattern (peripheral, homogeneous, mixed). Moreover, an image analysis routine to quantify the invasion was developed. Implemented method enables direct measuring of two invasion parameters (invasion area and number of invasion dots), automated calculation of three relative variables (invasion relative area, invasion dots relative density, and invasion dot average area), and the establishment of strain specific frequency histograms. This new methodology is simple, fast, reproducible, objective, inexpensive and can be used to study a great number of specimens simultaneously, all of which make it suitable for incorporation to the routine of any microbiology laboratory. It could also be a useful tool for additional studies related to clinical aspects of bacterial isolates such as virulence and antimicrobial response.

  7. Bronchial asthma: correlation of quantitative CT and the pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gun; Jin, Gong Yong; Jeon, Su Bin; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in the evaluation asthma patients and to correlate its use with the pulmonary function test (PFT). Thirty asthmatic patients and thirty normal volunteers were prospectively evaluated by the use of HRCT and the PFT. By using 16 slice MDCT, HRCT was performed from the apex to the base of both lungs at the end inspiration and end expiration periods in all patients and images were reconstructed to a thickness of 1 mm (window level: -750 HU, window width: 1,500 HU). We analyzed each image for the whole lung using the Pulmo CT program. PFTs including FVC and FEV1 were performed one week prior and one week after the completion of a HRCT. The Difference of QCT (the mean lung density and subrange ratio) between volunteers and asthmatic patients was analyzed by using the Student's t-test. Spearman's correlation test was used to determine the association between PFT and QCT. The mean lung density (MLD) and subrange ratio were lower in asthmatic patients than in volunteers for and expiration and no difference was seen between asthmatic patients and volunteers for end inspiration. FVC and FEV1 were lower in asthmatic patients than in volunteers. A decrease in FVC and FEV1 correlated with changes in the MLD and subrange ratio for end expiration. QCT such as MLD and the subrange ratio using HRCT can be used to indirectly assess the pulmonary function of the asthma patient. The PFT seems to correlate better with the MLD and subrange ratio for expiratory QCT of the asthma patient than with inspiratory QCT.

  8. Scaling the sandbox: New insights from detailed mechanical testing and quantitative comparison to nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Malte C.; Leever, Karen; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2016-04-01

    Analogue sandbox experiments are an important tool to understand tectonic deformation. In combination with modern imaging techniques they provide a spatio-temporal resolution no other method can achieve. The downside is that information on stress distribution within the sandbox model is not readily available, which is the reason for most experiments to date being interpreted kinematically only. However, with the advent of reliable force sensors with a suitable dynamic range the dynamic evolution of sandbox models becomes available for analysis, offering new insights into the transient evolution of tectonic systems. The interpretation of sandbox dynamics and its transfer to natural systems requires a much stricter scaling approach than usually considered. In particular it requires that not only the strength of the model material, but also its transient strength evolution, i.e. its weakening, be properly scaled to that of the natural prototype. No such scaling of transient strength exists up to now. Furthermore, published mechanical test data have mostly been obtained under normal load conditions not representative for analogue experiments. To derive a scaling of transient strength we therefore measured and analysed two standard analogue model materials (quartz sand and glass microbeads) using ring-shear tests at low normal loads similar to common analogue experiments. We find that strain weakening under these conditions ( 1 kPa) only. We show that this basically restricts proper scaling of transient strength of the tested materials to crustal scale models, with a length scaling factor of (nature/model) = 106. For this scale range we quantitatively compare the model materials' transient strength evolution both laboratory measurements of natural rocks and to estimates for the earth' crust. Accounting for lithostatic and hydrostatic conditions, respectively, we find that proper dynamic scaling - also of transient properties - is achieved in either case.

  9. LEGO plot for simultaneous application of multiple quality requirements during trueness verification of quantitative laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-il; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Lee, Jehoon; Kim, Yonggoo

    2014-03-01

    We developed a two-dimensional plot for viewing trueness that takes into account potential shift and variable quality requirements to verify trueness using certified reference material (CRM). Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), and creatinine levels were determined by two kinds of assay in two levels of a CRM. Available quality requirements were collected, codified, and sorted in an ascending order in the plot's header row. Centering on the mean of measured values from CRM, the "mean ± US CLIA '88 allowable total error" was located in the header of the leftmost and rightmost columns. Twenty points were created in intervening columns as potential shifts. Uncertainties were calculated according to regression between certified values and uncertainties of CRM, and positioned in the corresponding columns. Cells were assigned different colors where column and row intersected based on comparison of the 95% confidence interval of the percentage bias with each quality requirement. A glucose assay failed to meet the highest quality criteria, for which shift of +0.13-0.14 mmol/l was required. A TC assay met the quality requirement and a shift of ±0.03 mmol/l was tolerable. A creatinine assay also met the quality requirement but any shift was not tolerable. The plot provides a systematic view of the trueness of quantitative laboratory tests. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A quantitative test of infrared optical constants for supercooled sulphuric and nitric acid droplet aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR extinction spectra of supercooled H2SO4/H2O and HNO3/H2O solution droplets were recorded in the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe for a range of aerosol compositions and at temperatures extending down to 192 K. The measured spectra were quantitatively analysed in terms of aerosol composition and mass concentration by using Mie theory in combination with published refractive index data as input parameters. Simultaneously, total sulphuric acid and nitric acid mass concentrations from filter analysis and total water concentrations measured with the Lyman-a hygrometer of Forschungszentrum Jülich were used to calculate the aerosol composition at thermodynamic equilibrium inside the aerosol chamber. By comparing these measured aerosol parameters with those retrieved from the analysis of the FTIR spectra, the accuracy of the literature data sets of refractive indices could be assessed. In summary, four data sets were tested in the H2SO4/H2O system as well as two data sets in the HNO3/H2O system, partly revealing significant discrepancies in the retrieved aerosol properties. Potential explanations for these differences are discussed in this paper.

  11. Quantitative Detection of Screening for Cervical Lesions with ThinPrep Cytology Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xin ZHANG; Yi-min SONG; Su-hong LI; Yu-hui YIN; Dong-ling GAO; Kui-sheng CHEN

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the available parameters in gynecological screening for cervical lesions by liquid-based cytology technology (ThinPrep Cytology Test, TCT) and The Bethesda System (TBS), also with computer image analysis. METHODS With application of the image analysis system, all grades of cervical lesion cells were detected quantitatively and sorted in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with the mean optical density (MOD), average grey (AG), positive units (PU), and nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio (N:C). Differences between each group of cells were compared and analyzed statistically.RESULTS Apart from four stereologic parameters in LSIL and HSIL groups there were no differences among them, in the other groups, there was statistically significant in differences between MOD, AG and PU values. Differences between them in the ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm were highly statistically signifi cant. CONCLUSION Stereological indexes may serve as a screening tool for cervical lesions. The image analysis system is expected to become a new means of cytological assisted diagnosis.

  12. Prognostic value of quantitative sensory testing in low back pain: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Anna; Dean, Catherine M; Wrigley, Paul J; Chakiath, Rosemary J; Hush, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) measures have recently been shown to predict outcomes in various musculoskeletal and pain conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the emerging body of evidence investigating the prognostic value of QST measures in people with low back pain (LBP). The protocol for this review was prospectively registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. An electronic search of six databases was conducted from inception to October 2015. Experts in the field were contacted to retrieve additional unpublished data. Studies were included if they were prospective longitudinal in design, assessed at least one QST measure in people with LBP, assessed LBP status at follow-up, and reported the association of QST data with LBP status at follow-up. Statistical pooling of results was not possible due to heterogeneity between studies. Of 6,408 references screened after duplicates removed, three studies were finally included. None of them reported a significant association between the QST measures assessed and the LBP outcome. Three areas at high risk of bias were identified which potentially compromise the validity of these results. Due to the paucity of available studies and the methodological shortcomings identified, it remains unknown whether QST measures are predictive of outcome in LBP.

  13. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  14. A Unified Theory of Impact Crises and Mass Extinctions: Quantitative Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Haggerty, Bruce M.; Pagano, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Several quantitative tests of a general hypothesis linking impacts of large asteroids and comets with mass extinctions of life are possible based on astronomical data, impact dynamics, and geological information. The waiting of large-body impacts on the Earth derive from the flux of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets, and the estimated size of impacts capable of causing large-scale environmental disasters, predict that impacts of objects greater than or equal to 5 km in diameter (greater than or equal to 10 (exp 7) Mt TNT equivalent) could be sufficient to explain the record of approximately 25 extinction pulses in the last 540 Myr, with the 5 recorded major mass extinctions related to impacts of the largest objects of greater than or equal to 10 km in diameter (greater than or equal to 10(exp 8) Mt Events). Smaller impacts (approximately 10 (exp 6) Mt), with significant regional environmental effects, could be responsible for the lesser boundaries in the geologic record.

  15. Genotypic tropism testing by massively parallel sequencing: qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiele Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring viral tropism from genotype is a fast and inexpensive alternative to phenotypic testing. While being highly predictive when performed on clonal samples, sensitivity of predicting CXCR4-using (X4 variants drops substantially in clinical isolates. This is mainly attributed to minor variants not detected by standard bulk-sequencing. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS detects single clones thereby being much more sensitive. Using this technology we wanted to improve genotypic prediction of coreceptor usage. Methods Plasma samples from 55 antiretroviral-treated patients tested for coreceptor usage with the Monogram Trofile Assay were sequenced with standard population-based approaches. Fourteen of these samples were selected for further analysis with MPS. Tropism was predicted from each sequence with geno2pheno[coreceptor]. Results Prediction based on bulk-sequencing yielded 59.1% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity compared to the trofile assay. With MPS, 7600 reads were generated on average per isolate. Minorities of sequences with high confidence in CXCR4-usage were found in all samples, irrespective of phenotype. When using the default false-positive-rate of geno2pheno[coreceptor] (10%, and defining a minority cutoff of 5%, the results were concordant in all but one isolate. Conclusions The combination of MPS and coreceptor usage prediction results in a fast and accurate alternative to phenotypic assays. The detection of X4-viruses in all isolates suggests that coreceptor usage as well as fitness of minorities is important for therapy outcome. The high sensitivity of this technology in combination with a quantitative description of the viral population may allow implementing meaningful cutoffs for predicting response to CCR5-antagonists in the presence of X4-minorities.

  16. Quantitative ultrasonic testing of acoustically anisotropic materials with verification on austenitic and dissimilar weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, C.; Pudovikov, S.; Bulavinov, A.

    2012-05-01

    "Gradient Constant Descent Method" (GECDM), an iterative algorithm, is implemented, which is essential for examination of inhomogeneous anisotropic media having unknown properties (elastic constants). The Sampling Phased Array technique with Reverse Phase Matching extended by GECDM-technique determines unknown elastic constants and provides reliable and efficient quantitative flaw detection in the austenitic welds. The validation of ray-tracing algorithm and GECDM-method is performed by number of experiments on test specimens with artificial as well as natural material flaws. A mechanized system for ultrasonic testing of stainless steel and dissimilar welds is developed. The system works on both conventional and Sampling Phased Array techniques. The new frontend ultrasonic unit with optical data link allows the 3D visualization of the inspection results in real time.

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

  18. Proficiency testing as a basis for estimating uncertainty of measurement: application to forensic alcohol and toxicology quantitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack

    2010-05-01

    While forensic laboratories will soon be required to estimate uncertainties of measurement for those quantitations reported to the end users of the information, the procedures for estimating this have been little discussed in the forensic literature. This article illustrates how proficiency test results provide the basis for estimating uncertainties in three instances: (i) For breath alcohol analyzers the interlaboratory precision is taken as a direct measure of uncertainty. This approach applies when the number of proficiency tests is small. (ii) For blood alcohol, the uncertainty is calculated from the differences between the laboratory's proficiency testing results and the mean quantitations determined by the participants; this approach applies when the laboratory has participated in a large number of tests. (iii) For toxicology, either of these approaches is useful for estimating comparability between laboratories, but not for estimating absolute accuracy. It is seen that data from proficiency tests enable estimates of uncertainty that are empirical, simple, thorough, and applicable to a wide range of concentrations.

  19. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Merel M C; Kamphuis, Esme I; Hoesli, Irene M; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W J; van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2016-12-01

    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the conventional qualitative test, but there is limited evidence on the combination with cervical length measurement. The purpose of this study was to compare quantitative fetal fibronectin and qualitative fetal fibronectin testing in the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth within 7 days in symptomatic women who undergo cervical length measurement. We performed a European multicenter cohort study in 10 perinatal centers in 5 countries. Women between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation with signs of active labor and intact membranes underwent quantitative fibronectin testing and cervical length measurement. We assessed the risk of preterm birth within 7 days in predefined strata based on fibronectin concentration and cervical length. Of 455 women who were included in the study, 48 women (11%) delivered within 7 days. A combination of cervical length and qualitative fibronectin resulted in the identification of 246 women who were at low risk: 164 women with a cervix between 15 and 30 mm and a negative fibronectin test (30 mm (preterm birth rate, 2%). Use of quantitative fibronectin alone resulted in a predicted risk of preterm birth within 7 days that ranged from 2% in the group with the lowest fibronectin level (500 ng/mL), with similar accuracy as that of the combination of cervical length and qualitative fibronectin. Combining cervical length and quantitative fibronectin resulted in the identification of an additional 19 women at low risk (preterm birth rate, 5%), using a threshold of 10 ng/mL in women with a cervix at 500 ng/mL in women with a cervix at >30 mm. In women with threatened preterm birth, quantitative fibronectin testing alone performs equal to the combination of cervical

  20. Detecting the nerve function of fibril in patients with cervicalspondylotic radiculopathy using quantitative sensory testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang He; Ying Zhao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and sensory disability are greatly affected by subjective factors, there are no quantitative indexes to evaluate cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The judgment on clinical body examination and chief complaint always causes nonobjective results with great individual differences. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to judge the nerve function of fibril. The application of QST for the quantitative evaluation of peripheral nervous system disease needs to be further studied.OBJECTIVE: The cold-thermal sensation and pain of patients with CSR are quantitatively analyzed by using QST technology in order to evaluate the nerve function of fibril in patients with CSR.DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Pain Center of Beijing Hospital of Ministry of Health.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients with CSR, including 8 males and 12 females, aged from 33 to 70 years, who received treatment between January and April 2005 in Pain Center of Beijing Hospital of Ministry of Health were involved in CSR group. All the involved patients presented symptoms in unilateral upper extremity (left side 10patients, right side 10 patients). They did not undergo physical therapy or nerve block therapy in 1 week before examination. Eight non-CSR patients who received treatment in Pain Center concurrently were involved in the control group (2 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, 4 with osteoarthrosis of knee joint and 2 with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion), and another 12 healthy volunteers were involved. Four non-CSR patients and 12healthy volunteers, 8 male and 12 female, were aged from 23 to 75 years. The informed consents were obtained from all the involved subjects.METHODS: The volar thresholds of cold sensation, thermal sensation, cryalgesia of thenar eminence of both upper extremities of all the subjects were examined separately by limit method with type TSA- Ⅱ temperature sensation analysator made by Medco Company (Israel). The subjects were pre

  1. Bilateral sensory abnormalities in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain; a quantitative sensory testing (QST study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Konopka

    Full Text Available In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold. Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%.

  2. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  3. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain.

  4. Association between preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, pain intensity and quantitative sensory testing in patients awaiting lumbar diskectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, Dominic

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers important information regarding the morphology, location and size of a herniated disc, which influences the decision to offer lumbar diskectomy (LD). This study aims to examine the association between clinical neurophysiologic indices including pain intensity and quantitative sensory testing (QST), and the degree of lumbar nerve root compromise depicted on magnetic resonance (MR) in patients awaiting LD.

  5. Revisiting susceptibility testing in MDR-TB by a standardized quantitative phenotypic assessment in a European multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambau, E.; Viveiros, M.; Machado, D.; Raskine, L.; Ritter, C.; Tortoli, E.; Matthys, V.; Hoffner, S.; Richter, E.; Perez del Molino, M.L.; Cirillo, D.M.; Soolingen, D. van; Bottger, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Treatment outcome of MDR-TB is critically dependent on the proper use of second-line drugs as per the result of in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST). We aimed to establish a standardized DST procedure based on quantitative determination of drug resistance and compared the results w

  6. Localization of Refsum disease with increased pipecolic acidaemia to chromosome 10p by homozygosity mapping and carrier testing in a single nuclear family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, N; Rolland, M O; Tranchant, C; Reutenauer, L; Gyapay, G; Warter, J M; Mandel, J L; Koenig, M

    1995-10-01

    Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder associated with the accumulation in blood and tissues of phytanic acid, a natural compound of exogenous origin whose catabolism is impaired in patients. We present here genome wide linkage analysis of an atypical Refsum disease family where L-pipecolic acid level in blood was also increased, suggesting that the patients suffer from a new peroxisomal disorder intermediate between ARD and Infantile Refsum Disease (IRD, a peroxisomal deficiency disease). We were able to demonstrate significant linkage (lod score = 3.6) between Refsum Disease with increased Pipecolic Acidaemia (RDPA) and the interval defined by D10S249 and D10S466 on 10p in this single consanguineous family by combining lod score values obtained from analysis of the multiple affected sibs, haplotype homozygosity and from discrimination between healthy carriers and non carriers based on phytanate oxidase measurements. This illustrates the power of homozygosity mapping with a dense map of microsatellite markers. A similar strategy will allow testing for homogeneity/heterogeneity between RDPA and ARD or the rare complementation groups of IRD.

  7. Quantitative sensory tests fairly reflect immediate effects of oxycodone in chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliessbach, Jürg; Siegenthaler, Andreas; Bütikofer, Lukas; Vuilleumier, Pascal; Jüni, Peter; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Curatolo, Michele

    2017-08-09

    Quantitative sensory tests (QST) can be used for profiling anti-nociceptive effects of analgesics. However, anti-nociceptive effects detected by QST are not necessarily associated with analgesic effects in pain patients. As part of a large investigation on low back pain, this paper describes the immediate analgesic and anti-nociceptive effects of oxycodone in chronic low-back pain and ranks different QST according to their ability to reflect this effect. The results are expected to support the selection of QST for future studies on potential novel opioid agonists in human pain. In this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded cross-over study, 50 patients with chronic low-back pain received a single oral dose of oxycodone 15mg or active placebo, and underwent multiple QST testing. The intensity of low-back pain was recorded during 2h. The areas under the ROC curves and 95% confidence intervals were determined, whereby responder status (≥30% pain reduction) was set as reference variable and changes in QST from baseline were set as classifiers. Significant analgesic effect on low-back pain as well as anti-nociceptive effects for almost all QST parameters were observed. The QST with the highest area under the curve were heat pain detection threshold (0.65, 95%-CI 0.46 to 0.83), single-stimulus electrical pain threshold (0.64, 95%-CI 0.47 to 0.80) and pressure pain detection threshold (0.63, 95%-CI 0.48 to 0.79). The results suggest that anti-nociceptive effects assessed by QST fairly reflect clinical efficacy of oxycodone on low-back pain. Pressure pain detection threshold, heat pain detection threshold and single-stimulus electrical pain threshold may be more suitable to sort out potential non-responders rather than identifying potential responders to opioid medication. Future pre-clinical human research may consider these results when investigating the analgesic effect of opioid agonists by means of QST. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the

  8. A comparison of qualitative and quantitative fecal immunochemical tests in the Korean national colorectal cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, You Kyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) has since 2004 provided annual colorectal cancer screening using the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for individuals aged 50 years or older. The aim of this study was to examine the positivity and detection rates of the FIT and to compare the detection rates of the qualitative and quantitative FITs in participants in the 2009 NCSP. We analyzed positivity and detection rates according to FIT type (qualitative and quantitative). We used a multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds ratio of "benign" or "suspicious cancer and cancer" compared to "normal," adjusted for gender, age, health insurance type, region of residence, hospital type, and FIT type. Of the 1,181,904 participants, 72.8% received a qualitative and 27.2% a quantitative FIT. The positivity rates were 8.1% for the qualitative and 2.5% for the quantitative FIT. The detection rate was 5.2% for the qualitative and 14.4% for the quantitative FIT. The odds ratio of a "suspicious cancer and cancer" versus a "normal" result was 2.73 (95% CI = 2.22-3.35) for the quantitative compared to qualitative FIT, after adjustment. The positivity rate of the qualitative FIT was around three times higher than that of the quantitative FIT. However, the odds ratio for detection of "suspicious cancer and cancer" versus "normal" of the quantitative FIT was about three times higher than that of the qualitative FIT. These findings suggest that quality control may be important, particularly for the qualitative FIT.

  9. Quantitative fetal fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Mmc; Vis, J Y; Wilms, F F; Oudijk, M A; Kwee, A; Porath, M M; Oei, G; Scheepers, Hcj; Spaanderman, Mea; Bloemenkamp, Kwm; Haak, M C; Bolte, A C; Vandenbussche, Fpha; Woiski, M D; Bax, C J; Cornette, Jmj; Duvekot, J J; Nij Bijvanck, Bwa; van Eyck, J; Franssen, Mtm; Sollie, K M; van der Post, Jam; Bossuyt, Pmm; Opmeer, B C; Kok, M; Mol, Bwj; van Baaren, G-J

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate whether in symptomatic women, the combination of quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing and cervical length (CL) improves the prediction of preterm delivery (PTD) within 7 days compared with qualitative fFN and CL. Post hoc analysis of frozen fFN samples of a nationwide cohort study. Ten perinatal centres in the Netherlands. Symptomatic women between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation. The risk of PTD quantitative fFN and CL, and one including qualitative fFN (threshold 50 ng/ml) and CL. We compared the models' capacity to identify women at low risk (500 ng/ml). Multivariable logistic regression showed an increasing risk of PTD in 500 ng/ml: OR 39, 95% CI 9.4-164] and shortening of the CL (OR 0.86 per mm, 95% CI 0.82-0.90). Use of quantitative fFN instead of qualitative fFN resulted in reclassification of 18 (5%) women from high to low risk, of whom one (6%) woman delivered within 7 days. In symptomatic women, quantitative fFN testing does not improve the prediction of PTD within 7 days compared with qualitative fFN testing in combination with CL measurement in terms of reclassification from high to low (Quantitative fFN testing adds value to qualitative fFN testing with CL measurement in the prediction of PTD. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Predictive power of quantitative and qualitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin in population screening for colorectal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqin; Li, Qilong; Ge, Weiting; Cai, Shanrong; Zhang, Suzhan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of qualitative and quantitative fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) in population screening for colorectal neoplasm. A total of 9000 participants aged between 40 and 74 years were enrolled in this study. Each participant received two stool sampling tubes and was asked to simultaneously submit two stool samples from the same bowel movement. The stool samples of each participant were tested using an immunogold labeling FIT dipstick (qualitative FIT) and an automated fecal blood analyzer (quantitative FIT). Colonoscopy was performed for those who test positive in either FIT. The positive predictive values and population detection rates of the FITs for predicting colorectal neoplasm were compared. A total of 6494 (72.16%) participants simultaneously submitted two stool samples. The diagnostic consistency for a positive result between quantitative and qualitative FITs was poor (κ=0.278, 95% confidence interval=0.223-0.333). The positive predictive values of the quantitative FIT were significantly higher than those of the qualitative FIT for predicting large (≥1 cm) adenomas (23 cases, 14.29% and 16 cases, 6.72%, P=0.013) and colorectal cancer (10 cases, 6.21% and 5 cases, 2.10%, P=0.034); however, the population detection rate for advanced neoplasm of the quantitative FIT was not significantly different from that of the qualitative FIT. Quantitative FIT is superior to qualitative FIT in predicting advanced colorectal neoplasm during colorectal cancer screening. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causes of the predictive superiority.

  11. Quantitative measurement of Φ630 mm F/1.34 parabolic surfaces with Ronchi grating test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiping Lei; Fan Wu; Chenbo Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The Ronchi grating is applied to measure the large-aperture aspheric surfaces in a quantitative way on the basis of self-made software which includes Ronchi null grating design, collection of Ronchi graph, and data processing. The measured concave parabolic mirror has a diamcter of 630 mm and an F number of 1.34. The measurement result is approximately the same as that of the ZYGO interferometer. This analysis software and test method establish a good foundation for the quantitative measurement of the big error about the large-aperture aspheric surfaces of the next generation telescope.

  12. Comparison of single-marker and multi-marker tests in rare variant association studies of quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigorski, Stefan; Yilmaz, Yildiz E; Pischon, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In genetic association studies of rare variants, low statistical power and potential violations of established estimator properties are among the main challenges of association tests. Multi-marker tests (MMTs) have been proposed to target these challenges, but any comparison with single-marker tests (SMTs) has to consider that their aim is to identify causal genomic regions instead of variants. Valid power comparisons have been performed for the analysis of binary traits indicating that MMTs have higher power, but there is a lack of conclusive studies for quantitative traits. The aim of our study was therefore to fairly compare SMTs and MMTs in their empirical power to identify the same causal loci associated with a quantitative trait. The results of extensive simulation studies indicate that previous results for binary traits cannot be generalized. First, we show that for the analysis of quantitative traits, conventional estimation methods and test statistics of single-marker approaches have valid properties yielding association tests with valid type I error, even when investigating singletons or doubletons. Furthermore, SMTs lead to more powerful association tests for identifying causal genes than MMTs when the effect sizes of causal variants are large, and less powerful tests when causal variants have small effect sizes. For moderate effect sizes, whether SMTs or MMTs have higher power depends on the sample size and percentage of causal SNVs. For a more complete picture, we also compare the power in studies of quantitative and binary traits, and the power to identify causal genes with the power to identify causal rare variants. In a genetic association analysis of systolic blood pressure in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 data, SMTs yielded smaller p-values compared to MMTs for most of the investigated blood pressure genes, and were least influenced by the definition of gene regions.

  13. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  15. Quantitative imaging test approval and biomarker qualification: interrelated but distinct activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Andrew J; Bresolin, Linda; Dunnick, N Reed; Sullivan, Daniel C; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Bendriem, Bernard; Bendtsen, Claus; Boellaard, Ronald; Boone, John M; Cole, Patricia E; Conklin, James J; Dorfman, Gary S; Douglas, Pamela S; Eidsaunet, Willy; Elsinger, Cathy; Frank, Richard A; Gatsonis, Constantine; Giger, Maryellen L; Gupta, Sandeep N; Gustafson, David; Hoekstra, Otto S; Jackson, Edward F; Karam, Lisa; Kelloff, Gary J; Kinahan, Paul E; McLennan, Geoffrey; Miller, Colin G; Mozley, P David; Muller, Keith E; Patt, Rick; Raunig, David; Rosen, Mark; Rupani, Haren; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Siegel, Barry A; Sorensen, A Gregory; Wahl, Richard L; Waterton, John C; Wolf, Walter; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Zimmerman, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers could speed the development of new treatments for unmet medical needs and improve routine clinical care. However, it is not clear how the various regulatory and nonregulatory (eg, reimbursement) processes (often referred to as pathways) relate, nor is it clear which data need to be collected to support these different pathways most efficiently, given the time- and cost-intensive nature of doing so. The purpose of this article is to describe current thinking regarding these pathways emerging from diverse stakeholders interested and active in the definition, validation, and qualification of quantitative imaging biomarkers and to propose processes to facilitate the development and use of quantitative imaging biomarkers. A flexible framework is described that may be adapted for each imaging application, providing mechanisms that can be used to develop, assess, and evaluate relevant biomarkers. From this framework, processes can be mapped that would be applicable to both imaging product development and to quantitative imaging biomarker development aimed at increasing the effectiveness and availability of quantitative imaging. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.10100800/-/DC1. RSNA, 2011

  16. PGD for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer : the route to universal tests for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drusedau, Marion; Dreesen, Jos C.; Derks-Smeets, Inge; Coonen, Edith; van Golde, Ron; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Kastrop, Peter M. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; Geraedts, Joep P.; Smeets, Hubert J.; de Die-Smulders, Christine E.; Paulussen, Aimee D.

    2013-01-01

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a method of testing in vitro embryos as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis with possible termination of pregnancy in case of an affected child. Recently, PGD for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations has found its way in

  17. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  18. Comparison of a qualitative canine C-reactive protein test to a quantitative test and traditional markers of inflammation - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Celia M; Mills, Jennifer N; Gaál, Tibor

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative tests for C-reactive protein (CRP) are available for use in dogs, and provide a rapid in-house method of detecting acute inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare results from a qualitative CRP lateral flow test (Teco CRP FASTest) to those obtained from a quantitative CRP ELISA and to traditional methods of detecting inflammation, including total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, presence of immature neutrophils and a left shift, presence or absence of toxic changes in neutrophils and plasma fibrinogen concentration in whole blood and serum samples collected from 113 client-owned dogs. More dogs had CRP FASTest positive results than had quantitatively increased CRP (ELISA) or increases in traditional methods used for measuring inflammation. Few dogs had increases in markers of inflammation but no elevated CRP. The qualitative CRP FASTest was found to be a sensitive test for detecting increased CRP concentration and was positive more frequently than were traditional markers of inflammation.

  19. Spacelab carrier complement thermal design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, S.; Key, R.; Kittredge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The present discussion of the Spacelab carrier complement, which encompasses a Module Carrier, a Module-Pallet Carrier, and a Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Pallet, gives attention to both active and passive thermal performance capabilities, and presents ground testing and analytical results obtained to date. An account is given of the prospective use of a Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure.

  20. A Quantitative Analytical Method to Test for Salt Effects on Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadorn, Maik; Bönzli, Eva; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Today, free-standing membranes, i.e. liposomes and vesicles, are used in a multitude of applications, e.g. as drug delivery devices and artificial cell models. Because current laboratory techniques do not allow handling of large sample sizes, systematic and quantitative studies on the impact...

  1. Ecosystem functioning and maximum entropyes production: a quantitative test of hypothes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Bruers, S.

    2010-01-01

    The idea that entropy production puts a constraint on ecosystem functioning is quite popular in ecological thermodynamics. Yet, until now, such claims have received little quantitative verification. Here, we examine three ‘entropy production’ hypotheses that have been forwarded in the past. The firs

  2. Carrier attitude test system based on AMI 602 sensor%基于AMI 602传感器的载体姿态测试系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆雷; 陈志保; 常丹华; 朱绍图

    2012-01-01

    针对捷联式载体姿态测试系统中存在的抗干扰能力差、不能很好地消除坐标误差以及姿态角测量范围的局限性等缺陷,提出了一种基于集加速度、地磁于一体的6维AMI 602动作传感器的姿态测试系统.通过AMI 602动作传感器输出6维数据结合加速度和地磁2个常量来确定载体在空间中的姿态.测试表明:该系统能解决上述缺陷,且具有精度高、功耗低、小型化等特点,可应用于GPS、手机、游戏设备等姿态测量领域.%Aiming at the defects of poor anti-interference ability,coordinate errors cat not be eliminated,limitation of attitude angle measurement range and so on, which exist in strapdown carrier attitude lest system is proposed. This system is a 6D AMI 602 motion sensor which incorporates geomagnetism and acceleration. The attitude of carrier in the space is determined through the output 6D datas of AMI 602 motion sensor incorporates with the two constants of acceleration and geomagnetism. Tests show that the system can solve ihe above deficiencies and has the characteristics of high precision, low power consumption and miniaturization,can be applied to GPS, mobile phones, game devices and other areas of attitude measurement.

