WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantitative aging study

  1. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  2. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

  3. New insights into the ageing of linseed oil paint binder: a qualitative and quantitative analytical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Bonaduce

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG, which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS, which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S, which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art.

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria for Assessing Endurance in Women over 60 Years of Age – Findings from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortas Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. If it is to be effective, health training needs to be monitored based on regular and periodic assessment. The norms that have been proposed for standardised endurance tests for the 60-plus age group, particularly for women, still require evaluation. In light of the above, we have undertaken to design quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the level of endurance. Such criteria are urgently needed by persons working with this age group. Material and methods. We developed a quantitative and qualitative system for evaluating endurance based on Zatsiorky’s model, and we verified it in a group of 90 women aged over 60 years. We analysed data measured directly during a 2-km walk test. Results. We developed a set of quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years based on the results of a 2-km walk test, measured on a scale ranging from 24:18 to 15:52 min:s. Conclusion. The pilot study has proven that a scale based on Zatsiorsky’s model can be an effective tool for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years. We can thus recommend that it be widely used in practice. It is important to compare these results with the norms for the group in question and to establish comprehensive norms that could be useful for persons who organise physical activity for older adults.

  5. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon; Hok, Pavel; Rueb, Udo; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Johannes C.; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  7. Brain atrophy during aging. Quantitative studies with X-CT and NMR-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-12-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.).

  8. Variation in referral and access to new psychological therapy services by age: an empirical quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Sophie; Qureshi, Adam; Lee, William; Stirzaker, Alex; Gibson, Alex; Henley, William; Byng, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Older people with common mental health problems (CMHPs) are known to have reduced rates of referral to psychological therapy. To assess referral rates to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services, contact with a therapist, and clinical outcome by age. Empirical research study using patient episodes of care from South West of England IAPT services. By analysing 82 513 episodes of care (2010-2011), referral rates and clinical improvement were compared with both total population and estimated prevalence in each age group using IAPT data. Probable recovery of those completing treatment was calculated for each group. Estimated prevalence of CMHPs peaks in 45-49-year-olds (20.59% of population). The proportions of patients identified with CMHPs being referred peaks at 20-24 years (22.95%) and reduces with increase in age thereafter to 6.00% for 70-74-year-olds. Once referred, the proportion of those attending first treatment increases with age between 20 years (57.34%) and 64 years (76.97%). In addition, the percentage of those having a clinical improvement gradually increases from the age of 18 years (12.94%) to 69 years (20.74%). Younger adults are more readily referred to IAPT services. However, as a proportion of those referred, probabilities of attending once, attending more than once, and clinical improvement increase with age. It is uncertain whether optimum levels of referral have been reached for young adults. It is important to establish whether changes to service configuration, treatment options, and GP behaviour can increase referrals for middle-aged and older adults. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  9. Age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone mineral status: A quantitative CT study in lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanno, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Nakajima, I.; Maeda, S.; Igarashi, M.; Yamada, H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the age and sex dependence of the bone mineral status of human lumbar vertebrae with special regard to differences between cortical and trabecular bone. The study group comprised 125 normal Japanese healthy volunteers (54 males and 71 females), and was subdivided into adult male and female groups (subjects younger than 40 years), intermediate male and female groups (ages ranging between 41 and 64 years) and old male and female groups (subjects older than 65 years). The cortical bone mineral status was estimated using a single-energy quantitative CT (SE-QCT) technique, whereas trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated using a dual-energy (DE-QCT) technique. A considerable gender difference in the age-related cortical bone status was found. There was a significant reduction of the mean values of the cortical volume and BMD in the old female group compared with those obtained in the old male group. The results suggest that in men, cortical and trabecular bone volume decrease very little with age. In women, cortical volume and BMD and trabecular BMD decrease with age while trabecular bone volume does not. The study showed that all variables had higher values in men than in women and that the difference increased with age

  10. Quantitative measures of healthy aging and biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Numerous genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to aging. To facilitate the study of these factors, various descriptors of biological aging, including ‘successful aging’ and ‘frailty’, have been put forth as integrative functional measures of aging. A separate but related quantitative approach is the ‘frailty index’, which has been operationalized and frequently used. Various frailty indices have been constructed. Although based on different numbers and types of health variables, frailty indices possess several common properties that make them useful across different studies. We have been using a frailty index termed FI34 based on 34 health variables. Like other frailty indices, FI34 increases non-linearly with advancing age and is a better indicator of biological aging than chronological age. FI34 has a substantial genetic basis. Using FI34, we found elevated levels of resting metabolic rate linked to declining health in nonagenarians. Using FI34 as a quantitative phenotype, we have also found a genomic region on chromosome 12 that is associated with healthy aging and longevity. PMID:26005669

  11. Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2004-03-24

    The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex.

  12. Do patient and practice characteristics confound age-group differences in preferences for general practice care? A quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research showed inconsistent results regarding the relationship between the age of patients and preference statements regarding GP care. This study investigates whether elderly patients have different preference scores and ranking orders concerning 58 preference statements for GP care than younger patients. Moreover, this study examines whether patient characteristics and practice location may confound the relationship between age and the categorisation of a preference score as very important. Methods Data of the Consumer Quality Index GP Care were used, which were collected in 32 general practices in the Netherlands. The rank order and preference score were calculated for 58 preference statements for four age groups (0–30, 31–50, 51–74, 75 years and older). Using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses, it was investigated whether a significant relationship between age and preference score was confounded by patient characteristics and practice location. Results Elderly patients did not have a significant different ranking order for the preference statements than the other three age groups (r = 0.0193; p = 0.41). However, in 53% of the statements significant differences were found in preference score between the four age groups. Elderly patients categorized significantly less preference statements as ‘very important’. In most cases, the significant relationships were not confounded by gender, education, perceived health, the number of GP contacts and location of the GP practice. Conclusion The preferences of elderly patients for GP care concern the same items as younger patients. However, their preferences are less strong, which cannot be ascribed to gender, education, perceived health, the number of GP contacts and practice location. PMID:23800156

  13. Quantitative study on the effect of high-temperature curing at an early age on strength development of concrete. Experiment with mortar using moderate-heat portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hisashi; Chino, Shigeo

    1999-01-01

    The effect of high-temperature curing at an early age on the strength development of concrete using moderate-heat portland cement was quantitatively studied. High-temperature curing conditions were set so as to give systematic variations in the temperature-time factors. As a result, the integrated value of curing temperature during the period having a significant effect on the strength development was proposed as a parameter that expressed the degree of high-temperature curing. The effect of high-temperature curing on the strength development of concrete using moderate-heat portland cement could be exactly predicted with the integrated value of curing temperature during the period from 0 to 3 days. (author)

  14. A quantitative study of regional cerebral blood flow in childhood using {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT. With emphasis on age-related changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Ayame; Kishi, Kazuko; Sejima, Hitoshi; Haneda, Noriyuki; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro; Ito, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Hideyuki [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using N-isopropyl-p-={sup 123}I= iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) was used for quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on 26 individuals between 0 and 19 years of age. The rCBF showed age-related changes; it was low in early infancy, increased in late infancy through early childhood, and decreased and remained constant after puberty. The rCBF through cerebral cortex varied more greatly than through thalamus and cerebellum, and seemed to depend more closely on age. In the case of 4 months of age rCBF was very low at the frontal region and was very high at the occipital region. In more older cases, rCBF in the cerebral cortex was higher than in the thalamus. In childhood, rCBF was very inconsistent and showed a great inter-individual variance. (author)

  15. A quantitative study of regional cerebral blood flow in childhood using 123I-IMP-SPECT. With emphasis on age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ayame; Kishi, Kazuko; Sejima, Hitoshi; Haneda, Noriyuki; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro; Ito, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Hideyuki

    1996-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was used for quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on 26 individuals between 0 and 19 years of age. The rCBF showed age-related changes; it was low in early infancy, increased in late infancy through early childhood, and decreased and remained constant after puberty. The rCBF through cerebral cortex varied more greatly than through thalamus and cerebellum, and seemed to depend more closely on age. In the case of 4 months of age rCBF was very low at the frontal region and was very high at the occipital region. In more older cases, rCBF in the cerebral cortex was higher than in the thalamus. In childhood, rCBF was very inconsistent and showed a great inter-individual variance. (author)

  16. Quantitative Machine Learning Analysis of Brain MRI Morphology throughout Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Long, Joe

    2016-01-01

    While cognition is clearly affected by aging, it is unclear whether the process of brain aging is driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage, or involves biological pathways. We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ~0.9822 with the chronological age, indicating that the machine learning analysis of global features is sensitive to the age of the subjects. Profiling of the predicted age shows several periods of mild changes, separated by shorter periods of more rapid alterations. The periods with the most rapid changes were around the age of 55, and around the age of 65. The results show that the process of brain aging of is not linear, and exhibit short periods of rapid aging separated by periods of milder change. These results are in agreement with patterns observed in cognitive decline, mental health status, and general human aging, suggesting that brain aging might not be driven solely by accumulation of environmental damage. Code and data used in the experiments are publicly available.

  17. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF SUICIDE RESEARCH IN OLD AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ojagbemi, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the quantitative and qualitative divide as well as the social, economic, and cultural boundaries between the elderly living in sub-Saharan...

  18. Physiological frailty index (PFI): quantitative in-life estimate of individual biological age in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoch, Marina P; Wrobel, Michelle; Kuropatwinski, Karen K; Gitlin, Ilya; Leonova, Katerina I; Toshkov, Ilia; Gleiberman, Anatoli S; Hutson, Alan D; Chernova, Olga B; Gudkov, Andrei V

    2017-03-19

    The development of healthspan-extending pharmaceuticals requires quantitative estimation of age-related progressive physiological decline. In humans, individual health status can be quantitatively assessed by means of a frailty index (FI), a parameter which reflects the scale of accumulation of age-related deficits. However, adaptation of this methodology to animal models is a challenging task since it includes multiple subjective parameters. Here we report a development of a quantitative non-invasive procedure to estimate biological age of an individual animal by creating physiological frailty index (PFI). We demonstrated the dynamics of PFI increase during chronological aging of male and female NIH Swiss mice. We also demonstrated acceleration of growth of PFI in animals placed on a high fat diet, reflecting aging acceleration by obesity and provide a tool for its quantitative assessment. Additionally, we showed that PFI could reveal anti-aging effect of mTOR inhibitor rapatar (bioavailable formulation of rapamycin) prior to registration of its effects on longevity. PFI revealed substantial sex-related differences in normal chronological aging and in the efficacy of detrimental (high fat diet) or beneficial (rapatar) aging modulatory factors. Together, these data introduce PFI as a reliable, non-invasive, quantitative tool suitable for testing potential anti-aging pharmaceuticals in pre-clinical studies.

  19. Effects of age and gender in quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in a control adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)

  20. Quantitative identification of senescent cells in aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Anat; Zada, Lior; Abou Karam, Paula; Vadai, Ezra; Roitman, Lior; Ovadya, Yossi; Porat, Ziv; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2017-08-01

    Senescent cells are present in premalignant lesions and sites of tissue damage and accumulate in tissues with age. In vivo identification, quantification and characterization of senescent cells are challenging tasks that limit our understanding of the role of senescent cells in diseases and aging. Here, we present a new way to precisely quantify and identify senescent cells in tissues on a single-cell basis. The method combines a senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay with staining of molecular markers for cellular senescence and of cellular identity. By utilizing technology that combines flow cytometry with high-content image analysis, we were able to quantify senescent cells in tumors, fibrotic tissues, and tissues of aged mice. Our approach also yielded the finding that senescent cells in tissues of aged mice are larger than nonsenescent cells. Thus, this method provides a basis for quantitative assessment of senescent cells and it offers proof of principle for combination of different markers of senescence. It paves the way for screening of senescent cells for identification of new senescence biomarkers, genes that bypass senescence or senolytic compounds that eliminate senescent cells, thus enabling a deeper understanding of the senescent state in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and age-related brain atrophy: a quantitative study with computed tomography and the xenon-133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatazawa, J.; Kubota, K.; Abe, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and two subjects (40 men and 62 women) neither having a history of neurologic deficits nor showing organic lesions on computed tomographic examination of the brain were studied. Ages of the subjects ranged from 26 to 81 years. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method, and the volume percentage of brain with respect to the cranial cavity (craniocerebral index) was calculated by means of computer programs. Regional cerebral blood flow was computed as the fast component of two-compartmental analysis and as the initial slope index value. The percentage of each subject's craniocerebral index in relation to the standard for subjects with non-atrophied brains (brain volume index) was calculated as the indicator of brain atrophy. Both the mean brain fast component values and the mean brain initial slope index values correlated closely with the brain volume index in the elderly. Low cerebral blood flow values coincided with loss of brain substance in the final stage of age-related brain atrophy, but not in the intermediate stage

  2. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  3. Characterising Ageing in the Human Brainstem Using Quantitative Multimodal MRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLambert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is ubiquitous to the human condition. The MRI correlates of healthy ageing have been extensively investigated using a range of modalities, including volumetric MRI, quantitative MRI and DTI. Despite this, the reported brainstem related changes remain sparse. This is, in part, due to the technical and methodological limitations in quantitatively assessing and statistically analysing this region. By utilising a new method of brainstem segmentation, a large cohort of 100 healthy adults were assessed in this study for the effects of ageing within the human brainstem in vivo. Using quantitative MRI (qMRI, tensor based morphometry (TBM and voxel based quantification (VBQ, the volumetric and quantitative changes across healthy adults between 19-75 years were characterised. In addition to the increased R2* in substantia nigra corresponding to increasing iron deposition with age, several novel findings were reported in the current study. These include selective volumetric loss of the brachium conjunctivum, with a corresponding decrease in magnetisation transfer (MT and increase in proton density (PD, accounting for the previously described midbrain shrinkage. Additionally, we found increases in R1 and PD in several pontine and medullary structures. We consider these changes in the context of well-characterised, functional age-related changes, and propose potential biophysical mechanisms. This study provides detailed quantitative analysis of the internal architecture of the brainstem and provides a baseline for further studies of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterised by early, pre-clinical involvement of the brainstem, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

  4. Quali-quantitative study of nutritional status and eating patterns in children aged 1-3 years from low-income families in two population groups with different productive activities (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Pasarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the nutritional status and eating patterns of children aged 1-3 years from low-income families who reside in areas with different productive activities: primary production and production of goods and services. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with a qualitative and quantitative methodology, evaluating anthropometric and biochemical nutritional status, food intake, economic and demographic characteristics, dietary practices and representations. The results show that children from areas of primary production had a lower prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency. They also had a higher consumption of energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin A and protein and a greater diversity and quality in food consumption. We can conclude that the geographical context of families closer to sources of primary production favors interaction with individuals outside of the family, expanding both the informal social network and access to better quality nutritional food.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabia, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Study Design: Analytical cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Methodology: Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 macro m thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean +- S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. Results: The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). Conclusion: The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age. (author)

  6. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Ansa; Tahir, Mohammad; Munir, Bushra; Sami, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Analytical cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 μm thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean ± S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age.

  7. qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concludes that an integration of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches may provide a better platform for unraveling the complex phenomenon of suicide in the elderly. Keywords: Psychological autopsy, Suicidal behaviours, Thematic analysis, Phenomenology the population, or a systematically generated ...

  8. Quantitative relationships between aging failure data and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Vora, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, a project is being carried out to quantify the risk effects of aging. The project is called the Risk Evaluation of Aging Phenomena (REAP) Project. With the REAP Project, a procedure has been developed to quantify nuclear power plant risks from aging failure data. The procedure utilizes the linear aging model and its extensions in order to relate component aging failure rates to aging mechanism parameters which are estimable from failure and maintenance data. The aging failure rates can then be used to quantify the age dependent plant risks, such as system unavailabilities, core melt frequency and public health risks. The REAP procedure is different from standard time dependent approaches in that the failure rates are phenomenologically based, allowing engineering information to be utilized. Furthermore, gross data and incomplete data can be utilized. A software package has been developed which systematically analyzes data for aging effects and interfaces with a time dependent risk analysis module to determine the risk implications of the aging effects. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs

  9. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josiah; Iser, Wendy B; Chow, David K; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2008-07-30

    Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  10. Ghrelin in the fetal pancreas - a digital quantitation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Federspiel, Birgitte Hartnack

    2012-01-01

    Hasselby JP, Maroun LL, Federspiel BH, Vainer B. Ghrelin in the fetal pancreas - a digital quantitation study. APMIS 2011. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by specialized neuroendocrine cells located in the fetal pancreas. In the adult, ghrelin has multiple effects, but in the fetus the role...... of ghrelin and the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells is not well documented. The aim of this study was to describe and quantitate the number of ghrelin positive cells in the pancreas during gestation. The material consisted of pancreatic tissue from 19 fetuses at different gestational ages...

  11. Normalization of Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Data During Ageing in Distinct Cerebral Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, G; Vivien, D; Docagne, F; Roussel, B D

    2016-04-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a routine method in many laboratories. Normalization of data from experimental conditions is critical for data processing and is usually achieved by the use of a single reference gene. Nevertheless, as pointed by the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, several reference genes should be used for reliable normalization. Ageing is a physiological process that results in a decline of many expressed genes. Reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data becomes crucial when studying ageing. Here, we propose a RT-qPCR study from four mouse brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum) at different ages (from 8 weeks to 22 months) in which we studied the expression of nine commonly used reference genes. With the use of two different algorithms, we found that all brain structures need at least two genes for a good normalization step. We propose specific pairs of gene for efficient data normalization in the four brain regions studied. These results underline the importance of reliable reference genes for specific brain regions in ageing.

  12. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  13. Age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in decision making ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Mapelli, Cristina; Morielli, Nadia; Pelati, Oriana; Franceschi, Massimo; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco

    2008-01-01

    The "frontal aging hypothesis" predicts that brain senescence affects predominantly the prefrontal regions. Preliminary evidence has recently been gathered in favour of an age-related change in a typically frontal process, i.e. decision making, using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), but overall findings have been conflicting. Following the traditional scoring method, coupled with a qualitative analysis, in the present study we compared IGT performance of 40 young (mean age: 27.9+/-4.7) and 40 old (mean age: 65.4+/-8.6) healthy adults and of 18 patients affected by frontal lobe dementia of mild severity (mean age: 65.1+/-7.4, mean MMSE score: 24.1+/-3.9). Quantitative findings support the notion that decision making ability declines with age; moreover, it approximates the impairment observed in executive dysfunction due to neurodegeneration. Results of the qualitative analysis did not reach statistical significance for the motivational and learning decision making components considered, but approached significance for the attentional component for elderly versus young normals, suggesting a possible decrease in the ability to maintain sustained attention during complex and prolonged tasks as the putative deficit underlying impaired decision making in normal aging.

  14. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Johnston

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  15. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation using HPLC Content analysis was done using HPLC Results : According to HPLC analysis, each BVA-1 contained approximately 0.36㎍ melittin, and BVA-2 contained approximately 0.54㎍ melittin. But the volume of coating was so minute, slight difference exists between each needle. Conclusion : Above results indicate that the bee venom acupuncture can complement shortcomings of syringe usage as a part of Oriental medicine treatment, but extensive researches should be done for further verification.

  16. Age determination by teeth examination: a comparison between different morphologic and quantitative analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariti, M L; Restori, M; De Ferrari, F; Paganelli, C; Faglia, R; Legnani, G

    1999-06-01

    Age determination by teeth examination is one of the main means of determining personal identification. Current studies have suggested different techniques for determining the age of a subject by means of the analysis of microscopic and macroscopic structural modifications of the tooth with ageing. The histological approach is useful among the various methodologies utilized for this purpose. It is still unclear as to what is the best technique, as almost all the authors suggest the use of the approach they themselves have tested. In the present study, age determination by means of microscopic techniques has been based on the quantitative analysis of three parameters, all well recognized in specialized literature: 1. dentinal tubules density/sclerosis 2. tooth translucency 3. analysis of the cementum thickness. After a description of the three methodologies (with automatic image processing of the dentinal sclerosis utilizing an appropriate computer program developed by the authors) the results obtained on cases using the three different approaches are presented, and the merits and failings of each technique are identified with the intention of identifying the one offering the least degree of error in age determination.

  17. Technological innovation in neurosurgery: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-07-01

    Technological innovation within health care may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technology-intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical techniques. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation, respectively. The authors searched a patent database for articles published between 1960 and 2010 using the Boolean search term "neurosurgeon OR neurosurgical OR neurosurgery." The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top-performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for a more detailed analysis of individual patents. In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications related to neurosurgery were identified. The top-performing technology clusters during these 50 years were image-guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes, and endoscopes. In relation to image-guidance and neuromodulation devices, the authors found a highly correlated rapid rise in the numbers of patents and publications, which suggests that these are areas of technology expansion. An in-depth analysis of neuromodulation-device patents revealed that the majority of well-performing patents were related to deep brain stimulation. Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery.

  18. Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Stein, Jill M; Crotty, Eric J; Rattan, Mantosh S; Hossain, Md Monir; Brody, Alan S; Woods, Jason C

    2018-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, heterogeneous disease in premature infants. We hypothesized that quantitative CT techniques could assess lung parenchymal heterogeneity in BPD patients across a broad age range and demonstrate how pathologies change over time. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of children age 0-6 years with non-contrast chest CT scans was conducted. BPD subjects met NICHD/NHLBI diagnostic criteria for BPD and were excluded for congenital lung/airway abnormalities or other known/suspected pulmonary diagnoses; control subjects were not premature and had normal CT scan findings. Radiologic opacities, lucencies, and spatial heterogeneity were quantified via: 1) thresholding using CT-attenuation (HU); 2) manual segmentation; and 3) Ochiai reader-scoring system. Clinical outcomes included BPD severity by NICHD/NHLBI criteria, respiratory support at NICU discharge, wheezing, and respiratory exacerbations. Heterogeneity (standard deviation) of lung attenuation in BPD was significantly greater than in controls (difference 36.4 HU [26.1-46.7 HU], P < 0.001); the difference between the groups decreased 0.58 HU per month of age (0.08-1.07 HU per month, P = 0.02). BPD patients had greater amounts of opacities and lucencies than controls except with automated quantification of lucencies. Cross-sectionally, lucencies per Ochiai score and opacities per manual segmentation decreased with time. No approach measured a statistically significant relationship to BPD clinical severity. Opacities, lucencies, and overall heterogeneity of lungs via quantitative CT can distinguish BPD patients from healthy controls, and these abnormalities decrease with age across BPD patients. Defining BPD severity by clinical outcomes such as respiratory support at several time points (vs a single time point, per current guidelines) may be meaningful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative diffusion tensor fiber tracking of age-related changes in the limbic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Salomonowitz, Erich; Strunk, Guido; Hammen, Thilo; Ganslandt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral white matter is known to undergo degradation with aging, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is capable of revealing the white matter integrity. We assessed age-related changes of quantitative diffusivity parameters and fiber characteristics within the fornix and the cingulum. Thirty-eight healthy subjects aged 18-88 years were examined at 3 Tesla using a 1.9-mm isotropic DTI sequence. Quantitative fiber tracking was performed for 3D-segmentation of the fornix and the cingulum to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), eigenvalues (λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 ), number of fibers (NoF), and mean NoF/voxel (FpV). In the fornix, all diffusivity parameters (FA, MD, and eigenvalues) were moderately correlated with age. Strong and moderate negative correlations for NoF and FpV were found, respectively. In the cingulum, no correlation was observed between FA and age, and only weak correlations for the other quantitative parameters. Differences in correlations between the fornix and the cingulum were significant for all diffusivity parameters and for NoF, but not for FpV. The strongest relative changes per decade of age were found in the fornix: FA -2.1%, MD 4.2%, NoF -10.6%, and FpV -4.6%. Our quantitative 3D fiber tracking approach shows that the cingulum is resistant to aging while the fornix is not. (orig.)

  20. Genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms from age 2 to 3: A quantitative and molecular genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudino Kimberly J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A twin study design was used to assess the degree to which additive genetic variance influences ADHD symptom scores across two ages during infancy. A further objective in the study was to observe whether genetic association with a number of candidate markers reflects results from the quantitative genetic analysis. Method We have studied 312 twin pairs at two time-points, age 2 and age 3. A composite measure of ADHD symptoms from two parent-rating scales: The Child Behavior Checklist/1.5 - 5 years (CBCL hyperactivity scale and the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (RRPSPC was used for both quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Results At ages 2 and 3 ADHD symptoms are highly heritable (h2 = 0.79 and 0.78, respectively with a high level of genetic stability across these ages. However, we also observe a significant level of genetic change from age 2 to age 3. There are modest influences of non-shared environment at each age independently (e2 = 0.22 and 0.21, respectively, with these influences being largely age-specific. In addition, we find modest association signals in DAT1 and NET1 at both ages, along with suggestive specific effects of 5-HTT and DRD4 at age 3. Conclusions ADHD symptoms are heritable at ages 2 and 3. Additive genetic variance is largely shared across these ages, although there are significant new effects emerging at age 3. Results from our genetic association analysis reflect these levels of stability and change and, more generally, suggest a requirement for consideration of age-specific genotypic effects in future molecular studies.

  1. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...... cases, respectively, and 0.488+/-0.028 and 0.463+/-0.025 in male and female controls, respectively. AWT decreased with increasing age in cases, and increased with the degree of current smoking in all subjects. We found significant differences in quantitative HRCT measures of emphysema and AWT between...

  2. Quantitative on-line age monitoring system for power generation industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The degradation effect of various components of power generation industries is an important information for safe and cost effective running of the plant. Among the various such aging effects, fatigue, fatigue creep interaction and crack growth are commonly responsible for most of the failures. Information about various aging effects help in assessing structural degradation of the components. This provides actual plant transients to future designers, guidelines for in-service inspection and maintenance programmes and may also support future life extension of a power plant. In the present paper, development of a quantitative on-line age monitoring methodology using the available plant instrumentations is presented. Green's function technique is used to convert plant data to temperature and stress versus time data. Fatigue usage factor is computed using rain flow cycle counting algorithm using the material fatigue data. The effect of creep is considered adopting life fraction rule using material creep data. Crack growth rate is predicted using linear elastic fracture mechanics and time dependent C t approach. The present paper describes the detailed steps of this methodology, the development of various codes and the case studies carried out. (author). 3 figs

  3. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  4. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  5. Quantitative scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints: effects of age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.; Eklem, M.; Seto, H.; Bobba, V.R.; Brown, P.; Haines, J.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of age, gender, and laterality on sacroiliac/sacral ratios obtained during quantitative joint imaging were assessed in 97 nonarthritic control subjects. For the entire group, the right sacroiliac-to-sacral mean ratio of 1.27 in 54 males was significantly higher than the right mean ratio of 1.18 in 53 females. In both genders the right joint ratio tended to be higher than the left in all age groups. The difference in mean ratio between the two joints was wider for males than for females. The age did not afect the joint ratio in either gender. It is concluded that the range of normal sacroiliac-to-sacral ratios are different for males and females and should be taken into account during a quantitative sacroiliac joint imaging examination

  6. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height–height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO_xN_y, InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. (paper)

  7. Quantitative MR imaging of intra-orbital structures: Tissue-specific measurements and age dependency compared to extra-orbital structures using multispectral quantitative MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Memi; Buch, Karen; Fujita, Akifumi; Jara, Hernán; Qureshi, Muhammad Mustafa; Sakai, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    The orbit can be affected by unique pathologic conditions and often requires MRI evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in multiple intra-orbital structures using quantitative MRI (qMRI). Thirty-eight subjects (20 males, 18 females; ages 0.5-87 years) underwent MRI with a mixed turbo spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 measurements were obtained within ROI in 6 intra-orbital structures (medial and lateral rectus muscles, medial and lateral retrobulbar fat, lacrimal gland, and optic nerve), and compared with those of corresponding extra-orbital structures (masseter muscle, subcutaneous cheek fat, buccal fat, parotid gland, and frontal white matter). Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. T1 and T2 values of the extra-ocular muscles increased with age, with higher T1 and T2 values compared to the masseter muscles. Retrobulbar fat showed significant age-associated increases in T1 values in the lateral side and in T2 values in both sides. T1 and T2 values in the lacrimal gland increased with age, while the parotid gland showed an age-associated increase in T2 values and decrease in T1 values. Optic nerves demonstrated age-related changes, similar to that of frontal white matter; rapid decreases with age in T1 and T2 times in early stages of life, and slight increases in T1 and T2 times later in life. Intra-orbital structures demonstrated specific qMRI measurements and aging patterns, which were different from extra-orbital structures. Location-specific age-related changes of intra-orbital structures should be considered in the qMRI assessment of the orbital pathology.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  9. Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tiit; Vellau, Helen; Tammaru, Toomas

    2014-11-01

    Optimality models predict that diet-induced bivariate reaction norms for age and size at maturity can have diverse shapes, with the slope varying from negative to positive. To evaluate these predictions, we perform a quantitative review of relevant data, using a literature-derived database of body sizes and development times for over 200 insect species. We show that bivariate reaction norms with a negative slope prevail in nearly all taxonomic and ecological categories of insects as well as in some other ectotherm taxa with comparable life histories (arachnids and amphibians). In insects, positive slopes are largely limited to species, which feed on discrete resource items, parasitoids in particular. By contrast, with virtually no meaningful exceptions, herbivorous and predatory insects display reaction norms with a negative slope. This is consistent with the idea that predictable resource depletion, a scenario selecting for positively sloped reaction norms, is not frequent for these insects. Another source of such selection-a positive correlation between resource levels and juvenile mortality rates-should similarly be rare among insects. Positive slopes can also be predicted by models which integrate life-history evolution and population dynamics. As bottom-up regulation is not common in most insect groups, such models may not be most appropriate for insects. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. METHODS: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting...... quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. RESULTS: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed...... relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica ? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Doring, Thomas Martin; Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwen...

  12. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Age Control of Glacimarine Sediments, ANDRILL 1B Drillcore, McMurdo Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R.; Levy, R.; Crampton, J.; Wilson, G.; Naish, T.; Harwood, D.; Winter, D.; Scherer, R.

    2008-12-01

    Interpretation of glacimarine sedimentary records from Antarctic shelf drillholes has been greatly hampered by the ambiguous age of strata where erosional unconformities and coarse diamictite deposits truncate or omit the mangetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic units used for correlation. However, new quantitative biostratigraphic techniques enable the correlation of sparse, incomplete, and reworking-prone Plio- Pleistocene records of Ross Sea fossil diatom flora with the more extensively documented but potentially diachronous offshore history of species' first and last appearances (FAs and LAs). The approach uses a comprehensive regional database of fossil records and computer-automated search algorithms to (a) find the multidimensional line of correlation (LOC) that best fits local observations, and (b) map out confidence intervals based on the full range of equally parsimonious composite FA/LA sequences and local range-end adjustments. An integrated, quantitative chronostratigraphic model for the AND-1B drillcore was constructed iteratively: the initial LOC was based solely on preliminary on-ice observations of fossil diatom highest and lowest occurrences (HOs and LOs) and their correlation with a database of other local event records from 24 DVDP, CIROS, and IODP drillcore sections. The model was subsequently updated as off-ice work yielded additional biostratigraphic marker events and revised event horizons, Ar/Ar ages for volcanic material, better- constrained magnetostratigraphic interpretations, and refinements to computational/analytical methodology. The current quantitative biostratigraphic age model for the AND-1B hole integrates the local ranges of 29 diatom taxa, 5 dated ashes, and independently constrained ages of 5 paleomagnetic reversals. Results corroborate almost all of the on-ice geomagnetic polarity reversal age interpretations, but identify a previously unrecognized major disconformity (~800kyr hiatus) near 440mbsf. It is significant to note

  13. Family involvement in decision making for people with dementia in residential aged care: a systematic review of quantitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, Andrea; Gibson, Alexandra; Parker, Deborah; Banks, Susan; Andrews, Sharon; Robinson, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Ensuring older adults' involvement in their care is accepted as good practice and is vital, particularly for people with dementia, whose care and treatment needs change considerably over the course of the illness. However, involving family members in decision making on people's behalf is still practically difficult for staff and family. The aim of this review was to identify and appraise the existing quantitative evidence about family involvement in decision making for people with dementia living in residential aged care. The present Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) metasynthesis assessed studies that investigated involvement of family members in decision making for people with dementia in residential aged care settings. While quantitative and qualitative studies were included in the review, this paper presents the quantitative findings. A comprehensive search of 15 electronic databases was performed. The search was limited to papers published in English, from 1990 to 2013. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant; 10 were quantitative, with 1 mixed method study. Two independent reviewers assessed the studies for methodological validity and extracted the data using the JBI Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). The findings were synthesized and presented in narrative form. The findings related to decisions encountered and made by family surrogates, variables associated with decisions, surrogates' perceptions of, and preferences for, their roles, as well as outcomes for people with dementia and their families. The results identified patterns within, and variables associated with, surrogate decision making, all of which highlight the complexity and variation regarding family involvement. Attention needs to be paid to supporting family members in decision making in collaboration with staff.

  14. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue give U-Pb zircon ages for rocks in Newfoundland, Yukon Territory, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories; present a compilation of K-Ar ages; and discuss Precambrian activity in New Brunswick, the geochronology of rock from the Northwest Territories, and reconnaissance Nd studies of rocks from the Northwest Territories. (figs., tabs., refs.)

  15. Quantitative histological studies on aging changes in cerebral cortex of rhesus monkey and albino rat with notes on effects of prolonged low-dose ionizing irradiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Brains of a series of eight young adult control (150 days) and eight middle-aged control (550 days) rats were fixed by a two-stage perfusion procedure employing Heidenhain's 'susa' solution. An equal number of rats were exposed to γ-irradiation at 6.5 R/day beginning on the 50th postnatal day and were sacrificed in the same manner and at the same age levels as the previous group. Paraffin sections were cut at 20 and 6 μ from cerebral cortical area 3 in the rat brains. Sections used for cell counts were stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin or iron hematoxylin, gallocyanin, acid fuchsin and ponceau de xylidene. Counts of neurons and glia were carried out at 20 equally spaced submolecular depth levels, and cell frequency profiles were plotted for each of the two cell types. The mean neuron and glial packing density for the total depth of the submolecular cortex of area 3 was not significantly different in young adult and middle-aged controls or in young adult irradiated (total dose 650 R) and control animals. However, statistical evaluation of data for relative depth levels 7 through 20 indicated that the packing density in this zone was significantly less (P<0.02) in middle-aged controls than in young adult animals. In middle-aged irradiated rats (total dose about 3250 R) neuron and glial packing densities for total depth of submolecular cortex were not significantly different than in control animals at the same age level. However, the values obtained for neuron packing density at relative depth levels 1 through 8 were significantly lower in middle-aged irradiated than in middle-aged control rats. The neuron packing density in middle-aged irradiated rats was significantly lower than in the young adult irradiated males. In electron micrographs, an increase in the amount of glycogen granules in astrocyte cell processes in cerebral cortex of irradiated middle-aged rats was noted, but there was no evidence of any other ultrastructural alterations

  16. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    OpenAIRE

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connecti...

  17. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... young men, and 11 older women (assessors); 1826 twins aged >or=70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessors: perceived age of twins from photographs. Twins: physical and cognitive tests and molecular biomarker of ageing (leucocyte telomere length). RESULTS: For all three groups of assessors, perceived age...... increased with increasing discordance in perceived age within the twin pair-that is, the bigger the difference in perceived age within the pair, the more likely that the older looking twin died first. Twin analyses suggested that common genetic factors influence both perceived age and survival. Perceived...

  18. A quantitative geologic study of heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Phillips, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity has been generally recognized as the dominant medium-dependent control on the transport and dispersion of contaminants in ground water. An empirical study focusing on the relationship between patters of sedimentology and patterns of permeability is being conducted at an outcrop of the Pliocene/Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones formation, central New Mexico. Methods of geostatistics and sedimentary basin analysis are employed to study the problem of aquifer heterogeneity. An air permeameter provides a means of obtaining extensive field measurements of air-flow rates through the sediments. These flow rates are subsequently used to characterize the permeability distribution of the outcrop. Both the geologic information and the air-flow rate data provide the basis for analysis of aquifer heterogeneity. Preliminary geologic mapping indicates that the sediments in the study area are the products of an arid fluvial/interfluvial depositional environment. Probability distribution analysis of the air-flow rate data suggests that the permeability of these sediments is log-normally distributed. The air permeability data are used to estimate variograms and correlation lengths in both the horizontal and vertical directions. At the scale of 10's of centimeters, the horizontal variograms exhibit exponential variogram behaviour . When two distinct lithologies are present, the correlation structure appears to be a nested exponential. Variogram analysis of estimated mean permeability at the scale of meters also shows evidence of a nested correlation structure in the horizontal direction and a periodic correlation structure in the vertical direction. Results of this study suggest that there is a direct connection between observable geologic structure and permeability statistics. (Author) (35 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.)

  19. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  20. The Mozart Effect: A quantitative EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrusio, Walter; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mecarelli, Oriano

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on brain activity through spectral analysis of the EEG in young healthy adults (Adults), in healthy elderly (Elderly) and in elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). EEG recording was performed at basal rest conditions and after listening to Mozart's K448 or "Fur Elise" Beethoven's sonatas. After listening to Mozart, an increase of alpha band and median frequency index of background alpha rhythm activity (a pattern of brain wave activity linked to memory, cognition and open mind to problem solving) was observed both in Adults and in Elderly. No changes were observed in MCI. After listening to Beethoven, no changes in EEG activity were detected. This results may be representative of the fact that said Mozart's music is able to "activate" neuronal cortical circuits related to attentive and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transparency in Europe: A Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouder, Frederic; Way, Dominic; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Evensen, Darrick

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, European pharmaceutical regulators have increasingly committed to heightening access to raw safety-related data as part of a wave of transparency initiatives (e.g., providing public Internet-mediated access to clinical trials data). Yet, the regulators--who are under significant pressure--have not yet benefited from a systematic review of this new policy. In seeking to inject much needed evidence, this article explores the effects of new transparency policies designed to promote meaningful communication of risks and benefits to patients. Results of a cross-national European survey with respondents from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden (N = 5,648) shed light on how patients and the public are likely to react to the regulators' new transparency policies. The findings demonstrate clear national variations in how European citizens are likely to react and emphasize the need to develop evidence-based, reasoned transparency policies that integrate benefit-risk communication. The authors conclude by providing six specific recommendations, informed by the study, that seek to improve the European transparency model both within the medical field and across health, safety, and environmental policy domains. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain at 3T: a multisite reproducibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P-Y; Chao, T-C; Wu, M-L

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping of the human brain has demonstrated strong potential in examining iron deposition, which may help in investigating possible brain pathology. This study assesses the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping across different imaging sites. In this study, the susceptibility values of 5 regions of interest in the human brain were measured on 9 healthy subjects following calibration by using phantom experiments. Each of the subjects was imaged 5 times on 1 scanner with the same procedure repeated on 3 different 3T systems so that both within-site and cross-site quantitative susceptibility mapping precision levels could be assessed. Two quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithms, similar in principle, one by using iterative regularization (iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping) and the other with analytic optimal solutions (deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping), were implemented, and their performances were compared. Results show that while deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping had nearly 700 times faster computation speed, residual streaking artifacts seem to be more prominent compared with iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping. With quantitative susceptibility mapping, the putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus showed smaller imprecision on the order of 0.005 ppm, whereas the red nucleus and substantia nigra, closer to the skull base, had a somewhat larger imprecision of approximately 0.01 ppm. Cross-site errors were not significantly larger than within-site errors. Possible sources of estimation errors are discussed. The reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain in vivo is regionally dependent, and the precision levels achieved with quantitative susceptibility mapping should allow longitudinal and multisite studies such as aging-related changes in brain tissue magnetic susceptibility. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Phase 1 Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System Aging Study, NUREG/CR-5404 V1, focused on how and to what extent the various AFW system component types fail, how the failures have been and can be detected, and on the value of current testing requirements and practices. This follow-on study, which will be provided in full in NUREG/CR-5404 V2, provides a closure to the Phase 1 Study. For each of the component types and for the various sources of component failure identified in the Phase 1 Study, the methods of failure detection were designated and tabulated and the following findings became evident: Instrumentation and Control (I and C) related failures dominated the group of failures that were detected during demand conditions; many of the potential failure sources not detectable by the current monitoring practices were related to the I and C portion of the system; some component failure modes are actually aggravated by conventional test methods; and several important system functions did not undergo any function verification test. The goal of this follow-on study was to categorize and evaluate the deficiencies in testing identified by Phase 1 and to make specific recommendations for corrective action. In addition, this study presents discussions of alternate, state-of-the-art test methods, and provides a proposed Auxiliary Feedwater Pump test at normal operating pressure which should do much to verify system operability while eliminating degradation

  4. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  5. Age-Related Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Decision Making Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Isella, Valeria; Mapelli, Cristina; Morielli, Nadia; Pelati, Oriana; Franceschi, Massimo; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco

    2008-01-01

    The ?frontal aging hypothesis? predicts that brain senescence affects predominantly the prefrontal regions. Preliminary evidence has recently been gathered in favour of an age-related change in a typically frontal process, i.e. decision making, using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), but overall findings have been conflicting. Following the traditional scoring method, coupled with a qualitative analysis, in the present study we compared IGT performance of 40 young (mean age: 27.9 ? 4.7) and 40 ol...

  6. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Report 5 contains 24 papers from most regions of Canada, but particularly from British Columbia. The Geochronology Laboratory has, over the years, provided substantial U-Pb dating for the Cordilleran Division of the Geological Survey of Canada in Vancouver, and the results of a number of these studies are presented this year. A compilation of K-Ar ages is given. (figs., tabs., refs.)