  3. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF CARCINOGENIC TYPES OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS BY QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE TESTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, E T; Labigina, A V; Leshenko, O Ya; Rusanov, D N; Kuzmenko, V V; Fedko, L P; Pak, I P

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of results of screening (n = 3208; sexually active citizen aged from 18 to 59 years) was carried out to detect oncogene types of human papilloma virus in using qualitative (1150 females and 720 males) and quantitative (polymerase chain reaction in real-time (843 females and 115 males) techniques. The human papilloma virus of high oncogene type was detected in 65% and 68.4% of females and in 48.6% and 53% of males correspondingly. Among 12 types of human papilloma virus the most frequently diagnosed was human papilloma virus 16 independently of gender of examined and technique of analysis. In females, under application of qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 18.3% (n = 280) and under application of quantitative tests Rte of human papilloma virus made up to 14.9% (n = 126; p ≤ 0.05). Under examination of males using qualitative tests rate of human papilloma virus 16 made up to 8.3% (n = 60) and under application of qualitative tests made up to 12.2% (n = 14; p ≥ 0.05). Under application of qualitative tests rate of detection on the rest ofoncogene types of human papilloma virus varied in females from 3.4% to 8.4% and in males from 1.8% to 5.9%. Under application of qualitative tests to females rate of human papilloma virus with high viral load made up to 68.4%, with medium viral load - 2.85% (n = 24) and with low viral load -0.24% (n = 2). Under application of quantitative tests in males rate of detection of types of human papilloma virus made up to 53% and at that in all high viral load was established. In females, the most of oncogene types of human papilloma virus (except for 31, 39, 59) are detected significantly more often than in males.

  4. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  5. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  6. Quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in primary Restless legs syndrome - A prospective study on 57 Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with restless leg syndrome present with sensory symptoms similar to peripheral neuropathy. While there is evidence of abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways, the peripheral nervous system has been studied infrequently. We studied conventional nerve conduction studies, quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in 57 patients with primary restless leg syndrome. Almost two third patients demonstrated abnormalities in the detailed testing of the peripheral nervous system. Sbtle abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system may be more common than previously believed.

  7. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  8. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  9. A General Test of Association for Quantitative Traits in Nuclear Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abecasis, G.R; Cardon, L.R; Cookson, W.O.C

    2000-01-01

    .... Appropriately designed tests of association that use family-based controls to account for population substructure can provide direct tests of linkage disequilibrium and efficient fine-mapping tools. T...

  10. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    in 4/19 (20%) of the test subjects. The ROAT was performed with a test solution of 0.2% isoeugenol in ethanol, which is the recommended maximum concentration used in perfumes, ethanol being applied as vehicle control. 4 weeks was the maximum exposure period. The upper arm was used as test site the 1st...

  11. Comparison of Test Scores Obtained by Eighth Graders on Illustrated and Abstract Content Questions: A Quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakalli, Ayhan; Turgut, Umit; Salar, Riza

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether students are more successful on abstract or illustrated test questions. To this end, the questions on an abstract test were changed into a visual format, and these tests were administered every three days to a total of 240 students at six middle schools located in the Erzurum city center and…

  12. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The clinical implications of sensitization to the fragrance material isoeugenol were studied in 19 subjects. Patch testing with serial dilutions of isoeugenol and a repeated open application test (ROAT) were performed. The minimum effect level under patch test conditions was below 0.01% isoeugeno...

  13. Quantitative Histology Studies on the Test in Hybrid Bull of Wild and Domestic Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    The testicular tissue of three types of yak bull (1/2 wild yak,cross 1/2 wild yak and domestic yak) were studied quantitatively at 6,12,18 and 24 months old. The results showed that the average values changed from breed to breed at the same age. But there were no significant difference. The volume density and the height of seminiferous tubule and epithelium increased with the age and testicular weight. The capacity rate of the testicular seminiferous tubule in three types were 78.71% ,75.78% and 78.58% respectively, which nearly reached the level of mature bull.

  14. Serum Levels of MicroRNA-206 and Novel Mini-STR Assays for Carrier Detection in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Segura, Mónica Alejandra; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Zamora-González, Edgar Oswaldo; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder in which the detection of female carriers is of the utmost importance for genetic counseling. Haplotyping with polymorphic markers and quantitation of creatine kinase levels (CK) allow tracking of the at-risk haplotype and evidence muscle damage, respectively. Such approaches are useful for carrier detection in cases of unknown mutations. The lack of informative markers and the inaccuracy of CK affect carrier detection. Therefore, herein we designed novel mini-STR (Short Tandem Repeats) assays to amplify 10 loci within the DMD gene and estimated allele frequencies and the polymorphism information content among other parameters in 337 unrelated individuals from three Mexican populations. In addition, we tested the utility of the assays for carrier detection in three families. Moreover, given that serum levels of miR-206 discern between DMD patients and controls with a high area under the curve (AUC), the potential applicability for carrier detection was assessed. The serum levels of miR-206 of non-carriers (n = 24) and carriers (n = 23) were compared by relative quantitation using real-time PCR (p < 0.05), which resulted in an AUC = 0.80 in the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, miR-206 has potential as a “liquid biopsy” for carrier detection and genetic counseling in DMD. PMID:27529242

  15. Serum Levels of MicroRNA-206 and Novel Mini-STR Assays for Carrier Detection in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder in which the detection of female carriers is of the utmost importance for genetic counseling. Haplotyping with polymorphic markers and quantitation of creatine kinase levels (CK allow tracking of the at-risk haplotype and evidence muscle damage, respectively. Such approaches are useful for carrier detection in cases of unknown mutations. The lack of informative markers and the inaccuracy of CK affect carrier detection. Therefore, herein we designed novel mini-STR (Short Tandem Repeats assays to amplify 10 loci within the DMD gene and estimated allele frequencies and the polymorphism information content among other parameters in 337 unrelated individuals from three Mexican populations. In addition, we tested the utility of the assays for carrier detection in three families. Moreover, given that serum levels of miR-206 discern between DMD patients and controls with a high area under the curve (AUC, the potential applicability for carrier detection was assessed. The serum levels of miR-206 of non-carriers (n = 24 and carriers (n = 23 were compared by relative quantitation using real-time PCR (p < 0.05, which resulted in an AUC = 0.80 in the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, miR-206 has potential as a “liquid biopsy” for carrier detection and genetic counseling in DMD.

  16. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease compared to healthy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads Utke; Dahl, Jørgen Berg;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold...... and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure...... algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37...

  17. Testing quantitative pollen dispersal models in animal-pollinated vegetation mosaics: An example from temperate Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M.; Connor, S. E.; Theuerkauf, M.; Kuneš, P.; Fletcher, M.-S.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing past vegetation abundance and land-cover changes through time has important implications in land management and climate modelling. To date palaeovegetation reconstructions in Australia have been limited to qualitative or semi-quantitative inferences from pollen data. Testing pollen dispersal models constitutes a crucial step in developing quantitative past vegetation and land cover reconstructions. Thus far, the application of quantitative pollen dispersal models has been restricted to regions dominated by wind-pollinated plants (e.g. Europe) and their performance in a landscape dominated by animal-pollinated plant taxa is still unexplored. Here we test, for the first time in Australia, two well-known pollen dispersal models to assess their performance in the wind- and animal-pollinated vegetation mosaics of western Tasmania. We focus on a mix of wind- (6 taxa) and animal- (7 taxa) pollinated species that comprise the most common pollen types and key representatives of the dominant vegetation formations. Pollen Productivity Estimates and Relevant Source Area of Pollen obtained using Lagrangian Stochastic turbulent simulations appear to be more realistic when compared to the results from the widely used Gaussian Plume Model.

  18. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weihs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour.Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize.Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation.Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff.Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279.Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the right

  19. The Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative composite cognitive test score: Sample size estimates for the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease treatments in presenilin 1 E280A mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Langbaum, Jessica B.; Hendrix, Suzanne B.; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Ward, Michael; Aguirre, Camilo; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Madrigal, Lucìa; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Moreno, Sonia; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is a need to identify a cognitive composite that is sensitive to tracking preclinical AD decline to be used as a primary endpoint in treatment trials. Method We capitalized on longitudinal data, collected from 1995 to 2010, from cognitively unimpaired presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers from the world’s largest known early-onset autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) kindred to identify a composite cognitive test with the greatest statistical power to track preclinical AD decline and estimate the number of carriers age 30 and older needed to detect a treatment effect in the Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative’s (API) preclinical AD treatment trial. The mean-to-standard-deviation ratios (MSDRs) of change over time were calculated in a search for the optimal combination of one to seven cognitive tests/sub-tests drawn from the neuropsychological test battery in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers during a two and five year follow-up period, using data from non-carriers during the same time period to correct for aging and practice effects. Combinations that performed well were then evaluated for robustness across follow-up years, occurrence of selected items within top performing combinations and representation of relevant cognitive domains. Results This optimal test combination included CERAD Word List Recall, CERAD Boston Naming Test (high frequency items), MMSE Orientation to Time, CERAD Constructional Praxis and Ravens Progressive Matrices (Set A) with an MSDR of 1.62. This composite is more sensitive than using either the CERAD Word List Recall (MSDR=0.38) or the entire CERAD-Col battery (MSDR=0.76). A sample size of 75 cognitively normal PSEN1-E280A mutation carriers age 30 and older per treatment arm allows for a detectable treatment effect of 29% in a 60-month trial (80% power, p=0.05). Conclusions We have identified a composite cognitive test score representing multiple cognitive domains that has improved power compared to the most

  20. Gene-based multiple regression association testing for combined examination of common and low frequency variants in quantitative trait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Joo eYoo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-marker methods for genetic association analysis can be performed for common and low frequency SNPs to improve power. Regression models are an intuitive way to formulate multi-marker tests. In previous studies we evaluated regression-based multi-marker tests for common SNPs, and through identification of bins consisting of correlated SNPs, developed a multi-bin linear combination (MLC test that is a compromise between a 1df linear combination test and a multi-df global test. Bins of SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD are identified, and a linear combination of individual SNP statistics is constructed within each bin. Then association with the phenotype is represented by an overall statistic with df as many or few as the number of bins. In this report we evaluate multi-marker tests for SNPs that occur at low frequencies. There are many linear and quadratic multi-marker tests that are suitable for common or low frequency variant analysis. We compared the performance of the MLC tests with various linear and quadratic statistics in joint or marginal regressions. For these comparisons, we performed a simulation study of genotypes and quantitative traits for 85 genes with many low frequency SNPs based on HapMap Phase III. We compared the tests using 1 set of all SNPs in a gene, 2 set of common SNPs in a gene (MAF≥5%, 3 set of low frequency SNPs (1%≤MAF

  1. Early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma by quantitative neurootological and neuroradiological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, C.T.

    1983-02-01

    Every patient with unilateral and sensoneural loss of hearing, independent of vertigo anamnesis or X-rays must be further examined by a vestibular test. Between 1974 and 1980, 80 acoustic neuromas could be diagnosed, including 12 early stage neuromas. This relatively high detection quote of small neuromas is due to a special diagnostical program: All 80 patients with acoustic neuroma had a pathological vestibular result. The positional test turned out to be the most sensitive examination in the early diagnosis of acoustic neuromas and yields a still higher incidence than the caloric test: 95% of the patients with a neurinoma showed a pathological result in the positional test. So every patient suffering from an unidentified unilateral and sensoneural hearing loss combined with a pathological result in the positional test must be further examined by a cisternomeatography or computerized tomography (using air-insufflation). Every fifth of these patients showed unique hints of an acoustic neuroma in the neuroradiological test.

  2. Quantitative spot-test analysis of metformin in pharmaceutical preparations using ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubino, Matthieu; Bianchessi, Luís Francisco; Vila, Marta M D C

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative spot-test for the determination of metformin in pharmaceutical preparations using diffuse UV-visible reflectance is reported. The procedure is quite simple, involving in the formation of a metformin-nickel(II) complex on a glass filter membrane with a later measurement of the reflectance in the spectrophotometer using an integration sphere. The analytical results obtained with commercial products were statistically compared with those resulting from a method recommended by JP and by USP, where complete agreement was observed. The average RSD is 2.5% and the detection (0.009 mol L(-1)) and the quantitation (0.03 mol L(-1)) limits are quite adequate for pharmaceutical analysis.

  3. Development of an immunochromatographic test strip for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative detection of ochratoxin A and zearalenone in cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaning; Xing, Guangxu; Yang, Jifei; Wang, Fangyu; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) are natural products of filamentous fungi that are harmful to humans and animals exposed to them even in extremely low concentration. The immunochromatographic test strip has become a popular diagnostic tool for detecting analytes. Its major advantages are that results can be obtained within 5-10 min, all needed reagents are included in the strip and it can be used to detect OTA and ZEN contamination in spots. In this study a colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic test strip of competitive format was developed for the rapid simultaneous qualitative and quantitative detection of OTA and ZEN in corn and other cereals. The test strip results with the naked eye showed that the sensitivities were 6 µg kg(-1) OTA and 20 µg kg(-1) ZEN in cereal, while those with a TSR3000 membrane strip reader showed that the IC50 values of OTA and ZEN were 1.7905 and 4.3514 ng mL(-1) and the lower detection limit (LDL) values were 0.7697 and 1.2000 µg kg(-1) respectively. These results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The immunochromatographic test strip developed in this study could be used for the rapid simultaneous, qualitative and quantitative screening of OTA and ZEN in corn samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of lactoperoxidase on the antimicrobial effectiveness of the thiocyanate hydrogen peroxide combination in a quantitative suspension test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwahn Ch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive antimicrobial effects of increasing concentrations of thiocyanate (SCN- and H2O2 on the human peroxidase defence system are well known. However, little is known about the quantitative efficacy of the human peroxidase thiocyanate H2O2 system regarding Streptococcus mutans and sanguinis, as well as Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the enzyme lactoperoxidase on the bactericidal and fungicidal effectiveness of a thiocyanate-H2O2 combination above the physiological saliva level. To evaluate the optimal effectiveness curve, the exposure times were restricted to 1, 3, 5, and 15 min. Results The bactericidal and fungicidal effects of lactoperoxidase on Streptococcus mutans and sanguinis and Candida albicans were evaluated by using two test mixtures of a 2.0% (w/v; 0.34 M thiocyanate and 0.4% (w/v; 0.12 M hydrogen peroxide solution, one without and one with lactoperoxidase. Following the quantitative suspension tests (EN 1040 and EN 1275, the growth of surviving bacteria and fungi in a nutrient broth was measured. The reduction factor in the suspension test without lactoperoxidase enzyme was Conclusion The tested thiocyanate and H2O2 mixtures showed no relevant antimicrobial effect. However, by adding lactoperoxidase enzyme, the mixtures became not only an effective bactericidal (Streptococcus mutans and sanguinis but also a fungicidal (Candida albicans agent.

  5. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative fit-testing results for three commonly used respirators in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Danyluk, Quinn; Bryce, Elizabeth; Janssen, Bob; Neudorf, Mike; Yassi, Annalee; Shen, Hui; Astrakianakis, George

    2017-03-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirators are used by healthcare workers when there is a risk of exposure to airborne hazards during aerosol-generating procedures. Respirator fit-testing is required prior to use to ensure that the selected respirator provides an adequate face seal. Two common fit-test methods can be employed: qualitative fit-test (QLFT) or quantitative fit-test (QNFT). Respiratory protection standards deem both fit-tests to be acceptable. However, previous studies have indicated that fit-test results may differ between QLFT and QNFT and that the outcomes may also be influenced by the type of respirator model. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference in fit-test outcomes with our suite of respirators, 3M - 1860S, 1860, AND 1870, and whether the model impacts the fit-test results. Subjects were recruited from residential care facilities. Each participant was assigned a respirator and underwent sequential QLFT and QNFT fit-tests and the results (either pass or fail) were recorded. To ascertain the degree of agreement between the two fit-tests, a Kappa (Κ) statistic was conducted as per the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) respiratory protection standard. The pass-fail rates were stratified by respirator model and a Kappa statistic was calculated for each to determine effect of model on fit-test outcomes. We had 619 participants and the aggregate Κ statistic for all respirators was 0.63 which is below the suggested ANSI threshold of 0.70. There was no statistically significant difference in results when stratified by respirator model. QNFT and QLFT produced different fit-test outcomes for the three respirator models examined. The disagreement in outcomes between the two fit-test methods with our suite of N95 filtering facepiece respirators was approximately 12%. Our findings may benefit other healthcare organizations that use these three respirators.

  6. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic...... pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...

  7. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic...... pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed...

  8. Evaluating functional clothing in climatic chamber tests versus field tests: a comparison of quantitative and qualitative methods in product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, I C; Rosenblad, E F

    1998-10-01

    For the evaluation of clothing by human beings, two different approaches can be identified--laboratory tests (i.e. climatic chamber tests) or field trials/wear trials. It has been suggested that the performance of clothing can be adequately predicted on the basis of the data obtained from climatic chamber tests and that field trials may be expendable altogether. From a product development perspective, this paper discusses the information provided by standard data collection methods and tools for the assessment of thermal comfort used in laboratory settings and compares this information with that acquired in field trials. When assessing the information provided in the laboratory test against those questions posed in a development process, the results highlight the insufficiency of objectively measurable criteria. Therefore, objective measurements alone cannot verify the adequacy of stated requirements for thermal comfort. The use of appropriate and sensitive tools for collecting subjective votes should also be noted, since small differences in thermal sensation affected the individual's preference for clothing. Exposed differences between subjects, in terms of thermophysiological as well as subjective responses, illustrate the importance of studying individual values and deviations as opposed to strict mean values for large populations in order to satisfy a potential user group. It is argued that complementary interviews form a basis for further understanding of ratings and preferences and that they should also be included in the climatic chamber evaluation 'tool box'. User satisfaction is based on a simultaneous assessment of partly opposing properties into a satisfying use value. Although laboratory test procedures can be developed and improved in relation to design issues, field evaluations must be regarded as an integrated part of an iterative development process. Only the actual use situation can provide the total spectrum of conditions on which basis

  9. Development of Up-Converting Phosphor Immunochromatography Test for Quantitative Detection of Sulfadiazin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An up-converting phosphor (UCP) immunochromatography test was developed for the detection of sulfadiazine (SD). The anti-SD monoclonal was conjugated to the up-converting phosphor particles while the SD-BSA immobilized on the

  10. Development of Up-Converting Phosphor Immunochromatography Test for Quantitative Detection of Enrofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An up-converting phosphor (UCP) immunochromatography test was developed for the detection of enrofloxacin (ENR). The anti-ENR monoclonal was conjugated to the up-converting phosphor particles while the ENR-BSA immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane

  11. Improvement of quantitative testing of liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis C after installment of antiviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Ocker; Marion Ganslmayer; Steffen Zopf; Susanne Gahr; Christopher Janson; Eckhart G. Hahn; Christoph Herold

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if and to what extent antiviral therapy influenced a broad panel of quantitative testing of liver function (QTLF).METHODS: Fifty patients with chronic hepatitis C were either treated with interferon (n = 8), interferon/ribavirin (n = 19) or peg-interferon/ribavirin (n = 23). Quantitative testing of liver function, including aminopyrine breath test (ABT), galactose elimination capacity (GEC), sorbitol clearance (SCI) and indocyanine green clearance (ICG)was performed before and 3 mo after initiation of antiviral therapy.RESULTS: After 3 mo of antiviral treatment, 36 patients showed normal transaminases and were negative for HCV-RNA, 14 patients did not respond to therapy. ABT and GEC as parameters of microsomal and cytosolic liver function were reduced in all patients before therapy initiation and returned to normal values in the 36 therapy responders after 3 mo. Parameters of liver perfusion (SCI and ICG) were not affected by antiviral therapy. In the 14 non-responders,no changes in QTLF values were observed during the treatment period.CONCLUSION: ICG and SCI remained unaffected in patients with chronic hepatitis C, while ABT and GEC were significantly compromised. ABT and GEC normalized in responders to antiviral therapy. Early determination of ABT and GEC may differentiate responders from non-responders to antivJral treatment in hepatitis C.

  12. Diagnostic value of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, K; Lindblom, U

    1988-12-01

    The initial sensory symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are usually intermittent and the clinical neurological examination is often normal. The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of impairment of different somatosensory modalities in CTS by means of the following tests: vibrametry, tactile pulses, von Frey hairs, two-point discrimination (2-PD), graphesthesia and warm and cold perception thresholds. The material consisted of 33 hands with CTS from 22 patients. Each of the first 3 tests was abnormal with elevated thresholds in 17 CTS hands (52%), 2-PD was abnormal in 10 hands (30%), graphesthesia in 8 hands (24%), and warm and cold thresholds in only 5 hands (15%). There was an overlap so that at least one test was abnormal in 27 of the 33 CTS hands (82%). Thus, impairment of sensibility can be demonstrated in a majority of patients with CTS if more than one test is applied. Vibrametry and von Frey hairs are recommended instead of the commonly used 2-PD, since abnormality was more often revealed and since they are equally easy to apply. No individual test was sensitive enough to qualify as a diagnostic criterion when it was applied with the hand in resting position. A significant increase in both sensitivity and specificity can be expected for any test if it is combined with provocation, such as wrist flexion, as has been demonstrated for vibrametry.

  13. Semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of Three Hapalemur species in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Nayuta; Tan, Chia L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Three sympatric Hapalemur species (H. g. griseus, H. aureus, and H. (Prolemur) simus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar are known to eat bamboo food parts that contain cyanide. How these lemurs avoid cyanide poisoning remains unknown. In this study, we tested for the presence/absence of cyanide in bamboo lemur foods and excreta to (1) document patterns of cyanide consumption among species with respect to diet, (2) identify routes of elimination of cyanide from the gastrointestinal tract, and (3) determine whether cyanide is absorbed from the diet. We tested 102 food, urine, and fecal samples for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during two "pre-dry" seasons (April 2006, May 2007) using commercially available Cyantesmo test strips. The test strips changed color in the presence of HCN, and we recorded color change on a scale of 0 (no change) to 5 (cobalt) at preset intervals with a final score taken at 24 hr. We detected cyanide in bamboo food parts and urine of all three Hapalemur species. Time to color change of the test strips ranged from almost instantaneous to >12 hr incubation. Of the foods tested, only bamboo contained cyanide, but results differed among bamboo species and plant parts of the same species. Specifically, branch shoot and culm pith of the giant bamboo produced strong, immediate reactions to the test paper, whereas parts of liana bamboos produced either weak or no color change. Cyanide was present in almost all urine samples but rarely in fecal samples. This suggests that dietary cyanide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the Hapalemur species and excreted, at least in part, by the kidneys. Samples from H. griseus exhibited lower, though still detectable, cyanide levels compared with H. simus and H. aureus. Differences among lemur species appear to be related to the specific bamboo parts consumed.

  14. Rapid Quantitative Serological Test for Detection of Infection with Mycobacterium leprae, the Causative Agent of Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagon, Marivic F.; Maghanoy, Armi; Orcullo, Florenda M.; Cang, Marjorie; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy remains an important health problem in a number of regions. Early detection of infection, followed by effective treatment, is critical to reduce disease progression. New sensitive and specific tools for early detection of infection will be a critical component of an effective leprosy elimination campaign. Diagnosis is made by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, but few clinicians are able to confidently identify these. Simple tests to facilitate referral to leprosy experts are not widely available, and the correct diagnosis of leprosy is often delayed. In this report, we evaluate the performance of a new leprosy serological test (NDO-LID). As expected, the test readily detected clinically confirmed samples from patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy, and the rate of positive results declined with bacterial burden. NDO-LID detected larger proportions of MB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy than the alternative, the Standard Diagnostics leprosy test (87.0% versus 81.7% and 32.3% versus 6.5%, respectively), while also demonstrating improved specificity (97.4% versus 90.4%). Coupled with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader), the NDO-LID test provided consistent, objective test interpretation that could facilitate wider use in nonspecialized settings. In addition, results obtained from sera at the time of diagnosis, versus at the end of treatment, indicated that the quantifiable nature of this system can also be used to monitor treatment efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that the NDO-LID/Smart Reader system can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of MB leprosy and can detect a significant number of earlier-stage infections. PMID:24478496

  15. Development of a quantitative rapid diagnostic test for multibacillary leprosy using smart phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Vaz Cardoso, Ludimila; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Freitas, Aline Araújo; Hungria, Emerith Mayra; Oliveira, Regiane Morillas; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G; Duthie, Malcolm S; Martins Araújo Stefani, Mariane

    2013-10-23

    Despite efforts to eliminate leprosy as public health problem, delayed diagnosis and disabilities still occur in many countries. Leprosy diagnosis remains based on clinical manifestations and the number of clinicians with expertise in leprosy diagnosis is in decline. We have developed a new immunochromatographic test with the goal of producing a simple and rapid system that can be used, with a minimal amount of training, to provide an objective and consistent diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy. The test immobilizes two antigens that have been recognized as excellent candidates for serologic diagnosis (the PGL-I mimetic, ND-O, and LID-1), on a nitrocellulose membrane. This allows the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies within 20 minutes of the addition of patient sera. Furthermore, we coupled the NDO-LID® rapid tests with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader®) to provide objective interpretation that was both quantifiable and consistent. Direct comparison of serologic responses indicated that the rapid test detected a greater proportion of leprosy patients than a lab-based PGL-I ELISA. While positive responses were detected by PGL-I ELISA in 83.3% of multibacillary patients and 15.4% of paucibacillary patients, these numbers were increased to 87% and 21.2%, respectively, when a combination of the NDO-LID® test and Smart Reader® was used. Among multibacillary leprosy the sensitivity of NDO-LID® test assessed by Smart Reader® was 87% (95% CI, 79.2-92.7%) and the specificity was 96.1% (95% CI, 91.7- 98.6%). The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of NDO-LID® tests were 94% (95% CI, 87.4-97.8%) and 91.4% (95% CI, 85.9-95.2%), respectively. The widespread provision of rapid diagnostic tests to facilitate the diagnosis or prognosis of multibacillary leprosy could impact on leprosy control programs by aiding early detection, directing appropriate treatment and potentially interrupting Mycobacterium leprae

  16. A quantitative test of the cultural theory of risk perceptions: comparison with the psychometric paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Langford, I H; O'Riordan, T

    1998-10-01

    This paper seeks to compare two frameworks which have been proposed to explain risk perceptions, namely, cultural theory and the psychometric paradigm. A structured questionnaire which incorporated elements from both approaches was administered to 129 residents of Norwich, England. The qualitative risk characteristics generated by the psychometric paradigm explained a far greater proportion of the variance in risk perceptions than cultural biases, though it should be borne in mind that the qualitative characteristics refer directly to risks whereas cultural biases are much more distant variables. Correlations between cultural biases and risk perceptions were very low, but the key point was that each cultural bias was associated with concern about distinct types of risks and that the pattern of responses was compatible with that predicted by cultural theory. The cultural approach also provided indicators for underlying beliefs regarding trust and the environment; beliefs which were consistent within each world view but divergent between them. An important drawback, however, was that the psychometric questionnaire could only allocate 32% of the respondents unequivocally to one of the four cultural types. The rest of the sample expressed several cultural biases simultaneously, or none at all. Cultural biases are therefore probably best interpreted as four extreme world views, and a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies would generate better insights into who might defend these views in what circumstances, whether there are only four mutually exclusive world views or not, and how these views are related to patterns of social solidarity, and judgments on institutional trust.

  17. The Vermicelli Handling Test: A Simple Quantitative Measure of Dexterous Forepaw Function in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Rachel P.; Adkins, DeAnna L.; Woodlee, Martin T.; Husbands, Lincoln C.; Maldonado, Mónica A.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Schallert, Timothy; Jones, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of function in the hands occurs with many brain disorders, but there are few measures of skillful forepaw use in rats available to model these impairments that are both sensitive and simple to administer. Whishaw and Coles (1996) previously described the dexterous manner in which rats manipulate food items with their paws, including thin pieces of pasta. We set out to develop a measure of this food handling behavior that would be quantitative, easy to administer, sensitive to the effects of damage to sensory and motor systems of the CNS and useful for identifying the side of lateralized impairments. When rats handle 7 cm lengths of vermicelli, they manipulate the pasta by repeatedly adjusting the forepaw hold on the pasta piece. As operationally defined, these adjustments can be easily identified and counted by an experimenter without specialized equipment. After unilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) lesions, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and striatal dopamine depleting (6-hydroxydopamine, 6-OHDA) lesions in adult rats, there were enduring reductions in adjustments made with the contralateral forepaw. Additional pasta handling characteristics distinguished between the lesion types. MCAO and 6-OHDA lesions increased the frequency of several identified atypical handling patterns. Severe dopamine depletion increased eating time and adjustments made with the ipsilateral forepaw. However, contralateral forepaw adjustment number most sensitively detected enduring impairments across lesion types. Because of its ease of administration and sensitivity to lateralized impairments in skilled forepaw use, this measure may be useful in rat models of upper extremity impairment. PMID:18325597

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of gamma-Spectrum Analysis Methods using IAEA Test Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of a γ-spectrum analysis method based on nonlinear least-squares fitting. The quality of the method is investigated by using statistical tests on the results from analyses of IAEA test spectra. By applying an empirical correction factor of 0.75 to the calculated peak-area...... uncertainties, agreement is achieved between the calculated and the observed variability of the results. The results in terms of relative peak areas and relative peak positions are shown to yield unbiased estimates of the tru values given by the IAEA. The overall accuracy of these estimates is significantly (P...... > 95%) better than that of estimates calculated from a previously reported analysis method. Standard deviations of the calculated peak-area ratios from the IAEA test spectra are given in order to permit the overall accuracy of other analysis methods to be compared with that of the present one....

  19. Quantitative sensory test for primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease using the current perception threshold test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Keun Tae; Do, So Young; Lim, Jung-Geun; Lee, So Young; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2017-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder, and it is especially aggravated at night. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal sensory dysfunction in primary RLS/WED using the current perception threshold (CPT) test, compared to healthy controls. Thirty primary RLS/WED subjects and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The severity of RLS/WED and sleep problems were evaluated in all subjects. Peripheral polyneuropathy was excluded through neurological examination and nerve conduction study. We used the Neurometer(®) system for the CPT test and applied three different parameters (2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz), to stimulate both big toes. The CPT test was performed twice, once during the asymptomatic daytime period and again in the evening, when the patients were symptomatic. The mean ages of the RLS/WED group and controls were 50.5 ± 11.7 (22; 73.3% female), and 46.3 ± 11.4 (24; 80.0% female), respectively. The mean international RLS/WED study group severity scale score was 28.6 ± 4.25. There was no significant difference in the current perception thresholds between the RLS/WED patients and controls in daytime. However, the RLS/WED patients had lower mean CPT measurements for all three stimulation protocols in the evening (2000 Hz: 393.2 ± 93.7 vs 430.8 ± 79.6, 250 Hz: 172.0 ± 48.4 vs 198.5 ± 38.2, and 5 Hz: 98.0 ± 34.1 vs 124.6 ± 31.3), while the healthy controls showed no difference. RLS patients showed a lower CPT in the evening. The diurnal variation of hyperalgesia in RLS/WED patients indicates a central (circadian) sensory processing disturbance rather than a peripheral disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexible and robust methods for rare-variant testing of quantitative traits in trios and nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunxuan; Conneely, Karen N; Epstein, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Most rare-variant association tests for complex traits are applicable only to population-based or case-control resequencing studies. There are fewer rare-variant association tests for family-based resequencing studies, which is unfortunate because pedigrees possess many attractive characteristics for such analyses. Family-based studies can be more powerful than their population-based counterparts due to increased genetic load and further enable the implementation of rare-variant association tests that, by design, are robust to confounding due to population stratification. With this in mind, we propose a rare-variant association test for quantitative traits in families; this test integrates the QTDT approach of Abecasis et al. [Abecasis et al., ] into the kernel-based SNP association test KMFAM of Schifano et al. [Schifano et al., ]. The resulting within-family test enjoys the many benefits of the kernel framework for rare-variant association testing, including rapid evaluation of P-values and preservation of power when a region harbors rare causal variation that acts in different directions on phenotype. Additionally, by design, this within-family test is robust to confounding due to population stratification. Although within-family association tests are generally less powerful than their counterparts that use all genetic information, we show that we can recover much of this power (although still ensuring robustness to population stratification) using a straightforward screening procedure. Our method accommodates covariates and allows for missing parental genotype data, and we have written software implementing the approach in R for public use.

  1. Quantitative patch and repeated open application testing in methyldibromo glutaronitrile-sensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuch, A; Kelterer, D; Bauer, A; Schuster, Ch; Aberer, W; Mahler, V; Katzer, K; Rakoski, J; Jappe, U; Krautheim, A; Bircher, A; Koch, P; Worm, M; Löffler, H; Hillen, U; Frosch, P J; Uter, W

    2005-04-01

    Contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN), often combined with phenoxyethanol (PE) (e.g., Euxyl K 400), increased throughout the 1990s in Europe. Consequently, in 2003, the European Commission banned its use in leave-on products, where its use concentration was considered too high and the non-sensitizing use concentration as yet unknown. The 2 objectives of the study are (a) to find a maximum non-eliciting concentration in a leave-on product in MDBGN/PE-sensitized patients, which could possibly also be considered safe regarding induction and (b) to find the best patch test concentration for MDBGN. We, therefore, performed a use-related test (ROAT) in patients sensitized to MDBGN/PE (n = 39) with 3 concentrations of MDBGN/PE (50, 100 and 250 p.p.m. MDBGN, respectively). A subset of these patients (n = 24) was later patch-tested with various concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5% MDBGN, respectively). 15 patients (38%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 23-55%) had a negative and 24 (62%; 95% CI = 45-77%) a positive overall repeated open application test (ROAT) result. 13 reacted to the lowest (50 p.p.m.), 8 to the middle (100 p.p.m.) and 3 to the highest concentration (250 p.p.m.) only. In those 13 reacting to the lowest ROAT concentration, dermatitis developed within a few days (1-7). The strength of the initial and the confirmatory patch test result, respectively, and the outcome of the ROAT were positively associated. Of the 24 patients with a use and confirmatory patch test, 15 reacted to 0.1% MDBGN, 16 to 0.2%, 17 to 0.3% and 22 to 0.5%. With the patch test concentration of 0.5%, the number of ROAT-negative patients but patch-test-positive patients increases considerably, particularly due to + reactions. A maximum sensitivity of 94% (95% CI = 70-100%) is reached with a patch test concentration of 0.2%, and is not further improved by increasing the concentration. However, the specificity decreases dramatically from 88 (95% CI = 47-100%) with 0.2% to a

  2. Joint SOGC-CCMG Opinion for Reproductive Genetic Carrier Screening: An Update for All Canadian Providers of Maternity and Reproductive Healthcare in the Era of Direct-to-Consumer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; De Bie, Isabelle; Armour, Christine M; Brown, Richard N; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June C; Okun, Nan; Nelson, Tanya; Zwingerman, Rhonda; Audibert, Francois; Brock, Jo-Ann; Brown, Richard N; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June C; De Bie, Isabelle; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Okun, Nan; Pastruck, Melanie; Vallée-Pouliot, Karine; Wilson, R Douglas; Zwingerman, Rhonda; Armour, Christine; Chitayat, David; De Bie, Isabelle; Fernandez, Sara; Kim, Raymond; Lavoie, Josee; Leonard, Norma; Nelson, Tanya; Taylor, Sherry; Van Allen, Margot; Van Karnebeek, Clara

    2016-08-01

    This guideline was written to update Canadian maternity care and reproductive healthcare providers on pre- and postconceptional reproductive carrier screening for women or couples who may be at risk of being carriers for autosomal recessive (AR), autosomal dominant (AD), or X-linked (XL) conditions, with risk of transmission to the fetus. Four previous SOGC- Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) guidelines are updated and merged into the current document. All maternity care (most responsible health provider [MRHP]) and paediatric providers; maternity nursing; nurse practitioner; provincial maternity care administrator; medical student; and postgraduate resident year 1-7. Fertile, sexually active females and their fertile, sexually active male partners who are either planning a pregnancy or are pregnant (preferably in the first trimester of pregnancy, but any gestational age is acceptable). Women and their partners will be able to obtain appropriate genetic carrier screening information and possible diagnosis of AR, AD, or XL disorders (preferably pre-conception), thereby allowing an informed choice regarding genetic carrier screening and reproductive options (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, egg or sperm donation, or adoption). Informed reproductive decisions related to genetic carrier screening and reproductive outcomes based on family history, ethnic background, past obstetrical history, known carrier status, or genetic diagnosis. SOGC REPRODUCTIVE CARRIER SCREENING SUMMARY STATEMENT (2016): Pre-conception or prenatal education and counselling for reproductive carrier screening requires a discussion about testing within the three perinatal genetic carrier screening/diagnosis time periods, which include pre-conception, prenatal, and neonatal for conditions currently being screened for and diagnosed. This new information should be added to the standard reproductive carrier screening protocols that are already being utilized by

  3. A new soil test for quantitative measurement of available and adsorbed boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron soil tests currently in use, do not extract all plant available B but are used by relating the extractable amount of B to plant B content. There is a need to accurately measure all plant available or adsorbed B because B can be toxic to plants at elevated concentrations and can cause marked y...

  4. The Classification of Weld Seam Defects for Quantitative Analysis by means of Ultrasonic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salchak, Y.; Tverdokhlebova, T.; Sharavina, S.; Lider, A.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes effective quality assessment of spent nuclear fuel storage cask. The ultrasonic testing method is considered. The classification of possible defects with corresponding dimensions limits is proposed. The database of defects of the spent nuclear fuel storage cask was created in compliance with the nuclear energy industry regulatory documents.

  5. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., grimace, bending over, and final normal breathing. The TSI PortaCount Plus fit-testing instrument...-mask and ambient-air sampling tubes. \\2\\ This protocol eliminated the initial normal-breathing exercise... sample tube. The instrument cannot know the path taken by a particle found in the breathing zone of a...

  6. Impact of measurement error on testing genetic association with quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemin Liao

    Full Text Available Measurement error of a phenotypic trait reduces the power to detect genetic associations. We examined the impact of sample size, allele frequency and effect size in presence of measurement error for quantitative traits. The statistical power to detect genetic association with phenotype mean and variability was investigated analytically. The non-centrality parameter for a non-central F distribution was derived and verified using computer simulations. We obtained equivalent formulas for the cost of phenotype measurement error. Effects of differences in measurements were examined in a genome-wide association study (GWAS of two grading scales for cataract and a replication study of genetic variants influencing blood pressure. The mean absolute difference between the analytic power and simulation power for comparison of phenotypic means and variances was less than 0.005, and the absolute difference did not exceed 0.02. To maintain the same power, a one standard deviation (SD in measurement error of a standard normal distributed trait required a one-fold increase in sample size for comparison of means, and a three-fold increase in sample size for comparison of variances. GWAS results revealed almost no overlap in the significant SNPs (p<10(-5 for the two cataract grading scales while replication results in genetic variants of blood pressure displayed no significant differences between averaged blood pressure measurements and single blood pressure measurements. We have developed a framework for researchers to quantify power in the presence of measurement error, which will be applicable to studies of phenotypes in which the measurement is highly variable.

  7. In-Field Performance Testing of the Fork Detector for Quantitative Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); De Baere, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Vaccaro, S. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Schwalbach, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden); Tobin, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Expanding spent fuel dry storage activities worldwide are increasing demands on safeguards authorities that perform inspections. The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) require measurements to verify declarations when spent fuel is transferred to difficult-to-access locations, such as dry storage casks and the repositories planned in Finland and Sweden. EURATOM makes routine use of the Fork detector to obtain gross gamma and total neutron measurements during spent fuel inspections. Data analysis is performed by modules in the integrated Review and Analysis Program (iRAP) software, developed jointly by EURATOM and the IAEA. Under the framework of the US Department of Energy–EURATOM cooperation agreement, a module for automated Fork detector data analysis has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the ORIGEN code from the SCALE code system and implemented in iRAP. EURATOM and ORNL recently performed measurements on 30 spent fuel assemblies at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), operated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The measured assemblies represent a broad range of fuel characteristics. Neutron count rates for 15 measured pressurized water reactor assemblies are predicted with an average relative standard deviation of 4.6%, and gamma signals are predicted on average within 2.6% of the measurement. The 15 measured boiling water reactor assemblies exhibit slightly larger deviations of 5.2% for the gamma signals and 5.7% for the neutron count rates, compared to measurements. These findings suggest that with improved analysis of the measurement data, existing instruments can provide increased verification of operator declarations of the spent fuel and thereby also provide greater ability to confirm integrity of an assembly. These results support the application of the Fork detector as a fully quantitative spent fuel

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  11. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the NOW Malaria Immunochromatographic Test for Quantitative Diagnosis of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria Parasite Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakai, Yuko; Komaki-Yasuda, Kanako; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Wilairatana, Polrat; Krudsood, Srivicha; Kano, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-01

    The NOW® Malaria Test, an immunochromatographic test (ICT), was evaluated to determine its ability to quantitatively detect malaria parasites using 100 blood samples from Thailand, including 50 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections and 50 P. vivax (Pv) infections. Intensities of the thickness of the visible bands of the positive ICT were compared with the parasite densities. In cases of Pf infection, the intensities of both HRP-2 bands (T1 bands: Pf specific bands) and aldolase bands (T2 bands: pan-Plasmodium bands) correlated with the parasite densities. The intensities of T2 bands in Pf positive samples showed better correlation with the parasite densities than the T1 bands. In the cases of Pv infection, the intensities of T2 bands were also well correlated with parasite density. These results suggest that the ICT is useful not only for rapid detection of malaria parasites but also for estimating parasite density.

  13. Adhesive strength of CVD diamond thin films quantitatively measured by means of the bulge and blister test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daohui Xiang; Ming Chen; Yuping Ma; Fanghong Sun

    2008-01-01

    Large advancement has been made in understanding the nucleation and growth of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, but the adhesion of CVD diamond to substrates is poor and there is no good method for quantitative evaluation of the adhesive strength. The blister test is a potentially powerful tool for characterizing the mechanical properties of diamond films. In this test, pressure was applied on a thin membrane and the out-of-plane deflection of the membrane center was measured. The Young's modulus, residual stress, and adhesive strength were simultaneously determined using the load-deflection behavior of a membrane. The free-standing window sample of diamond thin films was fabricated by means of photolithography and anisotropic wet etching. The research indicates that the adhesive strength of diamond thin films is 4.28±0.37J/m2. This method uses a simple apparatus, and the fabrication of samples is very easy.

  14. Reevaluation of USAFSAM Sampling and Data-Averaging Procedures for Respirator Quantitative Fit Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    other than In connection with a definitely Government-related procure- ment, the United States Government incurs no responsibility nor any obligation...CED!JRES _________________FOR RESPIRATOR QUNTITATIVE PIT TEST 𔃼. PSCNAL AUj~r-iORIS Laird, A. Rachel, Ph.D. Iea r PF OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...sections show that part of the discrepancy is due to an incorrect procedure and part to differences in the definition of average PF. An alternate method

  15. Utility of quantitative sensory testing and screening tools in identifying HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in Western Kenya: pilot testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Cettomai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to identify tools that accurately distinguish individuals with moderate/severe peripheral neuropathy and can be administered by non-physician healthcare workers (HCW in resource-constrained settings. METHODS: We enrolled a convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients from a Kenyan HIV-care clinic. A HCW administered the Neuropathy Severity Score (NSS, Single Question Neuropathy Screen (Single-QNS, Subjective Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Subjective-PNS, and Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Brief-PNS. Monofilament, graduated tuning fork, and two-point discrimination examinations were performed. Tools were validated against a neurologist's clinical assessment of moderate/severe neuropathy. RESULTS: The sample was 57% male, mean age 38.6 years, and mean CD4 count 324 cells/µL. Neurologist's assessment identified 20% (6/30 with moderate/severe neuropathy. Diagnostic utilities for moderate/severe neuropathy were: Single-QNS--83% sensitivity, 71% specificity; Subjective-PNS-total--83% sensitivity, 83% specificity; Subjective-PNS-max and NSS--67% sensitivity, 92% specificity; Brief-PNS--0% sensitivity, 92% specificity; monofilament--100% sensitivity, 88% specificity; graduated tuning fork--83% sensitivity, 88% specificity; two-point discrimination--75% sensitivity, 58% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Pilot testing suggests Single-QNS, Subjective-PNS, and monofilament examination accurately identify HIV-infected patients with moderate/severe neuropathy and may be useful diagnostic tools in resource-constrained settings.

  16. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Kuske, C.; Willardson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  17. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  18. 试卷水平的标准化定量评价%Standardized Quantitative Assessment of a Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷峰

    2011-01-01

    By building a practical standardized assessment model, an assessment of a test was derived from two converting parameters-offset parameter and expansion parameter.Kappa consistency test then be done and Kappa coefficient was taken as a standardized quantitative assessment of the test. X2 consistency test and ideal model test were done for validating the assessment. Two experiments were presented.%通过建立一个实用标准化评价模型,根据转换参数(偏移参数和膨胀参数)给出试卷水平的标准化评价,并对其做Kappa一致性检验.Kappa系数K作为试卷水平系数.X2一致性检验和理想模式比较检验从不同角度验证了标准化评价的有效性.给出了两个样本组的实证分析.

  19. The correlation between the paired inspiratory and expiratory three-dimensional quantitative CT and pulmonary function test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋昕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the paired inspiratory and expiratory quantitative CT and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) .Methods A total of 84 patients with COPD were enrolled.For each

  20. Mouse Social Interaction Test (MoST): a quantitative computer automated analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Restif, Christophe; O'Rourke, Joseph R; Lam, Chiu Yin; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used preclinical model of human disease assessing the mechanism(s) involved as well as the role of genetics, epigenetics, and pharmacotherapy on this disease as well as identifying vulnerability factors and risk assessment for disease critical in the development of improved treatment strategies. Unfortunately, the majority of rodent preclinical studies utilize single housed approaches where animals are either entirely housed and tested in solitary environments or group housed but tested in solitary environments. This approach, however, ignores the important contribution of social interaction and social behavior. Social interaction in rodents is found to be a major criterion for the ethological validity of rodent species-specific behavioral characteristics (Zurn et al. 2007; Analysis 2011). It is also well established that there is significant and growing number of reports, which illustrates the important role of social environment and social interaction in all diseases, with particularly significance in all neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, it is imperative that research studies be able to add large-scale evaluations of social interaction and behavior in mice and benefit from automated tracking of behaviors and measurements by removing user bias and by quantifying aspects of behaviors that cannot be assessed by a human observer. Single mouse setups have been used routinely, but cannot be easily extended to multiple-animal studies where social behavior is key, e.g., autism, depression, anxiety, substance and non-substance addictive disorders, aggression, sexual behavior, or parenting. While recent efforts are focusing on multiple-animal tracking alone, a significant limitation remains the lack of insightful measures of social interactions. We present a novel, non-invasive single camera-based automated tracking method described as Mouse Social Test (MoST) and set of measures designed for estimating the interactions of multiple mice at the

  1. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; dos Santos Junior, José Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A.; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait) and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2) transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines. PMID:28420193

  2. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Moura-Melo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV. Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2 transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines.

  3. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  4. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, N V; Shmelin, P S; Eremin, S A

    2016-01-01

    Three kinds of immunoassays for the determination of gentamicin in milk samples were developed and validated. First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1.9±0.4)×10(9)М(-1) and (6.0±0.2)×10(6)М(-1) for the high- and low-affinity fractions respectively. The assay was characterized with a good sensitivity, the limit of detection being 5μgkg(-1). Two different kinds of detection labels, i.e. colloidal gold (CG) and quantum dots (QDs), were evaluated for use in lateral-flow format with respect to rapid visual on-site testing. The cut-off levels for both qualitative formats were selected based on the maximum level for gentamicin in milk established by the European Commission, 100μgkg(-1), resulting in a 10μgkg(-1) cut-off considering sample dilution. The intra-laboratory validation was performed with sterilized milk samples artificially spiked with gentamicin at concentrations less than, equal to, and greater than the cut-off level. It was shown that milk products could be analyzed without any sample preparation, except for dilution with the buffer solution. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were below 5% for both labels. The different developed immunoassays were tested towards gentamicin determination in artificially-spiked and naturally contaminated milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.; Modine, Normand A.

    2017-09-01

    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  6. Quantitative immunochemical fecal occult blood testing for colorectal adenoma detection: evaluation in the target population of screening and comparison with qualitative tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ulrike; Hundt, Sabrina; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative and qualitative immunochemical fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) have been proposed for noninvasive colorectal cancer screening, but comparative evaluation is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of two (quantitative) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunochemical FOBTs for identifying colorectal adenomas in the target population of screening and to compare the results with six (qualitative) immunochromatographic FOBTs, previously evaluated in the same study participants using the same stool samples. A total of 1,319 participants of screening colonoscopy at average risk for colorectal neoplasia (mean age 63 years; age range 31-86 years; 50% men) were recruited prospectively from January 2006 to December 2007 in collaboration with 20 gastroenterological practices in Germany. Fecal hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin levels were measured using an automated ELISA (RIDASCREEN). Test performance characteristics at different cutoff values were derived by comparing the results of stool testing with the results of colonoscopy in a blinded manner. A total of 130 participants (10%) had an advanced adenoma. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve with regard to advanced adenomas was 0.68 (0.65-0.71) for hemoglobin and 0.64 (0.61-0.67) for hemoglobin-haptoglobin (P=0.034). At a specificity of approximately 95%, the sensitivity (95% confidence interval) for advanced adenomas was 33% (25-42%) for hemoglobin and 24% (17-32%) for hemoglobin-haptoglobin, respectively. The sensitivity for hemoglobin was very close to sensitivities of the six qualitative FOBTs at (strongly divergent) levels of specificity observed for the latter. ELISA-based measurement of hemoglobin was superior to hemoglobin-haptoglobin, but showed a similar sensitivity for advanced adenomas compared with (qualitative) immunochromatographic FOBTs at defined levels of specificity. Compared with the latter, its quantitative nature

  7. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation.

  8. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  9. Quantitative sensing of corroded steel rebar embedded in cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Le, Viet; Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is the primary cause for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Traditional corrosion monitoring methods such as half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance can only detect the presence of corrosion but cannot quantify it. This study presents an experimental investigation of quantifying degree of corrosion of steel rebar inside cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing (UT). A UT device with two 54 kHz transducers was used to measure ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cement mortar, uncorroded and corroded reinforced cement mortar specimens, utilizing the direct transmission method. The results obtained from the study show that UPV decreases linearly with increase in degree of corrosion and corrosion-induced cracks (surface cracks). With respect to quantifying the degree of corrosion, a model was developed by simultaneously fitting UPV and surface crack width measurements to a two-parameter linear model. The proposed model can be used for predicting the degree of corrosion of steel rebar embedded in cement mortar under similar conditions used in this study up to 3.03%. Furthermore, the modeling approach can be applied to corroded reinforced concrete specimens with additional modification. The findings from this study show that UT has the potential of quantifying the degree of corrosion inside reinforced cement mortar specimens.

  10. Quantitative testing of robustness on super-omniphobic surfaces by drop impact

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2010-01-01

    The quality of a liquid-repellent surface is quantified by both the apparent contact angle $\\theta_0$ that a sessile drop adopts on it, and the value of the liquid pressure threshold the surface can withstand without being impaled by the liquid, hence keeping a low-friction condition. We designed surfaces covered with nano-wires obtained by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique, that are able to repel most of the existing non-polar liquids including those of very low surface tension, as well as many polar liquids of moderate to high surface tension. These super-omniphobic surfaces exhibit apparent contact angles ranging from 125 to 160$^{\\circ}$ depending on the liquid. We tested the robustness of the surfaces against impalement by carrying out drop impact experiments. Our results show how this robustness depends on the Young's contact angle $\\theta_0$ related to the surface tension of the liquid, and that the orientational growth of NWs is a favorable factor for robustness.

  11. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.

  12. Optimization of an Optical Inspection System Based on the Taguchi Method for Quantitative Analysis of Point-of-Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsien Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optical inspection system for detecting a commercial point-of-care testing product and a new detection model covering from qualitative to quantitative analysis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG strips (cut-off value of the hCG commercial product is 25 mIU/mL were the detection target in our study. We used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor to detect the colors of the test line and control line in the specific strips and to reduce the observation errors by the naked eye. To achieve better linearity between the grayscale and the concentration, and to decrease the standard deviation (increase the signal to noise ratio, S/N, the Taguchi method was used to find the optimal parameters for the optical inspection system. The pregnancy test used the principles of the lateral flow immunoassay, and the colors of the test and control line were caused by the gold nanoparticles. Because of the sandwich immunoassay model, the color of the gold nanoparticles in the test line was darkened by increasing the hCG concentration. As the results reveal, the S/N increased from 43.48 dB to 53.38 dB, and the hCG concentration detection increased from 6.25 to 50 mIU/mL with a standard deviation of less than 10%. With the optimal parameters to decrease the detection limit and to increase the linearity determined by the Taguchi method, the optical inspection system can be applied to various commercial rapid tests for the detection of ketamine, troponin I, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP.

  13. Optimization of an optical inspection system based on the Taguchi method for quantitative analysis of point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Zhao, Zi-Qi; Shen, Pi-Lan; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This study presents an optical inspection system for detecting a commercial point-of-care testing product and a new detection model covering from qualitative to quantitative analysis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) strips (cut-off value of the hCG commercial product is 25 mIU/mL) were the detection target in our study. We used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor to detect the colors of the test line and control line in the specific strips and to reduce the observation errors by the naked eye. To achieve better linearity between the grayscale and the concentration, and to decrease the standard deviation (increase the signal to noise ratio, S/N), the Taguchi method was used to find the optimal parameters for the optical inspection system. The pregnancy test used the principles of the lateral flow immunoassay, and the colors of the test and control line were caused by the gold nanoparticles. Because of the sandwich immunoassay model, the color of the gold nanoparticles in the test line was darkened by increasing the hCG concentration. As the results reveal, the S/N increased from 43.48 dB to 53.38 dB, and the hCG concentration detection increased from 6.25 to 50 mIU/mL with a standard deviation of less than 10%. With the optimal parameters to decrease the detection limit and to increase the linearity determined by the Taguchi method, the optical inspection system can be applied to various commercial rapid tests for the detection of ketamine, troponin I, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP).

  14. Phenotype comparison of MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers in a cohort of 1,914 individuals undergoing clinical genetic testing in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kastrinos (Fay); E.M. Stoffel (Elena); J. Balmana (Judith); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); R. Mercado (Rowena); S. Syngal (Sapna)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Aims: Lynch syndrome is caused by germ-line mismatch repair gene mutations. We examined the phenotypic differences between MLH1 and MSH2 gene mutation carriers and whether mutation type (point versus large rearrangement) affected phenotypic expression. Methods: This is a

  15. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep...... mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims' feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture), reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data...... to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods: We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15), or had not (n=17) been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area...

  16. Cervical degenerative index: a new quantitative radiographic scoring system for cervical spondylosis with interobserver and intraobserver reliability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Timothy A.; Schwender, James D.; Denis, Francis; Perra, Joseph H.; Transfeldt, Ensor E.; Winter, Robert B.; Wroblewski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The lack of a widely available scoring system for cervical degenerative spondylosis encouraged the authors to establish and validate a systematic quantitative radiographic index. Materials and methods This study included intraobserver and interobserver reliability testing among three reviewers with different years of experience. Each observer independently scored four cervical radiographs of 48 patients at separate intervals, and statistical analysis of the grading was performed. Results There was high intraobserver and interobserver reliability between the two experienced observers. There was fair reliability between the less experienced observer and the more experienced observers. Conclusions The cervical degenerative index appears to be a reliable and reproducible radiographic assessment of cervical spondylosis. The index will have direct applicability for longitudinal study of cervical spondylosis and may be clinically relevant as well. PMID:19384631

  17. Providing Quantitative Information and a Nudge to Undergo Stool Testing in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Aid: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter H; Perkins, Susan M; Schmidt, Karen K; Muriello, Paul F; Althouse, Sandra; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Guidelines recommend that patient decision aids should provide quantitative information about probabilities of potential outcomes, but the impact of this information is unknown. Behavioral economics suggests that patients confused by quantitative information could benefit from a "nudge" towards one option. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to estimate the effect sizes of presenting quantitative information and a nudge. Primary care patients (n = 213) eligible for colorectal cancer screening viewed basic screening information and were randomized to view (a) quantitative information (quantitative module), (b) a nudge towards stool testing with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) (nudge module), (c) neither a nor b, or (d) both a and b. Outcome measures were perceived colorectal cancer risk, screening intent, preferred test, and decision conflict, measured before and after viewing the decision aid, and screening behavior at 6 months. Patients viewing the quantitative module were more likely to be screened than those who did not ( P = 0.012). Patients viewing the nudge module had a greater increase in perceived colorectal cancer risk than those who did not ( P = 0.041). Those viewing the quantitative module had a smaller increase in perceived risk than those who did not ( P = 0.046), and the effect was moderated by numeracy. Among patients with high numeracy who did not view the nudge module, those who viewed the quantitative module had a greater increase in intent to undergo FIT ( P = 0.028) than did those who did not. The limitations of this study were the limited sample size and single healthcare system. Adding quantitative information to a decision aid increased uptake of colorectal cancer screening, while adding a nudge to undergo FIT did not increase uptake. Further research on quantitative information in decision aids is warranted.

  18. Infectious titres of sheep scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents cannot be accurately predicted from quantitative laboratory test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorenzo; Thorne, Leigh; Jeffrey, Martin; Martin, Stuart; Spiropoulos, John; Beck, Katy E; Lockey, Richard W; Vickery, Christopher M; Holder, Thomas; Terry, Linda

    2012-11-01

    It is widely accepted that abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) are the best surrogate marker for the infectious agent of prion diseases and, in practice, the detection of such disease-associated (PrP(d)) and/or protease-resistant (PrP(res)) forms of PrP is the cornerstone of diagnosis and surveillance of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Nevertheless, some studies question the consistent association between infectivity and abnormal PrP detection. To address this discrepancy, 11 brain samples of sheep affected with natural scrapie or experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy were selected on the basis of the magnitude and predominant types of PrP(d) accumulation, as shown by immunohistochemical (IHC) examination; contra-lateral hemi-brain samples were inoculated at three different dilutions into transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP and were also subjected to quantitative analysis by three biochemical tests (BCTs). Six samples gave 'low' infectious titres (10⁶·⁵ to 10⁶·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and five gave 'high titres' (10⁸·¹ to ≥ 10⁸·⁷ LD₅₀ g⁻¹) and, with the exception of the Western blot analysis, those two groups tended to correspond with samples with lower PrP(d)/PrP(res) results by IHC/BCTs. However, no statistical association could be confirmed due to high individual sample variability. It is concluded that although detection of abnormal forms of PrP by laboratory methods remains useful to confirm TSE infection, infectivity titres cannot be predicted from quantitative test results, at least for the TSE sources and host PRNP genotypes used in this study. Furthermore, the near inverse correlation between infectious titres and Western blot results (high protease pre-treatment) argues for a dissociation between infectivity and PrP(res).

  19. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  20. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

    2013-09-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  1. Schistosomiasis japonica in Barrio San Antonio, Basey, Samar in the Philippines: II. Quantitative fecal examination and circumoval precipitin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogore, M G; Lewert, R M; Blas, B L

    1978-09-01

    An improved quantitative stool examination technique (MFCT) and two variations in the performance of the circumoval precipitin test, one using whole serum (SCOPT) and the other employing the eluate from finger prick blood dried on filter paper (FPCOPT), were evaluated in a field study to detect infection with S. japonicum among residents of an endemic barrio in Samar. The sensitivity of SCOPT was above 90%, that of MFCT was between 80 to 90%, while that of FPCOPT was only about 50%. Intensity of infection as judged by fecal egg excretion and duration of infection as indicated by age were shown to be determinants of serum reactivity (and hence sensitivity of the two serodiagnostic tests). The relative insensitivity of FPCOPT observed in this work, also evident in some published data of previous workers, puts to doubt the wisdom of using this technique as the procedure of choice in epidemiologic surveys in the Philippines as currently favored in that country. Atypical positive reactions in circumoval precipitin tests using whole serum were detected which may make the differentiation of relatively recent from old infections possible.

  2. Accuracy of sperm-cervical mucus penetration tests in evaluating sperm motility in semen: a systematic quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Bolarinde; Afnan, Masoud; Papaioannou, Spyros; Sharif, Khaldoun; Björndahl, Lars; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan

    2003-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the accuracy of in-vitro sperm penetration into cervical mucus or substitutes in evaluating sperm motility in semen. This was a systematic quantitative review of test accuracy studies. The Cochrane library (2000:4), Medline (1966-2001), Embase (1988-2001) and SciSearch (1981-2001) were searched, in addition to manual searches of conference papers and bibliographies of known primary and review articles. Primary studies measuring in-vitro sperm penetration into cervical mucus, or substitutes (i.e. sperm-mucus penetration test, SMPT) and comparing results with sperm motility in semen were included. There were 18 primary diagnostic studies published in 17 papers, involving a total of 2580 samples. Fourteen primary diagnostic tests used vanguard distance as diagnostic criteria (SMPT(vd)) and the pooled likelihood ratio (LR) for positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) tests were 2.29 (1.82-2.87) and 0.52 (0.44-0.63) respectively. Four studies used diagnostic criteria based directly or indirectly on swim-up sperm count per high power field (SMPT(sc)) instead. Their pooled LR+ and LR- were 5.24 (3.36-8.18) and 0.15 (0.06-0.39) respectively. SMPT(vd) has a low accuracy in the evaluation of sperm motility in semen. However, SMPT(sc) was found to be more accurate. This method of using sperm concentration, instead of vanguard distance, as diagnostic criteria of in-vitro SMPT has potential as a useful laboratory-based sperm function test.

  3. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  4. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the olfactory system in Kallmann syndrome: correlation with a clinical smell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Versiani, Beatriz R; Diniz, Paula Rejane B; Junior, Jorge Elias; de Castro, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    To measure olfactory bulbs and sulci using dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and specific measurement tools in Kallmann syndrome (KS) patients with a well-established genotype and phenotype, as well as correlate MRI findings with a clinical smell test. MRI was performed in 21 patients with KS and 16 healthy volunteers; olfactory dysfunction was assessed using the Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a qualitative suprathreshold olfaction test. Coronal turbo spin echo T2-weighted and volumetric T1-weighted gradient echo sequences were acquired in a 1.5T system. ImageJ software was used to obtain olfactory bulb volumes and olfactory sulcus depths and lengths. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 and the Kappa index was used to evaluate the agreement between the UPSIT and MRI. The UPSIT showed 14 patients with anosmia and 6 with moderate hyposmia. Eighteen patients (85%) presented altered rhinencephalon structures in the MRI. Sixteen patients (76%) presented olfactory bulb aplasia (14/16 bilaterally), and these patients presented a total of 16 aplastic sulci. There was moderate agreement between the MRI quantitative evaluation and the UPSIT (overall Kappa = 0.55), but when considering the presence of aplastic bulbs and anosmia, we found almost perfect agreement (Kappa = 0.87). Three patients had normal rhinencephalon structures, including one with a KAL1 gene mutation. Olfactory bulb and sulcus aplasia were the most common findings in KS patients. We objectively demonstrated agreement between MRI findings and the smell test, especially the presence of bulb aplasia and anosmia. Therefore, our findings help ascertain MRI accuracy in the diagnosis of KS, differentiating patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with an apparently normal or difficult to evaluate sense of smell. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The design and characterization of a testing platform for quantitative evaluation of tread performance on multiple biological substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliker, Levin J; Rentschler, Mark E

    2012-09-01

    In this study, an experimental platform is developed to quantitatively measure the performance of robotic wheel treads in a dynamic environment. The platform imposes a dynamic driving condition for a single robot wheel, where the wheel is rotated on a translating substrate, thereby inducing slip. The normal force of the wheel can be adjusted mechanically, while the rotational velocity of the wheel and the translational velocity of the substrate can be controlled using an open-loop control system. Wheel slip and translational speed can be varied autonomously while wheel traction force is measured using a load cell. The testing platform is characterized by testing one micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tread on three substrates (dry synthetic tissue, hydrated synthetic tissue, and excised porcine small bowel tissue), at three normal forces (0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 N), 13 slip ratios (-0.30 to 0.30 in increments of 0.05), and three translational speeds (2, 3, and 6 mm/s). Additionally, two wheels (micropatterned and smooth PDMS) are tested on beef liver at the same three normal forces and translational speeds for a tread comparison. An analysis of variance revealed that the platform can detect statistically significant differences between means when observing normal forces, translational speeds, slip ratios, treads, and substrates. The variance due to within (platform error, P = 1) and between trials (human error, P = 0.152) is minimal when compared to the normal force (P = 0.036), translational speed ( P = 0.059), slip ratio (P = 0), tread (P = 0.004), and substrate variances ( P = 0). In conclusion, this precision testing platform can be used to determine wheel tread performance differences on the three substrates and for each of the studied parameters. Future use of the platform could lead to an optimized micropattern-based mobility system, under given operating conditions, for implementation on a robotic capsule endoscope.