  7. Quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper

    antimicrobial peptides interact with phospholipid membranes. Motivated by that fact, the scope of this thesis is to study these antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions. In particular, we attempt to study these interactions with a quantitative approach. For that purpose, we consider the three...... a significant problem for quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions; namely that antimicrobial peptides adsorb to surfaces of glass and plastic. Specifically, we demonstrate that under standard experimental conditions, this effect is significant for mastoparan X, melittin...... lead to inaccurate conclusions, or even completely wrong conclusions, when interpreting the FCS data. We show that, if all of the pitfalls are avoided, then FCS is a technique with a large potential for quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-induced leakage of fluorescent markers from large...

  8. Envisioning a Quantitative Studies Center: A Liberal Arts Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Karaali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several academic institutions are searching for ways to help students develop their quantitative reasoning abilities and become more adept at higher-level tasks that involve quantitative skills. In this note we study the particular way Pomona College has framed this issue within its own context and what it plans to do about it. To this end we describe our efforts as members of a campus-wide committee that was assigned the duty of investigating the feasibility of founding a quantitative studies center on our campus. These efforts involved analysis of data collected through a faculty questionnaire, discipline-specific input obtained from each departmental representative, and a survey of what some of our peer institutions are doing to tackle these issues. In our studies, we identified three critical needs where quantitative support would be most useful in our case: tutoring and mentoring for entry-level courses; support for various specialized and analytic software tools for upper-level courses; and a uniform basic training for student tutors and mentors. We surmise that our challenges can be mitigated effectively via the formation of a well-focused and -planned quantitative studies center. We believe our process, findings and final proposal will be helpful to others who are looking to resolve similar issues on their own campuses.

  9. Role of quantitative and dynamic radioactive studies in renal testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1977-01-01

    Many dynamic and quantitative radioactive tests are at present used in studying renal function. Whether involving dynamic morphological tests such as sequential images, dynamic quantitative tests such as the renogram or quantitative static tests such as radioactive clearances, their effective and original contribution is rather unimportant. Only one provides original data, the Hg renal uptake test but it is generally avoided due to the radiation dose absorbed by the kidney in children. A study of the causes of this lack of effectiveness leads to the observation that such tests are not well adapted to the needs of kidneys specialists. They are for the most part based on replacing a 'cold' indicator by radioactive indicator and the advantages anticipated from using radionuclide are not evident. In fact, they are often cancelled by the shortcomings of external detection. For the future, it seems indispensable to abandon some traditional concepts which lead us to consider that the only exploitable renal function is represented by excretion. The kidney has other functions; one of the most interesting seems to be the function of uptake of heavy metals and toxic substances, a study of which is only possible using radionuclides. A new generation of radioactive tests based on a study of uptake and also on a study of other renal functions may provide dynamic or quantitative data which physician urgently need

  10. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue cover methods for Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses; 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages for the New Quebec Crater and for basaltic rocks; U-Pb ages for a differentiated mafic sill in the Ogilvie Mountains, plutonic rocks in the Contwoyto-Nose Lakes are, zircons from the Anton Complex, the Clinton-Colden gabbro-anorthosite intrusion, the Himag plutonic suite, the Campbell granite, the Central Gneiss Belt, Silurian granites, a metarhyolite, plagiogranite and gabbro, and the Wage shear zone; Rb-Sr ages for granitic rocks; K-Ar and Rb-Sr geochronology of granites; a compilation of K-Ar ages; ages of archean and proterozoic mylonites and pre-Misi granitoid domes; and reconnaissance geochronology of Baffin Island

  11. Simulation and the Development of Clinical Judgment: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative pretest posttest quasi-experimental research study was to explore the effect of the NESD on clinical judgment in associate degree nursing students and compare the differences between groups when the Nursing Education Simulation Design (NESD) guided simulation in order to identify educational strategies promoting…

  12. Quantitative morphological analysis of proliferating and nonproliferating subpopulations of IMR-90 fibroblasts during aging in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.B.; Heitman, T.O.; Buck, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Early-, mid- and late-passage cultures (population doubling levels 12, 35, and 51, respectively) of IMR-90 fibroblasts were exposed to 3 H-thymidine for 48 h prior to fixation in situ for morphometric analysis in order to determine quantitatively what ultrastructural changes accompany the loss of proliferative capacity during aging in vitro. Analysis of autoradiographs, both at the light and electron microscopic levels, with an image analyzer followed by ANOVA statistical scrutiny demonstrated that a significant increase in relative cell area, an indicator of cell size, was characteristic of cells unable to incorporate 3 H-TdR at both mid- and late-passage, but not at early-passage levels. Nuclear size also increased significantly with progressive passage level but was not related to proliferative capacity. No significant difference in the area fraction of nucleoli per unit area of nucleus or of mitochondria, Golgi, or lysosomes was seen in either subpopulation at any passage level. Dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum in early-passage cells were seen if cells were harvested with trypsin and fixed either before or after centrifugation, but were not seen in labeled or unlabeled cells from any passage level when cultures were fixed in situ. We conclude that a significant increase in cell size is the only significant morphological change associated with the loss of proliferative capacity of IRM-90 fibroblasts. Furthermore, our data indicate that there is no accumulation of secondary lysosomes in human diploid fibroblasts during aging in vitro; we therefore cannot support any hypothesis of aging or proliferative decline that is based mechanistically upon this phenomenon

  13. Influence of ageing on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Emmelie; Paepe, Dominique; Daminet, Sylvie; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vanderperren, Katrien

    2018-05-05

    The degenerative effects of ageing on the kidneys have been extensively studied in humans. However, only recently interest has been focused on renal ageing in veterinary medicine. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows non-invasive evaluation of renal perfusion in conscious cats. Renal perfusion parameters were obtained in 43 healthy cats aged 1-16 years old, and the cats were divided in four age categories: 1-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-10 years and over 10 years. Routine renal parameters as serum creatinine, serum urea, urine-specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio and systolic blood pressure were also measured. No significant differences in any of the perfusion parameters were observed among the different age categories. A trend towards a lower peak enhancement and wash-in area under the curve with increasing age, suggestive for a lower blood volume, was detected when comparing the cats over 10 years old with the cats of 1-3 years old. Additionally, no significant age-effect was observed for the serum and urine parameters, whereas a higher blood pressure was observed in healthy cats over 10 years old. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Quantitative myocardial thallium single-photon emission computed tomography in normal women: demonstration of age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Touzery, C.; Cottin, Y.; Benoit, T.; Athis, P. d'; Roy, S.; Louis, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Rigo, P.; Brunotte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of a database of normal women for quantitative analysis of exercise and reinjection myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET). We studied 101 subjects (40 males and 61 females) with less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent stress and rest thallium-201 myocardial SPET. Myocardial stress was induced by bicycle exercise test (n=51), dipyridamole infusion (n=27) or a combined test (n=23). Multivariate ANOVA showed that the type of stress did not influence the percentage of thallium uptake for each region. Significant differences between men and women were found for the percentage of uptake in the inferior and the anterior wall. The most original finding of this study is the correlation between age and thallium uptake in the three regions of the anterior wall, showing an increase in measured thallium uptake with age for women. Consequently, two groups of women, those under and those over 55 years old, were separated, with a significantly lower tracer uptake in the anterior wall in the younger age group. (orig./MG)

  15. Quantitative studies of water and sanitation utilities: a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sanford V; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a literature update of quantitative studies of water and sanitation services (WSS). There are 190 studies which use cost or production functions to evaluate the performance of WSS utilities. The studies examine (1) the scale, scope or density economies of utilities in a particular country or region, (2) the influence of ownership on efficiency, (3) the existence and power of incentives associated with different governance systems (including external regulation), and (4) pe...

  16. Detection and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction with quantitative post-mortem cardiac 1.5T MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Schuster, Frederick; Riva, Fabiano; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, quantitative MR sequences have started being used in post-mortem imaging. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction can be detected and discerned by quantitative 1.5T post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values. In 80 deceased individuals (25 female, 55 male), a cardiac MR quantification sequence was performed prior to cardiac dissection at autopsy in a prospective study. Focal myocardial signal alterations detected in synthetically generated MR images were MR quantified for their T1, T2 and PD values. The locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at autopsy heart dissection and cardiac tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in PMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction. In PMCMR seventy-three focal myocardial signal alterations were detected in 49 of 80 investigated hearts. These signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n=39), acute (n=14), subacute (n=10) and chronic (n=10) age stages of myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their quantitative T1, T2 and PD values, a significant difference between all defined age groups of myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 1.5T PMCMR quantification based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values is feasible for characterization and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Digital Archives in Quantitative Discourse Studies: Methodological Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobie Van Krieken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This methodological essay discusses the possibilities of using digital archives in quantitative discourse studies. I illustrate these possibilities by discussing a study in which the digital archive Delpher was used to build a relatively large corpus of newspaper narratives (N=300 in order to test hypotheses about the historical development of linguistic features associated with objective and subjective reporting. The large amount of data collected in digital archives like Delpher facilitates the construction of corpora for such hypothesis-driven studies. However, the collection of newspaper articles on Delpher in fact constitutes only a small, non-random and continuously changing selection of all available data. Due to these characteristics, the use of Delpher jeopardizes two core values of quantitative empirical research: the generalizability and the replicability of findings. Although these issues cannot be easily overcome, I argue that digital archives have the potential to broaden the methodological scope of discourse studies and increase the overall significance of the field.

  18. HERMES docking/berthing system pilot study. Quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Blasco, J.; Goicoechea Sanchez, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study falls within the framework of the incorporation of quantitative risk assessment to the activities planned for the ESA-HERMES project (ESA/ CNES). The main objective behind the study was the analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of so-called probabilistic or quantitative safety analysis to the optimization of the safety development process for the systems carrying out the safety functions required by the new and complex HERMES Space Vehicle. For this purpose, a pilot study was considered a good start in quantitative safety assessments (QSA), as this approach has been frequently used in the past to establish a solid base in large-scale QSA application programs while avoiding considerable economic risks. It was finally decided to select the HERMES docking/berthing system with Man Tender Free Flyer as the case-study. This report describes the different steps followed in the study, along with the main insights obtained and the general conclusions drawn from the study results. (author)

  19. Analog to digital workflow improvement: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Catherine; Gallet, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This study tracked a radiology department's conversion from utilization of a Kodak Amber analog system to a Kodak DirectView DR 5100 digital system. Through the use of ProModel Optimization Suite, a workflow simulation software package, significant quantitative information was derived from workflow process data measured before and after the change to a digital system. Once the digital room was fully operational and the radiology staff comfortable with the new system, average patient examination time was reduced from 9.24 to 5.28 min, indicating that a higher patient throughput could be achieved. Compared to the analog system, chest examination time for modality specific activities was reduced by 43%. The percentage of repeat examinations experienced with the digital system also decreased to 8% vs. the level of 9.5% experienced with the analog system. The study indicated that it is possible to quantitatively study clinical workflow and productivity by using commercially available software.

  20. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...

  1. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  3. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-02-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences.

  4. Study of polyurethanes ageing offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabio G.; Sheldrake, Terry; Clevelario, Judimar; Pires, Fabio [Wellstream International, Panama City, FL (United States); Coutinho, Fernanda M.B. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the sectors with the highest number of production systems employing high technology. Brazil is worldwide renowned as a leader in oil and gas extraction in deep and ultra deep water. Inside the production chain, a great part the oil and gas produced is conveyed through flexible pipelines that connect the production wells to the platforms. There are two segments of these lines that receive different names according to their application characteristics. When the pipes are laid on the seabed in a static service condition, are called Flow lines and when they raise from the seabed to the platform in a dynamic service condition, are called Risers. The pipes designed for dynamic applications are equipped with Bend Stiffeners, components with conical form and in general with urethane basis, which has the function of providing a smooth stiffness transition between the flexible structure of the pipes and an extremely rigid structure, the platform, not allowing that this component infringes their minimum operation Bend Radius. According to Caire, the proper compression of curvature stiffeners and the material used in its manufacture is becoming increasingly important in industry due to its growing use and the occurrence of failures that have been recorded in recent years. This paper discusses the changes in the mechanical properties of polyurethanes by the hydrolysis during accelerated ageing, reaction of water with functional groups of the polymer chain, as well as mass variation, considering that these materials are designed for a service life exceeding twenty years for operation in water. (author)

  5. A quantitative study of nanoparticle skin penetration with interactive segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Onseok; Lee, See Hyun; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jaeyoung; Ryu, Hwa Jung; Oh, Chilhwan; Son, Sang Wook

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, the application of nanotechnology techniques has expanded within diverse areas such as pharmacology, medicine, and optical science. Despite such wide-ranging possibilities for implementation into practice, the mechanisms behind nanoparticle skin absorption remain unknown. Moreover, the main mode of investigation has been qualitative analysis. Using interactive segmentation, this study suggests a method of objectively and quantitatively analyzing the mechanisms underlying the skin absorption of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy and applied to the human skin equivalent model. Captured fluorescence images of this model were used to evaluate degrees of skin penetration. These images underwent interactive segmentation and image processing in addition to statistical quantitative analyses of calculated image parameters including the mean, integrated density, skewness, kurtosis, and area fraction. In images from both groups, the distribution area and intensity of fluorescent silica gradually increased in proportion to time. Since statistical significance was achieved after 2 days in the negative charge group and after 4 days in the positive charge group, there is a periodic difference. Furthermore, the quantity of silica per unit area showed a dramatic change after 6 days in the negative charge group. Although this quantitative result is identical to results obtained by qualitative assessment, it is meaningful in that it was proven by statistical analysis with quantitation by using image processing. The present study suggests that the surface charge of SNPs could play an important role in the percutaneous absorption of NPs. These findings can help achieve a better understanding of the percutaneous transport of NPs. In addition, these results provide important guidance for the design of NPs for biomedical applications.

  6. Analysis of the bacterial community in aged and aging pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavour liquor by combined PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huipeng; Li, Wenfang; Luo, Qingchun; Liu, Chaolan; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Wenxue

    2015-10-01

    The community structure of bacteria in aged and aging pit mud, which was judged according to their sensory and physicochemical characteristics, was analysed using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes and Unclassified Bacteria were detected and the fermentative Firmicutes was predominant in both types of pit mud in the PCR-DGGE analysis. Among Firmicutes, Clostridiales was dominant in aged pit mud while Bacillales and Lactobacillales were dominant in aging pit mud. The diversity of bacterial communities in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud. In the qPCR analysis the abundance of Clostridium IV in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud and there were significant differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV between aged and aging pit mud of the same cellar (P mud. The differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV might be involved in the distinction that the aged pit mud has a strong aroma while the aging pit mud does not. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Aggregation of polyQ proteins is increased upon yeast aging and affected by Sir2 and Hsf1: novel quantitative biochemical and microscopic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Cohen

    Full Text Available Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates in distinct neuronal cells that eventually die. In Huntington's disease, the protein huntingtin forms aggregates, and the age of disease onset is inversely correlated to the length of the protein's poly-glutamine tract. Using quantitative assays to estimate microscopically and capture biochemically protein aggregates, here we study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aging-related aggregation of GFP-tagged, huntingtin-derived proteins with different polyQ lengths. We find that the short 25Q protein never aggregates whereas the long 103Q version always aggregates. However, the mid-size 47Q protein is soluble in young logarithmically growing yeast but aggregates as the yeast cells enter the stationary phase and age, allowing us to plot an "aggregation timeline". This aging-dependent aggregation was associated with increased cytotoxicity. We also show that two aging-related genes, SIR2 and HSF1, affect aggregation of the polyQ proteins. In Δsir2 strain the aging-dependent aggregation of the 47Q protein is aggravated, while overexpression of the transcription factor Hsf1 attenuates aggregation. Thus, the mid-size 47Q protein and our quantitative aggregation assays provide valuable tools to unravel the roles of genes and environmental conditions that affect aging-related aggregation.

  8. Factors Associated with Bone Health in Malaysian Middle-Aged and Elderly Women Assessed via Quantitative Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Low, Nie Yen; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Ima-Nirwanaa, Soelaiman

    2017-07-06

    Risk factors for osteoporosis may vary according to different populations. We aimed to investigate the relationship between risk factors of osteoporosis and bone health indices determined via calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a group of Malaysian women aged 50 years or above. A cross-sectional study was performed on 344 Malaysian women recruited from a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They answered a self-administered questionnaire on their social-demographic details, medical history, lifestyle, and physical activity status. Their height was measured using a stadiometer, and their body composition estimated using a bioelectrical impedance device. Their bone health status was determined using a water-based calcaneal QUS device that generated three indices, namely speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness index (SI). A T-score was computed from SI values using a reference database from a mainland Chinese population. Women with three or more lifetime pregnancies, who were underweight and not drinking coffee had a significantly lower BUA. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that SOS was predicted by age alone, BUA and SI by years since menopause, body mass index (BMI), and number of lifetime pregnancies, and T-score by years since menopause and percentage of body fat. As a conclusion, suboptimal bone health in middle-aged and elderly Malaysian women as indicated by QUS is associated with old age, being underweight, having a high body fat percentage, and a high number of lifetime pregnancies. Women having several risk factors should be monitored more closely to protect their bones against accelerated bone loss.

  9. CT quantitative diagnosis in fatty liver: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wen; Qian Linxue; Zhao Jixue; Ma Daqing; Feng Jie; Hu Zhihai

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To establish the CT criteria of quantitative diagnosis for liver steatosis by means of studying the CT features of fatty liver cases proven histologically. Methods: Twenty-eight cases of fatty liver were underwent non-enhanced CT scan, and the attenuation of liver parenchyma was measured. To differentiate the degree of fatty liver, the mean CT value and the relative density of hepatic vessels were observed. The quantitative diagnosis was made according to the CT number threshold and the criteria of relative density of hepatic vessels, respectively. Results: Among the 28 cases, there were 17 cases of mild steatosis with mean CT number of 46 HU (32-65 HU), 7 cases of middle degree fatty liver with mean CT number of 28 HU (15-38 HU), and 4 cases of sever fatty liver with mean CT number of 0.2 HU (-7-11 HU). For the relative density of hepatic vessels, 16 of the 17 cases of mild fatty liver had a appearance of hepatic vessels immersion and 1 mild case had reverse hepatic vessels display, 6 of 7 middle degree cases had reverse hepatic vessels display with 1 case having the appearance of hepatic vessels immersion, and all the 4 case of sever steatosis had the appearance of reverse hepatic vessels display with sharp contrast between vessels and the liver parenchyma. The accuracy of quantitative diagnosis was 65.9% and 93.1% by means of criteria of CT number threshold and relative density of hepatic vessels, respectively (x 2 = 7.153, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The criteria of relative density of hepatic vessels is more reliable than that of CT number threshold in quantitative diagnosis of fatty liver

  10. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  11. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Local History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Pene

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests how the quantitative analysis of data from census records, assessment roles, and newspapers may be integrated into the classroom. Suggestions for obtaining quantitative data are provided. (DE)

  12. A new quantitative evaluation method for age-related changes of individual pigmented spots in facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Masuda, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, K; Katagiri, C; Hirao, T; Mizokami, Y; Yaguchi, H

    2016-08-01

    Facial skin pigmentation is one of the most prominent visible features of skin aging and often affects perception of health and beauty. To date, facial pigmentation has been evaluated using various image analysis methods developed for the cosmetic and esthetic fields. However, existing methods cannot provide precise information on pigmented spots, such as variations in size, color shade, and distribution pattern. The purpose of this study is the development of image evaluation methods to analyze individual pigmented spots and acquire detailed information on their age-related changes. To characterize the individual pigmented spots within a cheek image, we established a simple object-counting algorithm. First, we captured cheek images using an original imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera. The acquired images were converted into melanin concentration images using compensation formulae. Next, the melanin images were converted into binary images. The binary images were then subjected to noise reduction. Finally, we calculated parameters such as the melanin concentration, quantity, and size of individual pigmented spots using a connected-components labeling algorithm, which assigns a unique label to each separate group of connected pixels. The cheek image analysis was evaluated on 643 female Japanese subjects. We confirmed that the proposed method was sufficiently sensitive to measure the melanin concentration, and the numbers and sizes of individual pigmented spots through manual evaluation of the cheek images. The image analysis results for the 643 Japanese women indicated clear relationships between age and the changes in the pigmented spots. We developed a new quantitative evaluation method for individual pigmented spots in facial skin. This method facilitates the analysis of the characteristics of various pigmented facial spots and is directly applicable to the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, and esthetic

  13. Radioisotope studies for quantitative measurement of manganese absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbig, U.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to quantitatively determine the manganese absorption in growing rats by means of radioisotopes. First of all the following factors had to be investigated, which are significant for this determination: Measurability of stable and radioactive Mn in rat tissues; labelling of stable Mn and distribution of stable and radioactive Mn in the organism; verification of the isotope dilution method and of the comparative balance method with regard to its applicability for the determination of the true Mn absorption. We useed male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The most important results are summarized in the following: in some separate tissues measurement of stable Mn was accompanied by difficulties. The measurement of radioactive Mn however, could be performed without any problems. 10 d after i.m. injection of 54 Mn only 17% of the administered Mn was still detectable in the organism. However, there was no uniform tissue labelling found. Therefore it is possible to an only restricted extent to draw quantitative conclusions on the content of stable Mn. A high percentage of stable and radioactive Mn was found above all in the liver. The isotope dilution method permits by feces analysis to differentiate between unabsorbed Mn coming from the food and endogenic Mn coming from the organism itself. The effective Mn absorption was also determined by means of the comparative balance method. By means of the isotope dilution method we determined the quantitative Mn-absorption with staged Mn administration and the contribution of absorption and excretion to the homeostatic regulation mechanisms of Mn. We found that absorption and excretion help the organism to keep an almost constant Mn concentration even with a differing Mn supply. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Quantitative bone scintigraphy. A study in patients with prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundkvist, G.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative bone scintigraphy was performed in patients with prostatic carcinoma before orchiectomy as well as two weeks, two and six months after operation. The count rate was recorded as serial gamma camera images over the lower thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae from 1 to 240 min and at 24 h after injection of 99T c m -MDP. In almost all abnormal vertebrae an increased count rate was observed within one hour after injection. Most of the vertebrae which were considered normal at 4 h after injection, but had an increased 24h/4h ratio developed into abnormal vertebrae later in the study. The patients with normal bone scintigrams showed no change in 99 Tc m -MDP uptake during the study. The reproducibility of quantitative bone scintigraphy was found to be ± 7% (1 SD). In response to therapy, most of the patients with abnormal bone scintigrams showed an increase in count rate two weeks after operation followed by a decrease to the pre-operative level after two months and a further decrease after six months. This so called 'flare phenomenon' was found to indicate 99 Tc m -MDP in the vascular phase as well as an active bone uptake. In some of the patients the whole-body retention of 99 Tc m -MDP after 24 h and the bone mineral density in the vertebrae were determined and found to be valuable in the interpretation of skeletal metastases and the assessment of response to therapy. (71 refs.)

  15. Aging management and life extension - Containment aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Tom M.; Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Bechtel is currently completing an aging study on a concrete containment structure. The target plant is a two-unit PWR plant with a generating capacity of about 850 MWe from each unit. Both units are less than 20 years old. The total electrical energy output from this plant site accounts for more than 50% of the utility's baseload operation. Although no utility in the United States has made a decision to submit a license renewal application, some have begun to investigate the feasibility of developing an life cycle management (LCM) program for a strategy to operate their plants efficiently, to investigate the financial benefit and safety implications of license renewal to operate their nuclear power plants beyond their current licensed periods, and to prepare a program plan for plant decommissioning. The LCM program includes economic, environmental, regulatory and technical aspects of continuing plant operations beyond the current license period. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been supportive to assist utilities and owners groups in their research and development efforts to develop the technical requirements and the issues associated with important to license renewal structures. The focus of this paper is on the technical issues related to the evaluation of the material condition of the containment structure with respect to aging and the effective management of that aging. (author)

  16. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  17. Dependency of cardiac rubidium-82 imaging quantitative measures on age, gender, vascular territory, and software in a cardiovascular normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, John J; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Declerck, Jerome; Menda, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Recent technological improvements to PET imaging equipment combined with the availability of software optimized to calculate regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) create a paradigm shifting opportunity to provide new clinically relevant quantitative information to cardiologists. However, clinical interpretation of the MBF and MFR is entirely dependent upon knowledge of MBF and MFR values in normal populations and subpopulations. This work reports Rb-82-based MBF and MFR measurements for a series of 49 verified cardiovascularly normal subjects as a preliminary baseline for future clinical studies. Forty-nine subjects (24F/25M, ages 41-69) with low probability for coronary artery disease and with normal exercise stress test were included. These subjects underwent rest/dipyridamole stress Rb-82 myocardial perfusion imaging using standard clinical techniques (40 mCi injection, 6-minute acquisition) using a Siemens Biograph 40 PET/CT scanner with high count rate detector option. List mode data was rehistogrammed into 26 dynamic frames (12 × 5 seconds, 6 × 10 seconds, 4 × 20 seconds, 4 × 40 seconds). Cardiac images were processed, and MBF and MFR calculated using Siemens syngo MBF, PMOD, and FlowQuant software using a single compartment Rb-82 model. Global myocardial blood flow under pharmacological stress for the 24 females as measured by PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant were 3.10 ± 0.72, 2.80 ± 0.66, and 2.60 ± 0.63 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1), and for the 25 males was 2.60 ± 0.84, 2.33 ± 0.75, 2.15 ± 0.62 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1), respectively. Rest flows for PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant averaged 1.32 ± 0.42, 1.20 ± 0.33, and 1.06 ± 0.38 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1) for the female subjects, and 1.12 ± 0.29, 0.90 ± 0.26, and 0.85 ± 0.24 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1) for the males. Myocardial flow reserves for PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant for the female normals were calculated to be 2.50 ± 0.80, 2.53 ± 0.67, 2.71 ± 0.90, and 2.50 ± 1.19, 2

  18. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  19. Quantitative analysis of development and aging of genital corpuscles in glans penis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Mizuho; Hoshi, Hideo; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Ishikawa, Youichi; Takayanagi, Masaaki; Murakami, Kunio; Kishi, Kiyoshi; Sato, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present postnatal developmental study was to determine densities of unique genital corpuscles (GCs) in glans penis of developing and aged rats. GCs were identified as corpuscular endings consisting of highly branched and coiled axons with many varicosities, which were immunoreactive for protein gene product 9.5. In addition, GCs were immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, but not for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y. GCs were not found in the glans penis of 1 week old rats. Densities of GCs were low at 3 weeks, significantly increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak of density at 40 weeks, and tended to decrease at 70 and 100 weeks. Sizes of GCs were small in 3 weeks old rats, increased at 5 and 10 weeks, reached the peak-size at 40 weeks and reduced in size at 70 and 100 weeks. Considering sexual maturation of the rat, the results reveal that GCs of the rat begins to develop postnatal and reaches to the peak of their development after puberty and continues to exist until old age, in contrast to prenatal and early postnatal development of other sensory receptors of glabrous skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica - A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Martin Doring

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM, a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2* and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman's rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1. Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding.

  1. Quantitative application study on the control system of contract progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaocong; Kang Rujie; Zhan Li

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative application study on the control system of contract progress, which is based on project management theory and PDCA cycle methods, provides a new way for the contract business management of enterprise, in line with the current situation and the nuclear power enterprise performance management needs. The concept of the system, system development, program design and development of ERP (VBA design) which come from the work experience summary of business managers are convenient and feasible in practical applications. By way of the applications in 2009, 2010, 2011 three-year overhaul contract management and continuous adjustment it has become an important business management tool, which not only effectively guaranteed the contract time and efficiency, but also combines the performance management and contract progress management. This study has provided useful reference for the enterprise management. (authors)

  2. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Methods for the quantitative comparison of molecular estimates of clade age and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia A; Boyd, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Approaches quantifying the relative congruence, or incongruence, of molecular divergence estimates and the fossil record have been limited. Previously proposed methods are largely node specific, assessing incongruence at particular nodes for which both fossil data and molecular divergence estimates are available. These existing metrics, and other methods that quantify incongruence across topologies including entirely extinct clades, have so far not taken into account uncertainty surrounding both the divergence estimates and the ages of fossils. They have also treated molecular divergence estimates younger than previously assessed fossil minimum estimates of clade age as if they were the same as cases in which they were older. However, these cases are not the same. Recovered divergence dates younger than compared oldest known occurrences require prior hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of the compared fossil record and standard assumptions about the relative timing of morphological and molecular change to be incorrect. Older molecular dates, by contrast, are consistent with an incomplete fossil record and do not require prior assessments of the fossil record to be unreliable in some way. Here, we compare previous approaches and introduce two new descriptive metrics. Both metrics explicitly incorporate information on uncertainty by utilizing the 95% confidence intervals on estimated divergence dates and data on stratigraphic uncertainty concerning the age of the compared fossils. Metric scores are maximized when these ranges are overlapping. MDI (minimum divergence incongruence) discriminates between situations where molecular estimates are younger or older than known fossils reporting both absolute fit values and a number score for incompatible nodes. DIG range (divergence implied gap range) allows quantification of the minimum increase in implied missing fossil record induced by enforcing a given set of molecular-based estimates. These metrics are used

  4. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Quantitative Preparation in Doctoral Education Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study of Doctoral Student Perspectives on their Quantitative Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Ferguson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore student perceptions of their own doctoral-level education and quantitative proficiency. Background: The challenges of preparing doctoral students in education have been discussed in the literature, but largely from the perspective of university faculty and program administrators. The current study directly explores the student voice on this issue. Methodology: Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, the present study seeks to better understand doctoral-level education students’ perceptions of their quantitative methods training at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Findings: Results from both phases present the need for more application and consistency in doctoral-level quantitative courses. Additionally, there was a consistent theme of internal motivation in the responses, suggesting students perceive their quantitative training to be valuable beyond their personal interest in the topic. Recommendations for Practitioners: Quantitative methods instructors should emphasize practice in their quantitative courses and consider providing additional support for students through the inclusion of lab sections, tutoring, and/or differentiation. Pre-testing statistical ability at the start of a course is also suggested to better meet student needs. Impact on Society: The ultimate goal of quantitative methods in doctoral education is to produce high-quality educational researchers who are prepared to apply their knowledge to problems and research in education. Results of the present study can inform faculty and administrator decisions in doctoral education to best support this goal. Future Research: Using the student perspectives presented in the present study, future researchers should continue to explore effective instructional strategies and curriculum design within education doctoral programs. The inclusion of student voice can strengthen

  6. Ageing management studies of RAPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohra, A.K.; Jain, L.K.; Joshi, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) is the first nuclear power plant of India with pressurized heavy water reactor. The construction of Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) was started in the year 1966 in collaboration with Canada. The Unit-1 achieved first criticality on August 1972 and was first synchronized to Grid on November 1972. During initial operation of the Unit, several problems were faced in its various systems and these were addressed by incorporating various engineering changes and procedures. In this unit various major innovative repairs were done like end shield leak repair, OPRD leak repair. Considering the operation of various systems of Unit-1, since year 1971 it was imperative to study ageing degradation mechanisms and mitigating measures were to be taken. Although the ageing management is a continuous process the opportunity of Unit-1 shutdown for upgradations from 30-04-2002 to 08-02-2004 was utilized for inspection and assessment of health of various SSC, which otherwise could not have been done with unit in operational state. This paper contains the following in detail. (1) Ageing management programme, its objectives and scope (2) Methodology of ageing management studies - Replacement and upgradation -Additional inspection programme based on ageing management review - Statistical analysis of ageing degradation occurrence - Estimation of residual life span of cables and relays (3) Criteria for selection of components for ageing management programme (4) Findings of ageing management studies-case studies. The ageing study done for RAPS-1 indicated that appropriate ageing monitoring methods and procedures exist in the station for taking timely mitigating measures. The technological obsoleteness has been overcome by installing new components of latest technology. On overall assessment, the Unit-1 was considered fit for further service. (author)

  7. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF THE WORLD MARKET OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of global market of meat in 2007-2011 and has been possible because the authors used an important set of indicators, namely: livestock, achieved production, imports, exports, trade balance, price etc. The data used in this work was provided by the following institutions accredited for collecting and processing statistical data: National Institute of Statistics, EUROSTAT, FAOSTAT, FAPRI and USDA. The analysis global market of meat is primarily a quantitative analysis. In the period which is analysed, the demand, the production, the imports, the exports and the prices have evolved differently, especially meat categories, so all these indicators have influenced global market of meat. In mainly, the meat consumption is influenced by the pattern of food consumption and price level. In the future, expect a increase prices, which is based on increasing production costs. Therefore, first it is necessary to adopt measures to support the farmers.

  8. Harvard Aging Brain Study : Dataset and accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G.; Chatwal, Jasmeer P.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Schultz, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging.

  9. Domestic violence against women in India: A systematic review of a decade of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokhe, Ameeta; Del Rio, Carlos; Dunkle, Kristin; Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Paranjape, Anuradha; Sahay, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent among women in India and has been associated with poor mental and physical health. We performed a systematic review of 137 quantitative studies published in the prior decade that directly evaluated the DV experiences of Indian women to summarise the breadth of recent work and identify gaps in the literature. Among studies surveying at least two forms of abuse, a median 41% of women reported experiencing DV during their lifetime and 30% in the past year. We noted substantial inter-study variance in DV prevalence estimates, attributable in part to different study populations and settings, but also to a lack of standardisation, validation, and cultural adaptation of DV survey instruments. There was paucity of studies evaluating the DV experiences of women over age 50, residing in live-in relationships, same-sex relationships, tribal villages, and of women from the northern regions of India. Additionally, our review highlighted a gap in research evaluating the impact of DV on physical health. We conclude with a research agenda calling for additional qualitative and longitudinal quantitative studies to explore the DV correlates proposed by this quantitative literature to inform the development of a culturally tailored DV scale and prevention strategies.

  10. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  11. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Margherita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ, a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81% completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease. Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness. Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which

  12. Combining qualitative with quantitative approaches to study contraceptive pill use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Yu, M Y; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, X L; Chen, W H; Yao, L

    1999-03-01

    According to large-scale studies, oral contraceptive users become pregnant at rates that exceed ideal use failure rates. It is thought that a major cause is missed pills, but current research on consistent contraceptive pill taking is characterized by inadequate measures and a failure to investigate women's thinking about their own patterns of use. The purpose of this study was to gain some understanding about women's interpretations of consistency in their own pill taking through combining qualitative with quantitative data. The study was conducted in China, where contraception is free and widely available. Five urban and five rural oral contraceptive users were followed for up to three pill-taking cycles during 1996 for a total of 759 person-days. Consistency of pill taking was measured with electronic data obtained from a new blister package made by Anderson Clinical Technologies (Elmhurst, IL). Data from these devices were reviewed and interpreted by the study participants during in-depth private interviews. The users' reasons for missing pills included disruptions in their daily routines, their husband's absence, spotting, and trouble implementing the family planning program's instructions to take one pill per day for 22 days and start the next cycle on the fifth day of menses. One user gave these reasons for two cycles but denied missing numerous pills in her third cycle. Data from a series of four questionnaires showed that most demographic, psychosocial, and service system characteristics were not related to missed pills. However, results suggested that the daily routines of rural living may make consistent use more likely and that instructions for taking the pill may be associated with prolonged pill-free intervals and skipping pills during episodes of spotting. Three of the 10 women were at increased risk of pregnancy during the study period because of their pill-taking pattern. We concluded that the combination of qualitative with quantitative data

  13. ABRF-PRG07: advanced quantitative proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falick, Arnold M; Lane, William S; Lilley, Kathryn S; MacCoss, Michael J; Phinney, Brett S; Sherman, Nicholas E; Weintraub, Susan T; Witkowska, H Ewa; Yates, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    A major challenge for core facilities is determining quantitative protein differences across complex biological samples. Although there are numerous techniques in the literature for relative and absolute protein quantification, the majority is nonroutine and can be challenging to carry out effectively. There are few studies comparing these technologies in terms of their reproducibility, accuracy, and precision, and no studies to date deal with performance across multiple laboratories with varied levels of expertise. Here, we describe an Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Proteomics Research Group (PRG) study based on samples composed of a complex protein mixture into which 12 known proteins were added at varying but defined ratios. All of the proteins were present at the same concentration in each of three tubes that were provided. The primary goal of this study was to allow each laboratory to evaluate its capabilities and approaches with regard to: detection and identification of proteins spiked into samples that also contain complex mixtures of background proteins and determination of relative quantities of the spiked proteins. The results returned by 43 participants were compiled by the PRG, which also collected information about the strategies used to assess overall performance and as an aid to development of optimized protocols for the methodologies used. The most accurate results were generally reported by the most experienced laboratories. Among laboratories that used the same technique, values that were closer to the expected ratio were obtained by more experienced groups.

  14. A Quantitative Study of Oxygen as a Metabolic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; LaManna, Joseph C.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    1999-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen (O2) delivery to a tissue is generally associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine, increases in ADP, NADH/NAD, and inorganic phosphate, increased rates of glycolysis and lactate production, and reduced rates of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation. However, given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to determine quantitatively how cellular metabolic processes interact to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in tissue O2 availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and the metabolites that control these pathways. In this study, we extend a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to provide a physicochemical framework that permits quantitative understanding of O2 as a metabolic regulator. Specifically, the enhancement permits studying the effects of variations in tissue oxygenation and in parameters controlling the rate of cellular respiration on glycolysis, lactate production, and pyruvate oxidation. The whole body is described as a bioenergetic system consisting of metabolically distinct tissue/organ subsystems that exchange materials with the blood. In order to study the dynamic response of each subsystem to stimuli, we solve the ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of metabolite levels, given the initial concentrations. The solver used in the present study is the packaged code LSODE, as implemented in the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code, LSENS. A major advantage of LSENS is the efficient procedures supporting systematic sensitivity analysis, which provides the basic methods for studying parameter sensitivities (i.e., changes in model behavior due to parameter variation

  15. A Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire Validated in Hispanic Infants and Toddlers Aged 0 to 24 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Santiago-Rodríguez, Eduardo J; Sinigaglia, Olga; Ríos, Elaine M; Campos, Maribel; Diaz, Beatriz; Willett, Walter

    2017-04-01

    There are limited validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for infants and toddlers, most of which were evaluated in Europe or Oceania, and the ones available for use in the United States have important limitations. Our aim was to assess the validity of an FFQ developed for infants and toddlers. A semi-quantitative FFQ was developed that included 52 food items, their sources, and portion sizes. The FFQ inquired about diets over the previous 7 days. Its validity was assessed in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed the FFQ, followed by a 24-hour recall on two occasions with 1 week between data collection. A total of 296 caregivers of infants and toddlers aged 0 to 24 months enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, Puerto Rico. Intake of nutrients and food groups were averaged for the two FFQs and the two 24-hour food recalls, and adjusted for energy intake. Spearman correlations were performed for intakes of energy, nutrients, and foods between administrations and between instruments. Correlation coefficients were de-attenuated to account for variation in the 24-hour recalls. A total of 241 participants completed the study. Intake of all nutrients and foods were significantly correlated between FFQs and 24-hour recalls and between the means of FFQs and 24-hour food recalls. The de-attenuated correlation for nutrients between the FFQs and 24-hour recalls ranged from 0.26 (folate) to 0.77 (energy), with a mean correlation of 0.53. The de-attenuated correlation for food groups between the FFQs and 24-hour recalls ranged from 0.28 (sweets) to 0.80 (breast milk), with a mean correlation of 0.55. When analyses were restricted to those consuming foods other than breast milk or formula (n=186), results were similar. This semi-quantitative FFQ is a tool that offers reasonably valid rankings for intake of energy, nutrients, foods, and food groups in this sample of infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2017 Academy

  16. Quantitative analysis of normal thallium-201 tomographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Cerqueira, M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the normal (nl) distribution of Tl-201 uptake post exercise (EX) and at redistribution (RD) and nl washout, Tl-201 rotational tomographic (tomo) studies were performed in 40 subjects: 16 angiographic (angio) nls and 24 nl volunteers (12 from Emory and 12 from Yale). Oblique angle short axis slices were subjected to maximal count circumferential profile analysis. Data were displayed as a ''bullseye'' functional map with the apex at the center and base at the periphery. The bullseye was not uniform in all regions because of the variable effects of attenuation and resolution at different view angles. In all studies, the septum: lateral wall ratio was 1.0 in males and approximately equal to 1.0 in females. This occurred predominantly because of anterior defects due to breast soft tissue attenuation. EX and RD bullseyes were similar. Using a bi-exponential model for Tl kinetics, 4 hour normalized washout ranged 49-54% in each group and showed minimal variation between walls throughout the bullseye. Thus, there are well defined variations in Tl-201 uptake in the nl myocardium which must be taken into consideration when analyzing pt data. Because of these defects and the lack of adequate methods for attenuation correction, quantitative analysis of Tl-201 studies must include direct comparison with gender-matched nl data sets

  17. Quantitative analysis of production traits in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): II. age at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, S R; Thomson, P C; Nicholas, F W; Barker, S G; Moran, C

    2005-12-01

    Crocodile morphometric (head, snout-vent and total length) measurements were recorded at three stages during the production chain: hatching, inventory [average age (+/-SE) is 265.1 +/- 0.4 days] and slaughter (average age is 1037.8 +/- 0.4 days). Crocodile skins are used for the manufacture of exclusive leather products, with the most common-sized skin sold having 35-45 cm in belly width. One of the breeding objectives for inclusion into a multitrait genetic improvement programme for saltwater crocodiles is the time taken for a juvenile to reach this size or age at slaughter. A multivariate restricted maximum likelihood analysis provided (co)variance components for estimating the first published genetic parameter estimates for these traits. Heritability (+/-SE) estimates for the traits hatchling snout-vent length, inventory head length and age at slaughter were 0.60 (0.15), 0.59 (0.12) and 0.40 (0.10) respectively. There were strong negative genetic (-0.81 +/- 0.08) and phenotypic (-0.82 +/- 0.02) correlations between age at slaughter and inventory head length.