  6. 植物病害定点定量式接种器的研制与应用%Application test on an in-situ quantitative inoculator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云和; 曹克强; 刘如香; 王娟; 夏丽琴; 张瑜; 王树桐

    2012-01-01

    In order to make inoculation to the test plants, a new type of quantitative inoculator was designed and manufactured. It was composed of two parts, a plastic grip and a plastic capsule. The inoculator was small, light and portable. Based on field tests of Valsa mali on apple leaves and Phytophthora infestans on potato leaves, inoculation could be easily made on fixed leaf area with quantitative inoculum with high efficiency. The inoculator could be used in many cases, such as the identification of plant disease resistance, plant disease epidemiology and bio-assay tests of fungicides.

  7. Quantitative nephelometry test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels of immunoglobulins, a very rare disorder) Leukemia (blood cancer) Multiple myeloma (bone marrow cancer) Preeclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy) Treatment with certain chemotherapy drugs Increased levels of ...

  8. A QUANTITATIVE TEST OF THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH Sgr A* USING STARS, PULSARS, AND THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wex, Norbert; Kramer, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-02-20

    The black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, has the largest mass-to-distance ratio among all known black holes in the universe. This property makes Sgr A* the optimal target for testing the gravitational no-hair theorem. In the near future, major developments in instrumentation will provide the tools for high-precision studies of its spacetime via observations of relativistic effects in stellar orbits, in the timing of pulsars, and in horizon-scale images of its accretion flow. We explore here the prospect of measuring the properties of the black hole spacetime using all of these three types of observations. We show that the correlated uncertainties in the measurements of the black hole spin and quadrupole moment using the orbits of stars and pulsars are nearly orthogonal to those obtained from measuring the shape and size of the shadow the black hole casts on the surrounding emission. Combining these three types of observations will therefore allow us to assess and quantify systematic biases and uncertainties in each measurement and lead to a highly accurate, quantitative test of the gravitational no-hair theorem.

  9. Culture Qualitatively but Not Quantitatively Influences Performance in the Boston Naming Test in a Chinese-Speaking Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Bin Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Boston Naming Test (BNT is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. Methods: A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Results: Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. Conclusion: For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  10. Quantitative characterization of the interfacial adhesion of Ni thin film on steel substrate: A compression-induced buckling delamination test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Zhou, Y. C.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, L.; Lu, C.

    2015-01-01

    A compression-induced buckling delamination test is employed to quantitatively characterize the interfacial adhesion of Ni thin film on steel substrate. It is shown that buckles initiate from edge flaws and surface morphologies exhibit symmetric, half-penny shapes. Taking the elastoplasticity of film and substrate into account, a three-dimensional finite element model for an edge flaw with the finite size is established to simulate the evolution of energy release rates and phase angles in the process of interfacial buckling-driven delamination. The results show that delamination propagates along both the straight side and curved front. The mode II delamination plays a dominant role in the process with a straight side whilst the curved front experiences almost the pure mode I. Based on the results of finite element analysis, a numerical model is developed to evaluate the interfacial energy release rate, which is in the range of 250-315 J/m2 with the corresponding phase angle from -41° to -66°. These results are in agreement with the available values determined by other testing methods, which confirms the effectiveness of the numerical model.

  11. Culture qualitatively but not quantitatively influences performance in the Boston naming test in a chinese-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Bin; Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Ker-Neng; Yeh, Yen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ta; Wang, Kuo-Shu; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  12. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila da Silva Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  13. Identification of a Putative Quantitative Trait Gene for Resistance to Obesity in Mice Using Transcriptome Analysis and Causal Inference Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    It is still challenging to identify causal genes governing obesity. Pbwg1.5, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to obesity, was previously discovered from wild Mus musculus castaneus mice and was fine-mapped to a 2.1-Mb genomic region of mouse chromosome 2, where no known gene with an effect on white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported. The aim of this study was to identify a strong candidate gene for Pbwg1.5 by an integration approach of transcriptome analysis (RNA-sequencing followed by real-time PCR analysis) and the causal inference test (CIT), a statistical method to infer causal relationships between diplotypes, gene expression and trait values. Body weight, body composition and biochemical traits were measured in F2 mice obtained from an intercross between the C57BL/6JJcl strain and a congenic strain carrying Pbwg1.5 on the C57BL/6JJcl background. The F2 mice showed significant diplotype differences in 12 traits including body weight, WAT weight and serum cholesterol/triglyceride levels. The transcriptome analysis revealed that Ly75, Pla2r1, Fap and Gca genes were differentially expressed in the liver and that Fap, Ifih1 and Grb14 were differentially expressed in WAT. However, CITs indicated statistical evidence that only the liver Ly75 gene mediated between genotype and WAT. Ly75 expression was negatively associated with WAT weight. The results suggested that Ly75 is a putative quantitative trait gene for the obesity-resistant Pbwg1.5 QTL discovered from the wild M. m. castaneus mouse. The finding provides a novel insight into a better understanding of the genetic basis for prevention of obesity.

  14. Utility of MLPA in mutation analysis and carrier detection for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA is a new technique to identify deletions and duplications and can evaluate all 79 exons in dystrophin gene in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Being semi-quantitative, MLPA is also effective in detecting duplications and carrier testing of females; both of which cannot be done using multiplex PCR. It has found applications in diagnostics of many genetic disorders. Aim: To study the utility of MLPA in diagnosis and carrier detection for DMD. Materials and Methods: Mutation analysis and carrier detection was done by multiplex PCR and MLPA and the results were compared. Results and Conclusions: We present data showing utility of MLPA in identifying mutations in cases with DMD/BMD. In the present study using MLPA, we identified mutations in additional 5.6% cases of DMD in whom multiplex PCR was not able to detect intragenic deletions. In addition, MLPA also correctly confirmed carrier status of two obligate carriers and revealed carrier status in 6 of 8 mothers of sporadic cases.

  15. Evaluation of simulation-based training for aircraft carrier marshalling with learning cubic and Kirkpatrick’s models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yongliang; Liu Hu; Yin Jiao; Luo Mingqiang; Wu Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based training is a promising way to train a carrier flight deck crew because of the complex and dangerous working environment. Quantitative evaluation of simulation-based training quality is vital to make simulation-based training practical for aircraft carrier marshalling. This paper develops a personal computer-based aircraft carrier marshalling simulation system and a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE)-based immersive environment. In order to compare the training effectiveness of simulation-based training and paper-based training, a learning cubic model is proposed and a contrast experiment is carried out as well. The experimental data is ana-lyzed based on a simplified Kirkpatrick’s model. The results show that simulation-based training is better than paper-based training by 26.80%after three rounds of testing, which prove the effective-ness of simulation-based aircraft carrier marshalling training.

  16. Battling malaria in rural Zambia with modern technology: a qualitative study on the value of cell phones, geographical information systems, asymptomatic carriers and rapid diagnostic tests to identify, treat and control malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nygren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade much progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission in Macha, Southern Province, Zambia. Introduction of artemisinin combination therapies as well as mass screenings of asymptomatic carriers is believed to have contributed the most. When an endemic malaria situation is moving towards a non-endemic situation the resident population loses acquired immunity and therefore active case detection and efficient surveillance is crucial to prevent epidemic outbreaks. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of cell phone surveillance and geographical information systems on malaria control in Macha. Furthermore, it evaluates what screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests in rural health care has led to. Ten in-depth semistructured interviews, field observations and data collection were performed at the Macha Research Trust and at surrounding rural health centers. This qualitative method was inspired by rapid assessment procedure. The cell phone surveillance has been easily integrated in health care, and its integration with Geographical Information Systems has provided the ability to follow malaria transmission on a weekly basis. In addition, active case detection of asymptomatic carriers has been fruitful, which is reflected in it soon being applied nationwide. Furthermore, rapid diagnostic tests have provided rural health centers with reliable malaria diagnostics, thereby decreasing excessive malaria treatments and selection for drug resistance. This report reflects the importance of asymptomatic carriers in targeting malaria elimination, as well as development of effective surveillance systems when transmission decreases. Such an approach would be cost-efficient in the long run through positive effects in reduced child mortality and relief in health care.

  17. Test and analysis of impedance of carrier communication channel for residential meter-reading%住宅小区载波抄表信道阻抗测试与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王加钢; 吴小燕; 王琳; 王学伟

    2012-01-01

    以住宅小区载波抄表信道为测试对象,构建了低压电力线载波阻抗自动测试系统并开发了相应的系统主站管理软件。该系统长期稳定运行,可实现远程多载波频率阻抗自动连续测试及现场USB连接自动扫频阻抗测试等功能。本文根据长期采集的阻抗测试结果,着重分析了阻抗模值、相位在冬季受供暖设备影响下的变化规律,为低压电力线载波通信信道阻抗特性研究和阻抗匹配提供了参考。%In order to test the residential meter-reading channel, an automatic impedance test system for low-voltage power line carrier communication network was set up and management software was developed. This system can be used for remote automatic continuous impedance testing in the condition of multi-carrier frequency, and for automatic sweep impedance testing by local USB connection, and also capable of operate stably in long term, The variation of impedance modulus and phase under the influence of heating equipment in the winter was analyzed based on long-term test results of the system, and the impedance for low-voltage power line carrier communication channel was provided for impedance matching and characteristics analysis.

  18. DSPI system based on spatial carrier phase shifting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghong; Li, Junrui; Sun, Jianfei; Yang, Lianxiang

    2013-10-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is an optical method for measuring small displacement and deformation. It allows whole field, non-contacting measurement of micro deformation. Traditional Temporal phase shifting has been used for quantitative analyses in DSPI. The technique requires the recording of at least three phase-shifted interferograms, which must be taken sequentially. This can lead to disturbances by thermal and mechanical fluctuations during the required recording time. In addition, fast object deformations cannot be detected. In this paper a DSPI system using Spatial Carrier Phase Shifting (SCPS) technique is introduced, which is useful for extracting quantitative displacement data from the system with only two interferograms. The sensitive direction of this system refers to the illumination direction and observation direction. The frequencies of the spatial carrier relates to the angle between reference light and observation direction. Fourier transform is adopted in the digital evaluation to filter out the frequencies links to the deformation of testing object. The phase is obtained from the complex matrix formed by inverse Fourier transform, and the phase difference and deformation are calculated subsequently. Comparing with conventional temporal phase shifting, the technique can achieve measuring the vibration and transient deformation of testing object. Experiment set-ups and results are presented in this paper, and the experiment results have shown the effectiveness and advantages of the SCPS technique.

  19. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  20. Signal Feature Extraction and Quantitative Evaluation of Metal Magnetic Memory Testing for Oil Well Casing Based on Data Preprocessing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal magnetic memory (MMM technique is an effective method to achieve the detection of stress concentration (SC zone for oil well casing. It can provide an early diagnosis of microdamages for preventive protection. MMM is a natural space domain signal which is weak and vulnerable to noise interference. So, it is difficult to achieve effective feature extraction of MMM signal especially under the hostile subsurface environment of high temperature, high pressure, high humidity, and multiple interfering sources. In this paper, a method of median filter preprocessing based on data preprocessing technique is proposed to eliminate the outliers point of MMM. And, based on wavelet transform (WT, the adaptive wavelet denoising method and data smoothing arithmetic are applied in testing the system of MMM. By using data preprocessing technique, the data are reserved and the noises of the signal are reduced. Therefore, the correct localization of SC zone can be achieved. In the meantime, characteristic parameters in new diagnostic approach are put forward to ensure the reliable determination of casing danger level through least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM and nonlinear quantitative mapping relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are verified through experiments.

  1. Learning to Work with Databases in Astronomy: Quantitative Analysis of Science Educators' and Students' Pre-/Post-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; Burrows, Andrea C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is increasingly moving towards working with large databases, from the state-of-the-art Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10, to the historical Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard. Non-astronomy fields as well tend to work with large datasets, be it in the form of warehouse inventory, health trends, or the stock market. However very few fields explicitly teach students the necessary skills to analyze such data. The authors studied a matched set of 37 participants working with 200-entry databases in astronomy using Google Spreadsheets, with limited information about a random set of quasars drawn from SDSS DR5. Here the authors present the quantitative results from an eight question pre-/post-test, with questions designed to span Bloom's taxonomy, on both the topics of the skills of using spreadsheets, and the content of quasars. Participants included both Astro 101 summer students and professionals including in-service K-12 teachers and science communicators. All groups showed statistically significant gains (as per Hake, 1998), with the greatest difference between women's gains of 0.196 and men's of 0.480.

  2. Quantitative sensory tests before and 1(1/2) years after orthognathic surgery: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Arima, T; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Neumann-Jensen, B; Svensson, P

    2010-05-01

    Quality control is very important in relation to invasive and lengthy treatments, such as integrated orthodontic and surgical correction of dentofacial deformities. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare self-reported somatosensory disturbances and quantitative sensory testing (QST) findings between two groups of patients and a healthy control group (n = 24); one group (n = 21) scheduled for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (BOS) (pre-op) and one group (n = 24) examined 1(1/2) years after BOS (post-op). Self-reported data on pain and somatosensory disturbances were collected, and QST was performed at six trigeminal and one extratrigeminal site. Sensitivity to brush stroke, tactile stimuli, pinprick, two-point-discrimination threshold (2P-DT), pinch pain threshold (PiPT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) was evaluated. Results were analysed with anovas, Spearman's Correlation, and chi square tests. Eight per cent of post-op patients reported intra-oral, 46% extra-oral, and 46% no somatosensory disturbances. Sensitivity to brush stroke, pinprick and 2P-DT was significantly increased at all examination sites in the post-op patients compared with healthy controls (P 0.071). Pinch pain threshold were decreased in pre-op patients compared with controls (P < 0.040). Self-reported somatosensory disturbances were not correlated with QST findings. In conclusion; 1(1/2) years after BOS, a large proportion of patients reported somatosensory disturbances and was hypersensitive to mechanical stimuli when compared with pre-op patients and healthy controls. Pre-op patients showed minor somatosensory changes. In addition to patients serving as their own control in prospective studies, a healthy control group and extratrigeminal control sites should be included in future studies.

  3. Pseudoradicular and radicular low-back pain--a disease continuum rather than different entities? Answers from quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freynhagen, Rainer; Rolke, Roman; Baron, Ralf; Tölle, Thomas R; Rutjes, Ann-Kathrein; Schu, Stefan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2008-03-01

    To assess whether pseudoradicular low-back pain may be associated with subclinical sensory deficits in the distal extremity, we applied the quantitative sensory testing protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) in 15 patients with pseudoradicular pain distribution. Sixteen age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects as well as 12 patients with radicular pain syndromes (L4-S1) were studied with the same protocol. Radicular pain was diagnosed using clinical criteria (pain radiation beyond the knee, motor-, sensory-, or reflex deficits, positive Laségue's test). Z-score QST profiles revealed a selective loss of vibration detection, detection of v. Frey hair contact, and cold detection in the affected dermatomes in the radicular pain group. The contralateral dermatome was also affected, but to a lesser degree. In patients with pseudoradicular pain, the sensory profile was similar, but sensory loss was less pronounced than in the radicular pain patients. There was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Vibration detection was the most sensitive parameter with 73% abnormal values in radicular and 47% in pseudoradicular cases. These data verified the sensitivity of QST to detect sensory loss in radicular compression syndromes, and support a neuropathic component in low-back pain with radiculopathy. In contrast to some central pain syndromes this sensory loss involved predominantly large fiber functions. The subclinical sensory loss in pseudoradicular cases suggests that these patients may also have a neuropathic component of their chronic pain. The spatial incongruence of pain and sensory loss in pseudoradicular pain, however, may also indicate that the two are not causally related.

  4. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  5. 宽带电力线载波点对点通信性能测试平台设计%Design of point to point communication performance testing platform for broadband power line carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹航; 何威; 陈瑜; 刘斌; 赵俊红; 张欢欢

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the performances of working frequency , signal power spectral density , anti-jamming capa-bility, noise immunity and anti-impedance changes for low voltage broadband power line carrier communication unit under the requirements of Q/GDW 1379.4-2013 technical specification and offer data reference , scheme basis to grid company to construct remote metering system for broadband power line carrier , a point to point communication per-formance testing platform is formed according to the characteristics of broadband power-line carrier .Three level cas-cade power filter with double SMA terminals are adopted which can insulate the influence on the communication per -formance for broadband carrier communication unit caused by harmonic , pulse signal and power-line background noise .As a consequence , the testing platform mentioned above can fully simulate the low voltage power line channel , restitute the operational state of site metering pilot and assess the actual usage of carrier communication unit .Experi-mental data certifies that the experiment environment of the testing platform constructed is pure , which can attenuate signal within the bandwidth of 2MHz~30MHz up to 93dB so as to ensure that the tested performance data of broad-band carrier communication unit is stable and reliable .%在Q/GDW 1379.4-2013通信单元检验技术规范的要求下,为测试低压宽带电力线载波通信单元的工作频段、载波信号发射功率谱密度、抗衰减能力、抗噪声干扰和抗阻抗变化等基本通信性能,给电网公司建设宽带电力载波远程集抄系统提供数据参考和方案依据。根据宽带电力线载波技术的特点搭建了点对点通信性能测试平台。该平台采用三级级联双SMA电源滤波组合,可有效隔离电网谐波、脉冲信号及电力线背景噪声对宽带载波通信单元性能的影响,使测试平台能够充分模拟低压电力线通道,还原现场集抄台区的

  6. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) in the orofacial region of healthy Chinese: influence of site, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanting; Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Wang, Kelun; Peter, Svensson

    2017-09-28

    To establish a preliminary thermal and mechanical somatosensory profile using a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) to investigate site, gender and age differences in healthy Chinese. Twenty younger (age: 20-40 years, 10 men, 10 women) and twenty older (age: 41-61 years, 10 men, 10 women) healthy participants completed the study. Cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT) were measured at five sites: Left hand, bilaterally at the mental area, tip of tongue and the lower lip mucosa. Mixed model ANOVAs with repeated measures were used to analyze the data. MDT(p < .001) and MPT (p < .05) were significantly higher on the hand compared to the mental areas. The CDT ( p = .006) was significantly higher and WDT (p < .001) was significantly lower at the tongue compared to lip mucosa and CDT (p < .001) was higher at the tongue mucosa than at the mental areas. WDT (p < .001) and HPT (p < .05) were significantly higher at the tip of the tongue and the lower lip mucosa compared to the mental areas. Significantly lower sensitivity for WDT (p < .001) and CDT (p = .004) were found in the older group compared to the younger group. Significant gender differences were found with less sensitivity for WDT (p = .024) and MDT (p = .003) in men compared to women. Application of standardized QST can provide valuable information of orofacial somatosensory phenotypes in a Chinese population. Age, gender and site are mandatory to control for.

  7. The low attenuation area on dual-energy perfusion CT: Correlation with the pulmonary function tests and quantitative CT measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kunihiro, Yoshie; Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sano, Yuichi; Yuasa, Yuuki; Narazaki, Akiko; Kudomi, Shohei; Koike, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate the distribution of the low attenuation area (LAA) on dual energy perfusion CT (DEpCT) in comparison with the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and quantitative CT measurements. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients (15 male and 13 female; mean age: 62.21 years) underwent DEpCT and PFTs within a 1-month interval. The ranges of the LAA on DEpCT were classified into six groups with attenuation values of 0–3, 0–5, 0–8, 0–10, 0–13 and 0–15 HU and the ratios of LAA in each group were compared with the percentage of forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (%FEV{sub 1.0}), FEV{sub 1.0}/forced vital capacity (FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC) and the relative area of the lung with attenuation coefficients lower than −950 HU (RA{sub −950}). Results: The LAAs on the DEpCT images were significantly correlated with the RA{sub −950}, %FEV{sub 1.0} and FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC, and the regression analysis showed that the best values of LAA on DEpCT were 0–10 HU with RA{sub −950} (r = 0.63), 0–8 HU with %FEV{sub 1.0} (r = −0.52) and 0–8 HU with FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC (r = −0.61) per patient. Conclusion: The iodine disturbance on DEpCT had a moderate correlation with the results of the PFTs and RA{sub −950}, but further examination would be needed for evaluation of iodine distribution.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: Key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide...

  9. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...

  10. Quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in primary Restless legs syndrome – A prospective study on 57 Indian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Shukla; Vinay Goyal; Achal Srivastava; Madhuri Behari

    2012-01-01

    Patients with restless leg syndrome present with sensory symptoms similar to peripheral neuropathy. While there is evidence of abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways, the peripheral nervous system has been studied infrequently. We studied conventional nerve conduction studies, quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in 57 patients with primary restless leg syndrome. Almost two third patients demonstrated abnormalities in the detailed testing of the peripheral nervou...

  11. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael

    2017-03-14

    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  12. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...... index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  13. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet. Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture, reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain

  14. Altered somatosensory profile according to quantitative sensory testing in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders scheduled for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, Yvonne; Tropp, Hans; Enthoven, Paul; Gerdle, Björn; Abbott, Allan; Öberg, Birgitta

    2017-06-17

    Somatosensory profiling in affected and non-affected body regions can strengthen our insight regarding the underlying pain mechanisms, which can be valuable in treatment decision making and to improve outcomes, in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders pre-surgery. The aim was to describe somatosensory profiles in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders, to identify the proportion with altered somatosensory profile, and to analyze demographic characteristics, self-reported function, pain, and health pre- and 3 months post-surgery. In this prospective cohort study in a Spine Clinic, 105 patients scheduled for surgery for spinal stenosis, disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, or spondylolisthesis were consecutively recruited. Exclusion criteria were; indication for acute surgery or previous surgery at the same spinal level or severe grade of pathology. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) and self-reported function, pain, and health was measured pre- and 3 months post-surgery. The somatosensory profile included cold detection threshold, warmth detection threshold, cold pain threshold, heat pain threshold and pressure pain threshold in affected and non-affected body regions. On a group level, the patients' somatosensory profiles were within the 95% confidence interval (CI) from normative reference data means. On an individual level, an altered somatosensory profile was defined as having two or more body regions (including a non-affected region) with QST values outside of normal ranges for reference data. The 23 patients (22%) with altered somatosensory profiles, with mostly loss of function, were older (P = 0.031), more often female (P = 0.005), had higher back and leg pain (P = 0.016, 0.020), lower mental health component summary score (SF-36 MCS) (P = 0.004) and larger pain distribution (P = 0.047), compared to others in the cohort. Post-surgery there was a tendency to worse pain, function and health in the group with

  15. Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Neha; Genschmer, Kristopher R; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong Ah; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-09-29

    In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries.

  16. Postdeposition dispersion of aerosol medications using surfactant carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Amy L; Garoff, Stephen; Tilton, Robert D; Pilewski, Joseph M; Corcoran, Timothy E

    2008-12-01

    Inhaled aerosol drugs provide a means of directly treating the lungs; however, aerosol deposition and drug distribution can be nonuniform, especially in obstructive lung disease. We hypothesize that surfactant-based aerosol carriers will disperse medications over airway surfaces after deposition through surface tension driven flows, increasing dose uniformity and improving drug distribution into underventilated regions. We considered saline and surfactant aerosol delivery via cannula onto several model airway surfaces including porcine gastric mucus (PGM) and both cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEs). Fluorescent dye and microspheres (d = 100 nm, 1 mum) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess postdeposition dispersion. Aerosol volume median diameters were in the 1-4 mum range. The tested surfactants included sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), tyloxapol, and calfactant. All surfactants tested on PGM (tyloxapol, calfactant, SDS, and CTAB) significantly increased dispersion area versus saline with all markers (2-20-fold increases; all p surfactants tested on CF HBEs (tyloxapol and calfactant) significantly increased dispersion area versus saline with all markers (1.6-4.1-fold increases; all p Surfactant carriers enhanced dispersion after aerosol deposition onto model airway surfaces, and may improve the efficacy of inhaled preparations such as inhaled antibiotics for cystic fibrosis.

  17. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine

  18. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine s

  19. Quantitative test of the time dependent Gintzburg-Landau equation for sheared granular flow in two dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    We examine the validity of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation of granular fluids for a plane shear flow under the Lees-Edwardsboundary condition derivedfrom a weakly nonlinear analysis through the comparison with the result of discrete element method.We verify quantitative agreements in the

  20. Photoinduced Transformation between Charge Carrier and Spin Carrier in Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yuan; ZHAO Chang; SUN Xin

    2006-01-01

    By dynamical simulations, we show a transforming process between neutral soliton (spin carrier) and charged soliton (charge carrier) in polymers via photo-excitation, taking a polaron as the transitional bridge. It is photoinduced transformation between spin carrier and charge carrier. In this way, we demonstrate an access for polymers to be applied to spintronics.

  1. 低压电力线载波信道测试装置设计%Design of a testing device for low voltage power line carrier communication channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立城; 胡科军; 霍超; 李建岐

    2015-01-01

    Power line carrier communication is widely used in automatic meter reading and street lamp control etc. However, the power line is not a dedicated communication channel, and influenced by the electrical equipment,power load,grid structure and other factors largely.The channel transmission characteristics vary in time domain and fre-quency domain, which directly influence the business carrying capacity and application effect of power communication products.This paper introduces a portable low voltage power line carrier communication channel testing device, which can realize the online measurement of noise, impedance and attenuation of the power line carrier channel, and can get the variation characteristics of carrier channel through the real-time analysis software.The device is of great signifi-cance to the technology realization and engineering application of power line communication products.%电力线载波通信在居民抄表、路灯控制等领域广泛应用,然而由于电力线不是专用信道,且受用电设备、电力负荷、线路结构等影响较大,其传输特性在时域、频域上具有多变性,直接影响到电力载波通信产品的业务承载能力和应用效果。文中研制了一种便携化低压电力线载波通信信道测试装置,实现了电力线载波信道的阻抗、衰减和噪声三个重要信道参量的在线测量,并可通过即时分析软件实时掌握载波信道的变化特征,对电力线通信产品的技术实现和工程化应用具有重要意义。

  2. Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing and carrier screening for Tay-Sachs and Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaianni, Alessandra; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Genetic testing for Tay-Sachs and Canavan disease is particularly important for Ashkenazi Jews, because both conditions are more frequent in that population. This comparative case study was possible because of different patenting and licensing practices. The role of DNA testing differs between Tay-Sachs and Canavan diseases. The first-line screening test for Tay-Sachs remains an enzyme activity test rather than genotyping. Genotyping is used for preimplantation diagnosis and confirmatory testing. In contrast, DNA-based testing is the basis for Canavan screening and diagnosis. The HEXA gene for Tay-Sachs was cloned at the National Institutes of Health, and the gene was patented but has not been licensed. The ASPA gene for Canavan disease was cloned and patented by Miami Children's Hospital. Miami Children's Hospital did not inform family members and patient groups that had contributed to the gene discovery that it was applying for a patent, and pursued restrictive licensing practices when a patent issued in 1997. This led to intense controversy, litigation, and a sealed, nonpublic 2003 settlement that apparently allowed for nonexclusive licensing. A survey of laboratories revealed a possible price premium for ASPA testing, with per-unit costs higher than for other genetic tests in the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society case studies. The main conclusion from comparing genetic testing for Tay-Sachs and Canavan diseases, however, is that patenting and licensing conducted without communication with patients and advocates cause mistrust and can lead to controversy and litigation, a negative model to contrast with the positive model of patenting and licensing for genetic testing of cystic fibrosis.

  3. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  4. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. METHODS: After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...

  5. Pilot test of biological removal of 1,4-dioxane from a chemical factory wastewater by gel carrier entrapping Afipia sp. strain D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Kazuichi, E-mail: kazuichi.isaka.mp@hitachi.com [Matsudo Research Center, Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Ltd., 537 Kami-hongo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-0064 (Japan); Udagawa, Makiko [Matsudo Research Center, Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Ltd., 537 Kami-hongo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-0064 (Japan); Sei, Kazunari, E-mail: ksei@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Health Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara-Minami, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Ike, Michihiko, E-mail: ike@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Two pilot-scale biological 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) treatment systems were operated. • Gel cubes entrapping Afipia sp. strain D1 were used for real wastewater treatment. • The maximum 1,4-dioxane removal rates of 0.72 kg m{sup −3} day{sup −1} was observed. • Monod model describes 1,4-D degradation, showing half saturation constant is 28 mg L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A pilot-scale (120 L) bioreactor system using a gel carrier-entrapped pure bacterial strain, Afipia sp. strain D1, capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source was constructed and applied to treat real industrial wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane from a chemical factory. Although the wastewater not only contained high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane but also considerable amounts of other organic compounds (73 mg-TOC L{sup −1} on average), the bioreactor could efficiently remove 1,4-dioxane without significant inhibitory effects. The reactor startup could be completed within approximately 1 month by increasing the 1,4-dioxane loading rate (0.09–0.47 kg-dioxane m{sup −3} d{sup −1}) in a stepwise manner. Effective 1,4-dioxane removal was stably maintained for 3 months with an influent 1,4-dioxane of 570–730 mg L{sup −1}, giving an average effluent concentration and removal rate of 3.4 mg L{sup −1} and 0.46 kg-dioxane m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, respectively. A 1,4-dioxane loading fluctuation between 0.14 and 0.72 kg-dioxane m{sup −3} d{sup −1} did not significantly affect its removal, and more than 99% removal efficiency was constantly maintained. The Monod model could well describe the relationship between the effluent 1,4-dioxane concentration and 1,4-dioxane removal rates of the bioreactors, showing that the half-saturation constant (Ks) was 28 mg L{sup −1}.