  18. Spectroscopic Tools for Quantitative Studies of DNA Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preus, Søren

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop quantitative fluorescence-based, spectroscopic tools for probing the 3D structure and dynamics of DNA and RNA. The thesis is founded on six peer-reviewed papers covering mainly the development, characterization and use of fluorescent nucleobase...... analogues. In addition, four software packages is presented for the simulation and quantitative analysis of time-resolved and steady-state UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence experiments....

  19. A quantitative electroencephalographic study of meditation and binaural beat entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Christina F; Koren, Stanley A; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the quantitative electroencephalographic correlates of meditation, as well as the effects of hindering (15 Hz) and facilitative (7 Hz) binaural beats on the meditative process. The study was a mixed design, with experience of the subject as the primary between-subject measure and power of the six classic frequency bands (δ, θ, low α, high α, β, γ), neocortical lobe (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital), hemisphere (left, right), and condition (meditation only, meditation with 7-Hz beats, meditation with 15-Hz beats) as the within-subject measures. The study was conducted at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The subjects comprised novice (mean of 8 months experience) and experienced (mean of 18 years experience) meditators recruited from local meditation groups. Experimental manipulation included application of hindering and facilitative binaural beats to the meditative process. Experienced meditators displayed increased left temporal lobe δ power when the facilitative binaural beats were applied, whereas the effect was not observed for the novice subjects in this condition. When the hindering binaural beats were introduced, the novice subjects consistently displayed more γ power than the experienced subjects over the course of their meditation, relative to baseline. Based on the results of this study, novice meditators were not able to maintain certain levels of θ power in the occipital regions when hindering binaural beats were presented, whereas when the facilitative binaural beats were presented, the experienced meditators displayed increased θ power in the left temporal lobe. These results suggest that the experienced meditators have developed techniques over the course of their meditation practice to counter hindering environmental stimuli, whereas the novice meditators have not yet developed those techniques.

  20. [Quantitative and qualitative changes in the sex chromatin of diabetic women of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiumov, E G; Dmitrieva, E N

    1975-01-01

    There was revealed a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of occurrence of sex chromatine (SC) in the patients (female) suffering from diabetes mellitus aged from 15 to 65 years before the treatment in comparison with the healthy women. After the compensation of the carbohydrate metabolism there was noted its further reduction in the patients aged from 25 to 65 years. In 15-65-year women who contracted diabetes mellitus there was an increase in the circular form of the SC bodies looking like thickenings of the nuclear membrane; SC bodies of round shape enlarged as well in women aged from 25 to 65 years. Oval, triangular and semicircular forms decreased in all the age groups. After the compensation of the carbohydrate metabolism the content of the SC bodies of various shapes remained the same as at the beginning of the disease without returning to the normal level. The area of the SC bodies enlargement was statistically significant in women who fell ill with diabetes mellitus.

  1. Supply chain risk management of newspaper industry: A quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartika, Viny; Hisjam, Muh.; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2018-02-01

    The newspaper industry has several distinctive features that make it stands out from other industries. The strict delivery deadline and zero inventory led to a very short time frame for production and distribution. On the other hand, there is pressure from the newsroom to encourage the start of production as slowly as possible in order to enter the news, while there is pressure from production and distribution to start production as early as possible. Supply chain risk management is needed in determining the best strategy for dealing with possible risks in the newspaper industry. In a case study of a newspaper in Surakarta, quantitative approaches are made to the newspaper supply chain risk management by calculating the expected cost of risk based on the magnitude of the impact and the probability of a risk event. From the calculation results obtained that the five risks with the highest value are newspaper delays to the end customer, broken plate, miss print, down machine, and delayed delivery of newspaper content. Then analyzed appropriate mitigation strategies to cope with such risk events.

  2. Relationship between bone turnover markers and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationships between serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 429 Japanese men, with special emphasis on 2 age groups (40–59 years and 60 years or over). The heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Serum samples were collected, and TRACP-5b and BAP levels were measured. The stiffness index was significantly decreased with age. Log (TRACP-5b) was significantly increased with age, but Log (BAP) was stable. Generalized linear models showed that higher levels of Log (TRACP-5b) and Log (BAP) were correlated with a lower stiffness index after adjusting for covariates in men aged 60 years or over, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years. In conclusion, higher rates of bone turnover markers were associated with a lower stiffness index only in elderly men. These results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups of men. PMID:29465590

  3. Age 60 Study. Part 1. Bibliographic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    CMIATIONS phanocardlography, study of the arterial distensibility by the carotidogm, and the chronocudiographic meuurement of an index of systolic flow and...pilot performance and age, considering muscular strength, cardio-respiratory capacity, body weight and mental aspects). AEROSPACE MEDICINE, VOL. 42...great differences exhibited in the dynamic muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, power, agility, and coordination for the two groups. The standard

  4. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  5. Secondary dentine as a sole parameter for age estimation: Comparison and reliability of qualitative and quantitative methods among North Western adult Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Arora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The indestructible nature of teeth against most of the environmental abuses makes its use in disaster victim identification (DVI. The present study has been undertaken to examine the reliability of Gustafson’s qualitative method and Kedici’s quantitative method of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation among North Western adult Indians. 196 (M = 85; F = 111 single rooted teeth were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Ground sections were prepared and the amount of secondary dentine formed was scored qualitatively according to Gustafson’s (0–3 scoring system (method 1 and quantitatively following Kedici’s micrometric measurement method (method 2. Out of 196 teeth 180 samples (M = 80; F = 100 were found to be suitable for measuring secondary dentine following Kedici’s method. Absolute mean error of age was calculated by both methodologies. Results clearly showed that in pooled data, method 1 gave an error of ±10.4 years whereas method 2 exhibited an error of approximately ±13 years. A statistically significant difference was noted in absolute mean error of age between two methods of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation. Further, it was also revealed that teeth extracted for periodontal reasons severely decreased the accuracy of Kedici’s method however, the disease had no effect while estimating age by Gustafson’s method. No significant gender differences were noted in the absolute mean error of age by both methods which suggest that there is no need to separate data on the basis of gender.

  6. Reproducibility of radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies using quantitative parameters and potential role of quantitative assessment in follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Nasir, W.; Saeed, M.A.; Fatmi, S.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies have been widely used in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters have been used for the interpretation of reflux studies but there is little consensus on the use of these parameters in routine gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphic studies. Aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological issues underlying the qualitative and quantitative assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and to determine the potential power of the reflux index calculation in follow-up assessment of the reflux positive patients. Methods: Total 147 patients suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, asthma and having strong clinical suspicion of GER were recruited in the study. Dynamic scintigraphic study was acquired for 30 minutes after oral administration of 99mTc phytate. Each study was analyzed three times by two nuclear medicine physicians. Clinical symptoms were graded according to predefined criteria and there correlation with severity reflux was done. Time activity curves were generated by drawing ROIs from esophagus. Reflux index was calculated by the standard formula and cut off value of 4% was used for RI calculation. Reflux indices were used for follow-up assessments in reflux positive patients. Kappa statistics and chi square test were used to evaluate the agreement and concordance between qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Tlae over all incidence of reflux in total study population was 63.94 %( 94 patients). The kappa value for both qualitative and quantitative parameters showed good agreement for intra and inter-observer reproducibility (kappa value > 0.75). Concordance between visual analysis and time activity curves was not observed. Reflux index and visuat interpretation shows concordance in the interpretation. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to the severity of the reflux observed in the

  7. Frozen history : limitations and possibilities of quantitative diffusion studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, G.P.A.; Albert de la Bruhèze, A.A.; Oldenziel, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution I have tried to show how quantitative methods can generate new questions and thus support historical research. It can be concluded that re ducing historical complexity through forcing reality into the shape of a diffusion curve does not seem to be the preferable strategy for

  8. Humor, Loneliness and Interpersonal Communication: A Quantitative Study of Romanian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlations between humor, loneliness, gender and aging by presenting the results from a sample of eighty-three older Romanian adults, aged sixty and above. The first section of the paper is a comprehensive review of the social-psychological literature on aging, gender and humor. The second section assesses the findings generated from a study that uses the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1993 and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults – short version, (diTomaso, Brannen & Best, 2004. Building on Robert Weiss’s (1973 reflections on the differences between feelings of loneliness because of social isolation or emotional isolation, the research findings nuance –and in some cases challenge several assumptions on gender, age, and emotional and social loneliness. The findings also point to the correlation between feelings of social loneliness and the use of humor in interpersonal communications. The data collected suggests that while Romanian men may value the use of humor more than women when self-reporting, that older Romanian women tend to use humor in interpersonal situations and that there is a significant correlation between the use of this type of humor and a reduced sense of social loneliness.

  9. Aging studies for the CMS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Eysermans, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Aging effects are studied for the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Colider (LHC), which can manifest themselves during the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running period. A dedicated consolidation program is set up using the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility ++, where RPC detectors are exposed to a high gamma flux for a long term period equivalent to the HL-LHC operational time. Based on the past operational experience, the high background conditions are estimated and the RPC are tested under such circumstances. Several parameters are monitored as function of integrated charge and dedicated test beam periods allows measuring the detector efficiency as function of the background rate. In this work, an overview of the measurements which were performed for these studies is given. After having accumulated a significant amount of the total irradiation, no aging effects or degradation of the RPC detectors have been observed. These results suggest that ...

  10. Computed tomographic study of aged schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Haruo; Fujimoto, Akihiko; Ishino, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The width of interhemispheric fissure, lateral ventricles and third ventricle were measured using cranial computed tomography (CT; linear method) in 45 elderly inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 age-matched control subjects. Twenty-three patients were men and 22 were women. In addition, Mini-Mental State Examination, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and a subclass of BPRS were undertaken in all patients. There is a significant enlargement of the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure (in both male and female) and a significant enlargement of ventricular system (more severe in men than in women) in aged schizophrenics, as seen with CT, compared with normal controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies of non-aged schizophrenic patients. Based upon the relation between psychiatric symptoms and CT findings, the most striking is a significant negative correlation between the third ventricle enlargement and the positive and depressive symptoms in all patients. This result suggests that the advanced third ventricle enlargement may decrease these symptoms in aged schizophrenics. (author)

  11. Test-retest studies in quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Petersen, M A; Bischoff, J M

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) investigates the graded psychophysical response to controlled thermal, mechanical, electrical or chemical stimuli, allowing quantification of clinically relevant perception and pain thresholds. The methods are ubiquitously used in experimental and clinical pain...... research, and therefore, the need for uniform assessment procedures has been emphasised. However, varying consistency and transparency in the statistical methodology seem to occur in the QST literature. Sixteen publications, evaluating aspects of QST variability, from 2010 to 2012, were critically reviewed...

  12. Quantitative study of flavonoids in leaves of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Koizumi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2000-09-01

    Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.

  13. Influence of age and sex on quantitative parameters in CT of the brain in neurogeriatric diseases. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternovoj, S.K.; Damulin, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a study of age and sex differences of linear, volumetric, volumetric longitudinal and densitometric parameters of CT of the brain in patients with neurogeriatric diseases with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. The ventricular system of the brain and subarachnoid space was shown to increase with age; a decrease in the relative density of the white substance at the anterior horns was noted. Sex differences were most noticeable in younger patients. Average sizes of the ventricular system and subarachnoid space were indicated for men and women belonging to different age groups. A conclusion was made that assessment of CT results in neurogeriatric patients must include their age and sex

  14. A Quantitative Study of Right Dislocation in Cantonese Spoken Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Christy Choi-Ting; Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2017-12-01

    Right Dislocation (RD) has been suggested to be a focus marking device carrying an affective function motivated by limited planning time in conversation. The current study investigated the effects of genre type, planning load and affective function on the use of RD in Cantonese monologues. Discourse data were extracted from a recently developed corpus of oral narratives in Cantonese Chinese containing language samples from 144 native Cantonese speakers evenly distributed in age, education levels and gender. Three genre types representing different structures, styles and degrees of topic familiarity were chosen for an RD analysis: procedural description, story-telling and recount of personal event. The results revealed that genre types and planning load influenced the rate of RD occurrence. (1) Specifically, the lowest proportion of RD occurred in procedural description, assumed to be the most structured genre; whereas the highest rate was found in personal event recount, considered to be the most stylized and less structured genre. (2) The highest proportion of RD appeared near the end of a narrative, where heavier cognitive load is demanded compared with the beginning of a narrative; moreover, RD also tended to co-occur with disfluency. (3) There was a high percentage of RD tokens in the personal event recount for expressing explicit emotions; and (4) a lower rate of occurrence of RD was found in monologues than previous studies based on conversations. The overall findings suggest that the use of RD is sensitive to genre structure and style, as well as planning load effects.

  15. STUDY ON NONINFECTIOUS DERMATOSES IN PAEDIATRIC AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Mahalingam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric dermatology is a unique subspecialty in that child is not a miniature adult. Paediatric dermatoses differ from that of the adults in clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis. Various studies from India have shown infections and infestations to be the most common paediatric dermatoses. This study was planned to determine the epidemiological pattern of common noninfectious dermatoses in our paediatric patients as no such data are available from this part of the country. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the prevalence of the noninfectious dermatoses in all the new paediatric patients attending the Skin Outpatient Department (OPD at Villupuram Medical College over a period of three years. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total number of 550 children in the age group ranging from newborn to 12 years with noninfectious dermatoses attending the OPD for the first time were enrolled in the study. RESULTS Physiological changes of skin was the most common dermatoses in the newborn age group, while eczema was the most common dermatoses in infants, preschool and school going children. In the infants, eczema was followed by pigmentary disorders, mongolian spots, vascular nevi, ichthyosis, epidermolysis bullosa, alopecia areata and papular urticaria in the order of prevalence. Among preschool going children, eczema was followed by papular urticaria, papulosquamous disorders, pigmentary disorders, hair disorders, nevi, drug reactions, keratinisation disorders, urticaria, etc. In the school going age group, eczema was followed by papulosquamous disorders, pigmentary disorders, papular urticaria, nutritional disorders, ichthyosis, nevi, miliaria, drug reaction, hair disorders, photodermatoses, urticaria, collagen vascular disease and vascular nevi in the order of prevalence. CONCLUSION Eczema, papulosquamous disorders, papular urticaria, pigmentary disorders seem to be the most common noninfectious dermatoses in children. However

  16. Quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography for contrast medium kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Speller, R.

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography, based on a dual-energy approach, aims to extract quantitative and temporal information of the tumour enhancement after administration of iodinated vascular contrast media. Simulations using analytical expressions and optimization of critical parameters essential for the development of quantitative contrast-enhanced mammography are presented. The procedure has been experimentally evaluated using a tissue-equivalent phantom and an amorphous silicon active matrix flat panel imager. The x-ray beams were produced by a tungsten target tube and spectrally shaped using readily available materials. Measurement of iodine projected thickness in mg cm-2 has been performed. The effect of beam hardening does not introduce nonlinearities in the measurement of iodine projected thickness for values of thicknesses found in clinical investigations. However, scattered radiation introduces significant deviations from slope equal to unity when compared with the actual iodine projected thickness. Scatter correction before the analysis of the dual-energy images provides accurate iodine projected thickness measurements. At 10% of the exposure used in clinical mammography, signal-to-noise ratios in excess of 5 were achieved for iodine projected thicknesses less than 3 mg cm-2 within a 4 cm thick phantom. For the extraction of temporal information, a limited number of low-dose images were used with the phantom incorporating a flow of iodinated contrast medium. The results suggest that spatial and temporal information of iodinated contrast media can be used to indirectly measure the tumour microvessel density and determine its uptake and washout from breast tumours. The proposed method can significantly improve tumour detection in dense breasts. Its application to perform in situ x-ray biopsy and assessment of the oncolytic effect of anticancer agents is foreseeable.

  17. Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2011-10-17

    VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

  18. Detection of Normal Aging Effects on Human Brain Metabolite Concentrations and Microstructure with Whole-Brain MR Spectroscopic Imaging and Quantitative MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylers, V V; Maudsley, A A; Bronzlik, P; Dellani, P R; Lanfermann, H; Ding, X-Q

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of age-related physiological changes in the human brain is a prerequisite to identify neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this study whole-brain (1)H-MRS was used in combination with quantitative MR imaging to study the effects of normal aging on healthy human brain metabolites and microstructure. Sixty healthy volunteers, 21-70 years of age, were studied. Brain maps of the metabolites NAA, creatine and phosphocreatine, and Cho and the tissue irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation times T2 and T2' were derived from the datasets. The relative metabolite concentrations and the values of relaxation times were measured with ROIs placed within the frontal and parietal WM, centrum semiovale, splenium of the corpus callosum, hand motor area, occipital GM, putamen, thalamus, pons ventral/dorsal, and cerebellar white matter and posterior lobe. Linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Aging resulted in decreased NAA concentrations in the occipital GM, putamen, splenium of the corpus callosum, and pons ventral and decreased creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations in the pons dorsal and putamen. Cho concentrations did not change significantly in selected brain regions. T2 increased in the cerebellar white matter and decreased in the splenium of the corpus callosum with aging, while the T2' decreased in the occipital GM, hand motor area, and putamen, and increased in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Correlations were found between NAA concentrations and T2' in the occipital GM and putamen and between creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations and T2' in the putamen. The effects of normal aging on brain metabolites and microstructure are region-dependent. Correlations between both processes are evident in the gray matter. The obtained data could be used as references for future studies on patients. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Quantitative model of the effects of contamination and space environment on in-flight aging of thermal coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Emilie; Roussel, Jean-François; Remaury, Stéphanie; Faye, Delphine; Guigue, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The in-orbit aging of thermo-optical properties of thermal coatings critically impacts both spacecraft thermal balance and heating power consumption. Nevertheless, in-flight thermal coating aging is generally larger than the one measured on ground and the current knowledge does not allow making reliable predictions1. As a result, a large oversizing of thermal control systems is required. To address this issue, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales has developed a low-cost experiment, called THERME, which enables to monitor the in-flight time-evolution of the solar absorptivity of a large variety of coatings, including commonly used coatings and new materials by measuring their temperature. This experiment has been carried out on sunsynchronous spacecrafts for more than 27 years, allowing thus the generation of a very large set of telemetry measurements. The aim of this work was to develop a model able to semi-quantitatively reproduce these data with a restraint number of parameters. The underlying objectives were to better understand the contribution of the different involved phenomena and, later on, to predict the thermal coating aging at end of life. The physical processes modeled include contamination deposition, UV aging of both contamination layers and intrinsic material and atomic oxygen erosion. Efforts were particularly focused on the satellite leading wall as this face is exposed to the highest variations in environmental conditions during the solar cycle. The non-monotonous time-evolution of the solar absorptivity of thermal coatings is shown to be due to a succession of contamination and contaminant erosion by atomic oxygen phased with the solar cycle.

  20. A quantitative study of computer tomography images of the lumbar posterior elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Ken

    1985-01-01

    The posterior elements of the lumbar spine in 125 vertebrae of 62 cases were studied quantitatively by computer tomography. The cases were classified into 4 groups: Group I (15 cases): Young (20 - 50 years old), normal by radiography and asymptomatic. Group II (15 cases): Aged (over 50 years old), spondylosis deformans by radiography and asymptomatic. Group III (15 cases): Aged spondylosis deformans by radiography and symptomatic. Group IV (17 cases): Aged, degenerative spondylolisthesis by radiography and symptomatic. The posterior recess consisting of the superior articular process (SAP) and the inferior articular process (IAP) (canal side) was measured by computer tomography. A relationship was found between the onset of symptoms and the effective area of the posterior recess (i.e. the area of the posterior recess without yellow ligament) for normal function (i.e. no block observed by myelography). In particular a bulging disc was observed near the entrance of the posterior recess by CT scan in the symptomatic groups. The factors which were related to the effective area were changes in the disc and yellow ligament, the entrance of the posterior recess, the prominence of IAP (canal side), and the superior articular facet angle. An index of the decrease in the effective area of the posterior recess calculated from four factors. Given that the length of the entrance of the posterior recess is the interfacetal distance (IFD), the depth of the posterior recess is the midsagittal distance (MSD) and the effective area is S, then RS = (IFD x MSD x 1/2-S)/(IFD x MSD x 1/2) x 100 (%) = [1 - (2 x S/(IFD x MSD))] x 100 (%) where RS = the narrowing ratio. The quantitative index of decrease in the effective area of the posterior recess (i.e. the narrowing ratio) may be useful in the diagnosis of degenerative lumbar spinal disease where the disc was bulging. (J.P.N.)

  1. Harvard Aging Brain Study: Dataset and accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G; Chatwal, Jasmeer P; Papp, Kathryn V; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Schultz, Aaron P

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging. To promote more extensive analyses, imaging data was designed to be compatible with other publicly available datasets. A cloud-based system enables access to interested researchers with blinded data available contingent upon completion of a data usage agreement and administrative approval. Data collection is ongoing and currently in its fifth year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Central sensitization phenomena after third molar surgery: A quantitative sensory testing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.S.; Norholt, S.E.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central sensitiza......Background: Surgical removal of third molars may carry a risk of developing persistent orofacial pain, and central sensitization appears to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate sensitization (primarily central...... sensitization) after orofacial trauma using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Methods: A total of 32 healthy men (16 patients and 16 age-matched control subjects) underwent a battery of quantitative tests adapted to the trigeminal area at baseline and 2, 7, and 30 days following surgical removal of a lower...... impacted third molar. Results: Central sensitization for at least one week was indicated by significantly increased pain intensity evoked by intraoral repetitive pinprick and electrical stimulation (p

  3. A Quantitative Study on the Trachea of the Red Sokoto (Maradi Goat (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Byanet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trachea forms the part of the conducting system which transports air from the external environment to the lungs. The aim of this study was to provide quantitative dimensions of the trachea of Red Sokoto goat (Capra hircus. Quantitative analysis was conducted on nine tracheas from goats (ages were ranged between eight months and three years without sex variation in this study. The results showed that tracheas were extended from the cricoid cartilage of larynx to the hilus of the lungs, where they were divided into the right and left bronchi. They were structurally composed of the cartilaginous rings that were incomplete dorsally but bridged by tracheal muscles at the ends of the tracheal cartilages. The mean length of the trachea from the first to the last ring was 257 ± 7.11 mm and the number of tracheal rings varied from 35 to 57, with a mean value of 49.33 ± 2.78. The left bronchial mean length (19.78 ± 2.66 mm was significantly longer than the right (10.44 ± 1.79 mm. The cross-sectional area (CSA was wider at the intrathoracic area (221.5 ± 0.2 mm2 than cervical area (176 ± 0.1 mm2.

  4. Quantification of myelin in children using multiparametric quantitative MRI: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Choi, Jin Wook [Ajou University School of Medicine, Ajou University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Won-Jin [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, JinJoo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Office of Biostatistics, Department of Humanities and Social Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of multiparametric quantitative MRI for myelination quantification in children. We examined 22 children (age 0-14 years) with multiparametric quantitative MRI. The total volume of myelin partial volume (Msum), the percentage of Msum within the whole brain parenchyma (Mbpv), and the percentage of Msum within the intracranial volume (Micv) were obtained. Four developmental models of myelin maturation (the logarithmic, logistic, Gompertz, and modified Gompertz models) were examined to find the most representative model of the three parameters. We acquired myelin partial volume values in different brain regions and assessed the goodness of fit for the models. The ranges of Msum, Mbpv, and Micv were 0.8-160.9 ml, 0.2-13%, and 0.0-11.6%, respectively. The Gompertz model was the best fit for the three parameters. For developmental model analysis of myelin partial volume in each brain region, the Gompertz model was the best-fit model for pons (R{sup 2} = 74.6%), middle cerebeller peduncle (R{sup 2} = 76.4%), putamen (R{sup 2} = 95.8%), and centrum semiovale (R{sup 2} = 77.7%). The logistic model was the best-fit model for the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (R{sup 2} = 79.7-93.6%), thalamus (R{sup 2} = 81.7%), and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital white matter (R{sup 2} = 92.5-96.5%). Multiparametric quantitative MRI depicts the normal developmental pattern of myelination in children. It is a potential tool for research studies on pediatric brain development evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Quantification of myelin in children using multiparametric quantitative MRI: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Choi, Jin Wook; Moon, Won-Jin; Han, JinJoo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of multiparametric quantitative MRI for myelination quantification in children. We examined 22 children (age 0-14 years) with multiparametric quantitative MRI. The total volume of myelin partial volume (Msum), the percentage of Msum within the whole brain parenchyma (Mbpv), and the percentage of Msum within the intracranial volume (Micv) were obtained. Four developmental models of myelin maturation (the logarithmic, logistic, Gompertz, and modified Gompertz models) were examined to find the most representative model of the three parameters. We acquired myelin partial volume values in different brain regions and assessed the goodness of fit for the models. The ranges of Msum, Mbpv, and Micv were 0.8-160.9 ml, 0.2-13%, and 0.0-11.6%, respectively. The Gompertz model was the best fit for the three parameters. For developmental model analysis of myelin partial volume in each brain region, the Gompertz model was the best-fit model for pons (R"2 = 74.6%), middle cerebeller peduncle (R"2 = 76.4%), putamen (R"2 = 95.8%), and centrum semiovale (R"2 = 77.7%). The logistic model was the best-fit model for the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (R"2 = 79.7-93.6%), thalamus (R"2 = 81.7%), and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital white matter (R"2 = 92.5-96.5%). Multiparametric quantitative MRI depicts the normal developmental pattern of myelination in children. It is a potential tool for research studies on pediatric brain development evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative in vivo micro-computed tomography for assessment of age-dependent changes in murine whole-body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Beaucage

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is used routinely to quantify skeletal tissue mass in small animal models. Our goal was to evaluate repeated in vivo micro-CT imaging for monitoring whole-body composition in studies of growth and aging in mice. Male mice from 2 to 52 weeks of age were anesthetized and imaged using an eXplore Locus Ultra and/or eXplore speCZT scanner. Images were reconstructed into 3D volumes, signal-intensity thresholds were used to classify each voxel as adipose, lean or skeletal tissue, and tissue masses were calculated from known density values. Images revealed specific changes in tissue distribution with growth and aging. Quantification showed biphasic increases in total CT-derived body mass, lean and skeletal tissue masses, consisting of rapid increases to 8 weeks of age, followed by slow linear increases to 52 weeks. In contrast, bone mineral density increased rapidly to a stable plateau at ~14 weeks of age. On the other hand, adipose tissue mass increased continuously with age. A micro-CT-derived total mass was calculated for each mouse and compared with gravimetrically measured mass, which differed on average by <3%. Parameters were highly reproducible for mice of the same age, but variability increased slightly with age. There was also good agreement in parameters for the same group of mice scanned on the eXplore Locus Ultra and eXplore speCZT systems. This study provides reference values for normative comparisons; as well, it demonstrates the usefulness of in vivo single-energy micro-CT scans to quantify whole-body composition in high-throughput studies of growth and aging in mice. Keywords: Adipose tissue, Bone mineral content, Bone mineral density, Growth, Lean tissue, Skeletal tissue

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Aged AISI 316L Stainless Steel Sensitization to Intergranular Corrosion: Comparison Between Microstructural Electrochemical and Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, H.; Amadou, T.; Sahlaoui, H.; Braham, C.

    2007-06-01

    The evaluation of the degree of sensitization (DOS) to intergranular corrosion (IGC) of a commercial AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel aged at temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 800 °C during 100 to 80,000 hours was carried out using three different assessment methods. (1) The microstructural method coupled with the Strauss standard test (ASTM A262). This method establishes the kinetics of the precipitation phenomenon under different aging conditions, by transmission electronic microscope (TEM) examination of thin foils and electron diffraction. The subsequent chromium-depleted zones are characterized by X-ray microanalysis using scanning transmission electronic microscope (STEM). The superimposition of microstructural time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) and ASTM A262 time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams provides the relationship between aged microstructure and IGC. Moreover, by considering the chromium-depleted zone characteristics, sensitization and desensitization criteria could be established. (2) The electrochemical method involving the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) test. The operating conditions of this test were initially optimized using the experimental design method on the bases of the reliability, the selectivity, and the reproducibility of test responses for both annealed and sensitized steels. The TTS diagram of the AISI 316L stainless steel was established using this method. This diagram offers a quantitative assessment of the DOS and a possibility to appreciate the time-temperature equivalence of the IGC sensitization and desensitization. (3) The analytical method based on the chromium diffusion models. Using the IGC sensitization and desensitization criteria established by the microstructural method, numerical solving of the chromium diffusion equations leads to a calculated AISI 316L TTS diagram. Comparison of these three methods gives a clear advantage to the nondestructive DL-EPR test when it is

  8. Biochemical study on changes of artery with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takanori

    1979-01-01

    The study was made in order to elucidate the aging phenomenon by focussing on the structural changes of elastin in aorta. Human thoracic aorta was separated in to three layers (intima, media and externa), and further intima was divided to three parts (normal, plaque and fatty streak part). Those parts were quantitatively determined on chemical substances, such as elastin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus. While experimental arteriosclerosis was made on rats with the load of cholesterol, and aorta of experimental rats were labeled with 45 CaCl 2 . Finally Ca ++ binding site on elastin was examined by, separating 45 Ca binding elastin from 45 Ca labeled aorta. Following results were obtained: 1) The elastin contents of human thoracic aorta decreased with age, especially in intima and fatty streak. 2) The cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus contents increased with age in, all layers of human thoracic aorta and remarkable decreases of them were observed in plaque and in fatty streak. 3) The elastin of fatty streak in human thoracic aorta was rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and hydroxyproline compared with amino acid contents of that of normal part. 4) The 45 Ca binding peptide was separated from 45 Ca binding elastin extracted from experimentally induced arteriosclerosis by thin layer chromatography and it was characteristic peptide containing aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, serine, glycine and alanine. This characteristic amino acid contents was in good agreement with increased amino acid contents in the elastin from fatty streak of human thoracic aorta. (author)

  9. Study of the quantitative analysis approach of maintenance by the Monte Carlo simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    This study is examination of the quantitative valuation by Monte Carlo simulation method of maintenance activities of a nuclear power plant. Therefore, the concept of the quantitative valuation of maintenance that examination was advanced in the Japan Society of Maintenology and International Institute of Universality (IUU) was arranged. Basis examination for quantitative valuation of maintenance was carried out at simple feed water system, by Monte Carlo simulation method. (author)

  10. A Quantitative Study Identifying Political Strategies Used by Principals of Dual Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the external and internal political strategies used by principals that allow them to successfully navigate the political environment surrounding dual language programs. Methodology. This quantitative study used descriptive research to collect, analyze, and report data that identified…

  11. Some quantitative indicators of postovulatory aging and its effect on larval and juvenile development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommens, Maren; Storset, Arne; Babiak, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Modern out-of-season egg production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the risk of postovulatory aging (POA) of oocytes. Postovulatory aging is known to influence oocyte quality in salmonids, but reliable tests for POA are lacking in Atlantic salmon egg production. To address this problem, we have collected oocytes from the same 20 Atlantic salmon females sequentially in approximately 1-week intervals, from the start of ovulation until 28 days postovulation (dpo), to determine the effect of natural retention of matured oocytes in body coelomic cavity on further performance of embryos and juveniles produced from those oocytes. Also, we investigated oocyte water hardening and several coelomic fluid parameters as potential quantitative indicators of POA. Oocyte quality decreased significantly from 22 dpo onward, as inferred from decrease in fertilization success and survival of embryos, alevins, and juveniles and increase in alevin and juvenile deformity rates. The occurrence of head deformities was significantly related to postovulatory age of oocytes. Coelomic fluid pH decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated positively with fertilization rates (r = 0.45), normal eyed embryo rates (r = 0.67), and alevin relative survival rates (r = 0.63) and negatively correlated with total alevin deformity rates (r = -0.59). Oocyte weight gain at 60 minutes decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated negatively with total alevin deformities and the occurrence of cranial nodules (r = -0.99). Generally, quality of ovulated oocytes remained stable for the first 2 weeks after ovulation. Later on, POA negatively influenced Atlantic salmon embryo, alevin, and juvenile performance. For the first time, we show a long-term effect of POA on salmonid juvenile performance. Standardized pH measurements of coelomic fluid could potentially improve embryo and juvenile production by identifying low-quality oocytes at an early stage during the production. Copyright © 2015

  12. Estimation of Correlation between Chronological Age, Skeletal Age and Dental Age in Children- A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Madhulika; Lamba, Bharti; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Muthineni, Sridhar; Margana, Pratap Gowd Jai Shankar; Chitoori, Prasad

    2017-09-01

    In the modern era, identification and determination of age is imperative for diversity of reasons that include disputed birth records, premature delivery, legal issues and for validation of birth certificate for school admissions, adoption, marriage, job and immigration. Several growth assessment parameters like bone age, dental age and the combination of both have been applied for different population with variable outcomes. It has been well documented that the chronological age does not necessarily correlate with the maturational status of a child. Hence, efforts were made to determine a child's developmental age by using dental age (calcification of teeth) and skeletal age (skeletal maturation). The present study was aimed to correlate the chronological age, dental age and skeletal age in children from Southeastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Out of the total 900 screened children, only 100 subjects between age groups of 6-14 years with a mean age of 11.3±2.63 for males and 10.77±2.24 for females were selected for the study. Dental age was calculated by Demirjian method and skeletal age by modified Middle Phalanx of left hand third finger (MP3) method. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were done to estimate the correlation between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among study population. There was a significant positive correlation between chronological age, dental age and all stages of MP3 among males. Similar results were observed in females, except for a non-significant moderate correlation between chronological age and dental age in the H stage of the MP3 region. The results of the present study revealed correlation with statistical significance (p<0.05) between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among all the subjects (48 males and 52 females) and females attained maturity earlier than males in the present study population.

  13. Prognostic Value of the Amount of Bleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Quantitative Volumetric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagares, Alfonso; Jiménez-Roldán, Luis; Gomez, Pedro A; Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-León, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Alén, José F

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative estimation of the hemorrhage volume associated with aneurysm rupture is a new tool of assessing prognosis. To determine the prognostic value of the quantitative estimation of the amount of bleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well the relative importance of this factor related to other prognostic indicators, and to establish a possible cut-off value of volume of bleeding related to poor outcome. A prospective cohort of 206 patients consecutively admitted with the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to Hospital 12 de Octubre were included in the study. Subarachnoid, intraventricular, intracerebral, and total bleeding volumes were calculated using analytic software. For assessing factors related to prognosis, univariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression) were performed. The relative importance of factors in determining prognosis was established by calculating their proportion of explained variation. Maximum Youden index was calculated to determine the optimal cut point for subarachnoid and total bleeding volume. Variables independently related to prognosis were clinical grade at admission, age, and the different bleeding volumes. The proportion of variance explained is higher for subarachnoid bleeding. The optimal cut point related to poor prognosis is a volume of 20 mL both for subarachnoid and total bleeding. Volumetric measurement of subarachnoid or total bleeding volume are both independent prognostic factors in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A volume of more than 20 mL of blood in the initial noncontrast computed tomography is related to a clear increase in poor outcome risk. : aSAH, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  15. Prevalence of low bone health using quantitative ultrasound in Indian women aged 41-60 years: Its association with nutrition and other related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chawla, Jasmine Kaur; Gupta, Swati; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of low bone health conditions and assess associated nutritional and other risk factors in Indian women aged 41-60 years. A total of 1,911 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone health was assessed using an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer on two sites (radius and tibia). Crude prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be 30.09% and 19.89%, respectively. The Indian women were deficient in a majority of nutrients. Postmenopause, hysterectomy, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypertension, low physical activity, low sun exposure, high stress levels, and low calcium levels were found to be independent risk factors of low bone health.

  16. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals’ perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers’ perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP (k = 17 studies) and OFTP (k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported. PMID:28400741

  17. Future Time Perspective in the Work Context: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hélène; Zacher, Hannes; Desmette, Donatienne

    2017-01-01

    A core construct in the lifespan theory of socioemotional selectivity, future time perspective (FTP) refers to individuals' perceptions of their remaining time in life. Its adaptation to the work context, occupational future time perspective (OFTP), entails workers' perceptions of remaining time and opportunities in their careers. Over the past decade, several quantitative studies have investigated antecedents and consequences of general FTP and OFTP in the work context (i.e., FTP at work). We systematically review and critically discuss this literature on general FTP ( k = 17 studies) and OFTP ( k = 16 studies) and highlight implications for future research and practice. Results of our systematic review show that, in addition to its strong negative relationship with age, FTP at work is also associated with other individual (e.g., personality traits) and contextual variables (e.g., job characteristics). Moreover, FTP at work has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships of individual and contextual antecedents with occupational well-being, as well as motivational and behavioral outcomes. As a whole, findings suggest that FTP at work is an important variable in the field of work and aging, and that future research should improve the ways in which FTP at work is measured and results on FTP at work are reported.

  18. Study of jojoba oil aging by FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dréau, Y; Dupuy, N; Gaydou, V; Joachim, J; Kister, J

    2009-05-29

    As the jojoba oil was used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, dietetic food, animal feeding, lubrication, polishing and bio-diesel fields, it was important to study its aging at high temperature by oxidative process. In this work a FT-MIR methodology was developed for monitoring accelerate oxidative degradation of jojoba oils. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate various samples according to their origin and obtaining process, and to differentiate oxidative conditions applied on oils. Two spectroscopic indices were calculated to report simply the oxidation phenomenon. Results were confirmed and deepened by multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square method (MCR-ALS). It allowed identifying chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment according to a SIMPLISMA pretreatment.

  19. Vertebral body bone mineral density in patients with lumbar spondylolysis: a quantitative CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Balcı, Ali; Kalemci, Orhan; Köremezli, Nevin; Başara Akın, Işıl; Ur, Koray

    2017-01-01

    Spondylolysis is known to be a part of a disease process, which describes a defect in the pars interarticularis of vertebra. We aimed to use quantitative computed tomography (QCT) to measure vertebral body bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with lumbar spondylolysis and compare it with readings in controls. Forty symptomatic patients with lumbar spondylolysis aged 18-52 years and 40 matched controls of same sex and approximate age (±2 years) were included in the study. Measurements of BMD were performed by QCT analysis for each vertebral body from T12 to L5 and mean BMD was calculated for each case. Of 40 patients, 22 (55%) demonstrated L5 spondylolysis, 14 (35%) L4 spondylolysis, three (7.5%) L3 spondylolysis, and one (2.5%) L2 spondylolysis. Spondylolisthesis was found in 29 patients (73%). Patients with spondylolisthesis were significantly older than patients without spondylolisthesis (42±6.9 vs. 37.2±5.4, P = 0.024). Mean BMD value of the patient group was significantly lower than that of the controls (105±24 mg/cm³ vs. 118.7±25.6 mg/cm³, P = 0.015). Subgroup analysis of 19 patients and 19 controls under the age of 40 revealed that the mean BMD value of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls in the younger age group as well (108.7±23.5 mg/cm³ vs. 130±25.8 mg/cm³, P = 0.009). This study demonstrated that patients with spondylolysis had significantly lower mean vertebral body BMD compared with controls.

  20. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  1. Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables

  2. The Selection of Quantitative Undergraduate Fields of Study: Direct and Indirect Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Corinna A.; Wolfle, Lee M.

    In order to increase women's representation among quantitative degrees, Berryman (1985) suggested two strategies: (1) increase women's share of the initial mathematical/scientific pool; or (2) reduce attrition from the pool. However, current research indicates that the decision to enter a quantitative field of study for women is the result of a…

  3. [Quantitative studies on reversible thrombocyte aggregation during exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, P; Silberbauer, K; Sinzinger, H

    1980-10-11

    In 8 oarsmen aged 19 to 31 years a symptom-limited rectangular-progressive bicycle stress test has been conducted. Venous blood was taken before and at the end of the test, and 30 and 60 minutes afterwards. pH, base excess, pCO2, platelet count and platelet count ratio (WU and HOAK) were measured or calculated, the last in order to quantify the tendency of the platelets to form reversible aggregates. At the point of exhaustion there is a highly significant (p cunt ratio (= increase in reversible platelet aggregates). A highly significant correlation exists between base excess and the platelet count ratio. The regression line does not fall below the normal value of the platelet count ratio until the delta-base excess is -4 mval/l. This means that an increase in the tendency to form reversible platelet aggregates is not typical of the range of aerobic metabolism but of muscular work in the anaerobic range with high exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. The basis for sudden death in sport due to internal reasons is not uncommonly an unknown and asymptomatic coronary disease and platelet aggregates. Persons aged over 30 years and sports in which competition is also inherent (soccer, tennis) are often involved. Acute cardiac death in sport is not very frequent. Nevertheless, the following recomendation seems to be warranted: persons aged over 30 years in bad condition should not start competitive sports or other intensive muscular exercise. Before they do so, low-intensive, controlled, aerobic endurance training is necessary.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study and Linkage Analysis of the Healthy Aging Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minster, Ryan L; Sanders, Jason L; Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) is a tool for measuring the extent of health and disease across multiple systems. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study and a genome-wide linkage analysis to map quantitative trait loci associated with the HAI and a modified HAI weighted...

  5. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  6. A quantitative experimental phantom study on MRI image uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Doaa; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Iwamoto, Yuri; Uchiyama, Yuka; Kakimoto, Naoya; Kreiborg, Sven; Murakami, Shumei

    2018-05-02

    Our goal was to assess MR image uniformity by investigating aspects influencing said uniformity via a method laid out by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Six metallic materials embedded in a glass phantom were scanned (i.e., Au, Ag, Al, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, Ti and Co-Cr alloy) as well as a reference image. Sequences included Spin Echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) scanned in three planes (i.e., Axial, Coronal, and Sagittal). Moreover, three surface coil types (i.e., Head and Neck or HN, Brain, and TMJ coils) and two image correction methods (i.e., Surface Coil Intensity Correction or SCIC, Phased array Uniformity Enhancement or PURE) were employed to evaluate their effectiveness on image uniformity. Image uniformity was assessed using the NEMA peak-deviation non-uniformity method. Results showed that TMJ coils elicited the least uniform image and Brain coils outperformed HN coils when metallic materials were present. Additionally, when metallic materials were present, SE outperformed GRE especially for Co-Cr (particularly in the axial plane). Furthermore, both SCIC and PURE improved image uniformity compared to uncorrected images, and SCIC slightly surpassed PURE when metallic metals were present. Lastly, Co-Cr elicited the least uniform image while other metallic materials generally showed similar patterns (i.e., no significant deviation from images without metallic metals). Overall, a quantitative understanding of the factors influencing MR image uniformity (e.g., coil type, imaging method, metal susceptibility, and post-hoc correction method) is advantageous to optimize image quality, assists clinical interpretation, and may result in improved medical and dental care.

  7. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  8. High-resolution characterisation of the aging brain using simultaneous quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* measurements at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew J; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Nestor, Peter J; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has recently emerged as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to detect non-haem iron deposition, calcifications, demyelination and vascular lesions in the brain. It has been suggested that QSM is more sensitive than the more conventional quantifiable MRI measure, namely the transverse relaxation rate, R2*. Here, we conducted the first high-resolution, whole-brain, simultaneously acquired, comparative study of the two techniques using 7Tesla MRI. We asked which of the two techniques would be more sensitive to explore global differences in tissue composition in elderly adults relative to young subjects. Both QSM and R2* revealed strong age-related differences in subcortical regions, hippocampus and cortical grey matter, particularly in superior frontal regions, motor/premotor cortices, insula and cerebellar regions. Within the basal ganglia system-but also hippocampus and cerebellar dentate nucleus-, QSM was largely in agreement with R2* with the exception of the globus pallidus. QSM, however, provided superior anatomical contrast and revealed age-related differences in the thalamus and in white matter, which were otherwise largely undetected by R2* measurements. In contrast, in occipital cortex, age-related differences were much greater with R2* compared to QSM. The present study, therefore, demonstrated that in vivo QSM using ultra-high field MRI provides a novel means to characterise age-related differences in the human brain, but also combining QSM and R2* using multi-gradient recalled echo imaging can potentially provide a more complete picture of mineralisation, demyelination and/or vascular alterations in aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2-5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  10. Sarcopenia, dynapenia and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Kyle Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA. An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality.The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the aetiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45yrs and old (>65yrs samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75yrs, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-0.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75yrs, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2 – 5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  11. Stress-induced change in serum BDNF is related to quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder and age at first alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shobhit; Graham, Reiko; Rohde, Rodney; Ceballos, Natalie A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research in animal models suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in stress-modulated alcohol consumption. However, relatively few studies have investigated this issue in humans, and results of existing studies have been heterogeneous. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the within-subjects effect of acute stress (timed math plus cold pressor) on serum BDNF levels (ΔBDNF: post- minus pre-stress) in healthy social drinkers (N=68, 20 male). A secondary aim was to explore which heritable and environmental factors in our limited sample might exert the greatest influences on ΔBDNF. Importantly, presence versus absence of the BDNF Val 66 Met polymorphism (rs6265), which has often been discounted in studies of human serum BDNF, was included as a between-subjects control variable in all statistical analyses. Our results indicated that acute stress decreased serum BDNF. Further, multiple regression analyses revealed that quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder (qFH) and age at first alcohol use together accounted for 15% of the variance in ΔBDNF. Thus, the influences of qFH and age at first alcohol use may explain some of the heterogeneity that exists in previous studies of human serum BDNF. These results parallel findings in animal models and suggest that stress-related changes in serum BDNF are influenced by both heritable (qFH) and environmental (early alcohol consumption) factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear medicine and quantitative imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science): Comprehensive progress report, April 1, 1986-December 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1988-06-01

    This document describes several years research to improve PET imaging and diagnostic techniques in man. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. The reports in the study were processed separately for the data bases

  13. Abnormal Resting-State Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Children With Central Auditory Processing Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rafał; Lewandowska, Monika; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Grudzień, Diana; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we showed an abnormal resting-state quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) pattern in children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Twenty-seven children (16 male, 11 female; mean age = 10.7 years) with CAPD and no symptoms of other developmental disorders, as well as 23 age- and sex-matched, typically developing children (TDC, 11 male, 13 female; mean age = 11.8 years) underwent examination of central auditory processes (CAPs) and QEEG evaluation consisting of two randomly presented blocks of "Eyes Open" (EO) or "Eyes Closed" (EC) recordings. Significant correlations between individual frequency band powers and CAP tests performance were found. The QEEG studies revealed that in CAPD relative to TDC there was no effect of decreased delta absolute power (1.5-4 Hz) in EO compared to the EC condition. Furthermore, children with CAPD showed increased theta power (4-8 Hz) in the frontal area, a tendency toward elevated theta power in EO block, and reduced low-frequency beta power (12-15 Hz) in the bilateral occipital and the left temporo-occipital regions for both EO and EC conditions. Decreased middle-frequency beta power (15-18 Hz) in children with CAPD was observed only in the EC block. The findings of the present study suggest that QEEG could be an adequate tool to discriminate children with CAPD from normally developing children. Correlation analysis shows relationship between the individual EEG resting frequency bands and the CAPs. Increased power of slow waves and decreased power of fast rhythms could indicate abnormal functioning (hypoarousal of the cortex and/or an immaturity) of brain areas not specialized in auditory information processing.

  14. Abnormal Resting-State Quantitative Electroencephalogram in Children With Central Auditory Processing Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rafał; Lewandowska, Monika; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Grudzień, Diana; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we showed an abnormal resting-state quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) pattern in children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Twenty-seven children (16 male, 11 female; mean age = 10.7 years) with CAPD and no symptoms of other developmental disorders, as well as 23 age- and sex-matched, typically developing children (TDC, 11 male, 13 female; mean age = 11.8 years) underwent examination of central auditory processes (CAPs) and QEEG evaluation consisting of two randomly presented blocks of “Eyes Open” (EO) or “Eyes Closed” (EC) recordings. Significant correlations between individual frequency band powers and CAP tests performance were found. The QEEG studies revealed that in CAPD relative to TDC there was no effect of decreased delta absolute power (1.5–4 Hz) in EO compared to the EC condition. Furthermore, children with CAPD showed increased theta power (4–8 Hz) in the frontal area, a tendency toward elevated theta power in EO block, and reduced low-frequency beta power (12–15 Hz) in the bilateral occipital and the left temporo-occipital regions for both EO and EC conditions. Decreased middle-frequency beta power (15–18 Hz) in children with CAPD was observed only in the EC block. The findings of the present study suggest that QEEG could be an adequate tool to discriminate children with CAPD from normally developing children. Correlation analysis shows relationship between the individual EEG resting frequency bands and the CAPs. Increased power of slow waves and decreased power of fast rhythms could indicate abnormal functioning (hypoarousal of the cortex and/or an immaturity) of brain areas not specialized in auditory information processing.

  15. Quantitative Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; van der Beek, Peter; Batt, Geoffrey

    2006-05-01

    Thermochronology, the study of the thermal history of rocks, enables us to quantify the nature and timing of tectonic processes. Quantitative Thermochronology is a robust review of isotopic ages, and presents a range of numerical modeling techniques to allow the physical implications of isotopic age data to be explored. The authors provide analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical solutions to the heat transfer equation in a range of tectonic settings and under varying boundary conditions. They then illustrate their modeling approach built around a large number of case studies. The benefits of different thermochronological techniques are also described. Computer programs on an accompanying website at www.cambridge.org/9780521830577 are introduced through the text and provide a means of solving the heat transport equation in the deforming Earth to predict the ages of rocks and compare them directly to geological and geochronological data. Several short tutorials, with hints and solutions, are also included. Numerous case studies help geologists to interpret age data and relate it to Earth processes Essential background material to aid understanding and using thermochronological data Provides a thorough treatise on numerical modeling of heat transport in the Earth's crust Supported by a website hosting relevant computer programs and colour slides of figures from the book for use in teaching

  16. Quantitative exposure assessment in community-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational epidemiology focuses on the associations between exposures at the workplace and disease outcomes, essentially concerned with the prevention of disease. Basically two types of studies can be distinguished in occupational epidemiology: industry-based studies which study a population at

  17. Quantitative Analysis and Development of the Fore Feet of Arabian Foals from Birth to 1 Year of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Babak; Salinger, Allison; Kaneps, Andris; Nout-Lomas, Yvette; Greene, Holly; Dong, Fanglong

    2017-11-01

    Objectives  The goal of this study was to quantify external and internal anatomical characteristics of the foal foot throughout the first year of age. Methods  Digital radiographs and photographs were taken bimonthly of the forefeet of nine Arabian foals, beginning at about 2 weeks of age until 12 months of age. Sixty-eight linear and angular variables were measured using NIH (National Institutes of Health) Image J software. Statistical analyses were performed using piecewise random coefficient model and p -values shape and from a club-like, cylindrical conformation to a more angled, conical conformation. This paper quantifies this development, ultimately allowing a better understanding of morphological changes in the foot of the growing foal. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  18. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2017-08-04

    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking.

  19. Quantitative Variation of Flavonoids and Diterpenes in Leaves and Stems of Cistus ladanifer L. at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Valares Masa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compounds derived from secondary metabolism in plants perform a variety of ecological functions, providing the plant with resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. The basal levels of these metabolites for each organ, tissue or cell type depend on the development stage of the plant and they may be modified as a response to biotic and/or abiotic stress. As a consequence, the resistance state of a plant may vary in space and time. The secondary metabolites of Cistus ladanifer have been quantified in leaves and stems throughout autumn, winter, spring and summer, and at different ages of the plant. This study shows that there are significant differences between young leaves, mature leaves and stems, and between individuals of different ages. Young leaves show significantly greater synthesis of flavonoids and diterpenes than mature leaves and stems, with a clear seasonal variation, and the differences between leaves at different growth stages and stems is maintained during the quantified seasons. With respect to age, specimens under one year of age secreted significantly lower amounts of compounds. The variation in the composition of secondary metabolites between different parts of the plant, the season and the variations in age may determine the interactions of Cistus ladanifer with the biotic and abiotic factors to which it is exposed.

  20. The impact of armed conflict on adolescent transitions: a systematic review of quantitative research on age of sexual debut, first marriage and first birth in young women under the age of 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Neal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women in conflict-affected regions are at risk of a number of adverse outcomes as a result of violence, economic deterioration and the breakdown of community structures and services. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of quantitative literature reporting how key sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes among young women under the age of 20 years are affected by exposure to armed conflict; namely, sexual debut, first marriage and first birth. Increases in these outcomes among young women are all associated with potential negative public health consequences. It also examines and documents possible causal pathways for any changes seen. Methods To fit with our inclusion criteria, all reviewed studies included outcomes for comparable populations not exposed to conflict either temporally or spatially. A total of 19 studies with results from 21 countries or territories met our inclusion criteria; seven presented findings on marriage, four on fertility and eight on both of these outcomes. Only one study reporting on sexual debut met our criteria. Results Findings show clear evidence of both declines and increases in marriage and childbirth among young women in a range of conflict-affected settings. Several studies that showed increases in marriage below the age of 20 years reported that such increases were concentrated in the younger teenagers. Trends in fertility were predominantly driven by marriage patterns. Suggested causal pathways for the changes observed could be grouped into three categories: involuntary, gender and psycho-social and economic and material factors. Conclusion The review reveals a paucity of literature on the impact of conflict on SRH outcomes of young women. Further quantitative and qualitative studies are needed to explore how conflict influences SRH events in young women over both the short- and longer-term.

  1. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  2. Quantitative aspects of transuranic and other radionuclide field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to identify, develop and communicate statistical methodology for environmental actinide studies. Significant accomplishments of FY 1980 were continued publication of TRAN-STAT, acquisition of preliminary results from a computer simulation study for evaluating estimators of average ratios, and the review of statistical estimation methods for data near detection limits

  3. A simple measurement hammer for quantitative reflex studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; van Leeuwen, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflex hammer for measurement of the mechanical stimulus strength was designed. Combined with standard EMG equipment this instrument permits the study of both stimulus-response relations and latencies of myotatic reflexes. Some results in normal subjects are discussed

  4. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation.

  5. Quantitative aspects of transuranic and other radionuclide field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to identify, develop, and communicate statistical methodology for environmental actinide studies. Significant accomplishments for FY 1981 included continued publication of TRAN-STAT (a periodical specializing in the statistical aspects of environmental contaminant studies), continued work on our computer simulation study for evaluating ratios, and review of statistical methodology applicable to environmental radionuclides. Related work for the DOE Division Office of Operational Safety included writing the statistical portion of a decommissioning and decontamination guide, expanding our expertise in Kriging and other spatial pattern statistical methodology applicable to the evaluation of potential environmental hazards, continuing statistical support for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), and providing statistical assistance to PNL's environmental radiological monitoring effort

  6. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  7. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of [F18]fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), [F18]fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of [F18]-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks

  8. Contribution of quantitative perfusion pulmonary scintiscanning with particles to the study of the regional pulmonary blood flow distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, S.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The quantitative perfusion pulmonary scintiscanning with macro aggregates was studied by digital images of perfusion, obtained in scintiscanning chamber coupled to the data processing system. The study was developed in four phases, in the Nuclear Medicine Service of Porto Alegre Clinical Hospital. In each phase, it was studied groups with different ages and different clinical aspects (normal and cardiopathic persons), and they were submitted to several diagnostic techniques. The macro aggregates used was the human albumin and was labelled with technetium 99. A comparative evaluation of this method with others diagnostic techniques was also presented. (C.G.C)

  9. Chemical and Quantitive Study of Hepatotoxins from Fresh Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of the freeze-dried micro-aquatic planktonic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii, dominating and isolated from Makkah –KSA was studied. Microcystins were detected from freeze-dried cells using high pressure liquid chromatography HPLC. The histopathological examination of mice liver injected on week basis ...

  10. Emission tomography: quantitative aspects in metabolic and physiopathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerouchalmi-Soussaline, F.

    1984-11-01

    This thesis presents instrumental and data processing studies developped in emission tomography in man, using gamma and positron emitting tracers. High contrast visualisation of volume distribution of tracers in the organs, kinetic studies and measurements of radioactive concentration or of other clinical parameters necessitate a detailed analysis of all physical factors limiting the accuracy of the measure; therefore, development of adapted imaging devices and data processing techniques, together with models describing correctly the phenomena under study are to be carried out. Thus, in single photon (gamma) emission tomography an image reconstruction strategy is elaborated, based on an analytical model for the ill-posed problem including the attenuation effect. In positron emission tomography, the time-of-flight information combined with the reconstruction technique is used in the design of a first prototype imaging device which performance is presented and evaluated in a clinical environment. Moreover, a priori or a posteriori techniques correcting for Compton diffusion events, limited statistics and limited resolutions, are proposed and discussed for the improvement of regional measurement accuracy, in metabolic and physiopathologic studies [fr

  11. Aging study of the powdered magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Umar Saeed, E-mail: omar_aps@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Rahim, Abdur, E-mail: rahimkhan533@gmail.com [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Khan, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat (Pakistan); Muhammad, Nawshad; Rehman, Fozia [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Ahmad, Khalid [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, PO Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Iqbal, Jibran [College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, 144534 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-03-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were produced via co-precipitation method and then stored at room temperature for 6 years in aerobic atmosphere. Variations in the inherent solid phase and solid interfacial properties of the prepared magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. For this purpose the fresh and aged samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The solid phase transformations of magnetite nanoparticles to maghemite nanoparticles as well as formation of other iron oxides were happened. After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features; however increase in particle size from 9.6 to 18.5 measured by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed. The crystallite size and vibrating sample magnetometer values were measured before and after aging and found to increase from 8.98 nm and 47.23 emu/g to 16.18 nm and 58.36 emu/g respectively. The formation of other iron oxides, recrystallization and agglomeration during aging process, caused a significant decrease in the specific surface area from 124.43 to 45.00 m{sup 2}/g of the stored sample. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were produced via co-precipitation method. • Inherent solid phase and interfacial properties of NP were evaluated after 6 years. • The solid phase transformations of magnetite NPs to maghemite NPs was happened. • After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features.

  12. Aging study of the powdered magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Umar Saeed; Rahim, Abdur; Khan, Nasrullah; Muhammad, Nawshad; Rehman, Fozia; Ahmad, Khalid; Iqbal, Jibran

    2017-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were produced via co-precipitation method and then stored at room temperature for 6 years in aerobic atmosphere. Variations in the inherent solid phase and solid interfacial properties of the prepared magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. For this purpose the fresh and aged samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The solid phase transformations of magnetite nanoparticles to maghemite nanoparticles as well as formation of other iron oxides were happened. After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features; however increase in particle size from 9.6 to 18.5 measured by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed. The crystallite size and vibrating sample magnetometer values were measured before and after aging and found to increase from 8.98 nm and 47.23 emu/g to 16.18 nm and 58.36 emu/g respectively. The formation of other iron oxides, recrystallization and agglomeration during aging process, caused a significant decrease in the specific surface area from 124.43 to 45.00 m"2/g of the stored sample. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were produced via co-precipitation method. • Inherent solid phase and interfacial properties of NP were evaluated after 6 years. • The solid phase transformations of magnetite NPs to maghemite NPs was happened. • After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features.

  13. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Seeds during Artificial Ageing and Priming Using the Isobaric Tandem Mass Tag Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyong Lv

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important crop worldwide. The physiological deterioration of seeds during storage and seed priming is closely associated with germination, and thus contributes to plant growth and subsequent grain yields. In this study, wheat seeds during different stages of artificial ageing (45°C; 50% relative humidity; 98%, 50%, 20%, and 1% Germination rates and priming (hydro-priming treatment were subjected to proteomics analysis through a proteomic approach based on the isobaric tandem mass tag labeling. A total of 162 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs mainly involved in metabolism, energy supply, and defense/stress responses, were identified during artificial ageing and thus validated previous physiological and biochemical studies. These DEPs indicated that the inability to protect against ageing leads to the incremental decomposition of the stored substance, impairment of metabolism and energy supply, and ultimately resulted in seed deterioration. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis revealed that the up-regulated proteins involved in seed ageing were mainly enriched in ribosome, whereas the down-regulated proteins were mainly accumulated in energy supply (starch and sucrose metabolism and stress defense (ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Proteins, including hemoglobin 1, oleosin, agglutinin, and non-specific lipid-transfer proteins, were first identified in aged seeds and might be regarded as new markers of seed deterioration. Of the identified proteins, 531 DEPs were recognized during seed priming compared with unprimed seeds. In contrast to the up-regulated DEPs in seed ageing, several up-regulated DEPs in priming were involved in energy supply (tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, and fatty acid oxidation, anabolism (amino acids, and fatty acid synthesis, and cell growth/division. KEGG and protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that the up-regulated proteins in seed priming were

  14. Age groups related glioblastoma study based on radiomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeju; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. Radiomics is a newly emerging and promising technique to reveal the complex relationships between high-throughput medical image features and deep information of disease including pathology, biomarkers and genomics. An approach was developed to investigate the internal relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the age-related origins of glioblastomas based on a quantitative radiomics method. A fully automatic image segmentation method was applied to segment the tumor regions from three dimensional MRI images. 555 features were then extracted from the image data. By analyzing large numbers of quantitative image features, some predictive and prognostic information could be obtained by the radiomics approach. 96 patients diagnosed with glioblastoma pathologically have been divided into two age groups (age groups (T test, p age difference (T test, p= .006). In conclusion, glioblastoma in different age groups present different radiomics-feature patterns with statistical significance, which indicates that glioblastoma in different age groups should have different pathologic, protein, or genic origins.

  15. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. [ed.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  16. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. (ed.); Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  17. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  18. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  19. A quantitative study of a physics-first pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasero, Spencer Lee; /Northern Illinois U.

    2008-09-01

    Hundreds of high schools around the United States have inverted the traditional core sequence of high school science courses, putting physics first, followed by chemistry, and then biology. A quarter-century of theory, opinion, and anecdote are available, but the literature lacks empirical evidence of the effects of the program. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of the program on science achievement gain, growth in attitude toward science, and growth in understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. One hundred eighty-five honor students participated in this quasi-experiment, self-selecting into either the traditional or inverted sequence. Students took the Explore test as freshmen, and the Plan test as sophomores. Gain scores were calculated for the composite scores and for the science and mathematics subscale scores. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) on course sequence and cohort showed significantly greater composite score gains by students taking the inverted sequence. Participants were administered surveys measuring attitude toward science and understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge twice per year. A multilevel growth model, compared across program groups, did not show any significant effect of the inverted sequence on either attitude or understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. The sole significant parameter showed a decline in student attitude independent of course sequence toward science over the first two years of high school. The results of this study support the theory that moving physics to the front of the science sequence can improve achievement. The importance of the composite gain score on tests vertically aligned with the high-stakes ACT is discussed, and several ideas for extensions of the current study are offered.

  20. Psychological markers underlying murder weapon profile: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, M R; Othman, A; Ismail, K H; Mat Saat, G A

    2017-12-01

    The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 male murderers incarcerated in 11 prisons within Peninsular Malaysia. The selection of the sample was based on predetermined selection criteria using a purposive sampling method. A guided self-administered questionnaire comprising sociodemography variables and four Malay validated psychometric instruments: Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-40-Cross-Culture, Self-control Scale, "How I Think" Questionnaire and Aggression Questionnaire; was used. Independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score differences of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple weapons while Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the differences between the specific types of weapons used among the murderers. Following this, one-way ANOVA was carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences among the murderers according to the different sources of weapon. Results indicated specific psychological traits influenced the number(s), source(s) and type(s) of weapon used in committing murder. The findings have implications for the psychological profiling of unknown murderers within the Malaysian context.

  1. Study on the quantitative rod internal pressure design criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Han, Hee Tak

    1991-01-01

    The current rod internal pressure criterion permits fuel rods to operate with internal pressures in excess of system pressure only if internal overpressure does not cause the diametral gap enlargement. In this study, the generic allowable internal gas pressure not violating this criterion is estimated as a function of rod power. The results show that the generic allowable internal gas pressure decreases linearly with the increase of rod power. Application of the generic allowable internal gas pressure for the rod internal pressure design criterion will result in the simplication of the current design procedure for checking the diametral gap enlargement caused by internal overpressure because according to the current design procedure the cladding creepout rate should be compared with the fuel swelling rate at each axial node at each time step whenever internal pressure exceeds the system pressure. (Author)

  2. Quantitative studies of subdiffusion in living cells and actin networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Emilia-Laura; Olsen, Anja Lea; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija

    2006-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a versatile tool in biophysics and have matured from a tool of manipulation to a tool of precise measurements. We argue here that the data analysis with advantage can be developed to a level of sophistication that matches that of the instrument. We review methods of analysis...... of optical tweezers data, primarily baed on the power spectra of time series of postions for trapped spherical objects. The majority of precise studies in the literature are performed on in vitro systems, whereas in the present work, an example of an in vivo system is presented for which precise power...... spectral analysis is both useful and necessary. The biological system is the cytoplasm of fission yeast, S. pombe, in which we observe subdiffusion of lipid granuli. in a search for the cause of subdiffusion, we chemically disrupt the actin network in the cytoplasm and further consider in vitro networks...

  3. Atenolol vs. propranolol in essential tremor. A controlled, quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T A; Teräväinen, H; Calne, D B

    1982-11-01

    The beta-1 selective, hydrophilic adrenoceptor blocking drug atenolol (100 mg daily) was compared to the non-selective, lipid-soluble beta-blocker propranolol (240 mg daily), and to placebo, in a double-blind cross-over study in 24 patients with essential tremor. Atenolol and propranolol caused a similar decrease in heart rate. Both beta-blockers also suppressed the tremor intensity; there was no significant difference between them, but both were significantly better than placebo. These drugs did not affect tremor frequency. Twelve of the patients preferred propranolol subjectively, one preferred atenolol and none preferred placebo. No marked side-effects were observed. It was concluded that atenolol and other cardio-selective blockers offer an alternative for patients unable to tolerate the non-selective drugs. The site of action and receptor sub-type involved have still to be determined.

  4. Introducing a feminist perspective to nursing curricula: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, S; Wang, H

    1994-03-01

    Feminist concerns of the nursing profession are examined and it is argued that feminism provides the ideology and impetus for social change. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on the attitudes and beliefs of nursing students who take a feminist-oriented women's health course. The course went beyond a scientific model of women's health and examined women's health issues as they are related to the concerns of women as consumers and providers. A questionnaire assessing the effects of the course was administered at the beginning and again at the end of the course. Results indicated that the course produced significant changes in the attitudes and beliefs of the experimental subjects in areas of professional activism; high regard for self, nurses, and women; and social activism against sexism in the media and violence against women.

  5. Aging study on atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Issei; Shiomi, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    This is an ad interim report on the survey which is being performed at the Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine for the acceleration of aging in atomic bomb survivors. The survivors group consisted of 50 females between 40 and 49 years of age who were exposed somewhere within 1.4 km where exposure dose could be estimated accurately and whose mean estimated exposure dose was 225.9+-176.8 rads. The control group consisted of females of the same age group who were exposed at sites more than 2.5 km apart (atmospheric dose 2.9 rads). The items for the judgement of aging included physical measurements, external findings, functional findings, and special tests (urine, blood, pattern of serum protein fraction, and chromosome aberrations). As far as chromosome aberrations were concerned, the number of cells with stable aberrations, Cs, showed differences between the two groups, and the number of cells with exchange-type aberrations was large in the survivors group. No significant differences were observed in the other tests. (Serizawa, K.)

  6. Aging road user studies of intersection safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Task 1.1 assessed younger (21-35 years), middle-aged (50-64 years), and older (65+) drivers ability to : quickly perceive the presence of marked/unmarked crosswalks and pedestrians within them in computer-based : laboratory tasks that recorded res...

  7. Episodic and Binge Gambling: An Exploration and Preliminary Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.

  8. Preliminary Study on the Development of Quantitative Safety Culture Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Kim, Hun Sil; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2005-01-01

    Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Because it needs to be recognized as the most significant consciousness to achieve the nuclear safety performance, Korean government and nuclear power generation company have tried to develop the practical method to improve the safety culture from the long term point view. In this study, based on the site interviews to define the potential issues on organizational behavior for the safe operation and the survey on the level of safety culture of occupied workers are conducted. Survey results are quantified as a few indicators of nuclear safety by the statistical method and it can be simulated by the dynamic modeling as time goes on. Currently index and dynamic modeling are still being developed, however, results can be used to suggest the long term strategy which safety is clearly integrated into all activities in the nuclear organization

  9. Managing aging workers: a mixed methods study on bundles of HR practices for aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Dikkers, Josje S. E.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2014-01-01

    Since abilities and motives change with age and common human resource (HR) practices might be less suitable for aging employees, scholars and practitioners are currently challenged to find new ways of managing aging workers and motivating them to continue working. Therefore, this mixed methods study

  10. Late Bronze Age hoard studied by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Neira, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.es [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Farady 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zucchiatti, A., E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Farady 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Montero-Ruiz, I., E-mail: ignacio.montero@cchs.csic.es [CCHS-CSIC, Albasanz 26-28, E 28037 Madrid (Spain); Vilaca, R., E-mail: rvilaca@fl.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, Largo da Porta Ferrea, 3000-447 Coimbra (Portugal); Bottaini, C., E-mail: keret18@yahoo.it [University of Coimbra, Largo da Porta Ferrea, 3000-447 Coimbra (Portugal); Gener, M., E-mail: marc.gener@cchs.csic.es [CCHS-CSIC, Albasanz 26-28, E 28037 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A., E-mail: acf@uam.es [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Farady 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantobalanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni, and Ag has been determined using this ion beam technique. The high tin content alloy and the high purity of the metals from the Freixanda hoard are characteristic of the Portuguese and Spanish Late Bronze Age metallurgy, supporting the idea of a regional production.

  11. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Coluzza, C.; Longo, G.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Negri, P.; Perego, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to γ radiation from a 60 Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured

  13. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T F; Coluzza, C; Longo, G; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to gamma radiation from a 60-Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 nm and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured.

  14. Mammographic features and subsequent risk of breast cancer: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluations in the Guernsey prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; De Stavola, Bianca; Allen, Diane S; Pérez-Gavilán, Juan J; Ferreira, Jorge M; Fentiman, Ian S; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic features are known to be associated with breast cancer but the magnitude of the effect differs markedly from study to study. Methods to assess mammographic features range from subjective qualitative classifications to computer-automated quantitative measures. We used data from the UK Guernsey prospective studies to examine the relative value of these methods in predicting breast cancer risk. In all, 3,211 women ages > or =35 years who had a mammogram taken in 1986 to 1989 were followed-up to the end of October 2003, with 111 developing breast cancer during this period. Mammograms were classified using the subjective qualitative Wolfe classification and several quantitative mammographic features measured using computer-based techniques. Breast cancer risk was positively associated with high-grade Wolfe classification, percent breast density and area of dense tissue, and negatively associated with area of lucent tissue, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Inclusion of the quantitative measures in the same model identified area of dense tissue and lacunarity as the best predictors of breast cancer, with risk increasing by 59% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 29-94%] per SD increase in total area of dense tissue but declining by 39% (95% CI, 53-22%) per SD increase in lacunarity, after adjusting for each other and for other confounders. Comparison of models that included both the qualitative Wolfe classification and these two quantitative measures to models that included either the qualitative or the two quantitative variables showed that they all made significant contributions to prediction of breast cancer risk. These findings indicate that breast cancer risk is affected not only by the amount of mammographic density but also by the degree of heterogeneity of the parenchymal pattern and, presumably, by other features captured by the Wolfe classification.

  15. Clinical studies of renal morphological changes with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Kawamura, Juichi; Tomoyoshi, Tadao; Yoshida, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    We studied the change of renal shape due to development and aging by using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy. In pediatric age group, the angle between renal longitudinal axis and the lumbar vertebrae is small but becomes larger with aging. The renal size grows with aging in the adult age group, and becomes largest. In geriatric age group it decreases with aging. The stability of renal position is marked in the adult age group, but in the pediatric and geriatric age group it seemed unstable. Renal contour is smooth in the pediatric and adult age group but unsmooth in the geriatric. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal image shows diffusely homogeneous renal uptake in the pediatric and adult age groups but not homogeneous in the geriatric. (author)

  16. Quantitative Comparison of Un-Stimulated Whole Saliva Flow Rate Among Menopausal Women and Same Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ahadian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Menopause can be associated with psycho-somatic changes in oro-facial areas like xerostomia and Burning Mouth Syndrome, although these findings are controversial. The present study sought to compare the Un-stimulated Whole Saliva (UWS flow rate of a group including menopausal & postmenopausal women and same-aged men.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional analytic-descriptive study 40 menopausal & post-menopausal women (as experimental-group and 40 same-aged men (as control group without any systemic diseases and any drug consumption were divided into 2 groups, xerostomia was evaluated by a questionnaire, and their psychological conditions were assessed with HAD scale. UWS flow rate was measured by the spitting method. Data were analyzed by chi-square, Krusscal Walis and Mann-Whitney tests.

    Results: Mean of UWS flow rates in experimental group was significantly less than that in control group (P=0.006; no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding psychological condition. Also, menopausal women had significantly greater xerostomia than men (45% vs 15% (P=0.003.

    Conclusion: Based on this study, xerostomia and reduction in UWS flow rate are sequences of menopause, these findings necessitate the increasing awareness of menopausal & postmenopausal women for controlling the methods of these problems

  17. Quantitative Comparison of Un-Stimulated Whole Saliva Flow Rate Among Menopausal Women and Same Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadian H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Menopause can be associated with psycho-somatic changes in oro-facial areas like xerostomia and Burning Mouth Syndrome, although these findings are controversial. The present study sought to compare the Un-stimulated Whole Saliva (UWS flow rate of a group including menopausal & postmenopausal women and same-aged men.Methods: In this cross-sectional analytic-descriptive study 40 menopausal & post-menopausal women (as experimental-group and 40 same-aged men (as control group without any systemic diseases and any drug consumption were divided into 2 groups, xerostomia was evaluated by a questionnaire, and their psychological conditions were assessed with HAD scale. UWS flow rate was measured by the spitting method. Data were analyzed by chi-square, Krusscal Walis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Mean of UWS flow rates in experimental group was significantly less than that in control group (P=0.006; no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding psychological condition. Also, menopausal women had significantly greater xerostomia than men (45% vs 15% (P=0.003.Conclusion: Based on this study, xerostomia and reduction in UWS flow rate are sequences of menopause, these findings necessitate the increasing awareness of menopausal & postmenopausal women for controlling the methods of these problems.Keywords: Menopause; Xerostomia; Saliva.

  18. Patient expectations of treatment for back pain - A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos; Sengers, Marie-José; Riemens, Linda; Haafkens, Joke

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. Objectives. To summarize evidence from studies among patients with low back pain on their expectations and satisfaction with treatment as part of practice guideline development. Summary of Background Data. Patients are often

  19. Relative age and birthplace effect in Japanese professional sports: a quantitative evaluation using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Relative age effect (RAE) in sports has been well documented. Recent studies investigate the effect of birthplace in addition to the RAE. The first objective of this study was to show the magnitude of the RAE in two major professional sports in Japan, baseball and soccer. Second, we examined the birthplace effect and compared its magnitude with that of the RAE. The effect sizes were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with the number of players as dependent variable. The RAEs were 9.0% and 7.7% per month for soccer and baseball, respectively. These estimates imply that children born in the first month of a school year have about three times greater chance of becoming a professional player than those born in the last month of the year. Over half of the difference in likelihoods of becoming a professional player between birthplaces was accounted for by weather conditions, with the likelihood decreasing by 1% per snow day. An effect of population size was not detected in the data. By investigating different samples, we demonstrated that using quarterly data leads to underestimation and that the age range of sampled athletes should be set carefully.

  20. Rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead isotopic age studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of five Rb-Sr isotopic age studies predominantly on whole-rock samples, and six U-Pb studies on zircon monazite concentrates are presented. Descriptions of the geological problems and interpretations of the measured ages are included. Laboratory age determination methods and techniques are described or referenced

  1. Study of the aging processes in polyurethane adhesives using thermal treatment and differential calorimetric, dielectric, and mechanical techniques ; 1, identifying the aging processes ; 2, quantifying the aging effect

    CERN Document Server

    Althouse, L P

    1979-01-01

    Study of the aging processes in polyurethane adhesives using thermal treatment and differential calorimetric, dielectric, and mechanical techniques ; 1, identifying the aging processes ; 2, quantifying the aging effect

  2. Pilot study of quantitative analysis of background enhancement on breast MR images: association with menstrual cycle and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Fleming, Rachel; Jacks, Lindsay M; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Crystal, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    To perform semiautomated quantitative analysis of the background enhancement (BE) in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and to correlate it with mammographic breast density and menstrual cycle. Informed consent was waived after the research ethics board approved this study. Results of 177 consecutive preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed from February to December 2009 were reviewed; 147 female patients (median age, 48 years; range, 26-86 years) were included. Ordinal values of BE and breast density were described by two independent readers by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The BE coefficient (BEC) was calculated thus: (SI2 · 100/SI1) - 100, where SI is signal intensity, SI2 is the SI enhancement measured in the largest anteroposterior dimension in the axial plane 1 minute after the contrast agent injection, and SI1is the SI before contrast agent injection. BEC was used for the quantitative analysis of BE. Menstrual cycle status was based on the last menstrual period. The Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative assessment groups. Cohen weighted κ was used to evaluate agreement. Of 147 patients, 68 (46%) were premenopausal and 79 (54%) were postmenopausal. The quantitative BEC was associated with the menstrual status (BEC in premenopausal women, 31.48 ± 20.68 [standard deviation]; BEC in postmenopausal women, 25.65 ± 16.74; P = .02). The percentage of overall BE was higher when the MR imaging was performed in women in the inadequate phase of the cycle (quantitative BE than postmenopausal women. No association was found between BE and breast density.

  3. Differences in physical aging measured by walking speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Physical functioning and mobility of older populations are of increasing interest when populations are aging. Lower body functioning such as walking is a fundamental part of many actions in daily life. Limitations in mobility threaten independent living as well as quality of life in old age. In this study we examine differences in physical aging and convert those differences into the everyday measure of single years of age. We use the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which was collected biennially between 2002 and 2012. Data on physical performance, health as well as information on economics and demographics of participants were collected. Lower body performance was assessed with two timed walks at normal pace each of 8 ft (2.4 m) of survey participants aged at least 60 years. We employed growth curve models to study differences in physical aging and followed the characteristic-based age approach to illustrate those differences in single years of age. First, we examined walking speed of about 11,700 English individuals, and identified differences in aging trajectories by sex and other characteristics (e.g. education, occupation, regional wealth). Interestingly, higher educated and non-manual workers outperformed their counterparts for both men and women. Moreover, we transformed the differences between subpopulations into single years of age to demonstrate the magnitude of those gaps, which appear particularly high at early older ages. This paper expands research on aging and physical performance. In conclusion, higher education provides an advantage in walking of up to 15 years for men and 10 years for women. Thus, enhancements in higher education have the potential to ensure better mobility and independent living in old age for a longer period.

  4. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies

  5. Qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphic traits in patients with breast cancer: a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuteja Amita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most extensively studied cancers and its genetic basis is well established. Dermatoglyphic traits are formed under genetic control early in development but may be affected by environmental factors during first trimester of pregnancy. They however do not change significantly thereafter, thus maintaining stability not greatly affected by age. These patterns may represent the genetic make up of an individual and therefore his/her predisposition to certain diseases. Patterns of dermatoglyphics have been studied in various congenital disorders like Down's syndrome and Kleinfelter syndrome. The prints can thus represent a non-invasive anatomical marker of breast cancer risk and thus facilitate early detection and treatment. Methods The study was conducted on 60 histo-pathologically confirmed breast cancer patients and their digital dermatoglyphic patterns were studied to assess their association with the type and onset of breast cancer. Simultaneously 60 age-matched controls were also selected that had no self or familial history of a diagnosed breast cancer and the observations were recorded. The differences of qualitative (dermatoglyphic patterns data were tested for their significance using the chi-square test, and for quantitative (ridge counts and pattern intensity index data using the t- test. Results It was observed that six or more whorls in the finger print pattern were statistically significant among the cancer patients as compared to controls. It was also seen that whorls in the right ring finger and right little finger were found increased among the cases as compared to controls. The differences between mean pattern intensity index of cases and controls were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion The dermatoglyphic patterns may be utilized effectively to study the genetic basis of breast cancer and may also serve as a screening tool in the high-risk population. In a developing

  6. Using ISOS consensus test protocols for development of quantitative life test models in ageing of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Stoichkov, V.; Kumar, D.

    2017-01-01

    As Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) development matures, the demand grows for rapid characterisation of degradation and application of Quantitative Accelerated Life Tests (QALT) models to predict and improve reliability. To date, most accelerated testing on OPVs has been conducted using ISOS consensus...

  7. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 {+-} 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative Correlational Study: Emotional Intelligence and Project Outcomes among Hispanics in Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The present quantitative correlational research study explored relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) competencies, such as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management, and project management outcomes: scope creep, in-budget project cost, and project timeliness. The study was conducted within the…

  9. Meta-Analysis of Results from Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Studies on Pig Chromosome 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Silva, De K.M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Knol, E.F.; Merks, J.W.M.; Lopes, P.S.; Guimaraes, R.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis of results from multiple studies could lead to more precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) position estimates compared to the individual experiments. As the raw data from many different studies are not readily available, the use of results from published articles may be helpful. In this

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Poverty: Taming the Tensions and Appreciating the Complementarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarabe Kura, Sulaiman Y.

    2012-01-01

    There is a germane relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to social science research. The relationship is empirically and theoretically demonstrated by poverty researchers. The study of poverty, as argued in this article, is a study of both numbers and contextualities. This article provides a general overview of qualitative…

  11. A Quantitative Correlational Study of Teacher Preparation Program on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Jacob Blackstone

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to identify the relationship between the type of teacher preparation program and student performance on the seventh and eighth grade mathematics state assessments in rural school settings. The study included a survey of a convenience sample of 36 teachers from Colorado and Washington school…

  12. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  13. Quantitative study on the statistical properties of fibre architecture of genuine and numerical composite microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study is carried out regarding the statistical properties of the fibre architecture found in composite laminates and that generated numerically using Statistical Representative Volume Elements (SRVE’s). The aim is to determine the reliability and consistency of SRVE’s for represent......A quantitative study is carried out regarding the statistical properties of the fibre architecture found in composite laminates and that generated numerically using Statistical Representative Volume Elements (SRVE’s). The aim is to determine the reliability and consistency of SRVE...

  14. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  15. A study on the quantitative model of human response time using the amount and the similarity of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Jin

    2006-02-01

    The mental capacity to retain or recall information, or memory is related to human performance during processing of information. Although a large number of studies have been carried out on human performance, little is known about the similarity effect. The purpose of this study was to propose and validate a quantitative and predictive model on human response time in the user interface with the basic concepts of information amount, similarity and degree of practice. It was difficult to explain human performance by only similarity or information amount. There were two difficulties: constructing a quantitative model on human response time and validating the proposed model by experimental work. A quantitative model based on the Hick's law, the law of practice and similarity theory was developed. The model was validated under various experimental conditions by measuring the participants' response time in the environment of a computer-based display. Human performance was improved by degree of similarity and practice in the user interface. Also we found the age-related human performance which was degraded as he or she was more elder. The proposed model may be useful for training operators who will handle some interfaces and predicting human performance by changing system design

  16. A Study of Cognitive Load for Enhancing Student’s Quantitative Literacy in Inquiry Lab Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahman, T.; Alifiani, D. P.; Khoerunnisa, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Students often find it difficult to appreciate the relevance of the role of quantitative analysis and concept attainment in the science class. This study measured student cognitive load during the inquiry lab of the respiratory system to improve quantitative literacy. Participants in this study were 40 11th graders from senior high school in Indonesia. After students learned, their feelings about the degree of mental effort that it took to complete the learning tasks were measured by 28 self-report on a 4-point Likert scale. The Task Complexity Worksheet were used to asses processing quantitative information and paper based test were applied to assess participants’ concept achievements. The results showed that inquiry instructional induced a relatively low mental effort, high processing information and high concept achievments.