  6. The value of energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, W. van

    1987-01-01

    The value of energy carriers can be described thermodynamically by the amount of heat (enthalpy method) or work (exergy or availability method) that can be obtained from the carriers. Prices for energy carriers are used in economics to express their values. The prices for energy carriers are often r

  7. Definition of transcriptome-based indices for quantitative characterization of chemically disturbed stem cell development: introduction of the STOP-Toxukn and STOP-Toxukk tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Hoelting, Lisa; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Meisig, Johannes; Meganathan, Kesavan; Jagtap, Smita; Grinberg, Marianna; Liebing, Julia; Bluethgen, Nils; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Rempel, Eugen; Stoeber, Regina; Schildknecht, Stefan; Förster, Sunniva; Godoy, Patricio; van Thriel, Christoph; Gaspar, John Antonydas; Hescheler, Jürgen; Waldmann, Tanja; Hengstler, Jan G; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2017-02-01

    Stem cell-based in vitro test systems can recapitulate specific phases of human development. In the UKK test system, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) randomly differentiate into cells of the three germ layers and their derivatives. In the UKN1 test system, hPSCs differentiate into early neural precursor cells. During the normal differentiation period (14 days) of the UKK system, 570 genes [849 probe sets (PSs)] were regulated >fivefold; in the UKN1 system (6 days), 879 genes (1238 PSs) were regulated. We refer to these genes as 'developmental genes'. In the present study, we used genome-wide expression data of 12 test substances in the UKK and UKN1 test systems to understand the basic principles of how chemicals interfere with the spontaneous transcriptional development in both test systems. The set of test compounds included six histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), six mercury-containing compounds ('mercurials') and thalidomide. All compounds were tested at the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration, while valproic acid and thalidomide were additionally tested over a wide range of concentrations. In total, 242 genes (252 PSs) in the UKK test system and 793 genes (1092 PSs) in the UKN1 test system were deregulated by the 12 test compounds. We identified sets of 'diagnostic genes' appropriate for the identification of the influence of HDACis or mercurials. Test compounds that interfered with the expression of developmental genes usually antagonized their spontaneous development, meaning that up-regulated developmental genes were suppressed and developmental genes whose expression normally decreases were induced. The fraction of compromised developmental genes varied widely between the test compounds, and it reached up to 60 %. To quantitatively describe disturbed development on a genome-wide basis, we recommend a concept of two indices, 'developmental potency' (D p) and 'developmental index' (D i), whereby D p is the fraction of all developmental genes

  8. Quantitative precipitation estimation based on high-resolution numerical weather prediction and data assimilation with WRF – a performance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Stefan Bauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting (QPE and QPF are among the most challenging tasks in atmospheric sciences. In this work, QPE based on numerical modelling and data assimilation is investigated. Key components are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model in combination with its 3D variational assimilation scheme, applied on the convection-permitting scale with sophisticated model physics over central Europe. The system is operated in a 1-hour rapid update cycle and processes a large set of in situ observations, data from French radar systems, the European GPS network and satellite sensors. Additionally, a free forecast driven by the ECMWF operational analysis is included as a reference run representing current operational precipitation forecasting. The verification is done both qualitatively and quantitatively by comparisons of reflectivity, accumulated precipitation fields and derived verification scores for a complex synoptic situation that developed on 26 and 27 September 2012. The investigation shows that even the downscaling from ECMWF represents the synoptic situation reasonably well. However, significant improvements are seen in the results of the WRF QPE setup, especially when the French radar data are assimilated. The frontal structure is more defined and the timing of the frontal movement is improved compared with observations. Even mesoscale band-like precipitation structures on the rear side of the cold front are reproduced, as seen by radar. The improvement in performance is also confirmed by a quantitative comparison of the 24-hourly accumulated precipitation over Germany. The mean correlation of the model simulations with observations improved from 0.2 in the downscaling experiment and 0.29 in the assimilation experiment without radar data to 0.56 in the WRF QPE experiment including the assimilation of French radar data.

  9. QPROT: Statistical method for testing differential expression using protein-level intensity data in label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungwon; Kim, Sinae; Fermin, Damian; Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2015-11-03

    We introduce QPROT, a statistical framework and computational tool for differential protein expression analysis using protein intensity data. QPROT is an extension of the QSPEC suite, originally developed for spectral count data, adapted for the analysis using continuously measured protein-level intensity data. QPROT offers a new intensity normalization procedure and model-based differential expression analysis, both of which account for missing data. Determination of differential expression of each protein is based on the standardized Z-statistic based on the posterior distribution of the log fold change parameter, guided by the false discovery rate estimated by a well-known Empirical Bayes method. We evaluated the classification performance of QPROT using the quantification calibration data from the clinical proteomic technology assessment for cancer (CPTAC) study and a recently published Escherichia coli benchmark dataset, with evaluation of FDR accuracy in the latter. QPROT is a statistical framework with computational software tool for comparative quantitative proteomics analysis. It features various extensions of QSPEC method originally built for spectral count data analysis, including probabilistic treatment of missing values in protein intensity data. With the increasing popularity of label-free quantitative proteomics data, the proposed method and accompanying software suite will be immediately useful for many proteomics laboratories. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  11. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  12. Qualitative thallium urinary assays are almost as valuable as quantitative tests: implication for outpatient settings in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Khodabandehlo, Soroor; Mehrzad, Fateme; Mehrpour, Omid; Afshari, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Thallium (Tl), lead and steroid exposures were reported as a result of street drug consumption such as heroin and cocaine. This study aimed to compare the values of qualitative and quantitative assays for detecting Tl as an adulterant in opioid-like compound drug users. This case-control study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from May 2015 to November 2015 in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. In general, urine thallium samples for 100 opioid overdosed subjects with a history of chronic opioid use and 50 non-drug users were studied. Qualitative 24 hours-urinary-thallium-level (QL) and quantitative 24 hours-urinary-thallium-level (QT) were conducted in both groups. Independent-samples t-test and Spearman's Coefficient were applied for analytical purposes. SPSS software 16 was used to conduct statistical analyses with P values less than 0.05 regarded as significant. A total of 150 cases were studied. Raw opium users accounted for 66% of the cases followed by mixed (28%) and heroin users (6%). Mean (SD) QT level for QL was 26.8 (1) μg/L, while it was 2.3 μg/L (0.4 μg/L) for negative QL, which was far below QL positive cases (p=0.002). The qualitative test showed more accuracy at higher quantitative levels. In all cases, qualitative test was fully sensitive (100%), highly specific (89%) with a positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 9.1 and a negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0. These results suggest that qualitative assays could be used with confidence in assessing Tl exposure in drug users. Physicians may easily and confidently use Tl qualitative tests in rehabilitation centers, where toxicology laboratories may not be available.

  13. Experimental and Ab Initio Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ana M.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Schwartzberg, Adam M.; Goddard, William A.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanostructures probe the nonequilibrium behavior of excited carriers, which involves several competing effects obscured in typical empirical analyses. Here we present pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanoparticles along with a complete theoretical description based on first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics and optical response, free of any fitting parameters. We account for detailed electronic-structure effects in the density of states, excited carrier distributions, electron-phonon coupling, and dielectric functions that allow us to avoid effective electron temperature approximations. Using this calculation method, we obtain excellent quantitative agreement with spectral and temporal features in transient-absorption measurements. In both our experiments and calculations, we identify the two major contributions of the initial response with distinct signatures: short-lived highly nonthermal excited carriers and longer-lived thermalizing carriers.

  14. Experimental and ab initio ultrafast carrier dynamics in plasmonic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Ana M; Narang, Prineha; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Goddard, William A; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanostructures probe the non-equilibrium behavior of excited carriers, which involves several competing effects obscured in typical empirical analyses. Here we present pump-probe measurements of plasmonic nanoparticles along with a complete theoretical description based on first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics and optical response, free of any fitting parameters. We account for detailed electronic-structure effects in the density of states, excited carrier distributions, electron-phonon coupling, and dielectric functions which allow us to avoid effective electron temperature approximations. Using this calculation method, we obtain excellent quantitative agreement with spectral and temporal features in transient-absorption measurements. In both our experiments and calculations, we identify the two major contributions of the initial response with distinct signatures: short-lived highly non-thermal excited carriers and longer-lived thermalizing carriers.

  15. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamics and Test Method of Carrier-based Aircraft Nose Landing Gear Sudden Extension%舰载机前起落架突伸动力学分析及试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小辉; 刘成龙; 聂宏; 张明; 尹乔之

    2013-01-01

    为了了解舰载机前起落架突伸试验与实际突伸过程的当量关系,本文以某舰载机为研究对象,建立了全机弹射起飞动力学模型,进行了全机弹射起飞动力学分析,得到了前起落架突伸过程中的动态响应.提出了基于当量质量的前起落架突伸动力学试验方法,设计了试验方案,建立了前起落架突伸动力学试验分析模型,进行了突伸动力学分析.进而依据全机突伸动力学分析结果,对基于当量质量的前起落架突伸动力学试验中相关参数的选取进行了探讨研究,结果表明:当突伸当量质量系数取0.8时,突伸动力学响应特性与全机弹射起飞突伸过程的动态响应结果比较吻合.%In order to understand the equivalent relationship of a landing gear's sudden-extension test and the real suddenextension process of a carrier-based aircraft,a dynamics model of a certain carrier-based aircraft catapult-assisted takeoff process is established.The catapult-assisted takeoff dynamics is simulated and the nose landing gears dynamic response to the sudden-extension process is obtained.A test method is introduced to study the nose landing gear 's sudden extension based on equivalent mass.Accordingly,a test program is presented for independent nose landing gear sudden-extension analysis.With simulated results of the models introduced above,the value range of relevant test parameters is studied.It is shown that the independent nose landing gear sudden-extension dynamic response is relatively consistent with the full-aircraft catapult-assisted takeoff dynamics when the equivalent mass coefficient is equal to 0.8.

  17. The effect of carrier surface and bulk properties on drug particle detachment from crystalline lactose carrier particles during inhalation, as function of carrier payload and mixing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhoff, B.H.J.; de Boer, Anne; Lambregts, D.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of carrier payload and mixing time on the redispersion of drug particles from adhesive mixtures during inhalation for two different drugs (budesonide and disodium cromoglycate) has been investigated. A special test inhaler which retains carrier crystals during inhalation was used at 30 an

  18. Do methicillin resistant staphylococcus (MRSA) carrier patients influence MRSA infection more than MRSA-carrier medical officers and MRSA-carrier family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilogo, Ismail H; Arya, Abikara; Phedy; Loho, Tony

    2013-07-01

    to determine the rate of MRSA-carrier among patients, family members and health care providers, and the association between MRSA-carrier family members and health care providers on MRSA infection patient after orthopaedic surgery. this is a cross-sectional analytical study. Samples were taken consecutively during December 2010 to December 2011, consisting of postoperative patients infected with MRSA, attending family members, and the medical officers with history of contact with the patient. Swab culture were taken from nasal and axilla of all subjects. The incidence of MRSA infection, and MRSA-carrier on the patient, family members and medical officers were presented descriptively, while their association with MRSA infection was statistically tested using Fischer exact test. during the study period, there were 759 surgeries, with 4 (0.5%) patients were identified to have MRSA infection. Of these four cases, 48 subjects were enrolled. The rate of MRSA-carrier among patients, family and health care providers were 50%, 25% and 0% respectively. There were no significant association between MRSA and the rates of MRSA-carrier on the family member or health care providers. the incidence of MRSA infection, MRSA-carrier patient, MRSA-carrier health care providers, and family member carrier were 0.5%, 50%, 0%, and 25% respectively. No significant association found between MRSA-carrier on the family member or health care providers and MRSA infection patient. There were no MRSA infection found on the health care provider.

  19. Separation, isolation and stereochemical assignment of imazalil enantiomers and their quantitation in an in vitro toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Mònica Escolà; Kretschmann, Andreas Christopher; Andernach, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    A simple method for the separation of the enantiomers of the fungicide imazalil was developed. Racemic imazalil was separated into its enantiomers with an enantiomeric purity of 99% using HPLC-UV with an enantioselective column (permethylated cyclodextrin) operated in reversed phase mode (water w...... fractions in samples from an in vitro test on effects on human steroidogenesis (H295R steroidogenesis assay). The quantification verified the stability of the enantiomers of imazalil during the in vitro tests....

  20. A Silicon Micromachined Gyroscope Driven by the Rotating Carrier Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxue Zhang; Xu Mao; Yu Liu; Nan Zhang; Wei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a silicon micromachined gyroscope which is driven by the rotating carrier's angular velocity, the silicon was manufactured by anisotropy etching. The design, fabrication and packing of the sensing element were introduced in the paper. The imitation experimentation and performance test have certificated that the principle of the gyroscope is correct and the gyroscope can be used to sense yawing or pitching angular velocity of the rotating carrier, and the angular velocity of the rotating carrier itself.

  1. The ulnar test: a method for the quantitative functional assessment of posttraumatic ulnar nerve recovery in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Tos, Pierluigi; Scevola, Anna; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    The assessment of recovery of the neuromuscular function following nerve lesion and repair is one of the main goals of peripheral nerve researchers. The forelimb model has recently seen an increase in its employment for experimental nerve repair studies especially because of the availability of the grasping test for assessing the functional recovery of one of its major nerves, the median nerve. Nerve repair studies sometimes require the use of more than one nerve to simulate severe clinical situations and, in this case, the ulnar nerve is often used together with the median nerve. However, a test for assessing ulnar nerve functional recovery is yet not available. To fill this gap, we have developed and experimentally tested a method for the functional assessment of posttraumatic ulnar nerve recovery in the rat. Animal testing using this method is simple, quick and provides the animal with minimal distress. The method proved to be effective in detecting the date on which recovery starts after ulnar nerve impairment and in following its improvement, over time. The availability of this new test is expected to further increase the employment of forelimb experimental nerve models instead of the more disabling hindlimb models.

  2. Evaluation of carrier-mediated siRNA delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    RNA delivered by use of carriers remains an analytical challenge. The purpose of the present study was to optimize and validate an analytical protocol based on stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT qPCR) to quantitatively monitor the carrier-mediated intracellular si......RNA delivery. An in vitro cell culture model system expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used to develop the assay, which was based on the intracellular quantification of a full-length double-stranded Dicer substrate siRNA by stem-loop RT qPCR. The result is a well-documented protocol...

  3. An integrated device for magnetically-driven drug release and in situ quantitative measurements: Design, fabrication and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvera, I.J. [Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50018 (Spain); Hernández, R.; Mijangos, C. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, CSIC, Juan Cierva 3, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Goya, G.F., E-mail: goya@unizar.es [Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50018 (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Department, Science Faculty, University of Zaragoza, 50009 (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a device capable of remote triggering and in situ quantification of therapeutic drugs, based on magnetically-responsive hydrogels of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alginate (PNiPAAm). The heating efficiency of these hydrogels measured by their specific power absorption (SPA) values showed that the values between 100 and 300 W/g of the material were high enough to reach the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymeric matrix within few minutes. The drug release through application of AC magnetic fields could be controlled by time-modulated field pulses in order to deliver the desired amount of drug. Using B12 vitamin as a concept drug, the device was calibrated to measure amounts of drug released as small as 25(2)×10{sup −9} g, demonstrating the potential of this device for very precise quantitative control of drug release. - Highlights: • A device for magnetically driven drug release was developed and constructed. • Thermally responsive PNiPAAm and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were usedas drug reservoir. • The device allowed repetitive, remote and precisely controlled drug release. • By in situ spectrometry we could detect released drug quantities as small as 25 ng. • Released drug was controlled through magnetic ac field parameters H, f and time.

  4. Manufacture and Testing of a High Field Gradient Magnetic Fractionation System for Quantitative Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Stephan; Woodward, Robert C.; Davis, Timothy M. E.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2010-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous of the human malaria parasite species and accounts for millions of clinical episodes of malaria each year in tropical countries. The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is a result of its ability to infect erythrocytes where it multiplies asexually over 48 h or develops into sexual forms known as gametocytes. If sufficient male and female gametocytes are taken up by a mosquito vector, it becomes infectious. Therefore, the presence and density of gametocytes in human blood is an important indicator of human-to-mosquito transmission of malaria. Recently, we have shown that high field gradient magnetic fractionation improves gametocyte detection in human blood samples. Here we present two important new developments. Firstly we introduce a quantitative approach to replace the previous qualitative method and, secondly, we describe a novel method that enables cost-effective production of the magnetic fractionation equipment required to carry out gametocyte quantification. We show that our custom-made magnetic fractionation equipment can deliver results with similar sensitivity and convenience but for a small fraction of the cost.

  5. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  6. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  7. Development and validation of a quantitative competitive ELISA for potency testing of equine anti rabies sera with other potential use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korimbocus, Jehanara; Dehay, Nicolas; Tordo, Noël; Cano, François; Morgeaux, Sylvie

    2016-06-14

    In case of a bite by a rabies infected animal, the World Health Organisation recommends a prophylactic treatment including the administration of Human Rabies Immunoglobulins (HRIGs) or highly purified F(ab')2 fragments produced from Equine Rabies Immunoglobulin (F(ab')2 - ERIGs). According to international regulation, quality control of F(ab')2 - ERIGs lots requires potency testing by the in vivo Mouse Neutralisation Test (MNT) prior marketing. However, the strategy of the 3Rs (Reduce, Refine, Replace) for animal testing required by the European Directive encourages the replacement of the in vivo potency test by an in vitro assay. In this context, a competitive ELISA method (c-ELISA) has been developed by the Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé where F(ab')2 - ERIGs are in competition with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the trimeric native form of the rabies glycoprotein. After a full validation study, the c-ELISA has been applied to commercial batches of F(ab')2 - ERIGs. A correlation study with the MNT demonstrated a similarity between the two methods (r=0.751). Moreover, the c-ELISA method which does not need any species specific reagent has been applied to HRIGs potency testing as an alternative method to Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT), thus avoiding the handling of live rabies virus in BSL3 containment. In conclusion, the c-ELISA has shown its potential to replace MNT and possibly RFFIT for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin. After optimisation it may be used for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin in any animal species, notably for rabies immunogenicity assay in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and testing of reference genes for Sesame gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Libin; Miao, Hongmei; Zhao, Ruihong; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Tide; Zhang, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop. However, few sesame reference genes have been selected for quantitative real-time PCR until now. Screening and validating reference genes is a requisite for gene expression normalization in sesame functional genomics research. In this study, ten candidate reference genes, i.e., SiACT, SiUBQ6, SiTUB, Si18S rRNA, SiEF1α, SiCYP, SiHistone, SiDNAJ, SiAPT and SiGAPDH, were chosen and examined systematically in 32 sesame samples. Three qRT-PCR analysis methods, i.e., geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were evaluated systematically. Results indicated that all ten candidate reference genes could be used as reference genes in sesame. SiUBQ6 and SiAPT were the optimal reference genes for sesame plant development; SiTUB was suitable for sesame vegetative tissue development, SiDNAJ for pathogen treatment, SiHistone for abiotic stress, SiUBQ6 for bud development and SiACT for seed germination. As for hormone treatment and seed development, SiHistone, SiCYP, SiDNAJ or SiUBQ6, as well as SiACT, SiDNAJ, SiTUB or SiAPT, could be used as reference gene, respectively. To illustrate the suitability of these reference genes, we analyzed the expression variation of three functional sesame genes of SiSS, SiLEA and SiGH in different organs using the optimal qRT-PCR system for the first time. The stability levels of optimal and worst reference genes screened for seed development, anther sterility and plant development were validated in the qRT-PCR normalization. Our results provided a reference gene application guideline for sesame gene expression characterization using qRT-PCR system.

  9. Carrier Bulk-Lifetime Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solcansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the measurement of the minority carrier bulk-lifetime the characterization method MW-PCD is used, where the result of measurement is the effective carrier lifetime, which is very dependent on the surface recombination velocity and therefore on the quality of a silicon surface passivation. This work deals with an examination of a different solution types for the chemical passivation of a silicon surface. Various solutions are tested on silicon wafers for their consequent comparison. The main purpose is to find optimal solution, which suits the requirements of a time stability and start-up velocity of passivation, reproducibility of the measurements and a possibility of a perfect cleaning of a passivating solution remains from a silicon surface, so that the parameters of a measured silicon wafer will not worsen and there will not be any contamination of the other wafers series in the production after a repetitive return of the measured wafer into the production process. The cleaning process itself is also a subject of a development.

  10. Integrated challenge test: a new approach evaluating quantitative risk assessment of Listeria in ready to eat foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Matteini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to predict the maximum concentration of Listeria monocytogenes during the shelf life in chicken liver paté. The prediction has been performed using the integrated challenge test: a test based on the interaction between indigenous lactic flora and L. monocytogenes and their growth parameters. Two different approaches were investigated: the former is based on the time difference between the onset of the L. monocytogenes and the lactic flora stationary phases, while the latter is based on the lactic flora concentration capable to induct the stationary phase of L. monocytogenes. Three different strains of L. monocytogenes, isolated from meat products, were used to perform three challenge tests. Triplicate samples from three different batches of liver paté were inoculated with a single-strain inoculum of 1.8 Log CFU/g. Samples were then stored at 4°C, 8°C and 12°C. Lactobacillus spp. (ISO 15214:1998 and L. monocytogenes (UNI EN ISO 11290-02:2005 plate counts were performed daily on each sample until the stationary phase was reached by both populations. The challenge test results were input in the Combase software to determine the growth parameters, later used for the calculation method. Predictive data were then statically assessed against the results of two additional challenge tests using triplicate samples from two different batches, the same strains and the same single-strain inoculum. Samples from the first batch were stored for 5 days at 4°C + 5 days at 8°C + 5 days at 12°C; samples from the second batch were stored for 3 days at 4°C + 3 days at 8°C + 4 days at 12°C. The results obtained showed that both approaches provided results very close to the reality. Therefore the Integrated challenge test is useful to determine the maximum concentration of L. monocytogenes, by simply knowing the concentration of the concerned microbial populations at a given time.

  11. Combining the least correlation design, wavelet packet transform and correlation coefficient test to reduce the size of calibration set for NIR quantitative analysis in multi-component systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chen-Bo; Xu, Lu; Han, Qing-Juan; Wu, Hai-Long; Nie, Jin-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2010-05-15

    The paper focuses on solving a common and important problem of NIR quantitative analysis in multi-component systems: how to significantly reduce the size of the calibration set while not impairing the predictive precision. To cope with the problem orthogonal discrete wavelet packet transform (WPT), the least correlation design and correlation coefficient test (r-test) have been combined together. As three examples, a two-component carbon tetrachloride system with 21 calibration samples, a two-component aqueous system with 21 calibration samples, and a two-component aqueous system with 41 calibration samples have been treated with the proposed strategy, respectively. In comparison with some previous methods based on much more calibration samples, the results out of the strategy showed that the predictive ability was not obviously decreased for the first system while being clearly strengthened for the second one, and the predictive precision out of the third one was even satisfactory enough for most cases of quantitative analysis. In addition, all important factors and parameters related to our strategy are discussed in detail.

  12. Utilizing Moist or Dry Swabs for the Sampling of Nasal MRSA Carriers? An In Vivo and In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Philipp; Devide, Annette; Weise, Mirjam; Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Schäffler, Holger; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the quantitative bacterial recovery of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal screenings by utilizing dry or moistened swabs within an in vivo and an in vitro experimental setting. 135 nasal MRSA carriers were each swabbed in one nostril with a dry and in the other one with a moistened rayon swab. Quantitative bacterial recovery was measured by standard viable count techniques. Furthermore, an anatomically correct artificial nose model was inoculated with a numerically defined suspension of MRSA and swabbed with dry and moistened rayon, polyurethane-foam and nylon-flocked swabs to test these different settings and swab-materials under identical laboratory conditions. In vivo, quantities of MRSA per nostril in carriers varied between 107 colony forming units, with a median of 2.15x104 CFU. However, no statistically significant differences could be detected for the recovery of MRSA quantities when swabbing nasal carriers with moist or dry rayon swabs. In vitro testing confirmed the in vivo data for swabs with rayon, polyurethane and nylon-flocked tips, since pre-moistening of swabs did not significantly affect the quantities of retrieved bacteria. Therefore, pre-moistening of swabs prior to nasal MRSA sampling provides no advantage in terms of recovering greater bacterial quantities and therefore can be omitted. In addition, this situation can be mimicked in an in vitro model, thereby providing a useful basis for future in vitro testings of new swab types or target organisms for screening approaches. PMID:27626801

  13. Exploration and Swiss field-testing of a viral gene for specific quantitative resistance against smuts and bunts in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Thomas; Urbaniak, Bartosz; Plissonnier, Marie-Laure; Malgras, Nicole; Sautter, Christof

    2007-01-01

    The viral gene for the killer protein 4 (KP4) has been explored for its antifungal effect in genetically modified wheat to defeat specifically the seed-transmitted smut and bunt diseases. In vitro both important seed-transmitted diseases of wheat, loose smut (Ustilago tritici) and stinking smut (Tilletia caries), are susceptible to KP4, whereas all other organisms tested so far proved to be not susceptible to KP4. For studies in planta we used stinking smut as a model fungus. In greenhouse experiments, two KP4-transgenic wheat lines showed up to 30% lower symptom development as compared to the nontransgenic control. As the last step in the proof of concept, field-testing has shown for the first time increased fungal resistance of a transgene in wheat. Due to its specificity against smuts and bunts, KP4 presents a very low risk to humans and the environment. Field-testing in Switzerland is regulated by a strong law, which for research is acceptable if legally and scientifically correctly applied.

  14. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  15. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing

    2016-08-02

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  16. Characteristics of participants in a gestational carrier program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, A M; Corson, S L

    1992-08-01

    Genetic parents and gestational carriers in our gestational carrier program were evaluated by psychodiagnostic interview and by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview-2 (MMPI-2), a widely used objective psychological test, to identify psychopathology and describe personality characteristics. Overall, participants exhibited no overt psychopathology. Personality differences were found between gestational carriers and genetic mothers and genetic fathers and mothers. Clinical interviews revealed that gestational carriers tended to be the dominant partner in the relationship, were motivated by a wish to help an infertile couple, enjoyed being pregnant, showed narcissistic needs, and expressed a wish for secondary financial gain. The majority of gestational carriers stated that they had considered becoming a traditional surrogate but felt they could not surrender a child that was genetically theirs. These results indicate that there is not any predisposing psychopathology which attracts participants to the gestational carrier program.

  17. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC......Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Performance with Phantom-Based Test Methods And Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anant

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful medical imaging modality that uniquely produces high-resolution cross-sectional images of tissue using low energy light. Its clinical applications and technological capabilities have grown substantially since its invention about twenty years ago, but efforts have been limited to develop tools to assess performance of OCT devices with respect to the quality and content of acquired images. Such tools are important to ensure information derived from OCT signals and images is accurate and consistent, in order to support further technology development, promote standardization, and benefit public health. The research in this dissertation investigates new physical and computational models which can provide unique insights into specific performance characteristics of OCT devices. Physical models, known as phantoms, are fabricated and evaluated in the interest of establishing standardized test methods to measure several important quantities relevant to image quality. (1) Spatial resolution is measured with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom and model eye which together yield the point spread function under conditions where OCT is commonly used. (2) A multi-layered phantom is constructed to measure the contrast transfer function along the axis of light propagation, relevant for cross-sectional imaging capabilities. (3) Existing and new methods to determine device sensitivity are examined and compared, to better understand the detection limits of OCT. A novel computational model based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which simulates the physics of light behavior at the sub-microscopic level within complex, heterogeneous media, is developed to probe device and tissue characteristics influencing the information content of an OCT image. This model is first tested in simple geometric configurations to understand its accuracy and limitations, then a highly realistic representation of a biological cell, the retinal

  19. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome--a probable neuropathic pain condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that burning mouth syndrome (BMS) probably is a neuropathic pain condition, thermal and mechanical sensory and pain thresholds were tested and compared with age- and gender-matched control participants using a standardized battery of psychophysical techniques. Twenty-five BMS patients (men: 8, women: 17, age: 49.5 ± 11.4 years) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included. The cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), in accordance with the German Network of Neuropathic Pain guidelines, were measured at the following four sites: the dorsum of the left hand (hand), the skin at the mental foramen (chin), on the tip of the tongue (tongue), and the mucosa of the lower lip (lip). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the means within and between groups. Furthermore, Z-score profiles were generated, and exploratory correlation analyses between QST and clinical variables were performed. Two-tailed tests with a significance level of 5 % were used throughout. CDTs (P < 0.02) were significantly lower (less sensitivity) and HPTs (P < 0.001) were significantly higher (less sensitivity) at the tongue and lip in BMS patients compared to control participants. WDT (P = 0.007) was also significantly higher at the tongue in BMS patients compared to control subjects . There were no significant differences in MDT and MPT between the BMS patients and healthy subjects at any of the four test sites. Z-scores showed that significant loss of function can be identified for CDT (Z-scores = -0.9±1.1) and HPT (Z-scores = 1.5±0.4). There were no significant correlations between QST and clinical variables (pain intensity, duration, depressions scores). BMS patients had a significant loss of thermal function but not

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  1. Aerodynamic results of a separation test (CA20) conducted at the Boeing transonic wind tunnel using 0.030-scale models of the configuration 140A/B (modified) SSV orbiter (model no. 45-0) and the Boeing 747 carrier (model no. AX 1319 I-1), volume 1. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubala, T.; Esparza, V.; Gillins, R. L.; Petrozzi, M.

    1975-01-01

    A Rockwell built 0.030-scale 45-0 modified Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 14?A/B model and a Boeing built 0.030-scale 747 carrier model were tested to provide six component force and moment data for each vehicle in proximity to the other at a matrix of relative positions, attitudes and test conditions (angles of attack and sideslip were varied). Orbiter model support system tare effects were determined for corrections to obtain support-free aerodynamics. In addition to the balance force data, pressures were measured. Pressure orifices were located at the base of the Orbiter, on either side of the vertical blade strut, and at the mid-root chord on either side of the vertical tail. Strain gages were installed on the Boeing 747 vertical tail to indicate buffet onset. Photographs of aerodynamic configurations tested are shown.

  2. Assessment of a 96-Well Plate Assay of Quantitative Drug Susceptibility Testing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Zheng, Yang; Zhao, Bing; van den Hof, Susan; Cobelens, Frank; Zhao, YanLin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. Methods A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs). The categorical agreement, conditional agreement, sensitivity and specificity of MYCOTB were assessed in comparison with APM. For strains with inconsistent results between MYCOTB and APM, the drug resistance related gene fragments were amplified and sequenced: gyrA for Ofx and Mfx; rpoB for RFP and Rfb; embB for EMB; rpsl for Sm; katG and the promoter region of inhA for INH, ethA and the promoter region of inhA for Eth. The sequence results were compared with results of MYCOTB and APM to analyze the consistency between sequence results and MYCOTB or APM. Results The categorical agreement between two methods for each drug ranged from 88.6% to 100%. It was the lowest for INH (88.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of MYCOTB ranged from 71.4% to 100% and 84.3% to 100%, respectively. The sensitivity was lowest for Cs(71.4%), EMB at 10μg/ml (80.0%) and INH at 10.0μg/ml (84.6%). The specificity was lowest for Rfb (84.3%). Overall discordance between the two phenotypic methods was observed for 96 strains, of which 63 (65.6%) were found susceptible with APM and resistant with MYCOTB and the remaining 33(34.4%) strains were resistant by APM and susceptible with MYCOTB. 34/52 (65.4%) sequenced APM susceptible and MYCOTB resistant(APM-S/MYCOTB-R) strains had mutations or insertions in the amplified regions. 20/30 (66.7%) sequenced APM

  3. Carrier molecules and extraction of circulating tumor DNA for next generation sequencing in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránek, Martin; Sirák, Igor; Vošmik, Milan; Petera, Jiří; Drastíková, Monika; Palička, Vladimír

    The aims of the study were: i) to compare circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) yields obtained by different manual extraction procedures, ii) to evaluate the addition of various carrier molecules into the plasma to improve ctDNA extraction recovery, and iii) to use next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to analyze KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS somatic mutations in ctDNA from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Venous blood was obtained from patients who suffered from metastatic colorectal carcinoma. For plasma ctDNA extraction, the following carriers were tested: carrier RNA, polyadenylic acid, glycogen, linear acrylamide, yeast tRNA, salmon sperm DNA, and herring sperm DNA. Each extract was characterized by quantitative real-time PCR and next generation sequencing. The addition of polyadenylic acid had a significant positive effect on the amount of ctDNA eluted. The sequencing data revealed five cases of ctDNA mutated in KRAS and one patient with a BRAF mutation. An agreement of 86% was found between tumor tissues and ctDNA. Testing somatic mutations in ctDNA seems to be a promising tool to monitor dynamically changing genotypes of tumor cells circulating in the body. The optimized process of ctDNA extraction should help to obtain more reliable sequencing data in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

  4. Motor decline in clinically presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers.

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    Luis Velázquez-Perez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor deficits are a critical component of the clinical characteristics of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, there is no current information on the preclinical manifestation of those motor deficits in presymptomatic gene carriers. To further understand and characterize the onset of the clinical manifestation in this disease, we tested presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers, and volunteers, in a task that evaluates their motor performance and their motor learning capabilities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 28 presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers and an equal number of control volunteers matched for age and gender participated in the study. Both groups were tested in a prism adaptation task known to be sensible to both motor performance and visuomotor learning deficits. Our results clearly show that although motor learning capabilities are intact, motor performance deficits are present even years before the clinical manifestation of the disease start. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a clear deficit in motor performance that can be detected years before the clinical onset of the disease. This motor performance deficit appears before any motor learning or clinical manifestations of the disease. These observations identify the performance coefficient as an objective and quantitative physiological biomarker that could be useful to assess the efficiency of different therapeutic agents.