  17. Surgical anatomy of the sternoclavicular joint: a qualitative and quantitative anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jared T; Campbell, Kevin J; Michalski, Max P; Wilson, Katharine J; Spiegl, Ulrich J A; Wijdicks, Coen A; Millett, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The quantitative anatomical relationships of the main ligamentous, tendinous, and osseous structures of the sternoclavicular joint have not been widely investigated. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative description of the sternoclavicular joint in relation to relevant surgical landmarks. We dissected eleven nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric sternoclavicular joints from four men and seven women (mean age at death, fifty-three years; range, thirty-three to sixty-four years) and measured the ligaments, musculature, and osseous landmarks with use of a three-dimensional coordinate-measuring device. The clavicular pectoralis ridge, located at the 9:30 clock-face position on a right clavicle, served as a reliable osseous landmark for reference to the soft-tissue attachments around the sternoclavicular joint. The costoclavicular ligament was the largest ligament of the sternoclavicular joint, with 80% greater footprint area than that of the posterior sternoclavicular ligament. Articular cartilage covered 67% of the medial end of the clavicle and was located anteroinferiorly. The sternohyoid muscle inserted directly over the posterior sternoclavicular joint and the medial end of the clavicle, whereas the sternothyroid muscle inserted 9.5 mm inferior to the posterior-superior articular margin of the manubrium and coursed 19.8 mm laterally along the first rib. An avascular plane that can serve as a "safe zone" for posterior dissection was observed in each specimen, posterior to the sternoclavicular joint and anterior to the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles. The clavicular pectoralis ridge can be used as an intraoperative guide for clavicle orientation and tunnel placement in sternoclavicular ligament reconstruction. Sternoclavicular joint resection arthroplasty should avoid injuring the costoclavicular ligament, which is the largest sternoclavicular joint ligament. Resection of only the anteroinferior aspect of the medial end of the clavicle may

  18. Correlation analysis between bone density measured by quantitative CT and blood sugar level of aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guizhi; Liang Ping; Qiao Junhua; Liu Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To approach the correlation between the bone density measured by quantitative CT and the blood sugar level of the aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and observe the effects of the blood sugar level on the bone density. Methods: The lumbar bone densities and the blood sugar levels of 160 aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia group 80 cases, euglycemia group 80 cases ) and the healthy aged people (80 cases) were detected by quantitative CT and serum biochemical detection; the correlation between the blood sugar level and the bone density and the osteoporosis occurrence status of aged people in various groups were analyzed. Results: The bone density in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hyperglycemia group was lower than those in normal (control) group and non-insulin-dependent diabetes and euglycemia group (P<0.05); the morbility of osteoporosis in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hyperglycemia group was higher than those in normal (control) group and non-insulin-dependent diabetes and euglycemia group (P<0.05); negative correlation was found between the bone density and the blood sugar level (aged male group: r=-0.7382, P=0.0013; aged female group: r=-0.8343, P=0.0007). Conclusion: The blood sugar level affects the bone density of the aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; the higher the blood sugar level, the lower the bone density. The non-insulin-dependent diabetes aged patients with hyperglycemia have the liability of osteoporosis. (authors)

  19. Is There Successful Aging for Nonagenarians? The Vitality 90+ Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Nosraty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was designed (1 to estimate the prevalence of successful aging among nonagenarians based on six different models and (2 to investigate whether successful aging is associated with socio-demographic factors. Methods. A mailed survey was conducted with people aged 90+ in Tampere in 2010. Responses were received from 1283 people. The prevalence of successful aging was measured by six multidimensional models including physical, social, and psychological components. Age, sex, marital status, level of education, and place of living were studied as factors associated with successful aging. Results. The prevalence of successful aging varied from 1.6% to 18.3% depending on the model applied. Successful aging was more prevalent in men, and also more prevalent among community-living people. In most models, successful aging was also associated with younger age, being married, and a higher level of education. Discussion. Models which emphasize the absence of disease and activity as criteria for successful aging may not be the most relevant and applicable in oldest old. Instead, preference should be given to models that focus more on autonomy, adaptation and sense of purpose. Age-sensitive approaches would help us better understand the potential of successful aging among individuals who already have success in longevity.

  20. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo

    1996-01-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  1. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author).

  2. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in m...

  3. Lessons from the Bone Chapter of the Malaysian Aging Men Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis in Malaysia is a largely neglected problem. Therefore, a bone health study in men using quantitative ultrasonometry was launched as part of the Malaysian Aging Men Study in 2009–2012. This review aimed to summarize the findings of the aforementioned bone health study. The study examined the bone health of Chinese and Malaysian men aged 20 years and above living in Kuala Lumpur using a quantitative ultrasound device. Participants answered a questionnaire on their demographic details and physical activity status. Body anthropometry of the participants was measured and their blood collected for biochemical analysis. Results showed that a significant proportion of the Malaysian Chinese and Malay men had suboptimal bone health indicated by calcaneal speed of sound and vitamin D status. Age-related decline of the calcaneal speed of sound in these men was gradual and biphasic without ethnic difference. Body anthropometry such as height, weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage contributed to the variation of the calcaneal speed of sound in Malaysian men. Age-related changes in testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and thyroid stimulating hormone also influenced the calcaneal speed of sound in these men. This study serves as a reminder that male osteoporosis in Malaysia should be an issue of concern. It is also a basis for a more comprehensive study on bone health in men in the future.

  4. Lessons from the Bone Chapter of the Malaysian Aging Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-05-25

    Male osteoporosis in Malaysia is a largely neglected problem. Therefore, a bone health study in men using quantitative ultrasonometry was launched as part of the Malaysian Aging Men Study in 2009-2012. This review aimed to summarize the findings of the aforementioned bone health study. The study examined the bone health of Chinese and Malaysian men aged 20 years and above living in Kuala Lumpur using a quantitative ultrasound device. Participants answered a questionnaire on their demographic details and physical activity status. Body anthropometry of the participants was measured and their blood collected for biochemical analysis. Results showed that a significant proportion of the Malaysian Chinese and Malay men had suboptimal bone health indicated by calcaneal speed of sound and vitamin D status. Age-related decline of the calcaneal speed of sound in these men was gradual and biphasic without ethnic difference. Body anthropometry such as height, weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage contributed to the variation of the calcaneal speed of sound in Malaysian men. Age-related changes in testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and thyroid stimulating hormone also influenced the calcaneal speed of sound in these men. This study serves as a reminder that male osteoporosis in Malaysia should be an issue of concern. It is also a basis for a more comprehensive study on bone health in men in the future.

  5. Quantitative Lymphoscintigraphy to Predict the Possibility of Lymphedema Development After Breast Cancer Surgery: Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Heung Kyu; Park, Ki Deok

    2017-12-01

    To predict the probability of lymphedema development in breast cancer patients in the early post-operation stage, we investigated the ability of quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment. This retrospective study included 201 patients without lymphedema after unilateral breast cancer surgery. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery to evaluate the lymphatic system in the early postoperative stage. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy was performed using four methods: ratio of radiopharmaceutical clearance rate of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake rate of the affected to normal axilla (RUA); and ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal axilla (RRA). During a 1-year follow-up, patients with a circumferential interlimb difference of 2 cm at any measurement location and a 200-mL interlimb volume difference were diagnosed with lymphedema. We investigated the difference in quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment between the non-lymphedema and lymphedema groups. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment revealed that the RUA and RRA were significantly lower in the lymphedema group than in the non-lymphedema group. After adjusting the model for all significant variables (body mass index, N-stage, T-stage, type of surgery, and type of lymph node surgery), RRA was associated with lymphedema (odds ratio=0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.46; p=0.001). In patients in the early postoperative stage after unilateral breast cancer surgery, quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment can be used to predict the probability of developing lymphedema.

  6. Quantitative fetal fibronectin and cervical length in symptomatic women: results from a prospective blinded cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Downes, Katheryne L; Romero, Julie A; Pappas, Hope; Elovitz, Michal A

    2018-05-15

    Our objectives were to determine whether quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) and cervical length (CL) screening can be used alone or in combination as prognostic tests to identify symptomatic women at the highest or lowest risk for spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). A prospective, blinded cohort study of women presenting with a singleton gestation to our triage unit between 22-33w6d with preterm labor symptoms was performed. Women with ruptured membranes, moderate/severe bleeding, and dilation >2 cm were excluded. The primary outcome was sPTB quantitative fFN and CL assessment, both separately and in combination, considering traditionally reported cut-points (fFN ≥50 and CL 50 and CL quantitative level chosen. For all women, a shorter CL was associated with an increased sPTB risk. Among nulliparas and multiparas without a prior sPTB, a CL quantitative fFN or cervical length assessment can be utilized, depending on resources available, but a lower cut-point of 20 ng/mL should be used for quantitative fFN. For multiparous women, fFN is not useful and cervical length assessment should be the main screening tool utilized when there is clinical uncertainty. Regardless of parity, the PPV of fFN and CL is low and therefore the greatest clinical utility remains in its NPV.

  7. GWAPower: a statistical power calculation software for genome-wide association studies with quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sheng; Wang, Shengchu; Chen, Chia-Cheng; Lan, Lan

    2011-01-21

    In designing genome-wide association (GWA) studies it is important to calculate statistical power. General statistical power calculation procedures for quantitative measures often require information concerning summary statistics of distributions such as mean and variance. However, with genetic studies, the effect size of quantitative traits is traditionally expressed as heritability, a quantity defined as the amount of phenotypic variation in the population that can be ascribed to the genetic variants among individuals. Heritability is hard to transform into summary statistics. Therefore, general power calculation procedures cannot be used directly in GWA studies. The development of appropriate statistical methods and a user-friendly software package to address this problem would be welcomed. This paper presents GWAPower, a statistical software package of power calculation designed for GWA studies with quantitative traits, where genetic effect is defined as heritability. Based on several popular one-degree-of-freedom genetic models, this method avoids the need to specify the non-centrality parameter of the F-distribution under the alternative hypothesis. Therefore, it can use heritability information directly without approximation. In GWAPower, the power calculation can be easily adjusted for adding covariates and linkage disequilibrium information. An example is provided to illustrate GWAPower, followed by discussions. GWAPower is a user-friendly free software package for calculating statistical power based on heritability in GWA studies with quantitative traits. The software is freely available at: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/10502931/GWAPower.zip.

  8. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  9. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships and Docking Studies of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Kyani, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    Defining the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine pathogenesis could lead to the application of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists as novel migraine therapeutics. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of biological activities of a large range...... of calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists was performed using a panel of physicochemical descriptors. The computational studies evaluated different variable selection techniques and demonstrated shuffling stepwise multiple linear regression to be superior over genetic algorithm-multiple linear regression....... The linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model revealed better statistical parameters of cross-validation in comparison with the non-linear support vector regression technique. Implementing only five peptide descriptors into this linear quantitative structure-activity relationship model...

  10. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year's findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to γ radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H 2 . Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs

  11. Quantitative radiomics studies for tissue characterization: a review of technology and methodological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Ruben T H M; Defraene, Gilles; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Philippe; van Elmpt, Wouter

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of tumour characteristics based on medical imaging is an emerging field of research. In recent years, quantitative imaging features derived from CT, positron emission tomography and MR scans were shown to be of added value in the prediction of outcome parameters in oncology, in what is called the radiomics field. However, results might be difficult to compare owing to a lack of standardized methodologies to conduct quantitative image analyses. In this review, we aim to present an overview of the current challenges, technical routines and protocols that are involved in quantitative imaging studies. The first issue that should be overcome is the dependency of several features on the scan acquisition and image reconstruction parameters. Adopting consistent methods in the subsequent target segmentation step is evenly crucial. To further establish robust quantitative image analyses, standardization or at least calibration of imaging features based on different feature extraction settings is required, especially for texture- and filter-based features. Several open-source and commercial software packages to perform feature extraction are currently available, all with slightly different functionalities, which makes benchmarking quite challenging. The number of imaging features calculated is typically larger than the number of patients studied, which emphasizes the importance of proper feature selection and prediction model-building routines to prevent overfitting. Even though many of these challenges still need to be addressed before quantitative imaging can be brought into daily clinical practice, radiomics is expected to be a critical component for the integration of image-derived information to personalize treatment in the future.

  12. The Relationship between Stress, Coping Style, and Academic Satisfaction: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge-Windover, Sheila T.

    2017-01-01

    College students experience a great deal of stress, which is associated with poor health and poor levels of academic satisfaction which can lead to low retention. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate how stress and coping style predict academic satisfaction and understand how and if coping style moderates the…

  13. A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Leadership Practice and Strategic Intentions to Use Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alan F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational cross-sectional research study was to examine a theoretical model consisting of leadership practice, attitudes of business process outsourcing, and strategic intentions of leaders to use cloud computing and to examine the relationships between each of the variables respectively. This study…

  14. A Qualitative and Quantitative Assay to Study DNA/Drug Interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Article. A Qualitative and Quantitative Assay to Study. DNA/Drug Interaction Based on Sequence Selective. Inhibition of Restriction Endonucleases. Syed A Hassan1*, Lata Chauhan2, Ritu Barthwal2 and Aparna Dixit3. 1 Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdul Aziz University, Rabigh-21911 ...

  15. Assessment of precision and concordance of quantitative mitochondrial DNA assays: a collaborative international quality assurance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, Emma L.; Sayer, David; Nolan, David; Walker, Ulrich A.; Ronde, Anthony de; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Cote, Helene C. F.; Gahan, Michelle E.; Cherry, Catherine L.; Wesselingh, Steven L.; Reiss, Peter; Mallal, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Background: A number of international research groups have developed DNA quantitation assays in order to investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA depletion in anti-retroviral therapy-induced toxicities. Objectives: A collaborative study was undertaken to evaluate intra-assay precision and between

  16. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Acha, Moshe Ray; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lyneh, Stacey N.; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Brunak, Soren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Ikea W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes

  17. Leaving Quietly? A Quantitative Study of Retirement Rituals and How They Affect Life Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaard, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study quantitatively explores the understudied topic of retirement rituals, what factors influence them, and how the experience of such rites of passage may affect postretirement satisfaction with life (SWL). Various regression techniques are applied to 2 waves of Dutch panel data gathered

  18. A Quantitative Comparative Study of Blended and Traditional Models in the Secondary Advanced Placement Statistics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Susan T.

    2017-01-01

    Technology is becoming an integral tool in the classroom and can make a positive impact on how the students learn. This quantitative comparative research study examined gender-based differences among secondary Advanced Placement (AP) Statistic students comparing Educational Testing Service (ETS) College Board AP Statistic examination scores…

  19. Immunohistochemical Markers for Quantitative Studies of Neurons and Glia in Human Neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Dalmau, Ishar; Chemnitz, John

    2007-01-01

    Reproducible visualisation of neurons and glia in human brain is essential for quantitative studies of the cellular changes in neurological disease. However, immunohistochemistry in human brain specimens is often compromised due to prolonged fixation. To select cell-lineage specific antibodies fo...

  20. Trilingual Code-Switching Using Quantitative Lenses: An Exploratory Study on Hokaglish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a quantitative approach, this paper highlights findings of an exploratory study on Hokaglish, initially describing it as a trilingual code-switching phenomenon involving Hokkien, Tagalog, and English in a Filipino-Chinese enclave in Binondo, Manila, the Philippines. Departing from the (socio)linguistic landscape of the archipelagic…

  1. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  2. Quantitative study of late injury in the irradiated mouse lung using computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Masahiro; Furuse, Takeshi; Rapachietta, D.R.; Kallman, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    It is reported that quantitative histological analysis using current imaging technology and computer graphics is useful in studying late injury in the irradiated lung (with and without added chemotherapy), and that it correlated closely with results of the functional breathing rate test. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig

  3. Brain tissues atrophy is not always the best structural biomarker of physiological aging: A multimodal cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Andrea; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Péran, Patrice; Sabatini, Umberto; Cosentino, Carlo; Amato, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a voxel-based multiple regression analysis of different magnetic resonance image modalities, including anatomical T1-weighted, T2* relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative parameters sensitive to complementary brain tissue alterations, including morphometric atrophy, mineralization, microstructural damage, and anisotropy loss, were compared in a linear physiological aging model in 140 healthy subjects (range 20-74 years). The performance of different predictors and the identification of the best biomarker of age-induced structural variation were compared without a priori anatomical knowledge. The best quantitative predictors in several brain regions were iron deposition and microstructural damage, rather than macroscopic tissue atrophy. Age variations were best resolved with a combination of markers, suggesting that multiple predictors better capture age-induced tissue alterations. These findings highlight the importance of a combined evaluation of multimodal biomarkers for the study of aging and point to a number of novel applications for the method described.

  4. Heel quantitative ultrasound in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Castronuovo, Daniela; Di Gregorio, Adriana; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Gussio, Maria; Borderi, Marco; Maggi, Paolo; Santoro, Carmen Rita; Madeddu, Giordano; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    HIV infection has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard to assess bone mineral density (BMD); however, it is not easily accessible in several settings. Heel Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a radiation-free, easy-to-perform technique, which may help reducing the need for DXA. In this cross-sectional study, we used heel QUS (Hologic Sahara(®)) to assess bone status in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. A QUS stiffness index (QUI) threshold >83 was used to identify patients with a low likelihood of osteoporosis. Moreover, we compared QUS results with those of 36 sex- and age-matched HIV-negative controls. 244 HIV-positive patients were enrolled. Median heel QUI value was 83 (73-96) vs. 93 (IQR 84-104) in the control group (p = 0.04). 110 patients (45 %) had a QUI value ≤83. Risk factors for low QUI values were age (OR 1.04 per year, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.004), current use of protease inhibitors (OR 1.85, CI 1.03-3.35, p = 0.039), current use of tenofovir (OR 2.28, CI 1.22-4.27, p = 0.009) and the number of risk factors for secondary osteoporosis (OR 1.46, CI 1.09-1.95, p = 0.01). Of note, QUI values were significantly correlated with FRAX score (r = -0.22, p = 0.004). According to EACS guidelines, 45 % of patients had risk factors for osteoporosis which make them eligible for DXA. By using QUS, we may avoid DXA in around half of them. As HIV-positive patients are living longer, the prevalence of osteoporosis is expected to increase over time. Appropriate screening, prevention and treatment are crucial to preserve bone health in this population. The use of screening techniques, such as heel QUS, may help reducing the need for DXA. Further studies are needed to define the diagnostic accuracy of this promising technique in the setting of HIV.

  5. Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), Broad Band Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS) in a population of normal females aged from 8 to 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagni, B.; Corazzari, T.; Bagni, I.; Garuti, F.; Franceschetto, A.; Casolo, A.; Pansini, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate, in a population of young healthy females aged from 8 to 20 years the bone mass peak (or density), the normal ranges versus age and menarche-age using two method: pQCT (peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography) and ultrasound absorptiometry. Material and Methods: From 1998 to 2000 selective measurement of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of trabecular bone at the ultradistal radius using pQCT, BUA (Broad Band Attenuation) and SOS ( Speed Of Sound) was carried out on 426 healthy females (aged from 8 to 20 years) in north Italy. BMD were measured using a single photon miniaturized tomographic scanner in the ultradistal radius, SOS and BUA were measured at the same time, using a water bath device obtaining parametric bidimensional images of BUA and SOS. The population studied refers to normal females free of bone metabolism alteration, in pre and post-pubertal status. Results: A normal range of BMD, BUA and SOS versus age and menarche age were established. A linear correlation was found between BUA and BMD measured with pQCT. SOS does not show any correlation with BMD. The pre-puberty and the post-puberty groups show statistically significant differences between SOS, BUA and BMD. We found the peak bone density (measured with pQCT) in the trabecular bone at the ultradistal radius at 15 years of age (mean menarche age of 10 years). The same position of the peak was found for BUA, for SOS the situation is not well defined. The analytical fitting of the data highlights a polynomial correlation of BMD vs. age, SOS vs. age, BUA vs. age. Conclusions: It appears that the sexual growth influences the position of peak bone density. The results obtained show a statistically significant correlation between BUA and BMD versus age, the menarche-age and the period of exposure of bone tissue to the oestrogen. After all, pQCT and ultrasound are useful techniques to evaluate bone density and structure also in a growing population. The results of this study shows the

  6. Quantitative study of tectonic geomorphology along Haiyuan fault based on airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Zhang, Pei Zhen; Liu, Jing; Li, Chuan You; Ren, Zhi Kun; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    High-precision and high-resolution topography are the fundamental data for active fault research. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) presents a new approach to build detailed digital elevation models effectively. We take the Haiyuan fault in Gansu Province as an example of how LiDAR data may be used to improve the study of active faults and the risk assessment of related hazards. In the eastern segment of the Haiyuan fault, the Shaomayin site has been comprehensively investigated in previous research because of its exemplary tectonic topographic features. Based on unprecedented LiDAR data, the horizontal and vertical coseismic offsets at the Shaomayin site are described. The measured horizontal value is about 8.6 m, and the vertical value is about 0.8 m. Using prior dating ages sampled from the same location, we estimate the horizontal slip rate as 4.0 ± 1.0 mm/a with high confidence and define that the lower bound of the vertical slip rate is 0.4 ± 0.1 mm/a since the Holocene. LiDAR data can repeat the measurements of field work on quantifying offsets of tectonic landform features quite well. The offset landforms are visualized on an office computer workstation easily, and specialized software may be used to obtain displacement quantitatively. By combining precious chronological results, the fundamental link between fault activity and large earthquakes is better recognized, as well as the potential risk for future earthquake hazards.

  7. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional fibrillar collagen microstructure within the normal, aged and glaucomatous human optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H J; Girard, M J; White, N; Fautsch, M P; Morgan, J E; Ethier, C R; Albon, J

    2015-05-06

    The aim of this study was to quantify connective tissue fibre orientation and alignment in young, old and glaucomatous human optic nerve heads (ONH) to understand ONH microstructure and predisposition to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Transverse (seven healthy, three glaucomatous) and longitudinal (14 healthy) human ONH cryosections were imaged by both second harmonic generation microscopy and small angle light scattering (SALS) in order to quantify preferred fibre orientation (PFO) and degree of fibre alignment (DOFA). DOFA was highest within the peripapillary sclera (ppsclera), with relatively low values in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Elderly ppsclera DOFA was higher than that in young ppsclera (p < 0.00007), and generally higher than in glaucoma ppsclera. In all LCs, a majority of fibres had preferential orientation horizontally across the nasal-temporal axis. In all glaucomatous LCs, PFO was significantly different from controls in a minimum of seven out of 12 LC regions (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher fibre alignment was observed in the glaucomatous inferior-temporal LC (p < 0.017). The differences between young and elderly ONH fibre alignment within regions suggest that age-related microstructural changes occur within the structure. The additional differences in fibre alignment observed within the glaucomatous LC may reflect an inherent susceptibility to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, or may be a consequence of ONH remodelling and/or collapse.

  8. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative redox imaging biomarkers for studying tissue metabolic state and its heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NAD+/NADH redox state has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes as well as in the regulation of embryonic development and aging. To fluorimetrically assess the mitochondrial redox state, Dr. Chance and co-workers measured the fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp including flavin–adenine–dinucleotide (FAD and demonstrated their ratio (i.e. the redox ratio is a sensitive indicator of the mitochondrial redox states. The Chance redox scanner was built to simultaneously measure NADH and Fp in tissue at submillimeter scale in 3D using the freeze-trap protocol. This paper summarizes our recent research experience, development and new applications of the redox scanning technique in collaboration with Dr. Chance beginning in 2005. Dr. Chance initiated or actively involved in many of the projects during the last several years of his life. We advanced the redox scanning technique by measuring the nominal concentrations (in reference to the frozen solution standards of the endogenous fluorescent analytes, i.e., [NADH] and [Fp] to quantify the redox ratios in various biological tissues. The advancement has enabled us to identify an array of the redox indices as quantitative imaging biomarkers (including [NADH], [Fp], [Fp]/([NADH]+[Fp], [NADH]/[Fp], and their standard deviations for studying some important biological questions on cancer and normal tissue metabolism. We found that the redox indices were associated or changed with (1 tumorigenesis (cancer versus non-cancer of human breast tissue biopsies; (2 tumor metastatic potential; (3 tumor glucose uptake; (4 tumor p53 status; (5 PI3K pathway activation in pre-malignant tissue; (6 therapeutic effects on tumors; (7 embryonic stem cell differentiation; (8 the heart under fasting. Together, our work demonstrated that the tissue redox indices obtained from the redox scanning technique may provide useful information about tissue metabolism and physiology status in normal

  10. Identification of Users for a Smoking Cessation Mobile App: Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalking, S K Leon; Ben Allouch, Somaya; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2018-04-09

    The number of mobile apps that support smoking cessation is growing, indicating the potential of the mobile phone as a means to support cessation. Knowledge about the potential end users for cessation apps results in suggestions to target potential user groups in a dissemination strategy, leading to a possible increase in the satisfaction and adherence of cessation apps. This study aimed to characterize potential end users for a specific mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation app. A quantitative study was conducted among 955 Dutch smokers and ex-smokers. The respondents were primarily recruited from addiction care facilities and hospitals through Web-based media via websites and forums. The respondents were surveyed on their demographics, smoking behavior, and personal innovativeness. The intention to use and the attitude toward a cessation app were determined on a 5-point Likert scale. To study the association between the characteristics and intention to use and attitude, univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed. The multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that the number of previous quit attempts (odds ratio [OR] 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.0, and OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.0-5.9) and the score on the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.9, and OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.9) positively correlates with the intention to use a cessation app and the attitude toward cessation apps, respectively. Personal innovativeness also positively correlates with the intention to use (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4) and the attitude towards (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) a cessation app. No associations between demographics and the intention to use or the attitude toward using a cessation app were observed. This study is among the first to show that demographic characteristics such as age and level of education are not associated with the intention to use and the attitude toward using a cessation app when characteristics related specifically to the

  11. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Oka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV, many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims’ daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Methods The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan’s District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013 using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants’ current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems. In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%. Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question “What do you think about your everyday life situation?” We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Results Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds

  12. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MARKET ORIENTATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF LISTED COMPANIES: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon A. Keelson

    2012-01-01

    The study is part of a larger research of market orientation, which was conducted to build on previous research, and particularly examined the association between market orientation and business performance in a larger market context, using a synthesis model approach. Using the survey approach 24 companies out of 37 listed companies participated in the quantitative study; where 72 senior officials were surveyed from August 2011 to September 2011, through a five-likert scale questions. In this...

  14. Using Extreme Phenotype Sampling to Identify the Rare Causal Variants of Quantitative Traits in Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dalin; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gauderman, William J.; Murcray, Cassandra Elizabeth; Conti, David

    2011-01-01

    Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this design framework for future large-scale association studies on quantitative traits. We first proposed a power calculation approach fo...

  15. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer.

  16. A study on quantitative V and V of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.; Son, H. S.

    2004-03-01

    Recently practical needs have required quantitative features for the software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment which is one of the important methods being used in assessing the overall safety of nuclear power plant. But the conventional assessment methods of software reliability could not provide enough information for PSA of NPP, therefore current assessments of a digital system which includes safety-critical software usually exclude the software part or use arbitrary values. This paper describes a Bayesian Belief Networks based method that models the rule-based qualitative software assessment method for a practical use and can produce quantitative results for PSA. The framework was constructed by utilizing BBN that can combine the qualitative and quantitative evidence relevant to the reliability of safety-critical software and can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way. The case study was performed by applying the method for assessing the quality of software requirement specification of safety-critical software that will be embedded in reactor protection system

  17. Age and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Amelia K; Rothman, Kenneth J; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sørensen, Henrik T; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-12-01

    There is a well-documented decline in fertility treatment success with increasing female age; however, there are few preconception cohort studies that have examined female age and natural fertility. In addition, data on male age and fertility are inconsistent. Given the increasing number of couples who are attempting conception at older ages, a more detailed characterization of age-related fecundability in the general population is of great clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between female and male age with fecundability. We conducted a web-based preconception cohort study of pregnancy planners from the United States and Canada. Participants were enrolled between June 2013 and July 2017. Eligible participants were 21-45 years old (female) or ≥21 years old (male) and had not been using fertility treatments. Couples were followed until pregnancy or for up to 12 menstrual cycles. We analyzed data from 2962 couples who had been trying to conceive for ≤3 cycles at study entry and reported no history of infertility. We used life-table methods to estimate the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 and 12 cycles by female and male age. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios, the per-cycle probability of conception for each age category relative to the referent (21-24 years old), and 95% confidence intervals. Among female patients, the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 cycles of attempt time ranged from 62.0% (age 28-30 years) to 27.6% (age 40-45 years); the cumulative pregnancy proportion at 12 cycles of attempt time ranged from 79.3% (age 25-27 years old) to 55.5% (age 40-45 years old). Similar patterns were observed among male patients, although differences between age groups were smaller. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a nearly monotonic decline in fecundability with increasing female age, with the exception of 28-33 years, at which

  18. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Joseph, Gabby B; Yap, Samuel P; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 ± 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P infiltration of muscle commonly occurs in many metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. • Image-based semi-quantitative classifications for assessing fat infiltration are not well validated. • Quantitative MRI techniques provide an accurate assessment of muscle fat.

  19. Study of aging and ordering processes in titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, M.P.; Khaenko, B.V.; Kachkovskaya, Eh.T.

    1977-01-01

    Aging and ordering processes in titanium carbide were investigated on monocrystals (fragments of alloys) with the aid of roentgenographic method. The sequence of phase transformations during aging was ascertained,and a monoclinic structure of the carbon atoms ordering is suggested. The microhardness of titanium carbide was studied as a function of the heat treatment of alloys and the main factors (ordering and dislocation structure) which govern the difference in the microhardness of hardened and aged (annealed) specimens were determined

  20. Rheological Study of Ageing Soft Glasses of Laponite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Rheological Study of Ageing Soft Glasses of Laponite · Colloidal glasses · Laponite Na+0.7[(Si8Mg5.5Li0.3)O20(OH)4]–0.7 · Effect of salt (NaCl) · Arrested state · Relaxation dynamics · Rheology of aging system · Slide 8 · Experimental Protocol · Ageing and Creep experiments · Slide 11 · Slide 12.

  1. Retirement age and the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease: results from the ICTUS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Grotz

    Full Text Available To test whether deferred retirement is associated with delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and, if so, to determine whether retirement age still predicts the age at onset of AD when two potential biases are considered.The study sample was gathered from the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use/Data Sharing Alzheimer cohort (ICTUS/DSA, a European study of 1,380 AD patients. Information regarding retirement age, onset of symptoms and covariates was collected at baseline whereas age at diagnosis was gathered from the patient's medical record prior to study entry. Linear mixed models, adjusted for gender, education, occupation, center, country, household income, depression and cardiovascular risk factors were conducted on 815 patients.(1 The global analyses (n = 815 revealed that later age at retirement was associated with later age at diagnosis (β = 0.31, p < 0.0001; (2 once the selection bias was considered (n = 637, results showed that this association was weaker but remained significant (β = 0.15, p = 0.004; (3 once the bias of the reverse causality (i.e., the possibility that subjects may have left the workforce due to prior cognitive impairment was considered (n = 447, the effect was no longer significant (β = 0.06, p = 0.18.The present study supports that there is an association between retirement age and age at onset of AD. However, the strength of this association appears to be overestimated due to the selection bias. Moreover, the causality issue remains unresolved. Further prospective investigations are mandatory in order to correctly address this question.

  2. Subjective age and personality development: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N = 3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10-year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank-order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Relative validity and reproducibility of a parent-administered semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing food intake in Danish children aged 3-9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Andersen, Tine; Perez-Cueto, Armando; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) applied in the evaluation of a community intervention study, SoL-Bornholm, for estimating food intakes. DESIGN: The reference measure was a 4 d estimated food record. The SFFQ was completed two time...

  4. Speleogenesis, geometry, and topology of caves: A quantitative study of 3D karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Arfib, Bruno; Baudement, Cécile; Camus, Hubert; Collon, Pauline; Guglielmi, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Karst systems are hierarchically spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) networks of conduits behaving as drains for groundwater flow. Recently, geostatistical approaches proposed to generate karst networks from data and parameters stemming from analogous observed karst features. Other studies have qualitatively highlighted relationships between speleogenetic processes and cave patterns. However, few studies have been performed to quantitatively define these relationships. This paper reports a quantitative study of cave geometries and topologies that takes the underlying speleogenetic processes into account. In order to study the spatial organization of caves, a 3D numerical database was built from 26 caves, corresponding to 621 km of cumulative cave passages representative of the variety of karst network patterns. The database includes 3D speleological surveys for which the speleogenetic context is known, allowing the polygenic karst networks to be divided into 48 monogenic cave samples and classified into four cave patterns: vadose branchwork (VB), water-table cave (WTC), looping cave (LC), and angular maze (AM). Eight morphometric cave descriptors were calculated, four geometrical parameters (width-height ratio, tortuosity, curvature, and vertical index) and four topological ones (degree of node connectivity, α and γ graph indices, and ramification index) respectively. The results were validated by statistical analyses (Kruskal-Wallis test and PCA). The VB patterns are clearly distinct from AM ones and from a third group including WTC and LC. A quantitative database of cave morphology characteristics is provided, depending on their speleogenetic processes. These characteristics can be used to constrain and/or validate 3D geostatistical simulations. This study shows how important it is to relate the geometry and connectivity of cave networks to recharge and flow processes. Conversely, the approach developed here provides proxies to estimate the evolution of

  5. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  6. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  8. Study on kinetic of strain-aging in zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The strain-aging in zircaloy-4 has been investigated in this work and a study of the general problems involving this phenomenon has been realized in Zirconium and its alloys. It has been verified that a yield point appears in the Zircaloy-4, when it is submitted to strain-aging treatment between the temperatures 200 0 C and 400 0 C. (author)

  9. Biodistribution study of [I-123] ADAM in mice brain using quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.J.; Yen, T.C.; Tzen, K.Y.; Ye, X.X.; Hwang, J.J.; Wey, S.P.; Ting, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Autoradiography with radioluminography is a delicate method to characterize newly developed radiotracers and to apply them to pharmacological studies. Herein, we reported a biodistribution result of [I-123] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5- iodophenylamine) in mice brain quantitatively using imaging plates. Materials and Methods: 1mCi [I-123] ADAM was injected into male ICR mice through tail veins. Brains were removed at sequential time points ranging from 0.5hr to 4hr after injection. The whole brain was cut into 14mm thick coronal sections using a cyrotome. The sections were thaw-mounted on glass plate and apposed placed on an imaging plate with filter paper standards for 24 hours. Imaging reading was done by a Fuji FLA5000 device. Regions of interest were placed on the globus pallidus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei and cerebellum corresponding to the sterotaxic atlas, and the PSL/mm 2 values were measured. The specific binding was expressed as the ratios of (targets - cerebellum) to cerebellum. Results: Autoradiography study of brain showed that the [I-123] ADAM was accumulated at serotonin transporter rich sites, including the olfactory tubercle, globus pallidus, thalamus nuclei, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, interpeduncular nucleus, amygdala and raphe nuclei. Biodistribution of [I-123] ADAM in mice brain using quantitative autoradiography method showed a high specific binding in the substantia nigra and hypothalamus and the time-activity curve peaked at 120 min post-injection. Compatible specific binding result was achieved in the region of hypothalamus as compared with previous study by other group using conventional tissue micro-dissection method (Synapse 38:403-412, 2000). However, higher specific binding was observed in certain small brain regions including substantia nigra, raphe nuclei due to improved spatial resolution of the quantitative autoradiography technique. Conclusion: Our result showed that the

  10. Buying Imported Products Online : A quantitative study about Chinese Online consumer behavior towards imported products

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qianqian; Wang, Yuren

    2015-01-01

    With the fast growing Chinese online marketplace and the increasing popularity of shopping imported products online in China, more and more practitioners and researchers are interested in understanding the cues that Chinese consumers use to evaluate imported products consumption online. Our quantitative study aims to identify what factors affect the behavior of Chinese online consumers towards imported products and the relationships between the identified factors and purchase intention, and t...

  11. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC and safety of Sweet Bee Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Rok Kwon; Ching Seng Chu; Hee Soo Park; Min Ki Kim; Bae Chun Cha; Eun Lee

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation and safety of Sweet Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis was done using HPLC, measurement of LD50 was conducted intravenous, subcutaneous, and intra-muscular injection to the ICR mice. Results : 1. According to HPLC analysis, removal of the enzymes containing phospholipase A2 was successfully rendered on Sweet Bee Venom. And analyzing melittin content, Sweet Bee Venom contained 12% more melittin than Bee Venom. ...

  12. Quantitative study of FORC diagrams in thermally corrected Stoner– Wohlfarth nanoparticles systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Biasi, E.; Curiale, J.; Zysler, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of FORC diagrams is becoming increasingly popular among researchers devoted to magnetism and magnetic materials. However, a thorough interpretation of this kind of diagrams, in order to achieve quantitative information, requires an appropriate model of the studied system. For that reason most of the FORC studies are used for a qualitative analysis. In magnetic systems thermal fluctuations 'blur' the signatures of the anisotropy, volume and particle interactions distributions, therefore thermal effects in nanoparticles systems conspire against a proper interpretation and analysis of these diagrams. Motivated by this fact, we have quantitatively studied the degree of accuracy of the information extracted from FORC diagrams for the special case of single-domain thermal corrected Stoner– Wohlfarth (easy axes along the external field orientation) nanoparticles systems. In this work, the starting point is an analytical model that describes the behavior of a magnetic nanoparticles system as a function of field, anisotropy, temperature and measurement time. In order to study the quantitative degree of accuracy of our model, we built FORC diagrams for different archetypical cases of magnetic nanoparticles. Our results show that from the quantitative information obtained from the diagrams, under the hypotheses of the proposed model, is possible to recover the features of the original system with accuracy above 95%. This accuracy is improved at low temperatures and also it is possible to access to the anisotropy distribution directly from the FORC coercive field profile. Indeed, our simulations predict that the volume distribution plays a secondary role being the mean value and its deviation the only important parameters. Therefore it is possible to obtain an accurate result for the inversion and interaction fields despite the features of the volume distribution. - Highlights: • Quantify the degree of accuracy of the information obtained using the FORC diagrams.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of semi-automatic quantitative metrics as an alternative to expert reading of CT myocardial perfusion in the CORE320 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovaneh, Mohammad R; Vavere, Andrea L; Mehra, Vishal C; Kofoed, Klaus F; Matheson, Matthew B; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Schuijf, Joanne D; Rochitte, Carlos E; Scholte, Arthur J; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Dewey, Marc; Cox, Christopher; DiCarli, Marcelo F; George, Richard T; Lima, Joao A C

    2018-04-03

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of semi-automatic quantitative metrics compared to expert reading for interpretation of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. The CORE320 multicenter diagnostic accuracy clinical study enrolled patients between 45 and 85 years of age who were clinically referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Computed tomography angiography (CTA), CTP, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and ICA images were interpreted manually in blinded core laboratories by two experienced readers. Additionally, eight quantitative CTP metrics as continuous values were computed semi-automatically from myocardial and blood attenuation and were combined using logistic regression to derive a final quantitative CTP metric score. For the reference standard, hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a quantitative ICA stenosis of 50% or greater and a corresponding perfusion defect by SPECT. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Of the total 377 included patients, 66% were male, median age was 62 (IQR: 56, 68) years, and 27% had prior myocardial infarction. In patient based analysis, the AUC (95% CI) for combined CTA-CTP expert reading and combined CTA-CTP semi-automatic quantitative metrics was 0.87(0.84-0.91) and 0.86 (0.83-0.9), respectively. In vessel based analyses the AUC's were 0.85 (0.82-0.88) and 0.84 (0.81-0.87), respectively. No significant difference in AUC was found between combined CTA-CTP expert reading and CTA-CTP semi-automatic quantitative metrics in patient based or vessel based analyses(p > 0.05 for all). Combined CTA-CTP semi-automatic quantitative metrics is as accurate as CTA-CTP expert reading to detect hemodynamically significant CAD. Copyright © 2018 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative studies with the gamma-camera: correction for spatial and energy distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Raynaud, C.