  5. Comprehensive quantitative and qualitative liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry analysis for safety testing of tolbutamide metabolites without standard samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Aoyama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Kohei; Akita, Shoji; Oh-Hara, Toshinari; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi

    2011-09-01

    Liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry (LC-RI-MS) analysis was used to determine the structures of 12 (four previously unknown) (14) C-tolbutamide (TB) metabolites in rat biological samples (plasma, urine, bile, feces, and microsomes). The four novel metabolites are ω-carboxy TB, hydroxyl TB (HTB)-O-glucuronide, TB-ortho or meta-glutathion, and tolylsulphoaminocarbo-glutathion. In rat plasma, after oral administration of (14) C-TB at therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg) and microdose (1.67 µg/kg), the total RI and six metabolites [HTB, carboxy TB (CTB), M1: desbutyl TB, M2: ω-hydroxyl TB, M3: α-hydroxyl TB, and M4: ω-1-hydroxyl TB] were quantified by LC-RI-MS. The plasma concentrations were calculated using their response factors (MS-RI intensity ratio) without standard samples, and the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentration per time for evaluation of Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites (MIST) was calculated using the ratio of TB metabolites AUC/total RI AUC. The ratios were as follows: TB 94.5% and HTB 2.5% for the microdose (1.67 µg/kg) and TB 95.6%, HTB 0.96%, CTB 0.065%, M1 0.62%, M2 0.0035%, M3 0.077%, and M4 0.015% for the therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg). These values were less than 10% of the MIST criteria.

  6. Quantitative analysis of genomic DNA degradation in whole blood under various storage conditions for molecular diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permenter, Jessalyn; Ishwar, Arjun; Rounsavall, Angie; Smith, Maddie; Faske, Jennifer; Sailey, Charles J; Alfaro, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Proper storage of whole blood is crucial for isolating nucleic acids from leukocytes and to ensure adequate performance of downstream assays in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Short-term and long-term storage recommendations are lacking for successful isolation of genomic DNA (gDNA). Container type (EDTA or heparin), temperature (4 °C and room temperature) and time (1-130 days) were assessed as criterion for sample acceptance policies. The percentage of integrated area (%Ti) between 150 and 10,000 bp from the 2200 TapeStation electropherogram was calculated to measure gDNA degradation. Refrigerated EDTA samples yielded gDNA with low %Ti (high quality). Heparinized samples stored at room temperature yielded gDNA of worst quality. Downstream analysis demonstrated that the quality of the gDNA correlated with the quality of the data; samples with high %Ti generated significantly lower levels of high molecular weight amplicons. Recommendations from these analyses include storing blood samples intended for nucleic acid isolation in EDTA tubes at 4 °C for long term storage (>10 days). gDNA should be extracted within 3 days when blood is stored at room temperature regardless of the container. Finally, refrigerated heparinized samples should not be stored longer than 9 days if expecting high quality gDNA isolates. Laboratories should consider many factors, in addition to the results obtained herein, to update their policies for sample acceptance for gDNA extraction intended for molecular genetic testing.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of the FTA-ABS-IgM and VDRL test in treated and untreated syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, A; Schmidt, B; Spendlingwimmer, I

    1977-01-01

    Observations made on fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) immunoglobulin M (IgM) titres in patients with untreated early syphilis showed non-reactive or weakly reactive results in patients with primary (one of five cases) and secondary (two of 16 cases) lesions. In patients with primary (19.5%) and secondary (15%) syphilis sera remained reactive with increased titres for more than one year after treatment. The respective figures in the results of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test were zero in primary and 20% in secondary syphilis. The non-reactive FTA-ABS IgM results may possibly be explained by competitive inhibition of IgM by immunoglobulin G (IgG). The persistence of reactivity in a comparable percentage has been observed by other investigators (Grin et al., 1974; Wilkinson and Rodin, 1976). The current results therefore suggest that FTA-ABS IgM titres are less reliable for assessing the effect of treatment than the course of the VDRL titres. The phenomenon of a decrease in FTA-ABS IgM titres soon after treatment with a later rise before final non-reactivity is a matter for further investigation. PMID:338124

  8. Fully automatic quantitative assessment of emphysema in computed tomography: comparison with pulmonary function testing and normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussel, C.P.; Hantusch, R.; Hartlieb, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Radiology, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Herth, F.J.F.; Kappes, J.; Eberhardt, R. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Weinheimer, O. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Characterisation and quantification of emphysema are necessary for planning of local treatment and monitoring. Sensitive, easy to measure, and stable parameters have to be established and their relation to the well-known pulmonary function testing (PFT) has to be investigated. A retrospective analysis of 221 nonenhanced thin-section MDCT with a corresponding PFT was carried out, with a subgroup analysis in 102 COPD stage III+IV, 44 COPD stage 0, and 33 investigations into interstitial lung disease (ILD). The in-house YACTA software was used for automatic quantification of lung and emphysema volume [l], emphysema index, mean lung density (MLD [HU]) and 15{sup th} percentile [HU]. CT-derived lung volume is significantly smaller in ILD (3.8) and larger in COPD (7.2) than in controls (5.9, p<0.0001). Emphysema volume and index are significantly higher in COPD than in controls (3.2 vs. 0.5, p<0.0001, 45% vs. 8%, p<0.0001). MLD and 15{sup th} percentile are significantly smaller in COPD (-877/-985, p<0.0001) and significantly higher in ILD (-777, p<0.0006/-914, p<0.0001) than in controls (-829/-935). A relevant amount of COPD patients apparently do not suffer from emphysema, while controls who do not fulfil PFT criteria for COPD also demonstrate CT features of emphysema. Automatic quantification of thin-section CT delivers convincing parameters and ranges that are able to differentiate among emphysema, control and ILD. An emphysema index of lower 20%, MLD higher than -850, and 15{sup th} percentile lower than -950 might be regarded as normal (thin-section, nonenhanced, B40, YACTA). These ranges might be helpful in the judgement of individual measures. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in client-owned dogs with chronic naturally occurring pain and normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Mila; Knazovicky, David; Case, Beth; Thomson, Andrea; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2016-04-01

    Detecting dogs with central sensitization (CS) secondary to chronic pain is hampered by the current inability to measure this condition. The current study aimed to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to measure (CS) in normal dogs and dogs with painful degenerative joint disease (DJD). It was hypothesized that QST would differ between these two groups of animals. Mechanical and thermal sensory thresholds obtained in animals with DJD-associated pain on two time points 28 days apart were compared with those of normal dogs. Values of sensory thresholds in DJD dogs obtained 28 days after the first evaluation were significantly lower than the results on the first day of evaluation but no differences were found when these results were compared with those of normal dogs. In conclusion, whether QST is different between dogs with chronic pain and normal dogs needs further investigation using a larger group of animals and age, weight and sex matched groups.

  10. Skewed X inactivation in Lesch-Nyhan disease carrier females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa J; Puig, Juan G

    2017-09-14

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) ratios of normal females can range from a highly skewed ratio of 0:100 to a 50:50 ratio. In several X-linked disorders, female carriers present skewed X inactivation. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is an X-linked disorder. Males are affected and present with the complete Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) or with a partial phenotype (Lesch-Nyhan variant, LNV). Female carriers are usually asymptomatic. The aim of the present study was to analyze the XCI pattern of HPRT-deficiency carrier females. As a group, 75% of HPRT-deficiency carrier females presented skewed XCI. Moreover, skewed XCI is significantly more frequent in LND carriers (83%) than in LNV (0-50%, depending on the phenotype severity). The ratios of the preferentially inactivated allele of carrier females were significantly higher than the ratios of the preferentially inactivated allele of noncarrier females (89.4±15, n=52 vs 65.2±12, n=52; P<0.0001). For carrier diagnosis, the presence of skewed XCI presents a sensitivity of 75% with a specificity of 85%. In LND families, the presence of skewed XCI is more sensitive for carrier diagnosis than in LNV families; however, we believe that this test is not accurate for carrier diagnostic purposes.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 14 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.88.

  11. Comparative Validation of Five Quantitative Rapid Test Kits for the Analysis of Salt Iodine Content: Laboratory Performance, User- and Field-Friendliness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency has important health and development consequences and the introduction of iodized salt as national programs has been a great public health success in the past decades. To render national salt iodization programs sustainable and ensure adequate iodization levels, simple methods to quantitatively assess whether salt is adequately iodized are required. Several methods claim to be simple and reliable, and are available on the market or are in development.This work has validated the currently available quantitative rapid test kits (quantRTK in a comparative manner for both their laboratory performance and ease of use in field settings.Laboratory performance parameters (linearity, detection and quantification limit, intra- and inter-assay imprecision were conducted on 5 quantRTK. We assessed inter-operator imprecision using salt of different quality along with the comparison of 59 salt samples from across the globe; measurements were made both in a laboratory and a field setting by technicians and non-technicians. Results from the quantRTK were compared against iodometric titration for validity. An 'ease-of-use' rating system was developed to identify the most suitable quantRTK for a given task.Most of the devices showed acceptable laboratory performance, but for some of the devices, use by non-technicians revealed poorer performance when working in a routine manner. Of the quantRTK tested, the iCheck® and I-Reader® showed most consistent performance and ease of use, and a newly developed paper-based method (saltPAD holds promise if further developed.User- and field-friendly devices are now available and the most appropriate quantRTK can be selected depending on the number of samples and the budget available.

  12. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction with the COBAS Amplicor test for quantitation of hepatitis B virus DNA in serum samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Shi; Yong Zhang; Ying-Hua Zhu; Jing Zhang; Wei-Jia Xu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical performance of a real-time PCR assay with the COBAS Amplicor Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Monitor test for quantitation of HBV DNA in serum samples. METHODS: The reference sera of the Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products and the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of China, and 158 clinical serum samples were used in this study. The linearity, accuracy, reproducibility, assay time, and costs of the real-time PCR were evaluated and compared with those of the Cobas Amplicor test. RESULTS: The intra-assay and inter-assay variations of the real-time PCR ranged from 0.3% to 3.8% and 1.4% to 8.1%, respectively. The HBV DNA levels measured by the real-time PCR correlated very well with those obtained with the COBAS Amplicor test (r = 0.948). The real-time PCR HBV DNA kit was much cheaper and had a wider dynamic range. CONCLUSION: The real-time PCR assay is an excellent tool for monitoring of HBV DNA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  13. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Frisbie, Daniel [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering.

  14. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Qualitative and semi-quantitative comparison of an rK39 strip test and direct agglutination test for detection of anti-Leishmania donovani antibodies in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Durria; Abass, Elfadil M; Mahamoud, Abdelhafeiz; el Harith, Abdallah

    2009-12-01

    Until now, the comparison of the rK39 strip test (RKT) and direct agglutination test (DAT) for detection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is exclusively based on either positive or negative qualification of the reaction outcome. In this study, we compared the diagnostic performance of RKT and DAT for VL both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. For comparison based on semi-quantitative grounds, the execution of RKT and DAT was according to the standard procedures. For comparison on semi-qualitative grounds with DAT, the RKT was applied to aliquots from positive samples that were two-fold serially diluted in saline to determine, as for the DAT, the end-point reaction in RKT. While qualitatively both RKT and DAT demonstrated comparable reliability for VL detection (sensitivity = 96% and specificity = 98.7% or 99.3%), no significant correlation (r = 0.13) could be established between intensities of their positive reactions in 25 cases studied. A negative correlation was further determined in those 25 VL cases between the positive intensities of the RKT and antibody levels measured semi-quantitatively with the same procedure (r = -0.36) or the DAT (r = -0.30). Irrespective of the low, moderate or high antibody levels measured with RKT ( or = 1:256) or DAT ( or = 1:3,276,800) in patients with confirmed or unconfirmed VL infection, exclusively strong positive intensities were obtained with RKT. For further optimizing diagnosis and simultaneously assessing magnitude of immune response to L. donovani infection in Sudanese patients, the combined application of RKT and DAT is recommended.

  16. Thermal Quantitative Sensory Testing in Fibromyalgia Patients / Termāla Kvantitatīva Sensora Testēšana Fibromialģijas Pacientiem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova Marija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromialģija (FM ir hroniska slimība, kas izpaužas ar difūzām muskuloskeletālām sāpēm, nogurumu, miega un emocionāliem traucējumiem. Slimība, iespējams, ir saistīta ar A delta un C nervu šķiedru disfunkciju. Termāla kvantitatīva sensora testēšana (QST analizē mazmielinizētas A delta nervu šķiedras un nemielinizētas C nervu šķiedras, kas atbild par nociceptīvo sensoru sistēmu un spinotalāmisko ceļu. Pieņemot, ka FM sāpēm ir neiropātisks raksturs, pieaug arī QST vērtība kā papildus diagnostiskam testam. Pētījumā tika iekļauts 51 pacients. Slimības simptomi tika objektivizēti, izmantojot Noguruma smaguma skalu (Fatigue Severity Scale, Fibromialģijas ietekmes anketu (Fibromialgia Impact Questionnaire un 2010. gada American College of Rheumatology (ACR FM diagnostiskos kritērijus. QST tika veikta ar termālo stimulu pēdu un plaukstu dorsālajās virsmās. QST rezultāti tika salīdzināti ar 20 atbilstoša vecuma un dzimuma kontroles grupas pacientiem. FM pacientiem tika konstatēta ievērojama aukstuma un siltuma percepcijas un sāpju sliekšņu atšķirība, salīdzinot ar kontroles grupas pacientiem, un tas norāda uz neiropātisko sāpju raksturu FM pacientiem. Izmaiņas ir vairāk izteiktas siltuma percepcijas un karstuma sāpju sliekšņos. Iespējams, tas liecina, ka FM pacientiem C šķiedras ir vairāk skartas un siltuma percepcijas un karstuma sāpju sliekšņi ir jūtīgākas modalitātes, ko var izmantot FM diagnostikā. Tika arī atklātas statistiski ticamas negatīvas korelācijas starp siltuma un aukstuma percepcijas sliekšņiem un starp karstuma un aukstuma sāpju sliekšņiem, kas var norādīt uz centrālo sensibilizāciju vai defektīvo sāpju inhibējošu sistēmu FM pacientiem.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Sandhya K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  18. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  19. Increased sensitivity to physical activity among individuals with knee osteoarthritis: relation to pain outcomes, psychological factors, and responses to quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Timothy H; Finan, Patrick H; Edwards, Robert R; Quartana, Phillip J; Buenaver, Luis F; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that certain individuals with musculoskeletal pain conditions have increased sensitivity to physical activity (SPA) and respond to activities of stable intensity with increasingly severe pain. This study aimed to determine the degree to which individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) show heightened SPA in response to a standardized walking task and whether SPA cross-sectionally predicts psychological factors, responses to quantitative sensory testing (QST), and different OA-related outcomes. One hundred seven adults with chronic knee OA completed self-report measures of pain, function, and psychological factors, underwent QST, and performed a 6-min walk test. Participants rated their discomfort levels throughout the walking task; an index of SPA was created by subtracting first ratings from peak ratings. Repeated-measure analysis of variance revealed that levels of discomfort significantly increased throughout the walking task. A series of hierarchical regression analyses determined that after controlling for significant covariates, psychological factors, and measures of mechanical pain sensitivity, individual variance in SPA predicted self-report pain and function and performance on the walking task. Analyses also revealed that both pain catastrophizing and the temporal summation of mechanical pain were significant predictors of SPA and that SPA mediated the relationship between catastrophizing and self-reported pain and physical function. The discussion addresses the potential processes contributing to SPA and the role it may play in predicting responses to different interventions for musculoskeletal pain conditions.

  20. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species.

  1. Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) versus weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) effects on quantitative measure in the COPDGene 2 test object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieren, J P; Hoffman, E A; Fuld, M K; Chan, K S; Guo, J; Newell, J D

    2014-09-01

    Assessing pulmonary emphysema using Quantitative CT of the lung depends on accurate measures of CT density. Sinogram-Affirmed-Iterative-Reconstruction (SAFIRE) is a new approach for reconstructing CT data acquired at significantly lower doses. However, quantitative effects of this method remain unexplored. The authors investigated the effects on the median values of materials in the COPDGene2 test-object as a function of the reconstruction method [weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) versus SAFIRE], test-object size, dose, and material composition using a Siemens SOMATOM Definition FLASH CT scanner. The COPDGene2 test-object contains eight materials; acrylic, water, four foams (20 lb, 12 lb, lung-equivalent, and 4 lb emphysema-equivalent), internal and external-air. The test-object was scanned with three different outer ring sizes, simulating three different body habitus. There is an average size (36 cm) Ring A, large size (40 cm) Ring B, and small size Ring C (30 cm). The CT protocol used 120 kVp, 0.5 s rotation, 1.0 pitch, and a 0.6 slice collimation with progressively decreasing x-ray exposure values, 11.94-0.74 mGy. With a thorax length of 30 cm, the corresponding effective doses would be 5.01-0.31 mSv. The effects of using SAFIRE versus WFBP were assessed using a two tailed t-test for each ring size, material, and dose. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the relative effects of ring size, material composition, dose, and reconstruction method on the measured median value in HU. SAFIRE versus WFBP, at the largest ring size and two lowest doses there was a significant difference in median values of 4 lb-foam, p<0.01. Using the smallest ring size at the lowest dose level there was a significant difference in the median value of 4 lb-foam, but the effect size was small, 1 HU. There is a significant difference in median values of both internal and external air using both the small and medium size rings at the three lowest dose levels, p<0

  2. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): reference data for the trunk and application in patients with chronic postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Doreen B; Krumova, Elena K; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf; Toelle, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Eich, Wolfgang; Geber, Christian; Gerhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas; Magerl, Walter; Maier, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Age- and gender-matched reference values are essential for the clinical use of quantitative sensory testing (QST). To extend the standard test sites for QST-according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain-to the trunk, we collected QST profiles on the back in 162 healthy subjects. Sensory profiles for standard test sites were within normal interlaboratory differences. QST revealed lower sensitivity on the upper back than the hand, and higher sensitivity on the lower back than the foot, but no systematic differences between these trunk sites. Age effects were significant for most parameters. Females exhibited lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT) than males, which was the only significant gender difference. Values outside the 95% confidence interval of healthy subjects (considered abnormal) required temperature changes of >3.3-8.2 °C for thermal detection. For cold pain thresholds, confidence intervals extended mostly beyond safety cutoffs, hence only relative reference data (left-right differences, hand-trunk differences) were sufficiently sensitive. For mechanical detection and pain thresholds, left-right differences were 1.5-2.3 times more sensitive than absolute reference data. The most sensitive parameter was PPT, where already side-to-side differences >35% were abnormal. Compared to trunk reference data, patients with postherpetic neuralgia exhibited thermal and tactile deficits and dynamic mechanical allodynia, mostly without reduced mechanical pain thresholds. This pattern deviates from other types of neuropathic pain. QST reference data for the trunk will also be useful for patients with postthoracotomy pain or chronic back pain.

  3. Effect of dexamethasone on mandibular bone biomechanics in rats during the growth phase as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2015-04-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid administration to growing rats induces osteopenia and alterations in the biomechanical behavior of the bone. This study was performed to estimate the effects of dexamethasone (DTX), a synthetic steroid with predominant glucocorticoid activity, on the biomechanical properties of the mandible of rats during the growth phase, as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) analysis. The data obtained by the two methods will provide more precise information when analyzed together than separately. Female rats aged 23 d (n=7) received 500μg.kg-1 per day of DXT for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, their body weight and body length were 51.3% and 20.6% lower, respectively, than controls. Hemimandible weight and area (an index of mandibular size) were 27.3% and 9.7% lower, respectively. The right hemimandible of each animal was subjected to a mechanical 3-point bending test. Significant weakening of the bone, as shown by a correlative impairment of strength and stiffness, was observed in experimental rats. Bone density and cross-sectional area were measured by pQCT. Cross-sectional, cortical and trabecular areas were reduced by 20% to 30% in the DTX group, as were other cortical parameters, including the bone density, mineral content and cross-sectional moment of inertia. The "bone strength index" (BSI, the product of the pQCT-assessed xCSMI and vCtBMD) was 56% lower in treated rats, which compares well with the 54% and 52% reduction observed in mandibular strength and stiffness determined through the bending test. Data suggest that the corticosteroid exerts a combined, negative action on bone geometry (mass and architecture) and volumetric bone mineral density of cortical bone, which would express independent effects on both cellular (material quality) and tissue (cross-sectional design) levels of biological organization of the skeleton in the species.

  4. Quantitative influenza follow-up testing (QIFT--a novel biomarker for the monitoring of disease activity at the point-of-care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza infections induce considerable disease burden in young children. Biomarkers for the monitoring of disease activity at the point-of-care (POC are currently lacking. Recent methodologies for fluorescence-based rapid testing have been developed to provide improved sensitivities with the initial diagnosis. The present study aims to explore the utility of second-generation rapid testing during longitudinal follow-up of influenza patients (Rapid Influenza Follow-up Testing = RIFT. Signal/control fluorescent readouts (Quantitative Influenza Follow-up Testing = QIFT are evaluated as a potential biomarker for the monitoring of disease activity at the POC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: RIFT (SOFIA and QIFT were performed at the POC and compared to blinded RT-PCR at the National Reference Centre for Influenza. From 10/2011-4/2013, a total of 2048 paediatric cases were studied prospectively; 273 cases were PCR-confirmed for influenza. During follow-up, RIFT results turned negative either prior to PCR (68%, or simultaneously (30%. The first negative RIFT occurred after a median of 8 days with a median virus load (VL of 5.6×10∧3 copies/ml and cycle threshold of 37, with no evidence of viral rebound. Binning analysis revealed that QIFT differentiated accurately between patients with low, medium and high viral titres. QIFT increase/decrease showed 88% agreement (sensitivity = 52%, specificity = 95% with VL increase/decrease, respectively. QIFT-based viral clearance estimates showed similar values compared to PCR-based estimates. Variations in viral clearance rates were lower in treated compared to untreated patients. The study was limited by use of non-invasive, semi-quantitative nasopharyngeal samples. VL measurements below the limit of detection could not be quantified reliably. CONCLUSIONS: During follow-up, RIFT provides a first surrogate measure for influenza disease activity. A "switch" from positive to negative values may

  5. 42 CFR 421.200 - Carrier functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier functions. 421.200 Section 421.200 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.200 Carrier functions. A contract between CMS and a carrier specifies the functions to be performed by the carrier. The contract may include any or all of...

  6. Carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT genotype have elevated levels of plasma glucose, serum proinsulin and plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) during a meal test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A P; Kjems, L L; Vestmar, M A

    2011-01-01

    glucose-tolerant men (age 54¿±¿7 years and BMI 26¿±¿3 kg/m2) with rs7903146 TT genotype and 31 glucose-tolerant age- and BMI-matched men with CC genotype (age 53¿±¿6 years and BMI 26¿±¿3 kg/m2). Serum proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide and plasma glucose, glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were obtained 0, 15, 30......, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after ingestion of a standardised breakfast meal. Results An elevated incremental AUC for plasma glucose was observed among TT genotype carriers (CC carriers 21.8¿±¿101.9 mmol/l¿×¿min vs TT carriers 97.9¿±¿89.2 mmol/l¿×¿min, p¿=¿0.001). TT...... carriers 14,590¿±¿5,910 pmol/l¿×¿min, p¿=¿0.004). Conclusions/interpretation Middle-aged normoglycaemic individuals carrying the rs7903146 TCF7L2 risk TT genotype show early signs of dysregulated glucose metabolism, decreased processing of proinsulin and elevated GIP secretion following a meal challenge....

  7. From water analytics to the point-of-care-testing. Biosensors for the quantitative analysis in different matrices; Von der Wasseranalytik bis zum Point-of-Care-Testing. Biosensoren zur quantitativen Analyse in verschiedenen Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, C.; Gauglitz, G. [Tuebingen Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie (IPTC)

    2008-03-15

    In many ranges of control analytics, a continuous monitoring is increasingly necessary. Classical methods such as gas chromatography or HPLC enable a sensitive proof of analytes. However, these classical methods are not suitable for high flow rates. Biosensors fulfill the requirements of a fast, economical and sensitive detection. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on biosensors for the automated employment with the quantitative measurement in different matrices. The modular structure of the used surface chemistry permits a flexible adjustment to extern conditions. Thus a high stability of the sensitive, biological layer is to be achieved. The potential of the technology is pointed out on the basis of three applications to the measurement in water, cow's milk and human serum (point-of-care-testing).

  8. Quantitative test of responses to thermal stimulation in spinally injured rats using a Peltier thermode: a new approach to study cold allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianle; Hao, Jing-Xia; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Xu, Xiao-Jun

    2013-01-30

    In this work, we described a method of testing of responses of spinally injured rats to thermal stimulation (heating and cooling) to the flank area using a Peltier thermode. With a baseline holding temperature at 32°C and the temperature change rate of 0.5°C/s, we measured vocalization thresholds of rats to thermal stimulation in the flank area. While normal rats did not vocalize to temperatures changes ranging from 6°C to 50°C, the spinally injured rats exhibited significantly increased response to cooling with average response temperature above 15°C through the 70 day observation period after spinal cord injury. The response temperature to cooling in spinally injured rats is correlated with the magnitude of responses to cold stimulation scored after ethyl chloride spray and with the response threshold to mechanical stimulation. In contrast, we did not observe an increase in response to warm/heat stimuli. The results showed that ischemic spinal cord injury produced cold, but not heat, allodynia in rats. Furthermore, we showed that it is possible to quantitatively measure response of rats to thermal stimulation on the body using temperature as end points which may aid further studies on mechanisms and treatments of thermal stimulation, particularly cold, evoked pain.

  9. Symptom profiles in the painDETECT Questionnaire in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain stratified according to sensory loss in quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, Jan; Kramer, Martin; Barroso, Alejandro; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Jensen, Troels S; Kuehler, Bianca M; Maier, Christoph; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Solà, Romà; Tölle, Thomas R; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ) is commonly used as a screening tool to discriminate between neuropathic pain (NP) and nociceptive pain, based on the self-report of symptoms, including pain qualities, numbness, and pain to touch, cold, or heat. However, there are minimal data about whether the PDQ is differentially sensitive to different sensory phenotypes in NP. The aim of the study was to analyze whether the overall PDQ score or its items reflect phenotypes of sensory loss in NP as determined by quantitative sensory testing. An exploratory analysis in the Innovative Medicines Initiative Europain and Neuropain database was performed. Data records of 336 patients identified with NP were grouped into sensory profiles characterized by (1) no loss of sensation, (2) loss of thermal sensation, (3) loss of mechanical sensation, and (4) loss of thermal and mechanical sensation. painDETECT Questionnaire profiles were analyzed in a 2-factor analysis of variance. Patients with loss of thermal sensation (2 and 4) significantly more often reported pain evoked by light touch, and patients with loss of mechanical sensation (3 and 4) significantly more often reported numbness and significantly less often burning sensations and pain evoked by light touch. Although the PDQ was not designed to assess sensory loss, single items reflect thermal and/or mechanical sensory loss at group level, but because of substantial variability, the PDQ does not allow for individual allocation of patients into sensory profiles. It will be useful to develop screening tools according to the current definition of NP.

  10. Specific IgE density assay: A new reverse enzyme allergosorbent test-based procedure for the quantitative detection of allergen-specific IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Falagiani

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is described for the quantitative detection of IgE antibodies, based on IgE capture with a specific antibody, reaction with liquid-biotinylated allergens and biotinylated anti-IgE and immunoenzymatic development of the reaction (reverse enzyme allergosorbent test. Using a reference system based on the World Health Organization IgE International standard, this method determines total IgE in the range 2-100kU/L and specific IgE in the range 0.2-100 kU/L, from which the specific/total ratio, called 'specific IgE density', can be calculated. This procedure has been applied to the study of specific IgE in 23 sera from patients polysensitized to pollen and mite allergens: 11 with asthma and 12 with rhinitis. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were evaluted. Sera from asthmatic patients showed higher cumulative levels of specific IgE (mean density 57.7% than sera from rhinitic patients (mean density 32.6%. The clinical significance of specific IgE density in patients with multiple sensitizations is discussed.

  11. Chronic sensory stroke with and without central pain is associated with bilaterally distributed sensory abnormalities as detected by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Thomas; Asseyer, Susanna; Geisler, Frederik; Fiebach, Jochen B; Oeltjenbruns, Jochen; Kopf, Andreas; Villringer, Kersten; Villringer, Arno; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients suffering from stroke with pure or predominant sensory symptoms (referred to as sensory stroke patients) develop central poststroke pain (CPSP). It is largely unknown what distinguishes these patients from those who remain pain free. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST), we analyzed the somatosensory profiles of 50 patients with chronic sensory stroke, of which 25 suffered from CPSP. As compared with reference data from healthy controls, patients with CPSP showed alterations of thermal and mechanical thresholds on the body area contralateral to their stroke (P pain sensory stroke [NPSS] patients) exhibited similar albeit less pronounced contralesional changes. Paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) showed higher values in CPSP, and an elevated cold detection threshold (CDT) was seen more often in CPSP than in patients with NPSS (P pain summation (wind-up ratio) each correlated with the presence of pain (P < 0.05). On the homologous ipsilesional body area, both patient groups showed additional significant abnormalities as compared with the reference data, which strongly resembled the contralesional changes. In summary, our analysis reveals that CPSP is associated with impaired temperature perception and positive sensory signs, but differences between patients with CPSP and NPSS are subtle. Both patients with CPSP and NPSS show considerable QST changes on the ipsilesional body side. These results are in part paralleled by recent findings of bilaterally spread cortical atrophy in CPSP and might reflect chronic maladaptive cortical plasticity, particularly in patients with CPSP.

  12. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C., E-mail: santhosh.cls@manipal.edu, E-mail: unnikrishnan.vk@manipal.edu [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Sonavane, M. S. [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Yeotikar, R. G. [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Shah, M. L.; Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  13. Developing Quantitative In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation for Fenofibrate Immediate-Release Formulations With the Biphasic Dissolution-Partition Test Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Shi, Yi; Vela, Socrates; Marroum, Patrick; Gao, Ping

    2017-06-27

    This study is to evaluate 3 fenofibrate (FEN) formulations including Fournier® 200 mg capsule, Lipidil® 145 mg tablet, and a clinical HME 160 mg tablet by an in vitro biphasic method. Key experimental parameters were evaluated including the selection of biorelevant media, the United States Pharmacopeia IV flow rate, and the United States Pharmacopeia paddle speed. Varying the hydrodynamic condition resulted in a significant impact on FEN concentration time profiles in both aqueous and octanol phases for these formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the HME tablet, the Lipidil tablet, and Fournier capsule under the fasting and low-fat fed states are reported. Their corresponding absorption-time profiles were obtained through deconvolution by the Wagner-Nelson method. When fed state simulated intestinal fluid version 2 was used, the partitioned FEN amount-time profiles in octanol from the 3 formulations under an appropriate hydrodynamic condition exhibited a good agreement with their in vivo absorbed amount-time profiles, permitting a quantitative in vitro-in vivo correlation. When fasted state simulated intestinal fluid version 2 was used, partitioned FEN amounts into octanol from these formulations are significantly lower than those from in vivo data. Although no food effect was observed for both HME and Lipidil tablets, the positive food effect of the Fournier capsules significantly overestimated by the biphasic test. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative sensory testing somatosensory profiles in patients with cervical radiculopathy are distinct from those in patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampin, Brigitte; Slater, Helen; Hall, Toby; Lee, Gabriel; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the somatosensory profiles of patients with cervical radiculopathy and patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain associated with heightened nerve mechanosensitivity (NSNAP). Sensory profiles were compared to healthy control (HC) subjects and a positive control group comprising patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) of thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity and responsiveness to repetitive noxious mechanical stimulation was performed in the maximal pain area, the corresponding dermatome and foot of 23 patients with painful C6 or C7 cervical radiculopathy, 8 patients with NSNAP in a C6/7 dermatomal pain distribution, 31 HC and 22 patients with FM. For both neck-arm pain groups, all QST parameters were within the 95% confidence interval of HC data. Patients with cervical radiculopathy were characterised by localised loss of function (thermal, mechanical, vibration detection Ppain area and dermatome (thermal detection, vibration detection, pressure pain sensitivity Pneck-arm pain groups demonstrated increased cold sensitivity in their maximal pain area (Pneck-arm pain groups differed from patients with FM, the latter characterised by a widespread gain of function in most nociceptive parameters (thermal, pressure, mechanical pain sensitivity Ppain characteristics between the 2 neck-arm pain groups, distinct sensory profiles were demonstrated for each group.