    1977-01-01

    The gamma camera sensitivity distribution is an important source of error in quantitative studies. In addition, spatial distortion produces apparent variations in count density which degrades quantitative studies. The flood field image takes into account both effects and is influenced by the pile-up of the tail distribution. It is essential to measure separately each of these parameters. These were investigated using a point source displaced by a special scanning table with two X, Y stepping motors of 10 micron precision. The spatial distribution of the sensitivity, spatial distortion and photopeak in the field of view were measured and compared for different setting-up of the camera and PM gains. For well-tuned cameras, the sensitivity is fairly constant, while the variations appearing in the flood field image are primarily due to spatial distortion, the former more dependent than the latter on the energy window setting. This indicates why conventional flood field uniformity correction must not be applied. A correction technique to improve the results in quantitative studies has been tested using a continuously matched energy window at every point within the field. A method for correcting spatial distortion is also proposed, where, after an adequately sampled measurement of this error, a transformation can be applied to calculate the true position of events. The knowledge of the magnitude of these parameters is essential in the routine use and design of detector systems

  15. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  16. Fertility preservation: a pilot study to assess previsit patient knowledge quantitatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Ursula; Fritz, Marc A; Mersereau, Jennifer E

    2011-05-01

    To provide a quantitative assessment of patient knowledge about fertility and fertility preservation treatment options before the initial fertility preservation consultation at a university-based fertility preservation center. Prospective pilot survey containing 13 items assessing patient knowledge about fertility preservation, including the available treatment options and their requirements, success rates, and associated risks. University-based IVF center. Women aged 18 to 41 years with illnesses requiring treatments posing a serious threat to future fertility who were referred for fertility preservation consultation between April 2009 and June 2010. None. Knowledge score. Forty-one eligible patients were identified, and all completed surveys before their consultation. A knowledge score was generated for each patient with 1 point awarded for each correct answer. Overall, patients had poor previsit fertility preservation knowledge (mean score 5.9±2.7). Higher knowledge scores were correlated with personal experience with infertility and previous exposure to fertility preservation treatment information. There was no correlation between knowledge score and age, relationship status, pregnancy history, education, or income. Patients seen for fertility preservation consultation at our university-based center generally tend to be in their early 30s, white, well educated, and married. Previsit knowledge about fertility preservation treatment options was poor and did not correlate with age, education, and relationship status. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of two methods of quantitation in human studies of biodistribution and radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    1992-01-01

    A simple method of quantitating organ radioactivity content for dosimetry purposes based on relationships between organ count rate and the initial whole body count rate, has been compared with a more rigorous method of absolute quantitation using a transmission scanning technique. Comparisons were on the basis of organ uptake (% administered activity) and resultant organ radiation doses (mGy MBq -1 ) in 6 normal male volunteers given a 99 Tc m -labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent intravenously at rest and following exercise. In these studies, estimates of individual organ uptakes by the simple method were in error by between +24 and -16% compared with the more accurate method. However, errors on organ dose values were somewhat less and the effective dose was correct to within 3%. (Author)

  18. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study Using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from currentless plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of W 24+ to W 33+ ions are very sensitive to electron temperature (Te) and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. Based on the first quantitative analysis of measured spatial profile of W 44+ ion, the tungsten concentration is determined to be n(W 44+ )/n e = 1.4x10 -4 and the total radiation loss is estimated as ∼4 MW, of which the value is roughly half the total NBI power. (author)

  19. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship study of some natural and synthetic coumarins using retention parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabtti El Hadi M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lipophilicity descriptors (RM0, b, C0, PC1 for twelve coumarine derivatives were determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography in order to analyze which descriptor best describes the lipophilicity of coumarines investigated. Moreover, possible chemical toxicity of coumarins, expressed as the probability of a compound to cause organ-specific health effects, was calculated using ACD/Tox Suite program. The quantitative relationships between toxicity and molecular descriptors, including experimentally determined lipophilicity descriptors obtained in current study, were investigated using partial least square regression. The best models were obtained for kidney and liver health effects. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship models revealed the importance of electric polarization descriptors, size descriptors and lipophilicity descriptors. Obtained models were used for the selection of the structural features of the compounds that are significantly affecting their absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity. [Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, Grant 172017.

  20. A study of quantitative scale display of the organ uptake with gamma-camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, K; Matsumoto, M [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan) School of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    The fundamental study of quantitative scale display of the organ uptake with ..gamma..-camera was performed in special respect of the thyroid gland and the pancreas. As one of the measurements on certain dimension of the organ, an optical progression outside the digital image was expressed, and was subjected to the quantitative scale with the use of the threshold level. And a rather satisfactory correlation was clinically obtained between the scale display and the thyroidal /sup 131/I uptake. For the purpose of revising the above scale display, the organ depth was measured with RI by the aid of the phantom. Then the pancreas depth determined by the count rate ratio curve of 140 and 270 keV peak of /sup 75/Se energies. However, the body background and the radioactive rays from the neighboring organs interfered with this curve.

  1. Healthy ageing in the Nun Study: definition and neuropathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R

    2007-11-01

    Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.

  2. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, quantitative EEG findings, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Geun; Kang, Kyunghun; Jung, Ji-Young; Park, Sung-Pa; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed relationships between quantitative EEG measurements and clinical parameters in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients, along with differences in these quantitative EEG markers between cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and nonresponders. Twenty-six idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (9 cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and 17 cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders) constituted the final group for analysis. The resting EEG was recorded and relative powers were computed for seven frequency bands. Cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders, when compared with responders, showed a statistically significant increase in alpha2 band power at the right frontal and centrotemporal regions. Higher delta2 band powers in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions and lower alpha1 band powers in the right temporal region significantly correlated with poorer cognitive performance. Higher theta1 band powers in the left parietal and occipital regions significantly correlated with gait dysfunction. And higher delta1 band powers in the right frontal regions significantly correlated with urinary disturbance. Our findings may encourage further research using quantitative EEG in patients with ventriculomegaly as a potential electrophysiological marker for predicting cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders. This study additionally suggests that the delta, theta, and alpha bands are statistically correlated with the severity of symptoms in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients.

  3. Selecting the most appropriate inferential statistical test for your quantitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Whittaker, Victoria Jane

    2014-06-01

    To discuss the issues and processes relating to the selection of the most appropriate statistical test. A review of the basic research concepts together with a number of clinical scenarios is used to illustrate this. Quantitative nursing research generally features the use of empirical data which necessitates the selection of both descriptive and statistical tests. Different types of research questions can be answered by different types of research designs, which in turn need to be matched to a specific statistical test(s). Discursive paper. This paper discusses the issues relating to the selection of the most appropriate statistical test and makes some recommendations as to how these might be dealt with. When conducting empirical quantitative studies, a number of key issues need to be considered. Considerations for selecting the most appropriate statistical tests are discussed and flow charts provided to facilitate this process. When nursing clinicians and researchers conduct quantitative research studies, it is crucial that the most appropriate statistical test is selected to enable valid conclusions to be made. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Study on the Quantitative Analysis in LPG Tank's Fire and Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, S.J.; Kim, B.J. [Department of chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Chemical plant's fire and explosion does not only damage to the chemical plants themselves but also damage to people in or near of the accident spot and the neighborhood of chemical plant. For that reason, Chemical process safety management has become important. One of safety management methods is called 'the quantitative analysis', which is used to reduce and prevent the accident. The results of the quantitative analysis could be used to arrange the equipments, evaluate the minimum safety distance, prepare the safety equipments. In this study we make the computer program to make easy to do quantitative analysis of the accident. The output of the computer program is the magnitude of fire(pool fire and fireball) and explosion (UVCE and BLEVE) effects. We used the thermal radiation as a measure of fire magnitude and used the overpressure as a measure of explosion magnitude. In case of BLEVE, the fly distance of fragment can be evaluated. Also probit analysis was done in every case. As the case study, Buchun LPG explosion accident in Korea was analysed by the program developed. The simulation results showed that the permissible distance was 800m and probit analysis showed that 1st degree burn, 2nd degree burn, and death distances are 450, 280, 260m, respectively. the simulation results showed the good agreement with the result from SAFER PROGRAM made by DuPont. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Quantitative laser diagnostic and modeling study of C2 and CH chemistry in combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Markus; Brockhinke, Andreas; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2010-04-15

    Quantitative concentration measurements of CH and C(2) have been performed in laminar, premixed, flat flames of propene and cyclopentene with varying stoichiometry. A combination of cavity ring-down (CRD) spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to enable sensitive detection of these species with high spatial resolution. Previously, CH and C(2) chemistry had been studied, predominantly in methane flames, to understand potential correlations of their formation and consumption. For flames of larger hydrocarbon fuels, however, quantitative information on these small intermediates is scarce, especially under fuel-rich conditions. Also, the combustion chemistry of C(2) in particular has not been studied in detail, and although it has often been observed, its role in potential build-up reactions of higher hydrocarbon species is not well understood. The quantitative measurements performed here are the first to detect both species with good spatial resolution and high sensitivity in the same experiment in flames of C(3) and C(5) fuels. The experimental profiles were compared with results of combustion modeling to reveal details of the formation and consumption of these important combustion molecules, and the investigation was devoted to assist the further understanding of the role of C(2) and of its potential chemical interdependences with CH and other small radicals.

  6. The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study: Baseline Data from a Prospective Observational African Sub-Saharan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Zengin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study is a prospective observational study investigating bone and muscle ageing in men and women from a poor, subsistence farming community of The Gambia, West Africa. Musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia, form a major part of the current global non-communicable disease burden. By 2050, the vast majority of the world’s ageing population will live in low- and middle-income countries with an estimated two-fold rise in osteoporotic fracture. The study design was to characterise change in bone and muscle outcomes and to identify possible preventative strategies for fracture and sarcopenia in the increasing ageing population. Men and women aged ≥40 years from the Kiang West region of The Gambia were recruited with stratified sampling by sex and age. Baseline measurements were completed in 488 participants in 2012 who were randomly assigned to follow-up between 1.5 and 2 years later. Follow-up measurements were performed on 465 participants approximately 1.7 years after baseline measurements. The data set comprises a wide range of measurements on bone, muscle strength, anthropometry, biochemistry, and dietary intake. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on health, lifestyle, musculoskeletal pain, and reproductive status. Baseline cross-sectional data show preliminary evidence for bone mineral density and muscle loss with age. Men had greater negative differences in total body lean mass with age than women following adjustments for body size. From peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans, greater negative associations between bone outcomes and age at the radius and tibia were shown in women than in men. Ultimately, the findings from The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study will contribute to the understanding of musculoskeletal health in a transitioning population and better characterise fracture and sarcopenia incidence in The Gambia with an aim to the

  7. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  8. Managing the Public Sector Research and Development Portfolio Selection Process: A Case Study of Quantitative Selection and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost

  9. Preparing Tomorrow's Administrators: A Quantitative Correlation Study of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Vollmar, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to identify whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership practices, specifically with school administrators in Southern California K-12 public schools. Methods: This study was conducted using a quantitative descriptive design, correlation…

  10. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  11. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  12. T6 and T78 tempers of AA6065 alloy: a quantitative TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Warner, T. [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney, Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize the microstructure of an industrial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy (AA6056) in a state (T78 temper) desensitized to intergranular corrosion in comparison with the peak aged state (T6 temper). Analysis of dark-field images and of zero-loss filtered selected-area-diffraction patterns, along with EDX spectroscopy, indicates an advanced precipitation of the quaternary phase containing Si and Cu in the T78-tempered alloy compared to the T6 one. This supports the current theory of the desensitization of AA6056 alloy. However, the application of EDX analysis to provide direct evidence of the chemical composition variation in the solid solution across the grain boundary appears less satisfactory. (orig.)

  13. [Aging of cognitive functions. Results of a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrenaud, J; Barrère, H; Darcet, P; Driss, F

    1983-12-29

    This study had the two following purposes: to assess the age-related changes in the fluid and crystallized components of intelligence in subjects over age sixty five; to examine whether these age-related changes were linked to any biological, psychological and social factors. The sample was composed of 50 male subjects who were examined three times: in 1968, 1973 and 1977. At the beginning of the study, their age ranged from 60 to 79 years and they were all in good health. In the whole, their socio-economic level was high. At each wave of the study, these subjects were given the same battery of three mental tests: a vocabulary test, selected to assess crystallized intelligence; a perceptual test and a speeded digit coding test, both selected to assess fluid intelligence. Results show that the two components of intelligence have different aging trajectories over age sixty. On the vocabulary test, performances hold until an advanced age (about 75-80), then significantly decline. On the perceptual and digit coding tests, performances sharply and significantly decline with age, this decline looking approximately linear. Whatever the test used, individual differences in age-related changes in performance are found to be great. On vocabulary test, this variability is linked to two factors, independently of age: among subjects who have suffered from a cardio-arterial disease between wave 1 and wave 3, as well as in those who have not maintained an occupational activity, decline in performance is greater than in other subjects. On the two other tests, no factor was found to be significantly linked with change in performance between wave 1 and wave 3.

  14. Ageing of cables and new approach for the study of polymer ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchy-Leroy, C.; Therond, P.

    2011-01-01

    The study of nuclear cable ageing has become an important subject in particular within the framework of the lifetime extension of nuclear power plants. Until 2000, the approach developed by EDF was a purely empirical one, which establishes from a behavior law, the temporal evolution of a macroscopic property of the jacket or the insulation (generally elongation at break), according to the ageing conditions, such as the temperature and the dose rate. These simulations, coupled with analyses of cables taken on sites after several years of ageing, can demonstrate and justify the good behavior in time of the cables installed in the French nuclear power plants. However from an industrial point of view, this approach, as any empirical approach, is not sustainable and suffers numerous limitations. In particular, the results obtained are not transposable from one industrial formulation to another. That is why for some years, EDF has developed a more generic approach based on the understanding and the modeling of the ageing of polymers by thermo-oxidation and radio-oxidation. This new approach consists of identifying all the occurring reactions at the molecular scale during the polymer ageing. The numerical resolution of the system of differential equations stemming from the scheme of reactions, allows access to the spatial and temporal distributions of the oxidation products formed during the ageing. Today the studies are focused on elastomer matrices of type Polyethylene (PE) and co-polymers of type Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber (EPR) to which were added stabilizers and fillers. Later, the model will allow us to simulate the ageing of any industrial polymer. (authors)

  15. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibille Kimberly T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain conditions are characterized by significant individual variability complicating the identification of pathophysiological markers. Leukocyte telomere length (TL, a measure of cellular aging, is associated with age-related disease onset, psychosocial stress, and health-related functional decline. Psychosocial stress has been associated with the onset of chronic pain and chronic pain is experienced as a physical and psychosocial stressor. However, the utility of TL as a biological marker reflecting the burden of chronic pain and psychosocial stress has not yet been explored. Findings The relationship between chronic pain, stress, and TL was analyzed in 36 ethnically diverse, older adults, half of whom reported no chronic pain and the other half had chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA pain. Subjects completed a physical exam, radiographs, health history, and psychosocial questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Four groups were identified characterized by pain status and the Perceived Stress Scale scores: 1 no pain/low stress, 2 no pain/high stress, chronic pain/low stress, and 4 chronic pain/high stress. TL differed between the pain/stress groups (p = 0.01, controlling for relevant covariates. Specifically, the chronic pain/high stress group had significantly shorter TL compared to the no pain/low stress group. Age was negatively correlated with TL, particularly in the chronic pain/high stress group (p = 0.03. Conclusions Although preliminary in nature and based on a modest sample size, these findings indicate that cellular aging may be more pronounced in older adults experiencing high levels of perceived stress and chronic pain.

  16. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Taeko; Enoki, Hiroaki; Tokimoto, Yukari; Kawanishi, Teruaki; Minami, Meguru; Okuizumi, Takahiro; Katahira, Kiyohiko

    2017-06-12

    In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV), many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims' daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan's District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013) using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants' current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems). In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%). Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question "What do you think about your everyday life situation?" We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.17, p

  17. Healthy aging and dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A

    2003-09-02

    The Nun Study is a longitudinal study of 678 Catholic sisters 75 to 107 years of age who are members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame congregation. Data collected for this study include early and middle-life risk factors from the convent archives, annual cognitive and physical function evaluations during old age, and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations of the participants' brains. The case histories presented include a centenarian who was a model of healthy aging, a 92-year-old with dementia and clinically significant Alzheimer disease neuropathology and vascular lesions, a cognitively and physically intact centenarian with almost no neuropathology, and an 85-year-old with well-preserved cognitive and physical function despite a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease and an abundance of Alzheimer disease lesions. These case histories provide examples of how healthy aging and dementia relate to the degree of pathology present in the brain and the level of resistance to the clinical expression of the neuropathology.

  18. AGE DETERMINATION FROM PUBIC SYMPHYSEAL CHANGES- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh Parambathettu Sasidharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biological identity is one of the first things to be established when analysing skeletal, badly decomposed or otherwise unidentified human remains. The determination of age at death is an important component of identity establishment. Pubic symphysis examination is one of the reliable methods of age estimation. We attempt to determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method and to find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. From among the cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, from 01/03/2012 to 28/02/2013, 316 cases were included in the study. Their pubic symphysis were harvested. Age determined using SucheyBrooks method and compared with their chronological age. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method. 2. Compare the age determined by Suchey-Brooks method and chronological age and find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Descriptive study- Cross-sectional study, Centre of Study- Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Study Sample- From the cases brought for medicolegal postmortem examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, a sample of 316 cases were selected. To make the distribution among various age groups, even the total sample divided for the age group, which resulted in having 60 samples per age group. Age groups were considered as Group 1- Age between 18-25 years; Group 2- Age between 25-35 years; Group 3- Age between 35-45 years; Group 4- Age between 45-55 years; Group 5- Age between 55-65 years. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Cases with known age; 2. Cases whose age between 18 and 65 years. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Unknown cases; 2. Known cases with doubtful age; 3. Individuals having pubic bone trauma involving the

  19. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  20. Prediction of quantitative phenotypes based on genetic networks: a case study in yeast sporulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exciting application of genetic network is to predict phenotypic consequences for environmental cues or genetic perturbations. However, de novo prediction for quantitative phenotypes based on network topology is always a challenging task. Results Using yeast sporulation as a model system, we have assembled a genetic network from literature and exploited Boolean network to predict sporulation efficiency change upon deleting individual genes. We observe that predictions based on the curated network correlate well with the experimentally measured values. In addition, computational analysis reveals the robustness and hysteresis of the yeast sporulation network and uncovers several patterns of sporulation efficiency change caused by double gene deletion. These discoveries may guide future investigation of underlying mechanisms. We have also shown that a hybridized genetic network reconstructed from both temporal microarray data and literature is able to achieve a satisfactory prediction accuracy of the same quantitative phenotypes. Conclusions This case study illustrates the value of predicting quantitative phenotypes based on genetic network and provides a generic approach.

  1. A quantitative study of bone repair after endodontic therapy on digital subtraction radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk

    1997-01-01

    This study was performed to prepare the quantitative method of judging the sensitive prognosis of chronic apical periodontitis as early as possible. The subjects were 25 cases with periapical radiolucencies of which were treated with endodontic treatment. Serial radiographs were taken by standardized method longitudinally. The density slice function of digital radiographic system were employed for quantitative and longitudinal assessment of the radiolucent area and the condensing osteitis simultaneously. Obtained results were as follows: 1. The amount of bone repair after endodontic treatment could be detected quantitatively by the density slice function of digital radiographic system. 2. Within the 6-week period after root canal filling, the prognosis could be evaluated by assessment both radiolucent area and condensing osteitis on digital radiographic system. 3. The pattern of bone repair showed peripheral type in most cases from the 6th week after root canal filling. 4. In longitudinal change, bone repair showed two patterns; the succeeding reduction of radiolucent area showing the increase of condensing osteitis in size till 6th week and following by static state or reduction tendency and the reduction following the initial increase of both areas. 5. Cases with pulpitis by trauma showed initial increase of condensing osteitis at 2nd week, marked reduction of radiolucent area and condensing osteitis at 6th week, and approximately normal bone state at 8th week after root canal filling.

  2. Quantitative cervical vertebral maturation assessment in adolescents with normal occlusion: a mixed longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Xu, Tian-Min; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Zhang, Xing-Zhong; Lin, Jiu-Xiang

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) system for adolescents with normal occlusion. Mixed longitudinal data were used. The subjects included 87 children and adolescents from 8 to 18 years old with normal occlusion (32 boys, 55 girls) selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year for 6 years. The lateral cephalograms of all subjects were divided into 11 maturation groups according to the Fishman skeletal maturity indicators. The morphologic characteristics of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae at 11 developmental stages were measured and analyzed. Three characteristic parameters (H4/W4, AH3/PH3, @2) were selected to determine the classification of CVM. With 3 morphologic variables, the quantitative CVM system including 4 maturational stages was established. An equation that can accurately estimate the maturation of the cervical vertebrae was established: CVM stage=-4.13+3.57xH4/W4+4.07xAH3/PH3+0.03x@2. The quantitative CVM method is an efficient, objective, and relatively simple approach to assess the level of skeletal maturation during adolescence.

  3. A quantitative study of bone repair after endodontic therapy on digital subtraction radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    This study was performed to prepare the quantitative method of judging the sensitive prognosis of chronic apical periodontitis as early as possible. The subjects were 25 cases with periapical radiolucencies of which were treated with endodontic treatment. Serial radiographs were taken by standardized method longitudinally. The density slice function of digital radiographic system were employed for quantitative and longitudinal assessment of the radiolucent area and the condensing osteitis simultaneously. Obtained results were as follows: 1. The amount of bone repair after endodontic treatment could be detected quantitatively by the density slice function of digital radiographic system. 2. Within the 6-week period after root canal filling, the prognosis could be evaluated by assessment both radiolucent area and condensing osteitis on digital radiographic system. 3. The pattern of bone repair showed peripheral type in most cases from the 6th week after root canal filling. 4. In longitudinal change, bone repair showed two patterns; the succeeding reduction of radiolucent area showing the increase of condensing osteitis in size till 6th week and following by static state or reduction tendency and the reduction following the initial increase of both areas. 5. Cases with pulpitis by trauma showed initial increase of condensing osteitis at 2nd week, marked reduction of radiolucent area and condensing osteitis at 6th week, and approximately normal bone state at 8th week after root canal filling.

  4. Quantitative investigation of precipitate growth during ageing of Al-(Mg,Si) alloys by energy-filtered electron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollgarten, M.; Chang, C. S. T.; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    Besides other application fields, light-weight Al-(Mg, Si) (6XXX series) alloys are of substantial importance in automotive industries where they are used for the production of car body panels. The material gains its strength by precipitation of metastable Mg-Si-based phases. Though the general...... accepted that the early stages of precipitate growth are important for the understanding of this peculiar behaviour. During these stages, electron diffraction patterns of Al-(Mg, Si) alloys show diffuse features (Figure 1 (a) and (b)) which can be traced back to originate from β'' Mg5Si6 precipitates [5......-7]. In this paper, we use energy-filtered electron diffraction to determine dimensions of the β'' Mg5Si6 precipitates along their a, b and c-axes as a function of ageing time and alloy composition. In our contribution, we first derive that there is an optimal zone axis - - from the view point of practicability. We...

  5. A study on a quantitative V and V for safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Son, Han Seong; Kang, Hyun Gook; Chang, Seung Cheol

    2004-01-01

    Verification and Validation (V and V) plays important role in assessing the safety-critical software embedded in the digital systems for a Nuclear Power Plant. A conventional V and V usually adopts a checklist method and its answers are mostly qualitative. There are some limitations to this conventional V and V method. First, the difficulties in using the checklist method are: Even for an acceptable software, some checklist questions will have negative answers. The checklist itself does not help to explain the reasons for drawing an overall positive conclusion in the presence of a few negative answers. The checklist does not help decide when enough issues have been examined to achieve a reasonable confidence in the software. The checklist method does not support a consideration of different kinds of information, such as software engineering measures. Second, a difficulty comes from the qualitative form of the answers in the checklist method, which is: It is usually hard to know when sufficient evidence has been collected. Finally a difficulty comes from a human expert's way of combining a great number of diverse evidence and inferring the conclusion, which is: Some of this evidence is qualitative and others are quantitative. Both are necessary to evaluate the quality of the software correctly. But, in general, the experts' way of combining the diverse evidence and performing an inference is usually informal and qualitative, which is hard to discuss and will eventually lead to a debate about the conclusion. Our overall goal is to develop a systematic method that can obtain quantitative information of the software quality from the works of V and V. To achieve this goal and to solve the above-mentioned problems in the current V and V method, we studied a method that can combine qualitative and quantitative evidence, and can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way by using the benefits of BBN

  6. Quantitative data study on energy innovation; Kwantitatief data onderzoek Energie-innovaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clocquet, R. [DHV, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    NL Agency desires, on the basis of the study 'State of the Land energy innovation of the built environment', to gain insight in the market, in particular where it concerns the process approach towards innovation. The study consists of a quantitative and a qualitative part [Dutch] Agentschap NL wil aan de hand van het onderzoek Stand van het Land energie-innovaties gebouwde omgeving een beeld geven waar de markt staat op het gebied van met name de procesaanpak ten behoeve van innovatie. Het onderzoek bestaat uit een kwantitatief en een kwalitatief deel.

  7. Quantitative modelling and analysis of a Chinese smart grid: a stochastic model checking case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology with the physical elements of a system, mainly for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues...... that require novel methods and applications. One of the important issues in this context is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this paper, we consider a specific Chinese smart grid implementation as a case study and address the verification problem for performance and energy...... consumption.We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker....

  8. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  9. Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Susana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

  10. Results of Studying Astronomy Students’ Science Literacy, Quantitative Literacy, and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.

  11. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  12. Aging properties studies in a Cu-Ag-Cr Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, S.G.; Zheng, M.S.; Liu, P.; Ren, F.Z.; Tian, B.H.; Zhou, G.S.; Lou, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    A Cu-Ag-Cr alloy was produced by means of vacuum induction melting. The effects of aging processes on microhardness and conductivity of Cu-Ag-Cr alloy were studied. The microstructure of the alloy was examined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Aging at 450 deg. C for 4 h, the alloy has an excellent combination of microhardness and conductivity, the microhardness and conductivity reach 132 HV and 80% IACS, respectively. The precipitates responsible for the age-hardening effect are fcc Cr. The fine and dispersed precipitates are fully coherent with the Cu matrix and make the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy possesses higher hardness and conductivity

  13. Social mobility and inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na-Ek, Nat; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-03-01

    Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We estimated linear and logistic models of the associations between social mobility, using information on childhood and adult SEP, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Our models were gradually adjusted for age, sex, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status and depressive symptoms. Participants who experienced upward social mobility had higher CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c levels compared with those who had stable high SEP over the life course, but lower compared with those who experienced downward social mobility or had stable low SEP. They also had lower HDL levels compared with those who had stable high SEP or downwardly mobile. Adjustment for covariates partially explained the associations between social mobility and CRP and HDL, and fully explained those between social mobility and fibrinogen and HbA1c. Social mobility is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages with some of the observed associations persisting after accounting for covariates. Upward social mobility appears to partially reverse the damaging effect of childhood social disadvantage on inflammatory profiles in older ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Roentgen study of bone age in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldzhijski, A.; Totsev, N.; Petrova, Ch.

    1991-01-01

    The study included 100 children (50 boys and 50 girls) aged from 1 to 18 years with different degree of obesity, classified according to the scheme of Knyazev et al. The bone age was determined by a X-ray method including conventional X-ray study of the left hand at standard conditions. The H. Thiemann - I. Nittz Atlass (1986) was used as a test. It was established that the children with overweight had a change in the bone age which in most cases outstriped the calendar one. It was stated that the determination of the index 'bone age' remained to be a reliable method for studing the obesity effect on the growth and developing of the children' organism. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  15. Successful ageing: A study of the literature using citation network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G M; Tellier, Siri; Di Nucci, Ezio; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-01

    Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a curvilinear pattern with the lowest point at middle age but increases thereafter up to very old age. To shed further light on this paradox, we reviewed the existing literature on how scholars define successful ageing and how they weigh the contribution of health and functioning to define success. We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns. The clusters and sub-clusters of citation networks identified were starting points for in-depth qualitative analysis. Within the literature from 1902 through 2015, two distinct citation networks were identified. The first cluster had 1146 publications and 3946 citation links. It focused on successful ageing from the perspective of older persons themselves. Analysis of the various sub-clusters emphasized the importance of coping strategies, psycho-social engagement, and cultural differences. The second cluster had 609 publications and 1682 citation links and viewed successful ageing based on the objective measurements as determined by researchers. Subsequent sub-clustering analysis pointed to different domains of functioning and various ways of assessment. In the current literature two mutually exclusive concepts of successful ageing are circulating that depend on whether the individual himself or an outsider judges the situation. These different points of view help to explain the disability paradox, as successful ageing lies in the eyes of the beholder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland

  16. [The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study.

  17. Profile and determinants of successful aging in the Ibadan Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Abiona, Taiwo; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-05-01

    To determine the profile and determinants of successful aging in a developing country characterized by low life expectancy and where successful agers may represent a unique group. Community-based cohort study. Eight contiguous states in the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. A multistage clustered sampling of households was used to select a representative sample of individuals (N = 2,149) aged 65 and older at baseline. Nine hundred thirty were successfully followed for an average of 64 months between August 2003 and December 2009. Lifestyle and behavioral factors were assessed at baseline. Successful aging, defined using each of three models (absence of chronic health conditions, functional independence, and satisfaction with life), was assessed at follow-up. Between 16% and 75% of respondents could be classified as successful agers using one of the three models while 7.5% could be so classified using a combination of all the models. Correlations between the three models were small, ranging from 0.08 to 0.15. Different features predicted their outcomes, suggesting that they represent relatively independent trajectories of aging. Whichever model was used, more men than women tended to be classified as aging successfully. Men who aged successfully, using a combination of all the three models, were more likely never to have smoked (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-14.46) and to report, at baseline, having contacts with friends (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.0-18.76) or participating in community activities (aOR = 16.0, 95% CI = 1.23-204.40). In women, there was a nonlinear trend for younger age at baseline to predict this outcome. Modifiable social and lifestyle factors predicted successful aging in this population, suggesting that health promotion targeting behavior change may lead to tangible benefits for health and well-being in old age. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. [Self-perception of health care team leaders in Andalusia. A quantitative and qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romera, I; Danet, A; March-Cerdà, J C

    To determine the perception and self-assessment on leadership among health care team leaders in Andalusia. Design: Exploratory descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative methodology, developed between 2013 and 2015, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Andalusia. All health managers from the Primary Care Management Units and Health Management Areas of the Departments of Paediatrics, Emergency and Internal Medicine, for the quantitative study. A purposive sample of 24 health managers was used for the qualitative study. Descriptive statistical study and bivariate analysis of comparison of means. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews: Codification, category tree, and triangulation of results. The best self-assessment dimension relates to support, and the worst to considering oneself as a 'good leader'. The definition of a 'good leader' includes: Honesty, trust, and attitudes of good communication, closeness, appreciation, and reinforcement of the health team members. Different leadership styles were perceived. Main difficulties for leadership are related to the economic crisis and the management of personal conflicts. Health managers describe an adaptive leadership style, based on personal and professional support, and using communication as the main cohesive element for the team project. More studies on leaders' perspectives are important, in order to better understand their experiences, needs and expectations. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A method to prioritize quantitative traits and individuals for sequencing in family-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaanan P Shah

    Full Text Available Owing to recent advances in DNA sequencing, it is now technically feasible to evaluate the contribution of rare variation to complex traits and diseases. However, it is still cost prohibitive to sequence the whole genome (or exome of all individuals in each study. For quantitative traits, one strategy to reduce cost is to sequence individuals in the tails of the trait distribution. However, the next challenge becomes how to prioritize traits and individuals for sequencing since individuals are often characterized for dozens of medically relevant traits. In this article, we describe a new method, the Rare Variant Kinship Test (RVKT, which leverages relationship information in family-based studies to identify quantitative traits that are likely influenced by rare variants. Conditional on nuclear families and extended pedigrees, we evaluate the power of the RVKT via simulation. Not unexpectedly, the power of our method depends strongly on effect size, and to a lesser extent, on the frequency of the rare variant and the number and type of relationships in the sample. As an illustration, we also apply our method to data from two genetic studies in the Old Order Amish, a founder population with extensive genealogical records. Remarkably, we implicate the presence of a rare variant that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI Heart study (p = 0.044, consistent with the presence of a previously identified null mutation in the APOC3 gene that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in HAPI Heart study participants.

  20. A multiplex quantitative proteomics strategy for protein biomarker studies in urinary exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Delfin A A; Fiume, Immacolata; Capasso, Giovambattista; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella

    2012-06-01

    Urinary exosomes have received considerable attention as a potential biomarker source for the diagnosis of renal diseases. Notwithstanding, their use in protein biomarker research is hampered by the lack of efficient methods for vesicle isolation, lysis, and protein quantification. Here we report an improved ultracentrifugation-based method that facilitates the solubilization and removal of major impurities associated with urinary exosomes. A double-cushion sucrose/D(2)O centrifugation step was used after a two-step differential centrifugation to separate exosomes from the heavier vesicles. After the removal of uromodulin, 378 and 79 unique proteins were identified, respectively, in low- and high-density fractions. Comparison of our data with two previously published data sets helped to define proteins commonly found in urinary exosomes. Lysis, protein extraction, and in-solution digestion of exosomes were then optimized for MudPIT application. More than a hundred exosomal proteins were quantified by four-plex iTRAQ analysis of single and pooled samples from two different age groups. For healthy men, six proteins (TSN1, PODXL, IDHC, PPAP, ACBP, and ANXA5) showed significant expression differences between exosome pools of those aged 25-50 and 50-70 years old. Thus, exosomes isolated by our method provide the basis for the development of robust quantitative methods for protein biomarker research.

  1. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  2. A Quantitative Study on Burnout for Teachers Who Work with Students Who Have Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Elizabeth G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative research was to examine what relationships, if any, exist between the independent variable of burnout and dependent variables of job satisfaction for special education teachers who work with students who have moderate to severe disabilities ages 5 to 22 in a Southern California school district.…

  3. Italian version of Dyspnoea-12: cultural-linguistic validation, quantitative and qualitative content validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Arrigoni, Cristina; Groppelli, Katia; Magon, Arianna; Dellafiore, Federica; Pittella, Francesco; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Chessa, Massimo; Yorke, Janelle

    2018-01-16

    Dyspnoea-12 is a valid and reliable scale to assess dyspneic symptom, considering its severity, physical and emotional components. However, it is not available in Italian version due to it was not yet translated and validated. For this reason, the aim of this study was to develop an Italian version Dyspnoea-12, providing a cultural and linguistic validation, supported by the quantitative and qualitative content validity. This was a methodological study, divided into two phases: phase one is related to the cultural and linguistic validation, phase two is related to test the quantitative and qualitative content validity. Linguistic validation followed a standardized translation process. Quantitative content validity was assessed computing content validity ratio (CVR) and index (I-CVIs and S-CVI) from expert panellists response. Qualitative content validity was assessed by the narrative analysis on the answers of three open-ended questions to the expert panellists, aimed to investigate the clarity and the pertinence of the Italian items. The translation process found a good agreement in considering clear the items in both the six involved bilingual expert translators and among the ten voluntary involved patients. CVR, I-CVIs and S-CVI were satisfactory for all the translated items. This study has represented a pivotal step to use Dyspnoea-12 amongst Italian patients. Future researches are needed to deeply investigate the Italian version of  Dyspnoea-12 construct validity and its reliability, and to describe how dyspnoea components (i.e. physical and emotional) impact the life of patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.

  4. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  5. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  6. MRI study of the brain in aged volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Hiroo; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Endoh, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Akihide.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize age-related and chronological changes of the brain, longitudinal studies of aged volunteers were conducted using computed tomography since 1982. The present paper discusses correlations between brain function and findings of MR images which were obtained using a 1.5 T superconductive MR instrument since 1989. A total of 118 volunteers aged 60 to 88 years old with a mean age of 75.0±6.7 participated in the study, which consisted of MRI, EEG recording, the Benton Visual Retention Test and a medical interview. Subjects with a past history or clinical evidence of CVD, head trauma or dementia were excluded from the study. Incidence of T 2 high signal intensity lesions increased with age. Some showing T 1 low signal intensity in the same lesion were considered to be lacunar infarction, over all incidence of which was 24.6%. Numbers of correct responses on the BVRT showed a negative correlation with numbers of T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Although the aged volunteers in the present study could achieve all activity of daily living without any trouble, high cortical function evaluated by visuoperceptual performance of BVRT was somewhat disturbed in participants with multiple T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Brain atrophy seems to be more advanced in groups with T 2 hyper intensity lesions than in the group without them. These findings may support the notion that T 2 high signal intensity lesions are not merely an index of aging but pathologic lesions accompanied with senescence, although further studies including clinico-pathological correlation are necessary to establish this concept. (author)

  7. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  8. Comparative quantitative studies on the radiosensitivity of the oral cavity epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubenov, T.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 146 patients with miscellaneous localizations of malignant tumors in the head and neck area, in whom different portions of the oral cavity epithelium came within the field subject to irradiation were included in the study. Using the Kirk's formula for cumulative radiation effect, quantitative relationships in the manifestation of radioepithelitis were searched for. With increasing the intervals of the cumulative radiation effect, the number of patients and the number of interruptions in treatment with different localizations of the tumor depended on epithelium radiosensitivity

  9. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrett Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in

  10. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  11. Quantitative study of the myenteric plexus of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregonesi Cristina Elena Prado Teles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and quantitative alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetes and compare them to those of non-diabetic animals. Samples from the body of the stomach were used for whole-mount preparations stained with NADH-diaphorase and for histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It was observed that diabetes cause a significant decrease on the number of neurons.

  12. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  13. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Semi-Quantitative Knee Ultrasound and Knee Radiography with MRI: Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlipská, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Lehenkari, Petri; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Roemer, Frank W.; Arokoski, Jari P.; Kaukinen, Päivi; Liukkonen, Esa; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tervonen, Osmo; Koski, Juhani M.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative musculoskeletal disease highly prevalent in aging societies worldwide. Traditionally, knee OA is diagnosed using conventional radiography. However, structural changes of articular cartilage or menisci cannot be directly evaluated using this method. On the other hand, ultrasound is a promising tool able to provide direct information on soft tissue degeneration. The aim of our study was to systematically determine the site-specific diagnostic performance of semi-quantitative ultrasound grading of knee femoral articular cartilage, osteophytes and meniscal extrusion, and of radiographic assessment of joint space narrowing and osteophytes, using MRI as a reference standard. Eighty asymptomatic and 79 symptomatic subjects with mean age of 57.7 years were included in the study. Ultrasound performed best in the assessment of femoral medial and lateral osteophytes, and medial meniscal extrusion. In comparison to radiography, ultrasound performed better or at least equally well in identification of tibio-femoral osteophytes, medial meniscal extrusion and medial femoral cartilage morphological degeneration. Ultrasound provides relevant additional diagnostic information on tissue-specific morphological changes not depicted by conventional radiography. Consequently, the use of ultrasound as a complementary imaging tool along with radiography may enable more accurate and cost-effective diagnostics of knee osteoarthritis at the primary healthcare level. PMID:26926836

  14. Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamala, Shilpa; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Taneeru, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp-tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. The paired t -test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp-tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant ( P > 0.05). In the present study, age estimated by pulp-tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results.

  15. Study of ageing side effects in the DELPHI HPC calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W

    1997-01-01

    The readout proportional chambers of the HPC electromagnetic calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment are affected by large ageing. In order to study the long-term behaviour fo the calorimeter, one HPC module was extracted from DELPHI in 1992 and was brought to a test area where it was artificially aged during a period of two years; an ageing level exceeding the one expected for the HPC at the end of the LEP era was reached. During this period the performance of the module was periodically tested by means of dedicated beam tests whose results are discussed in this paper. These show that ageing has no significant effects on the response linearity and on the energy resolution for electromagnetic showers, once the analog response loss is compensated for by increasing the chamber gain through the anode voltage.

  16. Precision of quantitative computed tomography texture analysis using image filtering: A phantom study for scanner variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Mackin, Dennis; Court, Laurence; Moros, Eduardo; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kiryu, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) texture analyses for images with and without filtration are gaining attention to capture the heterogeneity of tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate how quantitative texture parameters using image filtering vary among different computed tomography (CT) scanners using a phantom developed for radiomics studies.A phantom, consisting of 10 different cartridges with various textures, was scanned under 6 different scanning protocols using four CT scanners from four different vendors. CT texture analyses were performed for both unfiltered images and filtered images (using a Laplacian of Gaussian spatial band-pass filter) featuring fine, medium, and coarse textures. Forty-five regions of interest were placed for each cartridge (x) in a specific scan image set (y), and the average of the texture values (T(x,y)) was calculated. The interquartile range (IQR) of T(x,y) among the 6 scans was calculated for a specific cartridge (IQR(x)), while the IQR of T(x,y) among the 10 cartridges was calculated for a specific scan (IQR(y)), and the median IQR(y) was then calculated for the 6 scans (as the control IQR, IQRc). The median of their quotient (IQR(x)/IQRc) among the 10 cartridges was defined as the variability index (VI).The VI was relatively small for the mean in unfiltered images (0.011) and for standard deviation (0.020-0.044) and entropy (0.040-0.044) in filtered images. Skewness and kurtosis in filtered images featuring medium and coarse textures were relatively variable across different CT scanners, with VIs of 0.638-0.692 and 0.430-0.437, respectively.Various quantitative CT texture parameters are robust and variable among different scanners, and the behavior of these parameters should be taken into consideration.

  17. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  18. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  19. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  20. The renal quantitative scintillation camera study for determination of renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, I.M. Jr.; Boineau, F.G.; Evans, B.B.; Schlegel, J.U.

    1983-01-01

    The renal quantitative scintillation camera study assesses glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow based upon renal uptake of 99mtechnetium-iron ascorbate and 131iodine-hippuran, respectively. The method was compared to inulin, para-aminohippuric acid and creatinine clearance studies in 7 normal subjects and 9 patients with various degrees of reduced renal function. The reproducibility of the technique was determined in 15 randomly selected pediatric patients. The values of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not significantly different from those of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. The reproducibility of the technique was comparable to that of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid studies. Patient acceptance of the technique is excellent and the cost is minimal. Renal morphology and excretory dynamics also are demonstrated. The technique is advocated as a clinical measure of renal function

  1. The effects of infographics and several quantitative versus qualitative formats for cardiovascular disease risk, including heart age, on people's risk understanding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Olga C; Vonk, Suzanne I; Van den Haak, Maaike J; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2018-01-01

    To study how comprehension of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by: (1) infographics about qualitative risk information, with/without risk numbers; (2) which qualitative risk dimension is emphasized; (3) heart age vs. traditional risk format.