  15. Determinants of the process and outcomes of household participation in collaborative forest management in Ghana: a quantitative test of a community resilience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamani, Kofi; Hall, Troy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a proposed community resilience model by investigating the role of institutions, capital assets, community and socio-demographic variables as determinants of households' participation in Ghana's collaborative forest management (CFM) program and outcomes of the program. Quantitative survey data were gathered from 209 randomly selected households from two forest-dependent communities. Regression analysis shows that households' participation in the CFM program was predicted by community location, past connections with institutions, and past bonding social capital. Community location and past capitals were the strongest predictors of the outcomes of the CFM program as judged by current levels of capitals. Participation in the CFM program also had a positive effect on human capital but had minimal impact on the other capitals influencing household well-being and resilience, suggesting that the impact of co-management on household resilience may be modest. In all, the findings highlight the need for co-management policies to pay attention to the historical context of community interaction processes influencing access to capital assets and local institutions to successfully promote equitable resilience.

  16. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Unnikrishnan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×109 W/cm2. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  17. Alterations in endogenous pain modulation in endurance athletes: an experimental study using quantitative sensory testing and the cold-pressor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2013-07-01

    There is evidence for long-term alterations in pain tolerance among athletes compared with normally active controls. However, scientific data on pain thresholds in this population are inconsistent, and the underlying mechanisms for the differences remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed differences and similarities in pain perception and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) at rest in endurance athletes and normally active controls. The standardised quantitative sensory testing protocol (QST) of the 'German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain' was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions. The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. CPM (the diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-control-like effect) was measured using 2 tonic heat pain test stimuli (at the temperature exceeding a subjective pain rating of 50/100) separated by a 2-min cold-pressor task (CPM-TASK; conditioning stimulus). Pain ratings were measured with a numerical rating scale. Endurance capacity was validated by assessment of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants included 25 pain-free male endurance athletes (VO2max>60mL/min∗kg) and 26 pain-free normally active controls (VO2max<45mL/min∗kg) matched based on age and body mass index. Athletes were significantly less sensitive to mechanical pain but showed higher sensitivity to vibration (P<0.05). In athletes, CPM was significantly less activated by the conditioning stimuli (P<0.05) when compared with normally active controls. Our data show that somatosensory processing in athletes differs in comparison with controls, and suggest that the endogenous pain inhibitory system may be less responsive. This finding may explain the paradoxical propensity of athletes to develop chronic widespread pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and a continuous-performance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrim G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geir Ogrim,1–3 Knut A Hestad,3,4 Jan Ferenc Brunner,3,5,6 Juri Kropotov3,7,8 1Neuropsychiatric Unit, Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 2National Resource Center for ADHD, Tourettes' Syndrome and Narcolepsy, Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Division of Mental Health, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Neuroscience, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 7Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 8Department of Neuropsychology, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG, event-related potentials (ERPs, and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT. Methods: Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7–16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37 or troublesome side effects (n = 33. We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component – contingent negative variation

  19. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  20. Avaliação quantitativa das dimensões óculo-palpebrais em portadores de cavidade anoftálmica em uso de prótese ocular externa Quantitative eyelid evaluation of anophthalmic cavity carriers with external ocular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ueno Takahagi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o posicionamento palpebral em portadores de cavidade anoftálmica com e sem prótese ocular externa, utilizando o processamento de imagem digital. MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes foram avaliados qualitativa e quantitativamente na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, com e sem a prótese externa. Usando imagens obtidas por filmadora e processadas usando o programa Scion Image, mediu-se a altura do sulco palpebral superior, a altura da fenda palpebral e os ângulos palpebrais dos cantos interno e externo. RESULTADOS: Pseudo-estrabismo e sulco palpebral superior profundo foram as alterações mais freqüentes ao exame externo. Houve diferença significativa em todas as variáveis estudadas, com diminuição da altura do sulco palpebral superior, aumento da área da fenda palpebral e aumento dos ângulos palpebrais interno e externo quando o paciente estava usando a prótese externa. CONCLUSÃO: Todos os pacientes avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de anormalidade órbito-palpebral, o que reflete a dificuldade em se proporcionar ao portador de cavidade anoftálmica um aspecto idêntico ao que existe na órbita normal. O processamento de imagens digitais permitiu avaliação objetiva das dimensões óculo-palpebrais, o que poderá contribuir nas avaliações seqüenciais dos portadores de cavidade anoftálmica.PURPOSE: The authors intend to evaluate the eyelid position before and after the external prosthesis adaptation, using digital image processing techniques. METHODS: Eighteen patients were evaluated at the "Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP", with and without the external prosthesis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were done using the Scion Image program. The superior eyelid sulcus distance, margin eyelid distance and eyelid medial and lateral canthus angles were evaluated. RESULTS: Pseudostrabismus and high eyelid sulcus were the most observed

  1. Carriers of equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, L

    1984-02-01

    Presently available data continue to support the idea that once a horse is infected with equine infectious anemia virus it remains infected indefinitely. Infection may not always be demonstrated by inoculation of plasma, serum, or whole blood transfusions into susceptible recipients, but transfusions of fresh whole blood will be infective in at least 95% of the horses testing positive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test. For detection of infectivity in a small percentage of inapparent carriers, it appears necessary to inoculate washed leukocytes collected over a period of time.

  2. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Falchuk

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  3. Intrinsic carrier multiplication efficiency in bulk Si crystals evaluated by optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, G.; Nagai, M., E-mail: mnagai@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ashida, M., E-mail: mnagai@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ashida@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Matsubara, E. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Kanemitsu, Y. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-12-08

    We estimated the carrier multiplication efficiency in the most common solar-cell material, Si, by using optical-pump/terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Through close analysis of time-resolved data, we extracted the exact number of photoexcited carriers from the sheet carrier density 10 ps after photoexcitation, excluding the influences of spatial diffusion and surface recombination in the time domain. For incident photon energies greater than 4.0 eV, we observed enhanced internal quantum efficiency due to carrier multiplication. The evaluated value of internal quantum efficiency agrees well with the results of photocurrent measurements. This optical method allows us to estimate the carrier multiplication and surface recombination of carriers quantitatively, which are crucial for the design of the solar cells.

  4. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  5. A method for charging a test carrier and a test carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method of charging a substrate with a plurality of through-going bores and a charged substrate, where the substrate is charged with a liquid comprising particles in a concentration resulting in a high percentage of bores charged with liquid with only a single particle therein....

  6. Quantitative sensory testing response patterns to capsaicin- and ultraviolet-B-induced local skin hypersensitization in healthy subjects: a machine-learned analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Geisslinger, Gerd; Heinemann, Sarah; Lerch, Florian; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2017-08-16

    The comprehensive assessment of pain-related human phenotypes requires combinations of nociceptive measures that produce complex high-dimensional data, posing challenges to bioinformatic analysis. In this study, we assessed established experimental models of heat hyperalgesia of the skin, consisting of local ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation or capsaicin application, in 82 healthy subjects using a variety of noxious stimuli. We extended the original heat stimulation by applying cold and mechanical stimuli and assessing the hypersensitization effects with a clinically established quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain). This study provided a 246 × 10-sized data matrix (82 subjects assessed at baseline, following UV-B application, and following capsaicin application) with respect to 10 QST parameters, which we analyzed using machine-learning techniques. We observed statistically significant effects of the hypersensitization treatments in 9 different QST parameters. Supervised machine-learned analysis implemented as random forests followed by ABC analysis pointed to heat pain thresholds as the most relevantly affected QST parameter. However, decision tree analysis indicated that UV-B additionally modulated sensitivity to cold. Unsupervised machine-learning techniques, implemented as emergent self-organizing maps, hinted at subgroups responding to topical application of capsaicin. The distinction among subgroups was based on sensitivity to pressure pain, which could be attributed to sex differences, with women being more sensitive than men. Thus, while UV-B and capsaicin share a major component of heat pain sensitization, they differ in their effects on QST parameter patterns in healthy subjects, suggesting a lack of redundancy between these models.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible

  7. Correlating Quantitative Fecal Immunochemical Test Results with Neoplastic Findings on Colonoscopy in a Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Shahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC recommends a fecal immunochemical test- (FIT- positive predictive value (PPV for all adenomas of ≥50%. We sought to assess FIT performance among average-risk participants of the British Columbia Colon Screening Program (BCCSP. Methods. From Nov-2013 to Dec-2014 consecutive participants of the BCCSP were assessed. Data was obtained from a prospectively collected database. A single quantitative FIT (NS-Plus, Alfresa Pharma Corporation, Japan with a cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL was used. Results. 20,322 FIT-positive participants underwent CSPY. At a FIT cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL the PPV for all adenomas was 52.0%. Increasing the FIT cut-off to ≥20 μg/g (≥100 ng/mL would increase the PPV for colorectal cancer (CRC by 1.5% and for high-risk adenomas (HRAs by 6.5% at a cost of missing 13.6% of CRCs and 32.4% of HRAs. Conclusions. As the NS-Plus FIT cut-off rises, the PPV for CRC and HRAs increases but at the cost of missed lesions. A cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL produces a PPV for all adenomas exceeding national recommendations. Health authorities need to take into consideration endoscopic resources when selecting a FIT positivity threshold.

  8. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero Huguet, J.

    2001-07-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  9. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in high-risk smokers and smoking-related COPD: correlations with pulmonary function tests and quantitative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Guan, Yu; Fan, Li; Liu, Shi-Yuan; Yu, Hong; Zhao, Li-Ming; Li, Bing

    2014-09-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion imaging, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and volume quantitative CT in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine the value of DCE-MR perfusion imaging and CT volumetric imaging on the assessment of smokers. According to the ATS/ERS guidelines, 51 male smokers were categorized into five groups: At risk for COPD (n = 8), mild COPD (n = 9), moderate COPD (n = 12), severe COPD (n = 10), and very severe COPD (n = 12). Maximum slope of increase (MSI), positive enhancement integral (PEI), etc. were obtained from MR perfusion data. The signal intensity ratio (RSI) of the PDs and normal lung was calculated (RSI = SIPD/SInormal). Total lung volume (TLV), total emphysema volume (TEV) and emphysema index (EI) were obtained from volumetric CT data. For "at risk for COPD," the positive rate of PDs on MR perfusion images was higher than that of abnormal changes on non-enhanced CT images (p < 0.05). Moderate-to-strong positive correlations were found between all the PFT parameters and SIPD, or RSI (r range 0.445∼0.683, p ≤ 0.001). TEV and EI were negatively correlated better with FEV1/FVC than other PFT parameters (r range -0.48 --0.63, p < 0.001). There were significant differences in RSI and SIPD between "at risk for COPD" and "very severe COPD," and between "mild COPD" and "very severe COPD". Thus, MR perfusion imaging may be a good approach to identify early evidence of COPD and may have potential to assist in classification of COPD.

  10. Characterization and diagnostic evaluation of chronic polyneuropathies induced by oxaliplatin and docetaxel comparing skin biopsy to quantitative sensory testing and nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøigård, T; Schrøder, H D; Qvortrup, C; Eckhoff, L; Pfeiffer, P; Gaist, D; Sindrup, S H

    2014-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy negatively affects the quality of life for many patients treated with oxaliplatin or docetaxel for gastrointestinal cancer or breast cancer. Symptoms can persist long after treatment and often include neuropathic pain. Our objective was to characterize the neuropathies with regard to symptoms, neurological signs and objective evidence of damage to the structure and function of the peripheral nerves. Furthermore, the diagnostic values of skin biopsy, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were compared. Patients complaining of neuropathy symptoms at least 3 months after completion of treatment with oxaliplatin (n = 20) or docetaxel (n = 20) were recruited from the Department of Oncology or using hospital records. Neuropathy scores were determined along with the intraepidermal nerve fibre density in skin biopsies from the proximal and distal parts of the leg, QST and NCS. Clinically only sensory functions were affected. In general, neuropathy scores were higher in the oxaliplatin-treated group. Both sensory and motor fibres were affected in the NCS, showing predominantly signs of axonal damage. Mechanical detection threshold was most often affected in the QST. NCS, QTS and skin biopsy were abnormal in 11, 13 and 17 and 7, 11 and 15 of the oxaliplatin-treated patients and docetaxel-treated patients, respectively. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy after oxaliplatin or docetaxel treatment is a clinically sensory, axonal neuropathy affecting only small nerve fibres in some patients. NCS are often normal, whereas QST and skin biopsy have a higher diagnostic sensitivity. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.

  11. Quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model of acute kidney injury at 3T: testing inter- and intramethodical significance of ASL and DCE-MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Zimmer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To establish arterial spin labelling (ASL for quantitative renal perfusion measurements in a rat model at 3 Tesla and to test the diagnostic significance of ASL and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI in a model of acute kidney injury (AKI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ASL and DCE-MRI were consecutively employed on six Lewis rats, five of which had a unilateral ischaemic AKI. All measurements in this study were performed on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a FAIR True-FISP approach and a TWIST sequence for ASL and DCE-MRI, respectively. Perfusion maps were calculated for both methods and the cortical perfusion of healthy and diseased kidneys was inter- and intramethodically compared using a region-of-interest based analysis. RESULTS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both methods produce significantly different values for the healthy and the diseased kidneys (P<0.01. The mean difference was 147±47 ml/100 g/min and 141±46 ml/100 g/min for ASL and DCE-MRI, respectively. ASL measurements yielded a mean cortical perfusion of 416±124 ml/100 g/min for the healthy and 316±102 ml/100 g/min for the diseased kidneys. The DCE-MRI values were systematically higher and the mean cortical renal blood flow (RBF was found to be 542±85 ml/100 g/min (healthy and 407±119 ml/100 g/min (AKI. CONCLUSION: Both methods are equally able to detect abnormal perfusion in diseased (AKI kidneys. This shows that ASL is a capable alternative to DCE-MRI regarding the detection of abnormal renal blood flow. Regarding absolute perfusion values, nontrivial differences and variations remain when comparing the two methods.

  12. ETS Contributions to the Quantitative Assessment of Item, Test, and Score Fairness. Research Report. ETS RR-13-27. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative fairness procedures have been developed and modified by ETS staff over the past several decades. ETS has been a leader in fairness assessment, and its efforts are reviewed in this report. The first section deals with differential prediction and differential validity procedures that examine whether test scores predict a criterion, such…

  13. Clinical performance of the new Roche COBAS (R) TaqMan HCV test and high pure system for extraction, detection and quantitation of HCV RNA in plasma and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Gelderblom; S. Menting; M.G. Beld

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Roche COBAS (R) TaqMan HCV Test For Use With The High Pure System (TaqMan HPS; Roche Diagnostics), for the extraction, detection and quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum or plasma of HCV-infected individuals. The TaqMan HPS is a real-time PCR assay with a reported li

  14. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  15. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  16. A preliminary study of test reliabilty in quantitative proprioception measurement%本体感觉定量评定的可靠性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建平; 伊文超; 李瑞炎; 蒋祥龙; 易万龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the test-retest reliability in quantitative measurement of proprioception using Tecnobody rehabilitation system. Methods Nine healthy volunteers [4 males,5 females,averaged age (22.8 ±0.68) years] participated in three consecutive measurements on both feet by using Tecnobody rehabilitation system for computerized proprioceptive assessment.Standard error of measurement(SEM),correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC) obtained from the three consecutive measurements were used to analyze the "Time"used in each measuring session,and the "average track error" (ATE) of the measurements. Results SEM values of "Time" in left foot and right foot were 3.07 ~ 3.83 and 6.65 ~ 8.44 respectively.ATE values in left foot and right foot were 1.33 ~ 1.97 and 1.39 ~ 1.91 respectively.The "Time" and ATE correlation coefficients of left foot / right foot were 0.919/0.6 and 0.808/0.831,respectively.The "Time" ICC values were 0.893/0.639 for left foot / right foot,respectively ; and the "ATE" ICC values were 0.716/0.734 for left foot / right foot,respectively. Conclusion The Tecnobody rehabilitation system provided a fairly good reliability in both "relative" and " absolute" values in quantitative evaluation of proprioception in the feet.These data in a larger amount may be useful for setting up variables and the standard values of the local population for reference in proprioceptive rehabilitation.%目的 研究Tecnobody康复系统定量评定本体感觉的可靠性.方法 健康人9例,其中男4例,女5例,年龄(22.8±0.68)岁,用Tecnobody按系统要求连续评定双足本体感觉3次.用重复测量标准误、简单相关系数、组内相关系数分析每次的耗时( Time)和平均轨迹差(ATE).结果 Time重复测量标准误左右分别为3.07~ 3.83和6.65~ 8.44,ATE左右分别为1.33 ~1.97和1.39 ~1.91;Time简单相关系数左右分别为0.919和0.62,ATE左右分别为0.808和0.831;Time组内

  17. Promotion from qualitative to quantitative test is one of challenges of point-of-care testing development%从定性到定量的转变是 POCT 发展历程中的重要挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕾; 杨瑞馥

    2014-01-01

    With non-professional based on-site detection mode and miniature , portable and intelligent techniques as the basis , the potential of point-of-care testing ( POCT ) to feedback the result timely and help to make right decisions to handle emergencies has drawn the attention from extensive fields , including clinical investigation , disease control and prevention , quality control , environmental protection , forensic investigation, import and export inspection and so on.In this review, the definition, history and challenge of POCT promotion from qualitative detection to quantitative one were discussed .%POCT以“现场非专门训练人员”的操作模式与“微型、便携、智能”的检测技术为基础,以“事发现场快速获得检验结果进而指导科学处置”为目标,日益受到临床、疾控、质检、环保、法医、海关等广义检验领域的关注。在此,对POCT的定义、简史以及从定性到定量转变过程中面临的挑战进行阐述。

  18. Hardware Trojan by Hot Carrier Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Shiyanovskii, Y; Papachristou, C; Weyer, D; Clay, W

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how hot carrier injection (HCI) can be exploited to create a trojan that will cause hardware failures. The trojan is produced not via additional logic circuitry but by controlled scenarios that maximize and accelerate the HCI effect in transistors. These scenarios range from manipulating the manufacturing process to varying the internal voltage distribution. This new type of trojan is difficult to test due to its gradual hardware degradation mechanism. This paper describes the HCI effect, detection techniques and discusses the possibility for maliciously induced HCI trojans.

  19. Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralevski Filip

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate laboratory diagnosis of malaria species in returning travelers is paramount in the treatment of this potentially fatal infectious disease. Materials and methods A total of 466 blood specimens from returning travelers to Africa, Asia, and South/Central America with suspected malaria infection were collected between 2007 and 2009 at the reference public health laboratory. These specimens were assessed by reference microscopy, multipex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR, and two rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests (ICT in a blinded manner. Key clinical laboratory parameters such as limit of detection (LOD analysis on clinical specimens by parasite stage, inter-reader variability of ICTs, staffing implications, quality assurance and cost analysis were evaluated. Results QPCR is the most analytically sensitive method (sensitivity 99.41%, followed by CARESTART (sensitivity 88.24%, and BINAXNOW (sensitivity 86.47% for the diagnosis of malaria in returning travelers when compared to reference microscopy. However, microscopy was unable to specifically identify Plasmodia spp. in 18 out of 170 positive samples by QPCR. Moreover, the 17 samples that were negative by microscopy and positive by QPCR were also positive by ICTs. Quality assurance was achieved for QPCR by exchanging a blinded proficiency panel with another reference laboratory. The Kappa value of inter-reader variability among three readers for BINAXNOW and CARESTART was calculated to be 0.872 and 0.898 respectively. Serial dilution studies demonstrated that the QPCR cycle threshold correlates linearly with parasitemia (R2 = 0.9746 in a clinically relevant dynamic range and retains a LOD of 11 rDNA copies/μl for P. falciparum, which was several log lower than reference microscopy and ICTs. LOD for QPCR is affected not only by parasitemia but the parasite stage distribution of each clinical specimen. QPCR was approximately 6-fold more

  20. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  1. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  2. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  3. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  4. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  5. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Nothnagel,1,2,* Christian Puta,1,3,* Thomas Lehmann,4 Philipp Baumbach,5 Martha B Menard,6,7 Brunhild Gabriel,1 Holger H W Gabriel,1 Thomas Weiss,8 Frauke Musial2 1Department of Sports Medicine and Health Promotion, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany; 2Department of Community Medicine, National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Center for Interdisciplinary Prevention of Diseases Related to Professional Activities, 4Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Jena, Germany; 6Crocker Institute, Kiawah Island, SC, 7School of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences, Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA; 8Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Quantitative sensory testing (QST is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. Methods: QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years, with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, Bland–Altman plots (limits of agreement, and standard error of measurement were used. Results: Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in

  6. Laboratory Evaluations of the Enterococcus qPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Method Performance and Sources of Uncertainty in Quantitative Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BEACH Act of 2000 directed the U.S. EPA to establish more expeditious methods for the detection of pathogen indicators in coastal waters, as well as new water quality criteria based on these methods. Progress has been made in developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for en...

  7. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  8. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  9. The dimensionality of color vision in carriers of anomalous trichromacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gabriele; Deeb, Samir S; Bosten, Jenny M; Mollon, J D

    2010-07-01

    Some 12% of women are carriers of the mild, X-linked forms of color vision deficiencies called "anomalous trichromacy." Owing to random X chromosome inactivation, their retinae must contain four classes of cone rather than the normal three; and it has previously been speculated that these female carriers might be tetrachromatic, capable of discriminating spectral stimuli that are indistinguishable to the normal trichromat. However, the existing evidence is sparse and inconclusive. Here, we address the question using (a) a forced-choice version of the Rayleigh test, (b) a test using multidimensional scaling to reveal directly the dimensionality of the participants' color space, and (c) molecular genetic analyses to estimate the X-linked cone peak sensitivities of a selected sample of strong candidates for tetrachromacy. Our results suggest that most carriers of color anomaly do not exhibit four-dimensional color vision, and so we believe that anomalous trichromacy is unlikely to be maintained by an advantage to the carriers in discriminating colors. However, 1 of 24 obligate carriers of deuteranomaly exhibited tetrachromatic behavior on all our tests; this participant has three well-separated cone photopigments in the long-wave spectral region in addition to her short-wave cone. We assess the likelihood that behavioral tetrachromacy exists in the human population.

  10. A coated electrode carrier for cochlear implantation reduces insertion forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Andreas; Unkelbach, Marc H; Mack, Martin G; Settevendemie, Claudia; Helbig, Silke; Mueller, Joachim; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert

    2009-05-01

    To assess the insertion forces and feasibility of insertion of a prototype electrode carrier coated with a flexible and biodegradable coating developed for lubrication and drug delivery. Experimental study. Eight coated and eight uncoated electrode carriers were inserted into a scala tympani model by means of an insertion device, and forces produced during insertion were determined in near real time. The maximum insertion depths and insertion angle were determined. To test the handling and operability, five coated electrode carriers were implanted into human temporal bones. Additionally, the bones were processed undecalcified and the distribution of the coating material within the cochlea evaluated. Insertion forces were markedly reduced in the group of coated electrode carriers for insertion depths above 15 mm. The insertions were less fitful and led to a higher maximum insertion angle. The insertion of the coated electrode carrier was feasible, and the coating material was evident up to the apical parts of the cochlea postimplantation. Coating of a cochlear implant electrode carrier may reduce insertion forces responsible for the surgical trauma. Loaded with active substances, the coating may help to deliver drugs to the apical parts of the cochlear where hair cells reside in patients with residual hearing.

  11. Determination of minority-carrier lifetime and surface recombination velocity with high spacial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Actor, G.; Gatos, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the electron beam induced current in conjunction with high-resolution scanning makes it possible to evaluate the minority-carrier lifetime three dimensionally in the bulk and the surface recombination velocity two dimensionally, with a high spacial resolution. The analysis is based on the concept of the effective excitation strength of the carriers which takes into consideration all possible recombination sources. Two-dimensional mapping of the surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon diodes is presented as well as a three-dimensional mapping of the changes in the minority-carrier lifetime in ion-implanted silicon.

  12. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Juan; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of FCM in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of the most r...

  13. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus

    OpenAIRE

    Jing eWang; Juan eLiu; Ming eKang

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of flow cytometry in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of...

  14. 78 FR 73415 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Test: The NPR proposed a modification of the test method for preventing the carrier from rotating and... most of the changes involve adding straps and fasteners or using different mesh or fabric; but could...

  15. Vi serology in screening of typhoid carriers: improved specificity by detection of Vi antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, P. Y.; Tsang, R S

    1982-01-01

    A purified soluble Vi antigen was used in counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), passive haemagglutination (HA) and solid phase radio-immunoassay (SPRIA) for detection of serum Vi antibody. Serum Vi antibody was detected in 13 of 14 chronic typhoid carriers by both CIE and HA. SPRIA studies showed that Vi antibodies in sera of these carriers were mainly of the IgG class. Successful treatment with amoxycillin in one carrier, who initially showed a positive Vi test, resulted in a reversion in 6 mo...

  16. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai

    2011-01-01

    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  17. A Customized Finger Brachytherapy Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more consta...

  18. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  19. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... carrier to a specific group of carriers will be reviewed periodically by the Director, Office of Airline... Office of Airline Statistics will issue an updated listing of the carrier groups on an annual basis. A...

  20. 7 CFR 33.4 - Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier. 33.4 Section 33.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.4 Carrier. Carrier means any common...

  1. Methane biofiltration using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as the carrier material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, P.; Ho, Adrian; Boon, N.

    2015-01-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was

  2. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  3. Quantitative traits and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  4. Analysis of chromosomal radiosensitivity of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers in BRCA families with the G2 micronucleus assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Annelot; Depuydt, Julie; Van Maerken, Tom; Poppe, Bruce; Malfait, Fransiska; Van Damme, Tim; De Nobele, Sylvia; Perletti, Gianpaolo; De Leeneer, Kim; Claes, Kathleen B.M.; Vral, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk drastically increases in individuals with a heterozygous germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, while it is estimated to equal the population risk for relatives without the familial mutation (non-carriers). The aim of the present study was to use a G2 phase-specific micronucleus assay to investigate whether lymphocytes of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by increased radiosensitivity compared to controls without a family history of breast/ovarian cancer and how this relates to healthy non-carrier relatives. BRCA2 is active in homologous recombination, a DNA damage repair pathway, specifically active in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. We found a significantly increased radiosensitivity in a cohort of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers compared to individuals without a familial history of breast cancer (P=0.046; Mann-Whitney U test). At the individual level, 50% of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers showed a radiosensitive phenotype (radiosensitivity score of 1 or 2), whereas 83% of the controls showed no radiosensitivity (P=0.038; one-tailed Fishers exact test). An odds ratio of 5 (95% CI, 1.07–23.47) indicated an association between the BRCA2 mutation and radiosensitivity in healthy mutation carriers. These results indicate the need for the gentle use of ionizing radiation for either diagnostic or therapeutic use in BRCA2 mutation carriers. We detected no increased radiosensitivity in the non-carrier relatives. PMID:28184943

  5. The quantitative Morse theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Ta Le; Phien, Phan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give a proof of the quantitative Morse theorem stated by {Y. Yomdin} in \\cite{Y1}. The proof is based on the quantitative Sard theorem, the quantitative inverse function theorem and the quantitative Morse lemma.

  6. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  7. Incorporating medical interventions into carrier probability estimation for genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katki Hormuzd A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mendelian models for predicting who may carry an inherited deleterious mutation of known disease genes based on family history are used in a variety of clinical and research activities. People presenting for genetic counseling are increasingly reporting risk-reducing medical interventions in their family histories because, recently, a slew of prophylactic interventions have become available for certain diseases. For example, oophorectomy reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and is now increasingly being offered to women with family histories of breast and ovarian cancer. Mendelian models should account for medical interventions because interventions modify mutation penetrances and thus affect the carrier probability estimate. Methods We extend Mendelian models to account for medical interventions by accounting for post-intervention disease history through an extra factor that can be estimated from published studies of the effects of interventions. We apply our methods to incorporate oophorectomy into the BRCAPRO model, which predicts a woman's risk of carrying mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on her family history of breast and ovarian cancer. This new BRCAPRO is available for clinical use. Results We show that accounting for interventions undergone by family members can seriously affect the mutation carrier probability estimate, especially if the family member has lived many years post-intervention. We show that interventions have more impact on the carrier probability as the benefits of intervention differ more between carriers and non-carriers. Conclusion These findings imply that carrier probability estimates that do not account for medical interventions may be seriously misleading and could affect a clinician's recommendation about offering genetic testing. The BayesMendel software, which allows one to implement any Mendelian carrier probability model, has been extended to allow medical interventions, so future

  8. The Kohs' blocks test as an important instrument to investigate the visuo-spatial impairments in myotonic dystrophy: part I. Quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIGG CRISTINA MARIA DUARTE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the performance of 39 cases of myotonic dystrophy on Kohs' blocks test (21 females and 18 males, age range from 9 to 70 years. On this test, the patients have to reproduce figures from models previously showed to them. Some of the patients had some kind of professional activity, while others had never exerted a professional occupation. The patients denoted considerable difficulty to perform the test. Some cases constructed entirely different figures in comparison to the presented drawings, translating visuo-spatial and constructional disabilities. The performance was insufficient in 71.4 % of the cases. These cases solved less than 50% of the test. The levels of analysis and synthesis were severely impaired. A total of 18 cases got less than 10 points, not reaching 20% of the test. The results showed the sensitivity of this test in detecting visuo-spatial impairment in myotonic dystrophy.

  9. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  10. Carrier synchronization for STBC OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jueping; Song Wentao; Li Zan; Ge Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    All-digital carrier synchronization strategies and algorithms for space-time block coding (STBC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) are proposed in this paper. In our scheme, the continuous pilots (CP) are saved, and the complexity of carrier synchronization is reduced significantly by dividing the process into three steps. The coarse carrier synchronization and the fine carrier synchronization algorithms are investigated and analyzed in detail. Simulations show that the carrier can be locked into tracking mode quickly, and the residual frequency error satisfies the system requirement in both stationary and mobile environments.

  11. Generalized Plasma Skimming Model for Cells and Drug Carriers in the Microvasculature

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Rin; Yang, Jiho

    2016-01-01

    In microvascular transport, where both blood and drug carriers are involved, plasma skimming has a key role on changing hematocrit level and drug carrier concentration in capillary beds after continuous vessel bifurcation in the microvasculature. While there have been numerous studies on modeling the plasma skimming of blood, previous works lacked in consideration of its interaction with drug carriers. In this paper, a generalized plasma skimming model is suggested to predict the redistributions of both the cells and drug carriers at each bifurcation. In order to examine its applicability, this new model was applied on a single bifurcation system to predict the redistribution of red blood cells and drug carriers. Furthermore, this model was tested at microvascular network level under different plasma skimming conditions for predicting the concentration of drug carriers. Based on these results, the applicability of this generalized plasma skimming model is fully discussed and future works along with the model'...