  2. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  3. Audiometric changes with age in Hiroshima: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Ishii, Goro

    1960-10-01

    Audiometry observations were analyzed for 290 irradiated survivors of the 1945 atomic bomb in Hiroshima and in 293 nonirradiated subjects. The study was undertaken in order to determine the age changes in audiology in irradiated and nonirradiated subjects as well as to investigate the pattern of hearing levels in a Japanese population for comparison with patterns in Caucasians. The following statistical observations were made. Correlation between hearing levels for right and left ear. Correlation between hearing levels at various cycles. Changes in hearing levels by age and sex. The relation between age and decibel loss was not linear and correlation ratios with age were 0.45 to 0.72. Audiometry seems to be of some value as one of a battery of tests of physiologic aging designed for detection of irradiation induced nonspecific aging acceleration. In this relatively small sample, no differences in hearing acuity were detected in the atomic bomb survivors as compared with the control sample. 6 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a quantitative MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, S; Blezer, E L A; Schreibelt, G; Döpp, E; van der Pol, S M A; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Nicolay, K; Dijkstra, C D; de Vries, H E

    2004-03-01

    be monitored on-line with MRI using USPIOs and Gd-DTPA as contrast agents. These studies also implicate that USPIOs are a valuable tool to visualize monocyte infiltration in vivo and quantitatively assess the efficacy of new therapeutics like lovastatin.

  5. Quantitative structure–reactivity study on sulfonation of amines, alcohols and phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Beheshti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–reactivity relationship (QSRR can be considered as a variant of quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR studies, where the chemical reactivity of reactants in a specified chemical reaction is related to chemical structure. As follows, the sulfonation reaction yield of 24 amines, alcohols and phenols with sulfonyl chloride was studied by QSRR. Quantum chemical calculations (b3lyp/6-31+g (d were carried out to obtain the optimized geometry. The suitable set of molecular descriptors was calculated to represent the molecular structures of compounds, such as constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical descriptors. The genetic algorithm (GA was applied to select the variables that resulted in the best-fitted models. After the variable selection, multiple linear regression (MLR was utilized to construct linear QSRR models. The maximum relative error in prediction (5.26 showed that the predictive ability of the model was satisfactory and it can be used for designing similar reactants with efficient sulfonation reaction.

  6. New simultaneous thermogravimetry and modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry apparatus for quantitative thermal decomposition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of instrument has been designed and constructed to measure quantitatively the gas phase species evolving during thermal decompositions. These measurements can be used for understanding the kinetics of thermal decomposition, determining the heats of formation and vaporization of high-temperature materials, and analyzing sample contaminants. The new design allows measurements to be made on the same time scale as the rates of the reactions being studied, provides a universal detection technique to study a wide range of compounds, gives quantitative measurements of decomposition products, and minimizes interference from the instrument on the measurements. The instrument design is based on a unique combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and modulated beam mass spectroscopy (MBMS) which are brought together into a symbiotic relationship through the use of differentially pumped vacuum systems, modulated molecular beam techniques, and computer control and data-acquisition systems. A data analysis technique that calculates partial pressures in the reaction cell from the simultaneous microbalance force measurements and the modulated mass spectrometry measurements has been developed. This eliminates the need to know the ionization cross section, the ion dissociation channels, the quadrupole transmission, and the ion detector sensitivity for each thermal decomposition product prior to quantifying the mass spectral data. The operation of the instrument and the data analysis technique are illustrated with the thermal decomposition of contaminants from a precipitated palladium powder

  7. Quantitative study of Xanthosoma violaceum leaf surfaces using RIMAPS and variogram techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M

    2006-08-01

    Two new imaging techniques (rotated image with maximum averaged power spectrum (RIMAPS) and variogram) are presented for the study and description of leaf surfaces. Xanthosoma violaceum was analyzed to illustrate the characteristics of both techniques. Both techniques produce a quantitative description of leaf surface topography. RIMAPS combines digitized images rotation with Fourier transform, and it is used to detect patterns orientation and characteristics of surface topography. Variogram relates the mathematical variance of a surface with the area of the sample window observed. It gives the typical scale lengths of the surface patterns. RIMAPS detects the morphological variations of the surface topography pattern between fresh and dried (herbarium) samples of the leaf. The variogram method finds the characteristic dimensions of the leaf microstructure, i.e., cell length, papillae diameter, etc., showing that there are not significant differences between dry and fresh samples. The results obtained show the robustness of RIMAPS and variogram analyses to detect, distinguish, and characterize leaf surfaces, as well as give scale lengths. Both techniques are tools for the biologist to study variations of the leaf surface when different patterns are present. The use of RIMAPS and variogram opens a wide spectrum of possibilities by providing a systematic, quantitative description of the leaf surface topography.

  8. Quantitative study on lung volume and lung perfusion using SPECT and CT in thoracal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Goerich, J.; Strauss, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    22 patients with space occupying lesions in the thoracal region were investigated by computer tomography and by perfusion scintigraphy using SPECT. In order to evaluate the CT images quantitatively, the lung volume was determined using approximation method and compared with the perfusion in the SPECT study. For this, anatomically equivalent transaxial SPECT slices had been coordinated to the CT slices. Between the determined lung volumes and the activity in the ocrresponding layers, a statistically significant correlation was found. It could be shown that the stronger perfusion, frequently observed at the right side of the healthy lung, may be explained by an higher volume of the right pulmonary lobe. Whereas in benign displacing processes the relation activity to volume was similar to the one of the healthy lung, a strongly reduced perfusion together with inconspicuous lung volumes became apparent with malignant tumors. In addition to the great morphological evidence of CT and SPECT studies, additional informations regarding the dignity of displacing processes may be derived from the quantitative evaluation of both methods. (orig.) [de

  9. A relative quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique: animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Xuefang; Zhou, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique in swine model. Numerous techniques based on the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) density have emerged. Although these methods proposed to be able to assess haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, their limitations are noticed. There are still needs to develop some new techniques. Experiments were performed upon five (5) closed-chest swine. Balloon catheters were placed into the coronary artery to simulate different degrees of luminal stenosis. Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF) was measured using color microsphere technique. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) was measured using pressure wire. CT examinations were performed twice during First-pass phase under adenosine-stress condition. CT HU Density (HUDCT) and CT HU Density Ratio (HUDRCT) were calculated using the acquired CT images. Our study presents that HUDRCT shows a good (y=0.07245+0.09963x, r2=0.898) correlation with MBF and FFR. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, HUDRCT provides excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of significant ischemia during adenosine-stress as defined by FFR indicated by the value of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.927. HUDRCT has the potential to be developed as a useful indicator of quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion.

  10. Quantitative assessment of myofibroblast in severe dysplasia, microinvasion and oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapse, Sonam C; Rathod, Nanita; Baad, Rajendra; Mandlik, Jyoti; Sharma, Anupam S; Bommanavar, Sushma

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast are essential for the integrity of human body by virtue of its role in wound healing and pathological organ remodeling. Myofibroblast is a universal cellular component in mammalian lesions, but not a typical component of normal untraumatized tissues. Therefore its presence in abundance in case of cancer is a matter of concern. Tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in tumor progression. These so called cancer associated fibroblast or myofibroblast are the major components and occur in stromal tissue during carcinogenesis processes. This study is a quantitative assessment of presence and distribution of myofibroblast in severe dysplasia, microinvasion and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Myofibroblast, Vimentin, α-SMA, OSCC, Severe dysplasia, Microinvasion. How to cite this article: Kapse SC, Rathod N, Baad R, Mandlik J, Sharma AS, Bommanavar S. Quantitative Assessment of Myofibroblast in Severe Dysplasia, Microinvasion and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(1):34-38. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  11. Experimental study on quantitative evaluation of slow pulsatile flow of CSF with cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masao

    1991-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the slow pulsatile flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) quantitatively with cine MRI in phantom experiment for the clinical application. The flow phantom was constructed from a plastic tube with a narrow channel to represent the central aqueduct. The phantom was filled with water to represent the CSF. The second tube filled with stationary water was positioned beside the flow phantom and acted as a control for no-flow signal strength. The ratio of signal intensity in regions of interest for the flow phantom and the control was measured. Not only the actual velocity curve of the flowing water through the phantom but also the temporal profile of signal intensity showed two main peaks with other small peaks in one cycle. This suggested a close relationship between signal intensity of cine MRI and flow velocity. A significant correlation between the signal intensity ratio and the velocity was obtained on cine MRI pulse sequences. Cine MRI was thus found to have the ability to give quantitative information about slow pulsatile flow. The most suitable pulse sequence was fast imaging with steady state free precession pulse sequence at the flip angle between 50 and 90 degrees. This preliminary study suggests that the slow pulsatile flow of CSF passing along the aqueduct can be visualized and measured. Thus, the sequence proposed has a potential for the investigation of normal and disturbed CSF circulation and the mapping of the flow pattern in different pathological conditions. (N.K.)

  12. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  13. Peer support for parents of children with chronic disabling conditions: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Val; Morris, Christopher; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Logan, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To review the qualitative and quantitative evidence of the benefits of peer support for parents of children with disabling conditions in the context of health, well-being, impact on family, and economic and service implications. We comprehensively searched multiple databases. Eligible studies evaluated parent-to-parent support and reported on the psychological health and experience of giving or receiving support. There were no limits on the child's condition, study design, language, date, or setting. We sought to aggregate quantitative data; findings of qualitative studies were combined using thematic analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were brought together in a narrative synthesis. Seventeen papers were included: nine qualitative studies, seven quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods evaluation. Four themes were identified from qualitative studies: (1) shared social identity, (2) learning from the experiences of others, (3) personal growth, and (4) supporting others. Some quantitative studies reported a positive effect of peer support on psychological health and other outcomes; however, this was not consistently confirmed. It was not possible to aggregate data across studies. No costing data were identified. Qualitative studies strongly suggest that parents perceive benefit from peer support programmes, an effect seen across different types of support and conditions. However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Disparities in Mortality Rates of Working-Age Population in Eastern, Central and Western Europe – A Comparative Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackó Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even two decades after the start of transition, mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe are much higher than in Western Europe. This study presents and quantifies the impact on mortality of factors beyond the usual explanations. These factors are the advantageous and disadvantageous health effects of the geographical location of individual countries, as well as the economic structure, price structure and political priorities of the pre-transition systems in Central and Eastern Europe associated with anomic, self-destructive lifestyles. For adult males, mortality results show significant impact from level of development, health expenditure, latitude of countries, spirit consumption, education and air pollution. The impact of development, health expenditure, latitude, air pollution appear the same for both gender’s mortality.

  16. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  17. Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88. The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P 0.05. Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA.

  18. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  19. The Estimation of Gestational Age at Birth in Database Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberg, Maria; Platt, Robert W; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the safety of prenatal medication use require valid estimation of the pregnancy duration. However, gestational age is often incompletely recorded in administrative and clinical databases. Our objective was to compare different approaches to estimating the pregnancy duration. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics, we examined the following four approaches to estimating missing gestational age: (1) generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data; (2) multiple imputation; (3) estimation based on fetal birth weight and sex; and (4) conventional approaches that assigned a fixed value (39 weeks for all or 39 weeks for full term and 35 weeks for preterm). The gestational age recorded in Hospital Episode Statistics was considered the gold standard. We conducted a simulation study comparing the described approaches in terms of estimated bias and mean square error. A total of 25,929 infants from 22,774 mothers were included in our "gold standard" cohort. The smallest average absolute bias was observed for the generalized estimating equation that included birth weight, while the largest absolute bias occurred when assigning 39-week gestation to all those with missing values. The smallest mean square errors were detected with generalized estimating equations while multiple imputation had the highest mean square errors. The use of generalized estimating equations resulted in the most accurate estimation of missing gestational age when birth weight information was available. In the absence of birth weight, assignment of fixed gestational age based on term/preterm status may be the optimal approach.

  20. Aging studies on the first resistive-micromegas quadruplet @ GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Aging studies of the first resistive-micromegas quadruplet at GIF++: preliminary results A resistive-micromegas quadruplet built at CERN, serving as prototype of the ATLAS micromegas, has been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) with the aim of carrying out a long-term aging study. The detector has four active layers about 0.5 m2 each equipped with 1024 read-out strips and sputtered resistive layer for spark protection. It is exposed to an intense gamma irradiation (~50 MHz/cm2 provided by the 16.65 TBq 137Cs source of GIF++), corresponding to ~10 times more the expected counting rate at High-Luminosity LHC. Two smaller resistive bulk-micromegas produced at the CERN PCB workshop have also been installed at GIF++ in order to provide a comparison of the aging behavior with the micromegas quadruplet. We will give an overview of the aging properties of the resistive micromegas after few months of irradiation at GIF++. Detector aging evolution will be presented in terms of dark and amplifi...

  1. Accelerated optical polymer aging studies for LED luminaire applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán, Edgar; Wendling, Peter; Kostrun, Marijan; Garner, Richard

    2013-09-01

    There is a need in the lighting industry to design and implement accelerated aging methods that accurately simulate the aging process of LED luminaire components. In response to this need, we have built a flexible and reliable system to study the aging characteristics of optical polymer materials, and we have employed it to study a commercially available LED luminaire diffuser made of PMMA. The experimental system consists of a "Blue LED Emitter" and a working surface. Both the temperatures of the samples and the optical powers of the LEDs are appropriately characterized in the system. Several accelerated aging experiments are carried out at different temperatures and optical powers over a 90 hour period and the measured transmission values are used as inputs to a degradation model derived using plausibility arguments. This model seems capable of predicting the behavior of the material as a function of time, temperature and optical power. The model satisfactorily predicts the measured transmission values of diffusers aged in luminaires at two different times and thus can be used to make application recommendations for this material. Specifically, at 35000 hours (the manufacturer's stated life of the luminaire) and at the typical operational temperature of the diffuser, the model predicts a transmission loss of only a few percent over the original transmission of the material at 450 nm, which renders this material suitable for this application.

  2. SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation toward clinical use: a comparative study with {sup 13}N-Ammonia PET myocardial blood flow quantitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bailing [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, Columbia, Missouri (United States); Hu, Lien-Hsin; Yang, Bang-Hung; Ting, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chen, Lung-Ching [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Taipei (China); Chen, Yen-Kung [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Wu, Tao-Cheng [National Yang-Ming University, Cardiovascular Research Center, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantitation of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with {sup 13}N-Ammonia (NH3) position emission tomography (PET) on the same cohorts. Recent advances of SPECT technologies have been applied to develop MBF quantitation as a promising tool to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) for areas where PET MBF quantitation is not available. However, whether the SPECT approach can achieve the same level of accuracy as the PET approach for clinical use still needs further investigations. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVT) and 16 clinical patients with CAD received both MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET flow scans. Dynamic SPECT images acquired with high temporary resolution were fully corrected for physical factors and processed to quantify K1 using the standard compartmental modeling. Human MIBI tracer extraction fraction (EF) was determined by comparing MIBI K1 and NH3 flow on the HVT group and then used to convert flow values from K1 for all subjects. MIBI and NH3 flow values were systematically compared to validate the SPECT approach. The human MIBI EF was determined as [1.0-0.816*exp(-0.267/MBF)]. Global and regional MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET were highly correlated for all subjects (global R{sup 2}: MBF = 0.92, MFR = 0.78; regional R{sup 2}: MBF ≥ 0.88, MFR ≥ 0.71). No significant differences for rest flow, stress flow, and MFR between these two approaches were observed (All p ≥ 0.088). Bland-Altman plots overall revealed small bias between MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET (global: ΔMBF = -0.03Lml/min/g, ΔMFR = 0.07; regional: ΔMBF = -0.07 - 0.06, ΔMFR = -0.02 - 0.22). Quantitation with SPECT technologies can be accurate to measure myocardial blood flow as PET quantitation while comprehensive imaging factors of SPECT to derive the variability between these two approaches were fully addressed and corrected

  3. SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation toward clinical use: a comparative study with "1"3N-Ammonia PET myocardial blood flow quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bailing; Hu, Lien-Hsin; Yang, Bang-Hung; Ting, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Lung-Ching; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hung, Guang-Uei; Wu, Tao-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantitation of "9"9"mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with "1"3N-Ammonia (NH3) position emission tomography (PET) on the same cohorts. Recent advances of SPECT technologies have been applied to develop MBF quantitation as a promising tool to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) for areas where PET MBF quantitation is not available. However, whether the SPECT approach can achieve the same level of accuracy as the PET approach for clinical use still needs further investigations. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVT) and 16 clinical patients with CAD received both MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET flow scans. Dynamic SPECT images acquired with high temporary resolution were fully corrected for physical factors and processed to quantify K1 using the standard compartmental modeling. Human MIBI tracer extraction fraction (EF) was determined by comparing MIBI K1 and NH3 flow on the HVT group and then used to convert flow values from K1 for all subjects. MIBI and NH3 flow values were systematically compared to validate the SPECT approach. The human MIBI EF was determined as [1.0-0.816*exp(-0.267/MBF)]. Global and regional MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET were highly correlated for all subjects (global R"2: MBF = 0.92, MFR = 0.78; regional R"2: MBF ≥ 0.88, MFR ≥ 0.71). No significant differences for rest flow, stress flow, and MFR between these two approaches were observed (All p ≥ 0.088). Bland-Altman plots overall revealed small bias between MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET (global: ΔMBF = -0.03Lml/min/g, ΔMFR = 0.07; regional: ΔMBF = -0.07 - 0.06, ΔMFR = -0.02 - 0.22). Quantitation with SPECT technologies can be accurate to measure myocardial blood flow as PET quantitation while comprehensive imaging factors of SPECT to derive the variability between these two approaches were fully addressed and corrected. (orig.)

  4. Health and aging: development of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hilary; O'Regan, Clare; Finucane, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    To assist researchers planning studies similar to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), concerning the development of the health assessment component, to promote use of the archived data set, to inform researchers of the methods employed, and to complement the accompanying article on normative values. Prospective, longitudinal study of older adults. Republic of Ireland. Eight thousand five hundred four community-dwelling adults who participated in wave 1 of the TILDA study. The main areas of focus for the TILDA health assessments are neurocardiovascular instability, locomotion, and vision. The article describes the scientific rationale for the choice of assessments and seeks to determine the potential advantages of incorporating novel biomeasures and technologies in population-based studies to advance understanding of aging-related disorders. The detailed description of the physical measures will facilitate cross-national comparative research and put into context the normative values outlined in the subsequent article. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of structural magnetic resonance imaging data in a two-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalavi, Sima; Simmons, Andrew; Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Barker, Gareth J; Reinders, AAT Simone

    2012-01-01

    Multi-center magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies present an opportunity to advance research by pooling data. However, brain measurements derived from MR-images are susceptible to differences in MR-sequence parameters. It is therefore necessary to determine whether there is an interaction between the sequence parameters and the effect of interest, and to minimise any such interaction by careful choice of acquisition parameters. As an exemplar of the issues involved in multi-center studies, we present data from a study in which we aimed to optimize a set of volumetric MRI-protocols to define a protocol giving data that are consistent and reproducible across two centers and over time. Optimization was achieved based on data quality and quantitative measures, in our case using FreeSurfer and Voxel Based Morphometry approaches. Our approach consisted of a series of five comparisons. Firstly, a single-center dataset was collected, using a range of candidate pulse-sequences and parameters chosen on the basis of previous literature. Based on initial results, a number of minor changes were implemented to optimize the pulse-sequences, and a second single-center dataset was collected. FreeSurfer data quality measures were compared between datasets in order to determine the best performing sequence(s), which were taken forward to the next stage of testing. We subsequently acquired short-term and long-term two-center reproducibility data, and quantitative measures were again assessed to determine the protocol with the highest reproducibility across centers. Effects of a scanner software and hardware upgrade on the reproducibility of the protocols at one of the centers were also evaluated. Assessing the quality measures from the first two datasets allowed us to define artefact-free protocols, all with high image quality as assessed by FreeSurfer. Comparing the quantitative test and retest measures, we found high within-center reproducibility for all protocols, but lower

  6. Housing for ageing LGBTQ people in Sweden: a descriptive study of needs, preferences, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottorp, A; Johansson, K; Aase, P; Rosenberg, L

    2016-09-01

    With an increasing number of ageing people who identify themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), there is a risk that traditional housing for older people fails to meet the needs of these people. The aim of this study was to describe LGBTQ people's needs, preferences, and concerns according to ageing and housing. Based on a survey (n = 487), and six focus-group discussions (n = 30), with LGBTQ persons, quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyse the findings. When comparing the ranking of preferences (in terms of activity options, environmental features, and staff competence) in a senior housing setting between the LGBTQ people (n = 200) and heterosexual matched controls (n = 198), only minor differences were detected. The findings from the focus groups included: (1) a dilemma between segregation and openness, (2) the importance of safety associated with ageing together with persons with similar experiences, and (3) networks of persons at different ages connected through close friendship supported participation in activities in LGBTQ-profiled senior housing. The findings provide knowledge to improve awareness of sexual orientation when it comes to needs and preferences in relation to ageing and housing in a Swedish context.

  7. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  8. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  9. Study healthy ageing and intellectual disabilities : Recruitment and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a

  10. studies on the reproductive status, catch and age compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    reproductive status of samples of Glossina pallidipes, trapped in NGU-2G traps. The objective was to assess ... male flies. Key words/phrases: Abortion, age reproductive status, Glossina pallidipes, NGU-2G traps, pregnancy. INTRODUCTION. From an ... ecology and behaviour of G. pallidipies. The present study was, ...

  11. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  12. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging…

  13. Comparative study of quantitative phase imaging techniques for refractometry of optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dorlodot, Bertrand; Bélanger, Erik; Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Vallée, Réal; Marquet, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The refractive index difference profile of optical fibers is the key design parameter because it determines, among other properties, the insertion losses and propagating modes. Therefore, an accurate refractive index profiling method is of paramount importance to their development and optimization. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is one of the available tools to retrieve structural characteristics of optical fibers, including the refractive index difference profile. Having the advantage of being non-destructive, several different QPI methods have been developed over the last decades. Here, we present a comparative study of three different available QPI techniques, namely the transport-of-intensity equation, quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry and digital holographic microscopy. To assess the accuracy and precision of those QPI techniques, quantitative phase images of the core of a well-characterized optical fiber have been retrieved for each of them and a robust image processing procedure has been applied in order to retrieve their refractive index difference profiles. As a result, even if the raw images for all the three QPI methods were suffering from different shortcomings, our robust automated image-processing pipeline successfully corrected these. After this treatment, all three QPI techniques yielded accurate, reliable and mutually consistent refractive index difference profiles in agreement with the accuracy and precision of the refracted near-field benchmark measurement.

  14. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A

    2010-08-01

    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  15. Principals' perceptions on the practice of distributed leadership: a quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid del Valle García Carreño

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe distributed leadership practices (DLP in order to know the point of view of the directors of primary education centers of the Community of Madrid, Spain. It has been framed in a quantitative methodology, and a descriptive study, with a pilot test; also, it has been constructed and validated the ad hoc questionnaire "Distributed leadership practices of the Principal school", that allows collecting the perception that develops the directors (as in the context studied, and to know the relevance that they grant to them. The results found are very broad and correspond to the set of directors (as surveyed. This research presents the results of the DLP, which refers to the responses given by the group of school directors in one of the four dimensions (DLP, Shared Decisions, Mission, Vision and Professional Development.

  16. Quantitative study of bundle size effect on thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya; Inoue, Taiki; An, Hua; Xiang, Rong; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    Compared with isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), thermal conductivity is greatly impeded in SWNT bundles; however, the measurement of the bundle size effect is difficult. In this study, the number of SWNTs in a bundle was determined based on the transferred horizontally aligned SWNTs on a suspended micro-thermometer to quantitatively study the effect of the bundle size on thermal conductivity. Increasing the bundle size significantly degraded the thermal conductivity. For isolated SWNTs, thermal conductivity was approximately 5000 ± 1000 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, three times larger than that of the four-SWNT bundle. The logarithmical deterioration of thermal conductivity resulting from the increased bundle size can be attributed to the increased scattering rate with neighboring SWNTs based on the kinetic theory.

  17. The Lexicon of Development: A Quantitative History of the Language of Development Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher David ABSELL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the history of the language of development theory in order to elucidate the nature of its terminology. The history of the principal terms of development theory (economic/sustainable/human development, Third World, and North/(Global South is examined by way of a quantitative study of the frequency of the usage of these terms during the 20th century based on a dataset of millions of digitised books made available by Google Books. The author argues that the results of the study provide empirical evidence that the language of development theory is a historical-ideological construction which is embedded in the structure of the world economy.

  18. Are Quantitative Measures of Academic Productivity Correlated with Academic Rank in Plastic Surgery? A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Miller, Devin; O'Brien-Coon, Devin; Zins, James E; Serletti, Joseph M; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Manson, Paul N; Gordon, Chad R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among full-time academic plastic surgeons. Bibliometric indices were computed for all full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The primary study variable was academic rank. Bibliometric predictors included the Hirsch index, I-10 index, number of publications, number of citations, and highest number of citations for a single publication. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlation analyses were computed. Multiple comparisons testing was used to calculate adjusted associations for subgroups. For all analyses, a value of p productivity. Although academic promotion is the result of success in multiple different areas, bibliometric measures may be useful adjuncts for assessment of research productivity.

  19. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  20. Quantitative evaluation in tumor SPECT and the effect of tumor size. Fundamental study with phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Yanagisawa, Masamichi

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study with phantoms was performed in order to evaluate the effect of the tumor volume on the quantitative estimation in tumor SPECT. The ratio of mean count/pixel in the phantom to that of the background (T/N ratio) was well correlated with the size of the phantom; even when the concentration of the Tc-99m O 4 - solution of globular phantoms with diameters of 29, 37 and 46 mm was constant, the greater the size of the phantom, the higher was the T/N ratio. This study showed that we should understand that the T/N ratio was certainly affected by the reduction of the tumor size itself whenever we evaluate treatment response or assess tumor viability after treatment by reference to the T/N ratio. (author)

  1. Quantitative proteomic study of Aspergillus Fumigatus secretome revealed deamidation of secretory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-04-24

    Aspergillus sp. plays an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and is also exploited as cell factories for the production of industrial enzymes. This study profiled the secretome of Aspergillus fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch by high throughput quantitative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Post translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a critical role in protein functions. However, our understanding of the PTMs in secretory proteins is limited. Here, we present the identification of PTMs such as deamidation of secreted proteins of A. fumigatus. This study quantified diverse groups of extracellular secreted enzymes and their functional classification revealed cellulases and glycoside hydrolases (32.9%), amylases (0.9%), hemicellulases (16.2%), lignin degrading enzymes (8.1%), peptidases and proteases (11.7%), chitinases, lipases and phosphatases (7.6%), and proteins with unknown function (22.5%). The comparison of quantitative iTRAQ results revealed that cellulose and xylan stimulates expression of specific cellulases and hemicellulases, and their abundance level as a function of substrate. In-depth data analysis revealed deamidation as a major PTM of key cellulose hydrolyzing enzymes like endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and glucosidases. Hemicellulose degrading endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, monosidases, xylosidases, lignin degrading laccase, isoamyl alcohol oxidase and oxidoreductases were also found to be deamidated. The filamentous fungi play an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus were also exploited as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. In this study, extracellular proteins secreted by thermophilic A. fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch were profiled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) by

  2. Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative analysis of stress thallium-201 studies: comparison of SPET and planar imaging in the detection of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Hayat, N.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Hassan, I.

    1986-01-01

    The value of thallium-201 tomographic sections in the detection of coronary artery disease is illustrated by comparing visual interpretation (VTS) and quantitative analysis (QTS) with visual planar study (VPS) and quantitative analysis of planar study (QPS), referring to coronary angiography (CA) as the standard technique. It is concluded that visual assessment of single photon emission tomography (VTS) is more valuable than all other techniques (VPS, QPS and QTS) for detecting and localizing coronary artery disease. (UK)

  4. Study on methods of quantitative analysis of the biological thin samples in EM X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Detian; Zhang Xuemin; He Kun; Yang Yi; Zhang Sa; Wang Baozhen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods of quantitative analysis of the biological thin samples. Methods: Hall theory was used to study the qualitative analysis, background subtraction, peel off overlap peaks; external radiation and aberrance of spectra. Results: The results of reliable qualitative analysis and precise quantitative analysis were achieved. Conclusion: The methods for analysis of the biological thin samples in EM X-ray microanalysis can be used in biomedical research

  5. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Clinical study on brain tumors in the aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Akira; Manaka, Shinya; Takakura, Kintomo

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the clinical features and the prognosis of brain tumors in the aged, 132 cases over 60 years of age were studied from the consecutive series of 1,793 brain tumors in the University of Tokyo Hospital (1963 - 1979). The incidence of brain tumors in the aged was 7.4% on the whole, while it showed a significant increase from 4.8% (1960's) to 11.5% (the later half of 1970's). Histologically, meningiomas were the most common tumors (26%), followed by neurinomas (17%), pituitary adenomas (16%) and metastatic tumors (15%). Malignant gliomas were found more frequently than benign ones. There were more meningiomas as age advanced. The proportion and the number of meningioma cases has obviously increased in recent years when CT scanners became available. Symptoms of intracranial hypertention were found less frequently in aged patients although they were still common in cases of glioblastomas. The duration from onset to surgery was relatively long, especially in cases of neurinomas and pituitary adenomas. Two cases of astrocytomas belonged to the category of silent gliomas. Overall operative mortality rate was 10.6%, while it showed a marked decrease to 4.7% in the 1970's. Five-year survival rates were as follows: meningiomas (58%), pituitary adenomas (70%), neurinomas (80%), glioblastomas (20%) and astrocytomas (25%). As for functional prognoses, 30% of the patients showed poor states on ADL, mostly because of residual psychic disorders. (author)

  7. Age and workers' perceptions of workplace safety: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between age and (i) safety perception; (ii) job satisfaction; (iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N=320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19-29 years; 30-39 years; 40-50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety perception was assessed with Hayes, Perander, Smecko, and Trask's (1998) 50-item Work Safety Scale (WSS): a scale that effectively captures the dimensions identified by safety experts to influence perceptions of workplace safety. ANOVA was used to test for differences in the mean scores of the 4 groups. Post Hoc analysis revealed differences of statistical significance between the 2 younger cohorts and the 2 older cohorts. The results indicated a positive association between age and safety perception. Older workers had the best perceptions on safety, indicated the highest level of job satisfaction, were the most compliant with safety procedures, and recorded the lowest accident involvement rate. From a practical perspective, understanding age-related perceptions of workplace safety would benefit management's decisions regarding workers' adaptability, general work effectiveness, accident frequency, implementation of safety management policies, and handling of age-related accident characteristics.

  8. Multiproteinopathy, neurodegeneration and old age: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C; Stephens, Melanie L; Rabinovici, Gil D; Kramer, Joel H; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W

    2018-02-01

    A complex spectrum of mixed brain pathologies is common in older people. This clinical pathologic conference case study illustrates the challenges of formulating clinicopathologic correlations in late-onset neurodegenerative diseases featuring cognitive-behavioral syndromes with underlying multiple proteinopathy. Studies on the co-existence and interactions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with neurodegenerative non-AD pathologies in the aging brain are needed to understand the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and to support the development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapies.

  9. Ferrocyanide safety project ferrocyanide aging studies FY 1995 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Alderson, E.V.; Hallen, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1995 on Task 3 of the Ferrocyanide Safety Project, Ferrocyanide Aging Studies. Aging refers to the dissolution and hydrolysis of simulated Hanford ferrocyanide waste in alkaline aqueous solutions by radiolytic and chemical means. The ferrocyanide simulant primarily used in these studies was dried In-Farm-1B, Rev. 7, prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company to simulate the waste generated when the In-Farm flowsheet was used to remove radiocesium from waste supernates in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. In the In-Farm flowsheet, nickel ion and ferrocyanide anion were added to waste supernates to precipitate sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6 , and co-precipitate radiocesium. Once the radiocesium was removed, supernates were pumped from the tanks, and new wastes from cladding removal processes or from evaporators were added. These new wastes were typically highly caustic, having hydroxide ion concentrations of over 1 M and as high as 4 M. The Aging Studies task is investigating reactions this caustic waste may have had with the precipitated ferrocyanide waste in a radiation field. In previous Aging Studies research, Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6 in simulants was shown to dissolve in basic solutions, forming insoluble Ni(OH) 2 and soluble Na 4 Fe(CN) 6 . The influence on solubility of base strength, sodium ion concentration, anions, and temperature was previously investigated. The results may indicate that even ferrocyanide sludge that did not come into direct contact with highly basic wastes may also have aged significantly

  10. Positronium in metal-oxide powders studied with age. The age-momentum correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeyenberge, B. van; Dauve, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time positronium is investigated in the fine powders of MgO and Al 2 O 3 using age-momentum correlation technique based on a relativistic positron beam. The application of this technique for investigating the interaction of positronium with the grain surfaces is discussed and compared with other techniques. The previously reported interaction of the positronium with paramagnetic centers is further studied. A qualitative interpretation of the spectra is given. In the Al 2 O 3 samples we found some unexpected behaviour of the conversion quenching of ortho-positronium at irradiation induced paramagnetic surface defect. (author)

  11. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Su

    Full Text Available Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN, an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted.

  12. Beyond case studies: Quantitative effects of recycling, incentive, and diversion program choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skumatz, L.A. [Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Communities, facing tight budgets, volatile markets, and the recycling backlash are turning their attention to making their programs more efficient and effective. Unfortunately, communities have very little quantitative information available to help them improve their programs. This is despite the fact that the majority of recycling programs have been running for over 6 years. Further, the author found that there are many thousands of curbside and dropoff recycling programs across the nation, as well as thousands of yard waste and variable rate programs. Still, with all these years of operating experience across the nation, at conferences, when planners ask about the likely impacts of possible program improvements, the answers usually begin, ``well, the City of [fill in the blank] made that change and found...``. Answers like this are seldom transferable to other communities. Similarly, most published information also relies on one or a few (less than ten) case studies, and published case studies usually describe programs that are outstanding in some way, making the information even less transferable. This type of information is wholly inadequate to derive information that is transferable to any other community. Can one really expect information from the City of San Jose, California, to transfer directly to the Village of Hartland, Wisconsin? That is the level of information that has been available thus far to planners. This study uses specially collected data from over 500 communities across North America as the basis for a statistical analysis of those programmatic and socio-demographic factors that contribute most to higher levels of recycling diversion. The work is unique in that it provides the first reliable quantitative information for use by community program planners in analyzing impacts of alternative programs and their cost-effectiveness to design sustainable, appropriate programs to improve diversion.

  13. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  14. Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V; Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J

    2001-10-01

    Four Spanish aged red wines made in different wine-making areas have been extracted, and the extracts and their 1:5, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions have been analyzed by a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) approach in which three judges evaluated odor intensity on a four-point scale. Sixty-nine different odor regions were detected in the GC-O profiles of wines, 63 of which could be identified. GC-O data have been processed to calculate averaged flavor dilution factors (FD). Different ANOVA strategies have been further applied on FD and on intensity data to check for significant differences among wines and to assess the effects of dilution and the judge. Data show that FD and the average intensity of the odorants are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.892). However, the measurement of intensity represents a quantitative advantage in terms of detecting differences. For some odorants, dilution exerts a critical role in the detection of differences. Significant differences among wines have been found in 30 of the 69 odorants detected in the experiment. Most of these differences are introduced by grape compounds such as methyl benzoate and terpenols, by compounds released by the wood, such as furfural, (Z)-whiskey lactone, Furaneol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, isoeugenol, and ethyl vanillate, by compounds formed by lactic acid bacteria, such as 2,3-butanedione and acetoine, or by compounds formed during the oxidative storage of wines, such as methional, sotolon, o-aminoacetophenone, and phenylacetic acid. The most important differences from a quantitative point of view are due to 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran, 4-propylguaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and isoeugenol.

  15. Development of a method to quantitate nematode pheromone for study of small-molecule metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Youl; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Kwon, Hye-Won; Kim, Heekyeong; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2013-03-05

    Pheromones produced by Caenorhabditis elegans are considered key regulators of development, mating, and social behaviors in this organism. Here, we present a rapid mass spectrometry-based method (PheroQu) for absolute quantitation of nematode pheromones (e.g., daumone 1, 2, and 3) both in C. elegans worm bodies (as few as 20 worms) and in liquid culture medium. Pheromones were separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography and monitored by a positive electrospray ionization detector in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The daf-22 mutant worms were used as surrogate matrix for calibration, and stable deuterated isotope-containing pheromone was used as internal standard for measuring changes in pheromones in N2 wild-type and other strains under different growth conditions. The worm-body pheromones were extracted by acidified acetonitrile solvent, and the secreted pheromones were extracted from culture medium with solid-phase extraction cartridges. The run time was achieved in less than 2 min. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability. The assay was linear over an amount range of 2-250 fmol, and the limit of quantitation was 2 fmol amounts for daumone 1, 2, and 3 in both worm bodies and culture medium. With the PheroQu method, we were able to identify the location of pheromone biosynthesis and determine the changes in different pheromone types synthesized, according to developmental stages and aging process. This method, which is simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific, will be useful for the study of small-molecule metabolism during developmental stages of C. elegans.

  16. First Exploratory Study on the Ageing of Rammed Earth Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Rammed earth (RE) is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its “green” characteristics in the context of sustainable building. In this study, the ageing effects on RE material are studied on the walls which have been constructed and exposed for 22 years to natural weathering. First, mechanical characteristics of the “old” walls were determined by two approaches: in-situ dynamic measurements on the walls; laboratory tests on specimens which had been cut from the walls. Then, the walls’ soil was recycled and reused for manufacturing of new specimens which represented the initial state. Comparison between the compressive strength, the Young modulus of the walls after 22 years on site and that of the initial state enables to assess the ageing of the studied walls. PMID:28787920

  17. Non-Motor Symptom Burdens Are Not Associated with Iron Accumulation in Early Parkinson's Disease: a Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chaewon; Lee, Seon; Lee, Jee Young; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Park, Sun Won

    2018-03-26

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been used to measure iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined the relationship between non-motor symptoms (NMSs) and iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. The QSM data were acquired from 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 patients with early PD and 19 normal controls. The Korean version of the NMS scale (K-NMSS) was used for evaluation of NMSs in patients. The patients were divided into high NMS and low NMS groups. The region-of-interest analyses were performed in the following deep nuclei: red nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars reticulata, dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and head of the caudate nucleus. Thirteen patients had high NMS scores (total K-NMSS score, mean = 32.1), and 16 had low NMS scores (10.6). The QSM values in the deep were not different among the patients with high NMS scores, low NMS scores, and controls. The QSM values were not correlated linearly with K-NMSS total score after adjusting the age at acquisition of brain MRI. The study demonstrated that the NMS burdens are not associated with iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. These results suggest that future neuroimaging studies on the pathology of NMSs in PD should use more specific and detailed clinical tools and recruit PD patients with severe NMSs. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. Neuroimaging Studies Illustrate the Commonalities Between Ageing and Brain Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H

    2018-07-01

    The lack of specificity in neuroimaging studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases suggests that these different diseases have more in common than is generally considered. Potentially, features that are secondary effects of different pathological processes may share common neurobiological underpinnings. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms are also observed in studies of normal (i.e., non-pathological) brain ageing. Different brain diseases may be causing premature or accelerated ageing to the brain, an idea that is supported by a line of "brain ageing" research that combines neuroimaging data with machine learning analysis. In reviewing this field, I conclude that such observations could have important implications, suggesting that we should shift experimental paradigm: away from characterizing the average case-control brain differences resulting from a disease toward methods that place individuals in their age-appropriate context. This will also lead naturally to clinical applications, whereby neuroimaging can contribute to a personalized-medicine approach to improve brain health. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Kiran; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Tandon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages. The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken. Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups. There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891). It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN OVARY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Saloi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian pathology can manifest in various ways, e.g. menstrual abnormalities, cystic disease, infertility, benign and malignant tumours of the ovary, etc. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cancers in Indian women. The aim was undertaken to observe the age-related changes in the human ovary and to study if there is any difference between the right and left ovaries with respect to length, breadth, thickness and weight and compare it with the established findings of previous workers, which will help the clinicians to adopt appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various clinical conditions associated with the ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study on human ovary was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The morphological characteristics of 42 pairs of normal human ovaries of different age groups were studied (14 pairs in each age group. The ovaries were divided into three groups, viz. Group A or pre-reproductive, Group B or reproductive and Group C or postmenopausal. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was done to find out the significant difference of mean value. RESULTS The morphology of the ovary including the length, breadth, thickness and weight of the three groups were measured and the findings were compared with each other and also with the findings of studies done by previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of ovary in the three groups. The study also revealed that the weight of the right ovary was more than the left ovary in all the three age groups. The results were statistically analysed and compared with the findings of previous workers.

  1. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  2. Synthesis, quantitative structure-property relationship study of novel fluorescence active 2-pyrazolines and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Adel S.; Basta, Altaf H.; El-Saied, Houssni; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Bedair, Ahmad H.; Salim, Ahmad S.

    2018-03-01

    A variety of fluorescence-active fluorinated pyrazolines 13-33 was synthesized in good yields through cyclocondensation reaction of propenones 1-9 with aryl hydrazines 10-12. Some of the synthesized compounds provided promising fluorescence properties with quantum yield (Φ) higher than that of quinine sulfate (standard reference). Quantitative structure-property relationship studies were undertaken supporting the exhibited fluorescence properties and estimating the parameters governing properties. Five synthesized fluorescence-active pyrazolines (13, 15, 18, 19 and 23) with variable Φ were selected for treating two types of paper sheets (Fabriano and Bible paper). These investigated fluorescence compounds, especially compounds 19 and 23, provide improvements in strength properties of paper sheets. Based on the observed performance they can be used as markers in security documents.