  12. Quantitative Intracerebral Hemorrhage Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschelli, John; Ullman, Natalie L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Eloyan, Ani; Martin, Neil; Vespa, Paul; Hanley, Daniel F.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The location of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is currently described in a qualitative way; we provide a quantitative framework for estimating ICH engagement and its relevance to stroke outcomes. Methods We analyzed 111 patients with ICH from the MISTIE II clinical trial. We estimated ICH engagement at a population level using image registration of CT scans to a template and a previously labeled atlas. Predictive regions of NIHSS and GCS stroke severity scores, collected at enrollment, were estimated. Results The percent coverage of the ICH by these regions strongly outperformed the reader-labeled locations. The adjusted R2 almost doubled from 0.129 (reader-labeled model) to 0.254 (quantitative-location model) for NIHSS and more than tripled from 0.069 (reader-labeled model) to 0.214 (quantitative-location model). A permutation test confirmed that the new predictive regions are more predictive than chance: p<.001 for NIHSS and p<.01 for GCS. Conclusions Objective measures of ICH location and engagement using advanced CT imaging processing provide finer, objective, and more quantitative anatomic information than that provided by human readers. PMID:26451031

  13. A Comparative Study of Quantitative Ability Measure in GRE General Test and GMAT%GRE一般测验与GMAT定量能力考查之比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈睿; 陈昂

    2011-01-01

    GRE一般测验与GMAT定量能力的考查内容均为初等数学,主要强调解决日常生活工作中的数量问题.但因二者的适用范围有所不同,其能力考查存在一定差异,GMAT数学逻辑思维的考查比较深入,而GRE一般测验对数学概念的准确性以及思维的全面性有较多考查。在我国硕士研究生入学考试中设置一般能力测试数学部分的考查应根据就读研究生学科专业对数学的不同。要求及考生的实际能力和水平设置相应考试内容,试题情境设置应联系实际,贴近生活,试题难度不宜太大,以60%的考生通过资格线来控制试题难度。%Both GRE General Test and GMAT test elementary mathematics in quantitative section, which emphasize solving quantitative problems in daily life. But there are differences between GRE General Test and GMAT in testing quantitative ability because of their

  14. Estimation of springing response for 550 000 DWT ore carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Ren, Huilong; Li, Hui; Wang, Di

    2016-09-01

    The desire to benefit from economy of scale is one of the major driving forces behind the continuous growth in ship sizes. However, models of new large ships need to be thoroughly investigated to determine the carrier's response in waves. In this work, experimental and numerical assessments of the motion and load response of a 550,000 DWT ore carrier are performed using prototype ships with softer stiffness, and towing tank tests are conducted using a segmented model with two schemes of softer stiffness. Numerical analyses are performed employing both rigid body and linear hydroelasticity theories using an in-house program and a comparison is then made between experimental and numerical results to establish the influence of stiffness on the ore carrier's springing response. Results show that softer stiffness models can be used when studying the springing response of ships in waves.

  15. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  16. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. Carrier particle design for stabilization and isolation of drug nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Teresa; Bodnár, Katalin; Rasmuson, Åke; Hudson, Sarah

    2017-02-25

    Nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs were prepared in suspension via antisolvent precipitation in order to improve their dissolution behaviour. Insoluble, surface-functionalized, micron-range, clay carrier particles were employed for the dual purpose of stabilizing the nanoparticles in suspended state, and facilitating their unhindered isolation to solid state; often a challenging step in nanoparticle production. The carrier particles, which were functionalized with an optimal level of cationic polymer (protamine), attracted negatively-charged nanoparticles to their surface as a uniform and segregated nanoparticle layer, at drug loadings up to 9% w/w. By using carrier particles to stabilise the nanoparticles on their surface, the traditionally used solubilised nanosuspension stabilisers could be eliminated, thus avoiding time-consuming stabiliser screening tests. The carrier particle system facilitated stabilisation of nanoparticles in suspension, isolation of nanoparticles to the solid state via filtration, and preservation of fast nanoparticle-induced dissolution rates of the dried nanoparticle-carrier composites, indicating preservation of their high surface area during drying. The process was validated with two poorly water-soluble BCS Class II drugs, fenofibrate and mefenamic acid, both of which demonstrated negative surface charge in aqueous suspension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative risk analysis applied to innocuity and potency tests on the oil-adjuvanted vaccine against foot and mouth disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cané, B G; Rodríguez Toledo, J; Falczuk, A; Leanes, L F; Manetti, J C; Maradei, E; Verde, P

    1995-12-01

    The authors describe the method used in Argentina for quantification of risk in controls of the potency and innocuity of foot and mouth disease vaccine. Quantitative risk analysis is a relatively new tool in the animal health field, and is in line with the principles of transparency and equivalency of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT: now World Trade Organisation [WTO]). The risk assessment is presented through a description of the steps involved in manufacturing the vaccine, and the controls performed by the manufacturer and by the National Health Animal Service (Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Animal: SENASA). The adverse situation is considered as the lack of potency or innocuity of the vaccine, and the risk is estimated using a combination of the Monte Carlo simulation and the application of a Bayesian model.

  19. At What Cost a Carrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    brushed At What Cost a Carrier?M A R C H 2 0 1 3 4 | with interest, consequently pushing to convert the coal supply ship Jupiter into an American aircra...began to pay o!. By 1999 only 4 tons of bombs were needed to accomplish the mission, regardless of the weather at the target. Couple this fact with...there, how many bombs does it drop? | 7 #e &rst fact that needs to be understood in answer- ing these questions is that piloting an aircra" onto the

  20. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  1. Hydrogen - A sustainable energy carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper T. Møller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen may play a key role in a future sustainable energy system as a carrier of renewable energy to replace hydrocarbons. This review describes the fundamental physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and basic theories of hydrogen sorption reactions, followed by the emphasis on state-of-the-art of the hydrogen storage properties of selected interstitial metallic hydrides and magnesium hydride, especially for stationary energy storage related utilizations. Finally, new perspectives for utilization of metal hydrides in other applications will be reviewed.

  2. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  3. Dynamics, effciency and energy distribution of nonlinear plasmon-assisted generation of hot carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Demichel, O; Viarbitskaya, S; Mejard, R; de Fornel, F; Hertz, E; Billard, F; Bouhelier, A; Cluzel, B

    2016-01-01

    We employ nonlinear autocorrelation measurements to investigate plasmon-assisted hot carrier dynamics generated in optical gold antennas. We demonstrate that surface plasmons enable a nonlinear formation of hot carriers, providing thus a unique lever to optimize the energy distribution and generation efficiency of the photo-excited charges. The temporal response of the carriers' relaxation can be controlled within a range extending from 500~fs to 2.5~ps. By conducting a quantitative analysis of the dynamics, we determine the nonlinear absorption cross-section of individual optical antennas. As such, this work provides strong insights on the understanding of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation, especially in the view of applications where the time response plays a preponderant role.

  4. mtDNA/nDNA ratio in 14484 LHON mitochondrial mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Soemantri, Augustinus; Ishida, Takafumi

    2004-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. In this study, the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio was evaluated in 11 LHON patients with the 14484 mutation, 13 asymptomatic carriers and 18 non-carrier relatives as controls, to reveal possible relationships between the disease and mtDNA content. DNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes were subjected to quantitative PCR. Gender differences and age-dependent changes in the mtDNA content were not observed. Significant increase in the mtDNA content was observed only in the asymptomatic carriers (PLHON development, whereas those whose levels had not, had developed LHON. Since the asymptomatic carriers are the stock of the future LHON patients, monitoring the mtDNA content in patients and their relatives may help to predict the prognosis of the disease.

  5. Quantitative Literacy: Geosciences and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; McCallum, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative literacy seems like such a natural for the geosciences, right? The field has gone from its origin as a largely descriptive discipline to one where it is hard to imagine failing to bring a full range of mathematical tools to the solution of geological problems. Although there are many definitions of quantitative literacy, we have proposed one that is analogous to the UNESCO definition of conventional literacy: "A quantitatively literate person is one who, with understanding, can both read and represent quantitative information arising in his or her everyday life." Central to this definition is the concept that a curriculum for quantitative literacy must go beyond the basic ability to "read and write" mathematics and develop conceptual understanding. It is also critical that a curriculum for quantitative literacy be engaged with a context, be it everyday life, humanities, geoscience or other sciences, business, engineering, or technology. Thus, our definition works both within and outside the sciences. What role do geoscience faculty have in helping students become quantitatively literate? Is it our role, or that of the mathematicians? How does quantitative literacy vary between different scientific and engineering fields? Or between science and nonscience fields? We will argue that successful quantitative literacy curricula must be an across-the-curriculum responsibility. We will share examples of how quantitative literacy can be developed within a geoscience curriculum, beginning with introductory classes for nonmajors (using the Mauna Loa CO2 data set) through graduate courses in inverse theory (using singular value decomposition). We will highlight six approaches to across-the curriculum efforts from national models: collaboration between mathematics and other faculty; gateway testing; intensive instructional support; workshops for nonmathematics faculty; quantitative reasoning requirement; and individual initiative by nonmathematics faculty.

  6. A novel closed-tube method based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for authenticity testing and quantitative detection in Greek PDO Feta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Sakaridis, Ioannis; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2013-11-15

    Animal species identification of milk and dairy products has received increasing attention concerning food composition, traceability, allergic pathologies and accurate consumer information. Here we sought to develop an easy to use and robust method for species identification in cheese with emphasis on an authenticity control of PDO Feta cheese products. We used specific mitochondrial DNA regions coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) a closed-tube method allowing us to detect bovine, ovine and caprine species and authenticate Greek PDO Feta cheese. The primers successfully amplified DNA isolated from milk and cheese and showed a high degree of specificity. HRM was proven capable of accurately identifying the presence of bovine milk (not allowed in Feta) down to 0.1% and also of quantifying the ratio of sheep to goat milk mixture in different Feta cheese commercial products. In conclusion, HRM analysis can be a faster, with higher resolution and a more cost effective alternative method to authenticate milk and dairy products including PDO Feta cheese and to quantitatively detect its sheep milk adulterations.

  7. Quantitative approaches in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Andrew C; Gorfinkiel, Nicole; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-08-01

    The tissues of a developing embryo are simultaneously patterned, moved and differentiated according to an exchange of information between their constituent cells. We argue that these complex self-organizing phenomena can only be fully understood with quantitative mathematical frameworks that allow specific hypotheses to be formulated and tested. The quantitative and dynamic imaging of growing embryos at the molecular, cellular and tissue level is the key experimental advance required to achieve this interaction between theory and experiment. Here we describe how mathematical modelling has become an invaluable method to integrate quantitative biological information across temporal and spatial scales, serving to connect the activity of regulatory molecules with the morphological development of organisms.

  8. Development, Evaluation, and Integration of a Quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostic Test for Ebola Virus on a Molecular Diagnostics Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Van den Eede, Peter; Pettitt, James; Heyndrickx, Leo; De Smet, Birgit; Coppens, Sandra; Andries, Ilse; Pattery, Theresa; Van Hove, Luc; Meersseman, Geert; Van Den Herrewegen, Sari; Vergauwe, Nicolas; Thijs, Rein; Jahrling, Peter B; Nauwelaers, David; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-10-15

     The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa resulted in accelerated development of rapid diagnostic tests for emergency outbreak preparedness. We describe the development and evaluation of the Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test, a fully automated sample-to-result molecular diagnostic test for rapid detection of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV).  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test can simultaneously detect EBOV and SUDV in 200 µL of whole blood. The sample is directly added to a disposable cartridge containing all reagents for sample preparation, RNA extraction, and amplification by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The performance was evaluated with a variety of sample types, including synthetic constructs and whole blood samples from healthy volunteers spiked with viral RNA, inactivated virus, and infectious virus.  The 95% limits of detection for EBOV and SUDV were 465 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL (1010 copies/mL) and 324 PFU/mL (8204 copies/mL), respectively. In silico and in vitro analyses demonstrated 100% correct reactivity for EBOV and SUDV and no cross-reactivity with relevant pathogens. The diagnostic sensitivity was 97.4% (for EBOV) and 91.7% (for SUDV), the specificity was 100%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.9%.  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test is a fast, safe, easy-to-use, and near-patient test that meets the performance criteria to detect EBOV in patients with suspected Ebola. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Microscopic origins of the terahertz carrier relaxation and cooling dynamics in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihnev, Momchil T.; Kadi, Faris; Divin, Charles J.; Winzer, Torben; Lee, Seunghyun; Liu, Che-Hung; Zhong, Zhaohui; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; Malic, Ermin; Knorr, Andreas; Norris, Theodore B.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of hot carriers in graphene are key to both understanding of fundamental carrier–carrier interactions and carrier–phonon relaxation processes in two-dimensional materials, and understanding of the physics underlying novel high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices. Many recent experiments on hot carriers using terahertz spectroscopy and related techniques have interpreted the variety of observed signals within phenomenological frameworks, and sometimes invoke extrinsic effects such as disorder. Here, we present an integrated experimental and theoretical programme, using ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy combined with microscopic modelling, to systematically investigate the hot-carrier dynamics in a wide array of graphene samples having varying amounts of disorder and with either high or low doping levels. The theory reproduces the observed dynamics quantitatively without the need to invoke any fitting parameters, phenomenological models or extrinsic effects such as disorder. We demonstrate that the dynamics are dominated by the combined effect of efficient carrier–carrier scattering, which maintains a thermalized carrier distribution, and carrier–optical–phonon scattering, which removes energy from the carrier liquid. PMID:27221060

  10. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO IDENTIFY Neisseria meningitidis IN ASYMPTOMATIC CARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIZEK, Camila F.; LUIZ, André Machado; de ASSIS, Gracilene Ramos; COSTA, Silvia Figueiredo; LEVIN, Anna Sara; LOPES, Marta Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neisseria meningitidis is a cause of several life-threatening diseases and can be a normal commensal in the upper respiratory tract of healthy carriers. The carrier rate is not well established especially because there is no standard method for the isolation of N. meningitidis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare identification methods for the carrier state. Two swabs were collected from 190 volunteers: one was cultured and the other had DNA extracted directly from the sample. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to determine species and serogroups and compared the results between the methods. PCR for species determination used two pairs of primers and when there was only one amplicon, it was sequenced. The culture technique was positive in 23 (12.1%) subjects while the direct extraction method was positive in 132 (69.5%), p < 0.001. Among the 135 subjects with positive N. meningitides tests, 88 (65.2%) were serogroup C; 3 (2.2%) serogroup B; 5 (3.7%) were positive for both serogroup B and C, and 39 (28.9%) did not belong to any of the tested serogroups. In this study, PCR from DNA extracted directly from swabs identified more N. meningitidis asymptomatic carriers than the culture technique. PMID:27680165

  11. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  12. Carriers of the astronomical 2175 ? extinction feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J; Dai, Z; Ernie, R; Browning, N; Graham, G; Weber, P; Smith, J; Hutcheon, I; Ishii, H; Bajt, S; Floss, C; Stadermann, F

    2004-07-20

    The 2175 {angstrom} extinction feature is by far the strongest spectral signature of interstellar dust observed by astronomers. Forty years after its discovery the origin of the feature and the nature of the carrier remain controversial. The feature is enigmatic because although its central wavelength is almost invariant its bandwidth varies strongly from one sightline to another, suggesting multiple carriers or a single carrier with variable properties. Using a monochromated transmission electron microscope and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have detected a 5.7 eV (2175 {angstrom}) feature in submicrometer-sized interstellar grains within interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere. The carriers are organic carbon and amorphous silicates that are abundant and closely associated with one another both in IDPs and in the interstellar medium. Multiple carriers rather than a single carrier may explain the invariant central wavelength and variable bandwidth of the astronomical 2175 {angstrom} feature.

  13. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    (APP) was not described by carrier kinetics. However, glipizide is affecting exsorption for ES, due to interactions on basolateral carrier. The study confirms that estrone-3-sulfate can be used to characterize anionic carrier kinetics. Furthermore it is suggested that estrone-3-sulfate may be used to identify compounds......Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... uptakes (P(UP)) at apical and basolateral membranes, apparent permeabilities (P(APP)) and corresponding intracellular end-point accumulations (P(EPA)) of radioactive labeled compounds were studied. Possible effects of other anionic compounds were investigated. Apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) for ES...

  14. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan, E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, GM Global R and D, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4–0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  15. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.4-0.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  16. Advantages of expanded universal carrier screening: what is at stake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hout, Sanne; Holtkamp, Kim Ca; Henneman, Lidewij; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J

    2016-01-01

    Expanded universal carrier screening (EUCS) entails a twofold expansion of long-standing (preconception) carrier screening programmes: it not only allows the simultaneous screening of a large list of diseases ('expanded'), but also refers to a pan-ethnic screening offer ('universal'). Advocates mention three main moral advantages of EUCS as compared with traditional (targeted and/or ancestry-based) forms of carrier screening: EUCS will (1) maximise opportunities for autonomous reproductive choice by informing prospective parents about a much wider array of reproductive risks; (2) provide equity of access to carrier testing services; (3) reduce the risk of stigmatisation. This empirical ethics study aims to widen this account and provide a balanced picture of the potential pros and cons of EUCS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 health (policy) professionals and representatives of patient organisations about their views on carrier screening including a possible EUCS scenario. Stakeholders acknowledged the potential benefits of EUCS, but also expressed five main moral concerns: (1) Does EUCS respond to an urgent problem or population need? (2) Is it possible to offer couples both understandable and sufficient information about EUCS? (3) How will societal views on 'reproductive responsibility' change as a result of EUCS? (4) Will EUCS lead to a lower level of care for high-risk populations? (5) Will EUCS reinforce disability-based stigmatisation? While having the potential to overcome some moral limits inherent in traditional carrier screening, EUCS comes with moral challenges of its own. More research is needed to (further) anticipate the ethical and practical consequences of EUCS.

  17. Cultivation of algal biofilm using different lignocellulosic materials as carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Cuixia; Li, Yubiao; Yu, Zhigang; Chen, Zhihua; Ye, Ting; Wang, Xun; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming; Xiao, Bo; Jin, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofilm technology is recently supposed to be a promising method to produce algal biomass as the feedstock for the production of biofuels. However, the carrier materials currently used to form algal biofilm are either difficult to be obtained at a low price or undurable. Commercialization of the biofilm technology for algal biomass production extremely requires new and inexpensive materials as biofilm carriers with high biomass production performances. Four types of lignocellulosic materials were investigated to evaluate their performance of acting as carriers for algal cells attachment and the relevant effects on the algal biomass production in this study. The cultivation of algal biofilm was processed in a self-designed flat plate photo-bioreactor. The biofilm production and chemical composition of the harvested biomass were determined. The surface physics properties of the materials were examined through a confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Algal biomass production varied significantly with the variation of the carriers (P materials showed better performances in biofilm production than poly methyl methacrylate, and the application of pine sawdust as the carrier could gain the maximum biofilm productivity of 10.92 g m(-2) day(-1) after 16-day cultivation. In addition, 20.10-23.20% total lipid, 30.35-36.73% crude proteins, and 20.29-25.93% carbohydrate were achieved from the harvested biomasses. Biomass productivity increased linearly as the increase of surface roughness, and Wenzel's roughness factor of the tested materials, and surface roughness might significantly affect the biomass production through the size of surface morphology and the area of surface (P materials can be efficient carriers for low-cost cultivation of algal biofilm and the enhancement of biomass productivity.

  18. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Piculell, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  19. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk.

  20. Non destructive testing of industrial pieces by radiography: quantitative characterization and 3 D reconstruction by the way of a limited number of images; Controle non destructif de pieces industrielles par radiographie: caracterisation quantitative et reconstruction 3D a partir d`un nombre limite de vues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retraint, F

    1998-12-31

    The non destructive testing of industrial pieces is evaluated on the basis of numerical radiographies.The context of the study is the online control of the fuel rods production. A direct model of a numerical radiography formation is proposed and detailed for an acquisition system consisting of a CCD video connected to a converter screen by an optical system. As this approach does not allow the determination of the measured matter thickness from the X-ray photograph, an approximate model based on realistic approximations of the industrial non destructive testing, has been developed. For the specific cases it is possible to inverse the model and to reach the quantitative information present in the x-ray photograph, in other words, the map of the X-rays measured matter thickness. It becomes then possible to access to the quantitative parameters of the possible defects present in the measured specimen, such as the surface and the bulk. To reach the 3 D information on the defects a 3 D reconstruction method, from 3 X-rays photographs, is proposed.The inverse problem is solved by the non convex energy minimization. (A.L.B.) 109 refs.

  1. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry (FCM is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of flow cytometry in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of the most representative and diverse genera of the Old World Gesneriaceae, to evaluate the methodology effect on determining genome size. Our results showed that buffer choice significantly affected genome size estimation in six out of the eight species examined and altered the 2C-value (DNA content by as much as 21.4%. The staining duration and propidium iodide (PI concentration slightly affected the 2C-value. Our experiments showed better histogram quality when the samples were stained for 40 minutes at a PI concentration of 100 µg ml-1. The quality of the estimates was not improved by one-day incubation in the dark at 4 °C or by centrifugation. Thus, our study determined an optimum protocol for genome size measurement in Primulina: LB01 buffer supplemented with 100 µg ml-1 PI and stained for 40 minutes. This protocol also demonstrated a high universality in other Gesneriaceae genera. We report the genome size of nine Gesneriaceae species for the first time. The results showed substantial genome size variation both within and among the species, with the 2C-value ranging between 1.62 and 2.71 pg. Our study highlights the necessity of optimizing the FCM methodology prior to obtaining reliable genome size estimates in a given taxon.

  2. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Juan; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of FCM in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of the most representative and diverse genera of the Old World Gesneriaceae, to evaluate the methodology effect on determining genome size. Our results showed that buffer choice significantly affected genome size estimation in six out of the eight species examined and altered the 2C-value (DNA content) by as much as 21.4%. The staining duration and propidium iodide (PI) concentration slightly affected the 2C-value. Our experiments showed better histogram quality when the samples were stained for 40 min at a PI concentration of 100 μg ml(-1). The quality of the estimates was not improved by 1-day incubation in the dark at 4°C or by centrifugation. Thus, our study determined an optimum protocol for genome size measurement in Primulina: LB01 buffer supplemented with 100 μg ml(-1) PI and stained for 40 min. This protocol also demonstrated a high universality in other Gesneriaceae genera. We report the genome size of nine Gesneriaceae species for the first time. The results showed substantial genome size variation both within and among the species, with the 2C-value ranging between 1.62 and 2.71 pg. Our study highlights the necessity of optimizing the FCM methodology prior to obtaining reliable genome size estimates in a given taxon.

  3. Carriers by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mronga, Norbert; Adel, J.; Czech, Erwin

    1990-07-01

    Printed materials are affecting people's lives in a variety of ways and to a constantly increasing extent, both in the private and in the business spheres. In particular, the predicted reduction of printed materials resulting from electronic data processing - the so-called "paperless electronic office" - has not occured, indeed quite the reverse. In recent years electrophotographic reprography has established itself successfully as a competitor to conventional printing processes. In the office a photocopier is now a part of the standard equipment. Because of BASF's traditional intensive involvement with pigments and colored printing inks its interest in new technologies in these areas is especially great. BASF has therefore been engaged in research on carriers for some years now.

  4. Neuropsychological profile of parkin mutation carriers with and without Parkinson disease: the CORE-PD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccappolo, Elise; Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming-X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A.; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Mickel, Susan F.; Andrews, Howard F.; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien J.; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Ross, Barbara M.; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Methods EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N=43) and without (N=52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. Results No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and non-carrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD non-carriers and carrier subgroups (i.e. heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Conclusions Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to non-carriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. PMID:21092386

  5. The value of predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of its wellbeing: Systematic quantitative overviews (meta-analysis of test accuracy literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Stephen C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing remain significant causes of perinatal death and childhood disability. At present, there is a lack of scientific consensus about the best strategies for predicting these conditions before birth. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the best management of pregnant women who might have a growth restricted baby. This is likely to be due to a dearth of clear collated information from individual research studies drawn from different sources on this subject. Methods/Design A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among pregnant women, the accuracy of various tests to predict and/or diagnose fetal growth restriction and compromise of fetal wellbeing. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess study quality according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Data synthesis will involve meta-analysis (where appropriate, exploration of heterogeneity and publication bias. Discussion The project will collate and synthesise the available evidence regarding the value of the tests for predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing. The systematic overviews will assess the quality of the available evidence, estimate the magnitude of potential benefits, identify those tests with good predictive value and help formulate practice recommendations.

  6. Data acquisition and quantitative analysis of stable hydrogen isotope in liquid and gas in the liquid phase catalytic exchange process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, K. R.; Cheong, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, J. G

    2001-01-01

    A pilot plant for the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange process was built and has been operating to test the hydrophobic catalyst developed to remove the tritium generated at the CANDU nuclear power plants. The methods of quantitative analysis of hydrogen stable isotope were compared. Infrared spectroscopy was used for the liquid samples, and gas chromatography with hydrogen carrier gas showed the best result for gas samples. Also, a data acquisition system was developed to record the operation parameters. This record was very useful to investigate the causes of the system trip.

  7. Quantitative repeated open application testing with a rinse-off product in methyldibromo glutaronitrile-sensitive patients: results of the IVDK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heratizadeh, Annice; Killig, Claudia; Worm, Margitta; Soost, Stephanie; Simon, Dagmar; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; Schuster, Christian; Szliska, Christiane; Frambach, Yvonne; Eben, Ricarda; Werfel, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-06-01

    While the use of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) in leave-on products is clearly associated with high sensitization or elicitation risk, such a clear-cut relation could be questioned with regard to rinse-off products. The objective of this study was to find a maximum non-eliciting concentration for rinse-off products in MDBGN patch test-positive patients. We performed a use-related test [repeated open application test (ROAT)] in patients sensitized to MDBGN with a liquid soap containing three concentrations of MDBGN (50, 200, and 400 p.p.m. MDBGN, respectively). The soap at 50 p.p.m. was used twice daily for 4 weeks. If no reaction of the skin was observed, the product with the next higher concentration was used for another 4 weeks, etc. In total, 32/37 evaluated cases [86.5%; lower exact one-sided 95% confidence limit (CL): 73.7%] did not react to any of the preparations. The remaining reacted as follows: 1/37 reacted to 50 p.p.m., 3/37 to 200 p.p.m., and 1/37 to 400 p.p.m. The cumulative non-response to 50 p.p.m. was 97.3% (lower CL: 87.8%). The majority of subjects sensitized to MDBGN-tolerated rinse-off products containing a maximum concentration of 400 p.p.m. A concentration in rinse-off products in the range of 50 p.p.m. could be regarded as safe for most individuals already sensitized. These concentrations will presumably prevent induction (sensitization) also.

  8. Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali M. Kocharekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag, Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH, and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92% and 59 (58.41% false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total.

  9. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier shall not engage in joint public relations activities at points served by both carriers which tend... specified area or point, in relation to services such as the following: Solicitation and sale of passenger... name of the other carrier as to emphasize the limited role of the agent; (4) Telephone facilities at...

  10. Salmonella carriers among expatriate workers in Al-Qatif area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albreiki Hassan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella infection and diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. All expatriates applying for work permits in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA have to undergo a governmental compulsory health check program. Aim of the study: To estimate the number of salmonella carriers who had previously been diagnosed as free of infection. Subjects and methods: Over a period of two years, a total of 17, 918 workers in Al-Qatif area, in the Eastern Province were tested for salmonella on stool samples. Results: Three hundred and twenty eight were found to be asymptomatic carriers of salmonella. The highest frequency was found among workers from Egypt (13.1 % while Filipinos and Indians were the lowest carriers (1.2%. Salmonella serogroups E, C 1 and C2 were most common ( 29%, 29% and 23.5% respectively followed by serogroups B, D and C (13%, 3.7% and 1% respectively. No Shigella species were isolated. All carriers were given antibiotics and were instructed in prophylactic hygiene measures. After completing the course of antibiotics, they were retested and found to be clear of infection. Conclusion: The health check system in this area will contribute towards the prevention of outbreaks of infection by salmonella

  11. Reduction of background carrier concentration and lifetime improvement for 4H-SiC C-face epitaxial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Johji; Kushibe, Mitsuhiro; Asamizu, Hirokuni; Kitai, Hidenori; Kojima, Kazutoshi

    2017-08-01

    Reduction of background carrier concentration was investigated for 4H-SiC C-face epitaxial growth in order to realize ultrahigh-voltage power devices. The quantitative contribution of each epitaxial growth parameter was studied, and it has been found that the growth rate increase and the pressure decrease were more effective than the C/Si ratio. Optimizing the parameters has made it possible to achieve a background carrier concentration of 7.6 × 1013 cm-3 within the whole area of specular 3-in. wafers. In addition to the background carrier concentration reduction, it has been confirmed that small epitaxial film thickness variation, low surface defect density and carrier lifetime fulfill the requirements for the devices. Moreover, in-process propane annealing has been found effective in improving the carrier lifetime. As a result, the longest lifetime value to date of 1.6 µs was obtained for a C-face epitaxial film.

  12. 5 CFR 890.1308 - Carrier participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 890.1308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1308 Carrier participation. (a) All carriers who participate in the...

  13. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  14. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  15. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  16. BER Performance of IEEE 802.11ad for Single Carrier and Multi Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario 802.11n is one of the fastest standards which is widely popular. It provides a theoretical maximum of 450 megabits per second (Mbps, with a typical throughput of 100Mbps. As we know, there is high demand for higher speed due to an increasing of high definition (HD video on smart phone usage and home entertainment. As 802.11n is not able to provide the required speed needed for these uses, thus there is need for technologies which can meet therequirement. IEEE 802.11ad is one of such standards which meet the requirement needed for the above. IEEE 802.11ad standard operates at 60 GHz frequency, promise to deliver from 1 to 7 Gbps. 60 GHz band is one of the largest unlicensed bandwidth with availability of at least 5 GHz of continuous bandwidth worldwide. In this paper we have tested the IEEE 802.11ad system model Bits Error Rate (BER for different modulation technique under several coding scheme for both Single Carrier and Multi Carriers. In this model the modulation technique mainly used are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 64-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and the coding scheme used is Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code with different code rate.

  17. A two-step genetic study on quantitative precursors of coronary artery disease in a homogeneous Indian population: Case–control association discovery and validation by transmission-disequilibrium test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjukta Mallik; Partha P Majumder

    2011-12-01

    In spite of its strong familiality, gene identification for coronary artery disease (CAD) has not yielded a consistent picture. One major reason for this is that families or cases and controls were not recruited from a homogeneous population. We, therefore, attempted to map genes underlying 10 quantitative traits (QTs) that are known precursors of CAD in a homogeneous population (Marwari) of India. The QTs are apolipoprotein B (ApoB), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FBG), homocysteine (HCY), lipoprotein (a) (LPA), cholesterol – total (CHOL-T), cholesterol – HDL (CHOL-H), cholesterol – LDL (CHOL-L), cholesterol – VLDL (CHOL-V) and triglyceride (TG). We assayed 209 SNPs in 31 genes among members of Marwari families. After log-transformation and covariate-adjustment of the QTs, a two-step analysis was performed. In Step-1, data on unrelated individuals were analysed for association with the SNPs. In Step-2, for validation of Step-1 results, a quantitative transmission-disequilibrium test on parent–offspring data was performed for each SNP found to be significantly associated with a QT in Step-1 on an independent sample set drawn from the same population. Statistically significant results found for the various QTs and SNPs were: rs3774933, rs230528, rs230521, rs1005819 and rs1609798 (intronic, NFKB1) with APOB; rs5361 (Missense, R > S, SELE) and rs4648004 (Intronic, NFKB1) with FBG; rs4220 (Missense, K > R, FGB) with HCY; and rs3025035 (Intronic,