  3. Quantitative positron annihilation studies in citrates, halides and oxyhalides chemisorbed on γ-alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.H.; Jean, Y.C.; Cheng, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of the γ-alumina catalyst chemisorbed by nitrates, halides, and oxyhalides has been conducted with the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Catalysts containing Fe, Co, or Ni have been extensively used in chemical industry and petroleum refining. The positron or Ps annihilation can provide a profile information about the bulk, near surface, and void. It is an in-situ surface technique. The PAS technique has shown its capability to determine the nitrate or chloride in γ-alumina as low as 0.02% in solids. It is interesting to note that the PAS may offer the oxidation state information in solids. This is not surprising because the positron annihilation is sensitive to the electron density variation in environments. Positron annihilation models for halides and oxyhalides are proposed

  4. A quantitative study of TWiki at CERN after ten years of use

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN [1], is the home of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [2] where physicists are recreating conditions close to those at the origin of the Universe. Although the LHC is based at CERN over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries and hundreds of universities and laboratories collaborate on this project. TWiki [3] is an online collaboration platform and was introduced at CERN at the request of the LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb have all used TWiki since its introduction. By analyzing the TWiki website statistics from 2006 until April 2016 this paper presents a quantitative study of how TWiki has been put into practice. The results will give a general picture of who is using the system and how this has evolved over the years.

  5. Experimental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC and safety of Bee Venom Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Bong Jang

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation and safety of Bee Venom Acupuncture. Methods : Content analysis was done using HPLC, measurement of , and histological observations were made on the skin and muscles. Results : 1. According to HPLC analysis, each BVA-1 contained approximately , and BVA-2 contained approximately . But the volume of coating was so minute, slight difference exists between each needle. 2. LD50 of mouse with BVA-1 was 16 counts and this is equivalent to 640 needles/kg, making Bee Venom Acupuncture safe treatment apparatus. 3. Regardless of the number of needles, there was no sign of blood stasis or inflammation detected on the skin and muscle tissues. Conclusion : Above results indicate that the Bee Venom Acupuncture can complement shortcomings of syringe usage as a part of Oriental medicine treatment, but extensive researches should be done for further verification.

  6. Quantitative study of the penetration of insoluble particles into the tissue of the conducting airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, D J; Patrick, G [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative study is presented of the spatial distribution of both inhaled UO/sub 2/ particles and intra-tracheally administered BaSO/sub 4/ particles in the wall of the airways in the rat. The results show that in the intrapulmonary airways between 7 and 17 days after inhalation, UO/sub 2/ particles are situated most frequently at a depth of 8-10 ..mu..m from the luminal surface. At 24 h in the trachea, BaSO/sub 4/ particles concentrate between 10 and 15 ..mu..m beneath the surface, corresponding to the zone immediately beneath the basement membrane; by 7 days the distribution is broader but otherwise similar. This pattern of retention should assist in assessing the dose from radioactive particles absorbed by the basal cells of the epithelium, which are likely to be the origin of carcinoma of the airways.

  7. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes...... involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LOTS). We integrated the LOTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT-interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LOTS protein...... network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy...

  8. Quantitative Study on Corrosion of Steel Strands Based on Self-Magnetic Flux Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchuan Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new computing method to quantitatively and non-destructively determine the corrosion of steel strands by analyzing the self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL signals from them. The magnetic dipole model and three growth models (Logistic model, Exponential model, and Linear model were proposed to theoretically analyze the characteristic value of SMFL. Then, the experimental study on the corrosion detection by the magnetic sensor was carried out. The setup of the magnetic scanning device and signal collection method were also introduced. The results show that the Logistic Growth model is verified as the optimal model for calculating the magnetic field with good fitting effects. Combined with the experimental data analysis, the amplitudes of the calculated values (BxL(x,z curves agree with the measured values in general. This method provides significant application prospects for the evaluation of the corrosion and the residual bearing capacity of steel strand.

  9. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  10. Study of dynamic strain aging in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U.; Cunha, F.G.G.; Gonzalez, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the high temperature mechanical behavior of a dual phase steel. ► Determination of the effect of dynamic strain aging on the strain hardening rate. ► Identification of the mechanism associated with dynamic strain aging. ► The value of the interaction energy carbon–dislocation in ferrite was confirmed. - Abstract: The susceptibility to dynamic strain aging of a dual phase steel was evaluated by the variation of mechanical properties in tension with the temperature and the strain rate. The tensile tests were performed at temperatures varying between 25 °C and 600 °C and at strain rates ranging from 10 −2 to 5 × 10 −4 s −1 . The studied steel presented typical manifestations related to dynamic strain aging: serrated flow (the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect) for certain combinations of temperature and strain rates; the presence of a plateau in the variation of yield stress with temperature; a maximum in the curves of tensile strength, flow stress, and work hardening exponent as a function of temperature; and a minimum in the variation of total elongation with temperature. The determined apparent activation energy values, associated with the beginning of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect and the maximum in the variation of flow stress with temperature, were 83 kJ/mol and 156 kJ/mol, respectively. These values suggest that the mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in the dual phase steel is the locking of dislocations by carbon atoms in ferrite and that the formation of clusters and/or transition carbides and carbide precipitation in martensite do not interfere with the dynamic strain aging process.

  11. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was associated with increased risk of breast cancer for both operators (OR = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-10.1, and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quantitative

  12. On coding genotypes for genetic markers with multiple alleles in genetic association study of quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetic association study of quantitative traits using F∞ models, how to code the marker genotypes and interpret the model parameters appropriately is important for constructing hypothesis tests and making statistical inferences. Currently, the coding of marker genotypes in building F∞ models has mainly focused on the biallelic case. A thorough work on the coding of marker genotypes and interpretation of model parameters for F∞ models is needed especially for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Results In this study, we will formulate F∞ genetic models under various regression model frameworks and introduce three genotype coding schemes for genetic markers with multiple alleles. Starting from an allele-based modeling strategy, we first describe a regression framework to model the expected genotypic values at given markers. Then, as extension from the biallelic case, we introduce three coding schemes for constructing fully parameterized one-locus F∞ models and discuss the relationships between the model parameters and the expected genotypic values. Next, under a simplified modeling framework for the expected genotypic values, we consider several reduced one-locus F∞ models from the three coding schemes on the estimability and interpretation of their model parameters. Finally, we explore some extensions of the one-locus F∞ models to two loci. Several fully parameterized as well as reduced two-locus F∞ models are addressed. Conclusions The genotype coding schemes provide different ways to construct F∞ models for association testing of multi-allele genetic markers with quantitative traits. Which coding scheme should be applied depends on how convenient it can provide the statistical inferences on the parameters of our research interests. Based on these F∞ models, the standard regression model fitting tools can be used to estimate and test for various genetic effects through statistical contrasts with the

  13. Rethinking research in the medical humanities: a scoping review and narrative synthesis of quantitative outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Silke; Apramian, Tavis; Lingard, Lorelei; Torabi, Nazi; Arntfield, Shannon

    2016-03-01

    The rise of medical humanities teaching in medical education has introduced pressure to prove efficacy and utility. Review articles on the available evidence have been criticised for poor methodology and unwarranted conclusions. To support a more nuanced discussion of how the medical humanities work, we conducted a scoping review of quantitative studies of medical humanities teaching. Using a search strategy involving MEDLINE, EMBASE and ERIC, and hand searching, our scoping review located 11 045 articles that referred to the use of medical humanities teaching in medical education. Of these, 62 studies using quantitative evaluation methods were selected for review. Three iterations of analysis were performed: descriptive, conceptual, and discursive. Descriptive analysis revealed that the medical humanities as a whole cannot be easily systematised based on simple descriptive categories. Conceptual analysis supported the development of a conceptual framework in which the foci of the arts and humanities in medical education can be mapped alongside their related epistemic functions for teaching and learning. Within the framework, art functioned as expertise, as dialogue or as a means of expression and transformation. In the discursive analysis, we found three main ways in which the relationship between the arts and humanities and medicine was constructed as, respectively, intrinsic, additive and curative. This review offers a nuanced framework of how different types of medical humanities work. The epistemological assumptions and discursive positioning of medical humanities teaching frame the forms of outcomes research that are considered relevant to curriculum decision making, and shed light on why dominant review methodologies make some functions of medical humanities teaching visible and render others invisible. We recommend the use of this framework to improve the rigor and relevance of future explorations of the efficacy and utility of medical humanities teaching

  14. Comparison of methodologic quality and study/report characteristics between quantitative clinical nursing and nursing education research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Nicholas, Jennifer; Kurrus, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    To compare the methodologic quality and study/report characteristics between quantitative clinical nursing and nursing education research articles. The methodologic quality of quantitative nursing education research needs to advance to a higher level. Clinical research can provide guidance for nursing education to reach this level. One hundred quantitative clinical research articles from-high impact journals published in 2007 and 37 education research articles from high impact journals published in 2006 to 2007 were chosen for analysis. Clinical articles had significantly higher quality scores than education articles in three domains: number of institutions studied, type of data, and outcomes. The findings indicate three ways in which nursing education researchers can strengthen the methodologic quality of their quantitative research. With this approach, greater funding may be secured for advancing the science of nursing education.

  15. Adversity Quotient in Mathematics Learning (Quantitative Study on Students Boarding School in Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidah Amir MZ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze students’ Adversity Quotient (AQ in mathematics learning viewed from gender aspect. This study is quantitative survey study on students in MTs Al-Munawarah Boarding School, Pekanbaru. The subjects of study are 8th grade students consisting of  75 girls and 63 boys. Data are collected by AQ scale and analyzed with statistic descriptive and inferential (test-t. The indicator of AQ consist of control, origin, ownership, reach and endurance.  The result of descriptive analysis shows that there is difference in mean of each indicator for two groups, but analysis of test-t  shows that there is no difference in students’ mathematical AQ for two group of gender. Through variance test, students’ mathematical AQ in two groups is homogeneous. The indicator of AQ in boys which is categorized as high are endurance and reach. While, the indicator in girls is aspect of control. This study contributes to literature study in identifying students’ AQ and the effort done to enhance students’ AQ in mathematics learning.

  16. Understanding metal homeostasis in primary cultured neurons. Studies using single neuron subcellular and quantitative metallomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Robert A; Lai, Barry; Holmes, William R; Lee, Daewoo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how single cell quantitative and subcellular metallomics inform us about both the spatial distribution and cellular mechanisms of metal buffering and homeostasis in primary cultured neurons from embryonic rat brain, which are often used as models of human disease involving metal dyshomeostasis. The present studies utilized synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and focused primarily on zinc and iron, two abundant metals in neurons that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Total single cell contents for calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and nickel were determined. Resting steady state zinc showed a diffuse distribution in both soma and processes, best defined by the mass profile of the neuron with an enrichment in the nucleus compared with the cytoplasm. Zinc buffering and homeostasis was studied using two modes of cellular zinc loading - transporter and ionophore (pyrithione) mediated. Single neuron zinc contents were shown to statistically significantly increase by either loading method - ionophore: 160 million to 7 billion; transporter 160 million to 280 million atoms per neuronal soma. The newly acquired and buffered zinc still showed a diffuse distribution. Soma and processes have about equal abilities to take up zinc via transporter mediated pathways. Copper levels are distributed diffusely as well, but are relatively higher in the processes relative to zinc levels. Prior studies have observed iron puncta in certain cell types, but others have not. In the present study, iron puncta were characterized in several primary neuronal types. The results show that iron puncta could be found in all neuronal types studied and can account for up to 50% of the total steady state content of iron in neuronal soma. Although other metals can be present in iron puncta, they are predominantly iron containing and do not appear to be

  17. Twins for epigenetic studies of human aging and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Most of the complex traits including aging phenotypes are caused by the interaction between genome and environmental conditions and the interface of epigenetics may be a central mechanism. Although modern technologies allow us high-throughput profiling of epigenetic patterns already at genome level...... and environmental contributions to human diseases and complex traits. In the era of functional genomics, the valuable sample of twins is helping to bridge the gap between gene activity and the environments through epigenetic mechanisms unlimited by DNA sequence variations. We propose to extend the classical twin...... design to study the aging-related molecular epigenetic phenotypes and link them with environmental exposures especially early life events. Different study designs and application issues will be highlighted and novel approaches introduced with aim at making uses of twins in assessing the environmental...

  18. In-plant natural versus artificial aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, M.

    1989-01-01

    A few years ago, cable specimens and small electrical components were placed in the reactor buildings of several operating nuclear plants in the United States. Temperature and radiation at the specimen locations are being monitored during the life of the plants. Measured physical properties of materials removed periodically during planned outages over the next 10 to 30 years will be compared with properties of artificially aged materials in identical specimens to assess artificial aging practice. This will also lead to improved lifetime predictions for cables and equipment. The study is being performed by the University of Connecticut's Institute for Materials Science in collaboration with U. S. utilities under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Cofunding is being provided by Northeast Utilities and Detroit Edison. This paper gives the status of the study, along with some preliminary results

  19. Ageing studies with argon/methane based gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silander, K.; De Lima, E.P.; Fraga, M.M.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fraga, F.; Salete M.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.; Leite, S.C.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ageing studies on a single wire proportional counter with Ar/CH 4 (90:10) (P10) and Ar/CH 4 /H 2 (89.5 : 10 : 0.5) (P10/H 2 ) mixtures irradiated with 6.4 keV X-ray photons from an X-ray generator, under well controlled conditions, are reported. For both mixtures, results are presented for the variation of the gain as a function of the accumulated charge per centimetre of the wire. The intensities of the main emissions (CI line at 193.1 nm and of the CH (A-X, B-X, C-X) molecular bands centred, respectively, at 431, 389 and 314 nm) are also measured. No ageing effects were observed up to an accumulated charge of 350 mC/cm with the P10/H 2 mixture. The tests performed with P10 following the P10/H 2 run, both for low and high irradiation rates, showed also negligible ageing, in contradiction with previous results. This may indicate that there is still some hydrogen adsorbed in the system that prevents the chamber from ageing. (orig.)

  20. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  1. Study clarifies associations between hypogonadism and health in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2012-11-01

    Tajar and colleagues present the associations between moderate and severe hypogonadism, symptoms of androgen deficiency and the prevelence of end-organ evidence of androgen deficency in 2966 older men in the European Male Aging Study. They find lower muscle mass, reduced bone mineral density, anemia, insulin resistence, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, with greater risks of these signs of androgen deficiency at lower serum testosterone concentrations.

  2. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples’ experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the

  3. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil.

  4. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, Anamaria; Huisman, Martijn; Prince, Martin; Prina, A Matthew; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie

    2016-09-30

    This study aims to examine cohort differences in cognitive performance and rates of change in episodic memory, processing speed, inductive reasoning, and general cognitive performance and to investigate whether these cohort effects may be accounted for by education attainment. The first cohort (N = 705) was born between 1920 and 1930, whereas the second cohort (N = 646) was born between 1931 and 1941. Both birth cohorts were aged 65 to 75 years at baseline and were followed up 3 and 6 years later. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The later born cohort had better general cognitive performance, inductive reasoning, and processing speed at baseline, but cohort differences in inductive reasoning and general cognitive performance disappeared after adjusting for education. The later born cohort showed steeper decline in processing speed. Memory decline was steeper in the earlier born cohort but only from Time 1 to Time 3 when the same memory test was administered. Education did not account for cohort differences in cognitive decline. The later born cohort showed better initial performance in certain cognitive abilities, but no better preservation of cognitive abilities overtime compared with the earlier born cohort. These findings carry implications for healthy cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  5. Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Malin; Lundholm, Cecilia; Fors, Stefan; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Zavala, Catalina; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-07-03

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

  6. Proteomics and aging : studying the influence of aging on endothelial cells and human plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eman, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    In general, human aging is considered one of the most complex and less-well understood process in biology. In this thesis the possibilities of proteomics technology in the field of aging were explored. The complexity of the aging process was supposed to accompanied by relatively subtle proteome

  7. Imputation-based analysis of association studies: candidate regions and quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Servin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new framework for the analysis of association studies, designed to allow untyped variants to be more effectively and directly tested for association with a phenotype. The idea is to combine knowledge on patterns of correlation among SNPs (e.g., from the International HapMap project or resequencing data in a candidate region of interest with genotype data at tag SNPs collected on a phenotyped study sample, to estimate ("impute" unmeasured genotypes, and then assess association between the phenotype and these estimated genotypes. Compared with standard single-SNP tests, this approach results in increased power to detect association, even in cases in which the causal variant is typed, with the greatest gain occurring when multiple causal variants are present. It also provides more interpretable explanations for observed associations, including assessing, for each SNP, the strength of the evidence that it (rather than another correlated SNP is causal. Although we focus on association studies with quantitative phenotype and a relatively restricted region (e.g., a candidate gene, the framework is applicable and computationally practical for whole genome association studies. Methods described here are implemented in a software package, Bim-Bam, available from the Stephens Lab website http://stephenslab.uchicago.edu/software.html.

  8. Morphological changes of the epiglottis with aging: A radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bong Joon; Sim, Joong Seop; Yoon, Sei Chul; Ahn, Kwan Shik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1983-01-01

    In man the epiglottis is a thin lamella of a yellow elastic cartilage. The upper part is free and is known as leaf and lower part participates in the formation of the anterior wall of the vestibule of the larynx. The ipithelial covering extends forward onto the base of the tongue over the medial glossoepiglottic folds. The sides of epiglottis are connected with the cartilages of Wrisberg and arytenoid cartilage by the aryepiglottic fold. In view of these anatomical complexities, the function and physiology of the epiglottis have been debated since Magendi (1815), who proposed the theory that the epiglottis acts as a flap valve to prevent food entering the windpipe, and who found that he could remove the free part of the epiglottis in dog without spoilling the dog. Following the introduction of laryngoscopy (Gracia, 1815; Liston, 1840; Czermark; 1861) and modern cineradiographic equipment in 1950's, the anatomy and physiology of epiglottis has become much clearer age as it is seen on the lateral x-ray of the neck. In the present study we have made an attempt to systematically analyze aging changes of the epiglottis in the lateral x-ray of the neck in 245 healthy adults. The age ranged from 16 to 65 years old. Based on our observation the epiglottis was classified into type A, B and C according to their curvatures. Thus, type A represented those with posterior curvature, type B those with straight epiglottis and type C anterior curvature. Type C was subdivided into I, II and III according to the degree of curvature. Thus, type C-I, C-II and C-III represented mild, moderate and marked anterior curvature, respectively. Type A epiglottis was found in the second, third and fourth decades and type C-III in the older age group. Type A was least common and type C most prevalent. It seems that the epiglottis inclines anteriorly with backward curvature with age (p<0.0001)

  9. Diagnostic Performance and Utility of Quantitative EEG Analyses in Delirium: Confirmatory Results From a Large Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Robert; Tränkner, Steffi; Bathe-Peters, Rouven; Rönnefarth, Maria; Schmidt, Sein; Schreiber, Stephan J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2018-03-01

    The lack of objective disease markers is a major cause of misdiagnosis and nonstandardized approaches in delirium. Recent studies conducted in well-selected patients and confined study environments suggest that quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) can provide such markers. We hypothesize that qEEG helps remedy diagnostic uncertainty not only in well-defined study cohorts but also in a heterogeneous hospital population. In this retrospective case-control study, EEG power spectra of delirious patients and age-/gender-matched controls (n = 31 and n = 345, respectively) were fitted in a linear model to test their performance as binary classifiers. We subsequently evaluated the diagnostic performance of the best classifiers in control samples with normal EEGs (n = 534) and real-world samples including pathologic findings (n = 4294). Test reliability was estimated through split-half analyses. We found that the combination of spectral power at F3-P4 at 2 Hz (area under the curve [AUC] = .994) and C3-O1 at 19 Hz (AUC = .993) provided a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99% to identify delirious patients among normal controls. These classifiers also yielded a false positive rate as low as 5% and increased the pretest probability of being delirious by 57% in an unselected real-world sample. Split-half reliabilities were .98 and .99, respectively. This retrospective study yielded preliminary evidence that qEEG provides excellent diagnostic performance to identify delirious patients even outside confined study environments. It furthermore revealed reduced beta power as a novel specific finding in delirium and that a normal EEG excludes delirium. Prospective studies including parameters of pretest probability and delirium severity are required to elaborate on these promising findings.

  10. Quantitative histologic study on confusion of the cerebellar cortex architecture in perinatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to know dose-response relationship and age-dependence for two types of confusion of the cerebellar cortex architecture. The first is inhibition of the laminar-pattern development, and the second is persistent remaining of granule cells in the molecular and Purkinje layer which implies disturbance of cell migration. Male B6C3F 1 mice were used. Animals were irradiated at day 0 to 6 of the postnatal age or day 17 of the prenatal age with doses ranging from 50 to 700 rad of γ-rays, and killed at 60 days of age. Confusion of architecture was analysed using microscopic photographs. Development of the laminar-pattern was inhibited by irradiation with 100 rad or higher doses at day 0 to 3. There was a distinct regional difference in inhibition of the laminar-pattern development. Remaining of granule cells was detected after irradiation with 50 or higher doses at day 0 or 2. Irradiation at day 1 to 4 was most effective to disturb cell migration, though ectopic granule cells were detected in all irradiated groups. (orig.)

  11. Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.

    1985-09-01

    This program, during the past 30 years, has developed with the constant awareness of the close interrelationships and interdependence between clinical needs, radiopharmaceutical and instrument developments, and clinical feasibility studies. This is a year of transition for this contract with two of the responsible investigators, Katherine Lathrop and Paul Harper, reaching the age of mandatory retirement. This report focuses on the completion and write-up of current research projects by Dr. Harper and Mrs. Lathrop. 4 refs

  12. Estudos quantitativos em educação Quantitative studies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardete A. Gatti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata de estudos em educação, realizados no Brasil nas últimas três décadas, utilizando abordagens quantitativas. Para a seleção dos trabalhos a serem tratados fez-se um levantamento em todos os números publicados de 1970 para cá dos seguintes periódicos: Revista Brasileira de Estudos Pedagógicos (Inep/MEC, Cadernos de Pesquisa (Fundação Carlos Chagas, Educação e Realidade (UFRS, Educação e Sociedade (Cedes/Unicamp, Revista Brasileira de Educação (ANPEd, Estudos em Avaliação Educacional (Fundação Carlos Chagas, Ensaio (Fundação Cesgranrio. Algumas fontes bibliográficas foram consultadas na busca de outros estudos. Ressalta-se a importância de perspectivas teóricas para o delineamento e desenvolvimento dos estudos, que devem ser colocados no contexto de uma reflexão educacional e de problematização, bem como, assinala a necessidade de adequação das escolhas dos tipos de análise a serem empregados. Discute a pouca tradição de realização de trabalhos em educação com as metodologias quantitativas no Brasil e o possível papel da quantificação na pesquisa educacional. Mostra algumas contribuições desses trabalhos à reflexão no campo da Educação, bem como para a fundamentação de algumas perspectivas críticas. Essas contribuições foram tratadas por temas, a saber: analfabetismo, percurso escolar e fracasso escolar; fluxo escolar/análise de coortes; letramento; políticas e educação básica; financiamento da educação/municipalização; fatores sociais e educação; jovens e educação; avaliação educacional; temas variados.The article refers to studies in education carried out in Brazil during the last three decades using quantitative approaches. The selection of the works to be examined was based on a survey of all issues published since 1970 by the following journals: Revista Brasileira de Estudos Pedagógicos (Inep/MEC, Cadernos de Pesquisa (Fundação Carlos Chagas, Educação e

  13. A genome-wide association study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Atzmon, Gil; Demerath, Ellen W; Garcia, Melissa E; Kaplan, Robert C; Kumari, Meena; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J; Völker, Uwe; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Alice; Benjamin, Emelia J; Biffar, Reiner; Buchman, Aron S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Couper, David; De Jager, Philip L; Evans, Denis A; Harris, Tamara B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Kocher, Thomas; Kuningas, Maris; Launer, Lenore J; Lohman, Kurt K; Lutsey, Pamela L; Mackenbach, Johan; Marciante, Kristin; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiman, Eric M; Rotter, Jerome I; Seshadri, Sudha; Shardell, Michelle D; Smith, Albert V; van Duijn, Cornelia; Walston, Jeremy; Zillikens, M Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Bennett, David A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Liu, Yongmei; Murabito, Joanne M; Newman, Anne B; Tiemeier, Henning; Franceschini, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Human longevity and healthy aging show moderate heritability (20%-50%). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from 9 studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium for 2 outcomes: (1) all-cause mortality, and (2) survival free of major disease or death. No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a genome-wide significant predictor of either outcome (p < 5 × 10(-8)). We found 14 independent SNPs that predicted risk of death, and 8 SNPs that predicted event-free survival (p < 10(-5)). These SNPs are in or near genes that are highly expressed in the brain (HECW2, HIP1, BIN2, GRIA1), genes involved in neural development and function (KCNQ4, LMO4, GRIA1, NETO1) and autophagy (ATG4C), and genes that are associated with risk of various diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to considerable overlap between the traits, pathway and network analysis corroborated these findings. These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6

  15. LONELINESS, SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AND SENSE OF HUMOR. A QUANTITATIVE STUDY COMPARING ROMANIAN STUDENTS AND OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores social and emotional loneliness, social interactions and humor in a sample of Romanian students, departing from the Schiau 2016 study that found the production and social use of humor to be correlated to a reduced social loneliness in a sample of Romanian older adults. Studies indicate that loneliness can be experienced at any age, and that humor can act as a coping mechanism with life’s difficulties, triggering positive emotions. The current study replicates findings in the literature, indicating that younger adults experience less loneliness than older adults, and use more humor than older adults. Young women in the sample had a significantly more positive attitude towards humor than the men. This study has useful implications for a number of fields, including the economic and marketing sectors. The current student population represents a growing market, and studies indicate that the use of humor by service providers may intervene with any negative feelings that could cause clients to withdraw their engagement and cooperation in the service endeavor (Locke, 1996. Therefore, we argue that, for the retail and service sector, it is important to understand the different approach towards humor by the different age and gender groups discussed in this study.

  16. COMPETENCIES OF NURSE MANAGERS IN SLOVENIA: A QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Erjavec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study is to identify nurse managers’ competencies in Slovenia regarding various healthcare organisations, public and private healthcare sectors, and management levels, as well as the reasons for their differences. Design: The study was based on quantitative and qualitative research. Methods: An online survey was conducted among 297 nurse managers in Slovenia, and in-depth interviews with 12 nurse managers were carried out. Results: Managers who worked in nursing homes were significantly more likely to perceive themselves as being more competent in leadership (p = 0.001 and financial management (p = 0.004 than their colleagues. Managers who had higher management positions were significantly more likely to perceive themselves as being more competent in financial management than their colleagues in lower management positions (p = 0.002. Nurse managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent in financial management (p = 0.0001. The reasons for nurse managers’ differences in proficiency levels are the degree of job security, and degree of autonomy and support in the healthcare team. Conclusion: The study identified inadequate nurse manager competencies, and reflected the needs of nurse managers for designing and providing health management programmes aimed at enhancing management capacity in the health sector in Slovenia. Keywords: management, competencies, skills, nurse managers, Slovenia, in-depth interviews, healthcare organisations, management level.

  17. Using Numbers Creates Value for Health Professionals: A Quantitative Study of Pain Management in Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Unné

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvement methodology is based on processes to achieve quality and safety in health care in order to improve patient care, especially in management. The aim of this study was to identify differences regarding the method of estimating pain within palliative care in north-eastern Sweden. The study comprised three different data collections—questions from 22 staff members who worked in palliative care, data from the Swedish Palliative Registry, and patients’ medical records. Data were analyzed using a quantitative approach to measure the proportion of differences and similarities in everyday pain management. The two categories “Documentation of Pain Management” and “Pain Management Activities” were identified and illustrated how repeated pain management measurements contributed to a clearer view of pain management activities. The use of numbers instead of words contributed to a better, clearer, and more unified documentation of pain ratings. Use of validated rating tools regarding patients last week of life increased from 47%–100%. This study may inspire better routines to estimate pain and quantify no pain in palliative care. Evidence-based measurement tools from the patient’s perspective, can improve pain management.

  18. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  19. Effect of season and age on Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen characteristics: A 4-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Akhter, S; Blesbois, E

    2017-09-01

    The reproductive potential of the adult males is expected to vary with age/season and largely differ not only in closely related avian species but even in subspecies, breeds and/or strains of the same species. Thus, it is pre-requisite to have knowledge of seminal parameters to achieve maximum production potential of at-risk species for ex situ in vitro conservation programs. A 4-year study was designed to evaluate the effect of age and season (spring, summer, autumn and winter) on semen characteristics of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) in a retrospective manner. Semen ejaculates (n = 1148) were regularly collected from eight adult cocks 6 to 54 months of age. Quantitative and qualitative semen parameters viz; volume (μL), concentration (1 × 10 9  mL -1 ), total sperm number per ejaculate (1 × 10 9  mL -1 ), motility (%), viability (%), plasma membrane integrity (%), acrosome integrity (%) and semen quality factor were recorded. A chronological increasing trend with age of most sperm quantitative and qualitative traits (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number per ejaculate, plasma membrane integrity, viability, acrosomal integrity and semen quality factor) was observed. The highest values were observed at four years of age (P semen ejaculates of highest quality achieved for semen banking at the age of four year in the spring season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE AGE RELATED CHANGES OF THE CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjushree Chakravarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disease of the cervix is a common clinical condition in females, worldwide and especially in a developing country like India. The study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the cervix. AIM The study was done to observe the age related changes in the cervix and compare the same with the different studies done by the previous workers around the world so as to help clinicians to diagnose the pathologies of this part of the female reproductive system better. MATERIALS AND METHOD The specimens were divided into three groups viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal. Twenty specimens were collected of each group. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was employed to find out the significant difference between the mean value. SUMMARY A study of the 60 specimens collected were done to find the morphological parameters of each group viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal and the findings of each group were compared to one another and were related to the finding of previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of the three groups and these differences tallied with that of the previous workers.

  1. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  2. Does age matter? - A MRI study on peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed primary glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platten Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritumoral edema is a characteristic feature of malignant glioma related to the extent of neovascularisation and to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. The extent of peritumoral edema and VEGF expression may be prognostic for patients with glioblastoma. As older age is a negative prognostic marker and as VEGF expression is reported to be increased in primary glioblastoma of older patients, age-related differences in the extent of peritumoral edema have been assessed. Methods In a retrospective, single-center study, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of steroid-naïve patients (n = 122 of all age groups were analysed. Patients with clinically suspected, radiologically likely or known evidence of secondary glioblastoma were not included. Extent of brain edema was determined in a metric quantitative fashion and in a categorical fashion in relation to tumor size. Analysis was done group-wise related to age. Additionally, tumor size, degree of necrosis, superficial or deep location of tumor and anatomic localization in the brain were recorded. Results The extent of peritumoral edema in patients >65 years (ys was not different from the edema extent in patients ≤ 65 ys (p = 0.261. The same was true if age groups ≤ 55 ys and ≥ 70 ys were compared (p = 0.308. However, extent of necrosis (p = 0.023, deep tumor localization (p = 0.02 and frontal localisation (p = 0.016 of the tumor were associated with the extent of edema. Tumor size was not linearly correlated to edema extent (Pearson F = 0.094, p = 0.303 but correlated to degree of necrosis (F = 0.355, p Conclusion Age at diagnosis does not determine degree of peritumoral edema, and tumor localization in the white matter is associated with greater extent of edema. The area of necrosis is reflective of volume of edema. In summary, the radiographic appearance of a glioblastoma at diagnosis does not reflect biology in the elderly patient.

  3. Quantitative assessment of airborne exposures generated during common cleaning tasks: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Melissa J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between exposure to cleaning products with asthma and other respiratory disorders. Thus far, these studies have conducted only limited quantitative exposure assessments. Exposures from cleaning products are difficult to measure because they are complex mixtures of chemicals with a range of physicochemical properties, thus requiring multiple measurement techniques. We conducted a pilot exposure assessment study to identify methods for assessing short term, task-based airborne exposures and to quantitatively evaluate airborne exposures associated with cleaning tasks simulated under controlled work environment conditions. Methods Sink, mirror, and toilet bowl cleaning tasks were simulated in a large ventilated bathroom and a small unventilated bathroom using a general purpose, a glass, and a bathroom cleaner. All tasks were performed for 10 minutes. Airborne total volatile organic compounds (TVOC generated during the tasks were measured using a direct reading instrument (DRI with a photo ionization detector. Volatile organic ingredients of the cleaning mixtures were assessed utilizing an integrated sampling and analytic method, EPA TO-17. Ammonia air concentrations were also measured with an electrochemical sensor embedded in the DRI. Results Average TVOC concentrations calculated for 10 minute tasks ranged 0.02 - 6.49 ppm and the highest peak concentrations observed ranged 0.14-11 ppm. TVOC time concentration profiles indicated that exposures above background level remained present for about 20 minutes after cessation of the tasks. Among several targeted VOC compounds from cleaning mixtures, only 2-BE was detectable with the EPA method. The ten minute average 2- BE concentrations ranged 0.30 -21 ppm between tasks. The DRI underestimated 2-BE exposures compared to the results from the integrated method. The highest concentration of ammonia of 2.8 ppm occurred

  4. Brain perfusion abnormalities in Rett syndrome: a qualitative and quantitative SPET study with 99Tc(m)-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, L; Aucone, A M; Volterrani, D; Hayek, Y; Bertelli, P; Vella, A; Zappella, M; Vattimo, A

    1997-06-01

    Rett syndrome is a progressive neurological paediatric disorder associated with severe mental deficiency, which affects only girls. The aim of this study was to determine if brain blood flow abnormalities detected with 99Tc(m)-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer (99Tc[m]-ECD) single photon emission tomography (SPET) can explain the clinical manifestation and progression of the disease. Qualitative and quantitative global and regional brain blood flow was evaluated in 12 girls with Rett syndrome and compared with an aged-matched reference group of children. In comparison with the reference group, SPET revealed a considerable global reduction in cerebral perfusion in the groups of girls with Rett syndrome. A large statistical difference was noted, which was more evident when comparing the control group with girls with stage IV Rett syndrome than girls with stage III Rett syndrome. The reduction in cerebral perfusion reflects functional disturbance in the brain of children with Rett syndrome. These data confirm that 99Tc(m)-ECD brain SPET is sensitive in detecting hypoperfused areas in girls with Rett syndrome that may be associated with brain atrophy, even when magnetic resonance imaging appears normal.

  5. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. Longitudinal study of relative growth rates of the maxilla and the mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Liu, Jiarong; Xu, Tianmin; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative growth rates (RGR) of the maxilla and the mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (QCVM) of adolescents with normal occlusion. Mixed longitudinal data were used. The sample included 87 adolescents (32 boys, 55 girls) from 8 to 18 years of age with normal occlusion, selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year for 6 consecutive years. The growth magnitude (GM) and RGR of the maxilla and the mandible were measured and analyzed. GM and RGR were not always consistent, because subjects had different periods of time between the QCVM stages. GM was not as reliable as RGR. RGR had no significant sex differences in the maxilla and the mandible, in spite of different decelerating curves. However, statistically significant sex differences were found in the GM of mandibular measurements. The greatest growth potentials were not synchronized between the maxilla and the mandible. For both sexes, the greatest RGR of maxillary length and height was in QCVM stage I; then, deceleration occurred. The greatest RGR of mandibular length and height was in QCVM stage II, and the next largest was in QCVM stage I. Understanding the RGR can provide references for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. TDF and quantitative ultrasound bone quality in African patients on second line ART, ANRS 12169 2LADY sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Firmin Nongodo; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Zoungrana, Jacques; Badiou, Stéphanie; Bado, Guillaume; Héma, Arsène; Diouf, Assane; Delaporte, Eric; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Ciaffi, Laura; Cournil, Amandine

    2017-01-01

    Bone demineralization, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk, is a common metabolic disorder in HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we aimed to assess the change in bone quality using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) over 96 weeks of follow-up after initiation of second-line treatment, and to identify factors associated with change in bone quality. In a randomized trial (ANRS 12169), TDF and PI-naïve participants failing standard first-line treatment, from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Senegal were randomized to receive either TDF/FTC/LPVr, ABC/ddI/LPVr or TDF/FTC/DRVr. Their bone quality was assessed using calcaneal QUS at baseline and every 24 weeks until week 96. Stiffness index (SI) was used to measure bone quality. Out of 228 participants, 168 (74%) were women. At baseline, median age was 37 years (IQR: 33-46 years) and median T-CD4 count was 199 cells/μl (IQR: 113-319 cells/μl). The median duration of first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) was 52 months (IQR: 36-72 months) and the median baseline SI was 101 (IQR: 87-116). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with baseline SI were sex (β = -10.8 [-18.1,-3.5] for women), age (β = -8.7 [-12.4,-5.1] per 10 years), body mass index (BMI) (β = +0.8 [0.1,1.5] per unit of BMI), and study site (β = +12.8 [6.5,19.1] for Cameroon). After 96 weeks of second-line therapy, a reduction of 7.1% in mean SI was observed, as compared with baseline. Factors associated with SI during the follow-up were similar to those found at baseline. Exposure to TDF was not associated with a greater loss of bone quality over time. Bone quality decreased after second-line ART initiation in African patients independently of TDF exposure. Factors associated with bone quality include age, sex, baseline BMI, study site, and duration of follow-up.

  8. Which learning activities enhance physiotherapy practice? A systematic review protocol of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Edmund; Chipchase, Lucy; Blackstock, Felicity

    2017-04-17

    Learning activities are fundamental for the development of expertise in physiotherapy practice. Continuing professional development (CPD) encompasses formal and informal learning activities undertaken by physiotherapists. Identifying the most efficient and effective learning activities is essential to enable the profession to assimilate research findings and improve clinical skills to ensure the most efficacious care for clients. To date, systematic reviews on the effectiveness of CPD provide limited guidance on the most efficacious models of professional development for physiotherapists. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate which learning activities enhance physiotherapy practice. A search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO (Psychological Abstracts), PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED and Educational Resources and Information Center (ERIC) will be completed. Citation searching and reference list searching will be undertaken to locate additional studies. Quantitative and qualitative studies will be included if they examine the impact of learning activities on clinician's behaviour, attitude, knowledge, beliefs, skills, self-efficacy, work satisfaction and patient outcomes. Risk of bias will be assessed by two independent researchers. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) and Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual) will be used to synthesise results where a meta-analysis is possible. Where a meta-analysis is not possible, a narrative synthesis will be conducted. PROSPERO CRD42016050157.

  9. The quantitative studies on gas explosion suppression by an inert rock dust deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yifan; Zhang, Qi

    2018-07-05

    The traditional defence against propagating gas explosions is the application of dry rock dust, but not much quantitative study on explosion suppression of rock dust has been made. Based on the theories of fluid dynamics and combustion, a simulated study on the propagation of premixed gas explosion suppressed by deposited inert rock dust layer is carried out. The characteristics of the explosion field (overpressure, temperature, flame speed and combustion rate) at different deposited rock dust amounts are investigated. The flame in the pipeline cannot be extinguished when the deposited rock dust amount is less than 12 kg/m 3 . The effects of suppressing gas explosion become weak when the deposited rock dust amount is greater than 45 kg/m 3 . The overpressure decreases with the increase of the deposited rock dust amounts in the range of 18-36 kg/m 3 and the flame speed and the flame length show the same trends. When the deposited rock dust amount is 36 kg/m 3 , the overpressure can be reduced by 40%, the peak flame speed by 50%, and the flame length by 42% respectively, compared with those of the gas explosion of stoichiometric mixture. In this model, the effective raised dust concentrations to suppress explosion are 2.5-3.5 kg/m 3 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Larin, Kirill V; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessment of biomechanical properties of tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of a proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. (paper)

  11. Quantitative Study of Biogas Generation Potential from Different Landfill Sites of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper was study of waste composition and quantitative analysis of biogas generation potential with its recovery at Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada landfill sites (LFS of Nepal. The waste management practice in LFS are significant deciding factors for the assessment of environmental impacts caused including the release of green house gases like methane, carbondioxide etc to the atmosphere, that could contribute significantly to global warming and climate change. The total waste disposed to Sisdole LFS, Pokhara LFS and Karaute Dada LFS are 410, 80 and 7.8 tons respectively.  The waste composition was studied onsite with waste reduction method and analyzed for their composition. The organic component of wastes was found high as 61.6%, 52.5% and 65% at Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada LFS respectively. The biogas potential at these landfill sites were 12157.78 cum, 851.99 cum and 169 cum of biogas per day in Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada LFS respectively. 4.68, 0.33 and 0.07 MW energy per day can be generated from these amounts of biogas produced in Sisdole, Pokhara and Karaute Dada LFS respectively. Proper gas collection system can be the source of income from these landfill sites and help to mitigate the adverse impact of methane that is being released from these landfill sites

  12. Quantitative Estimation of Temperature Variations in Plantar Angiosomes: A Study Case for Diabetic Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Peregrina-Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermography is a useful tool since it provides information that may help in the diagnostic of several diseases in a noninvasive and fast way. Particularly, thermography has been applied in the study of the diabetic foot. However, most of these studies report only qualitative information making it difficult to measure significant parameters such as temperature variations. These variations are important in the analysis of the diabetic foot since they could bring knowledge, for instance, regarding ulceration risks. The early detection of ulceration risks is considered an important research topic in the medicine field, as its objective is to avoid major complications that might lead to a limb amputation. The absence of symptoms in the early phase of the ulceration is conceived as the main disadvantage to provide an opportune diagnostic in subjects with neuropathy. Since the relation between temperature and ulceration risks is well established in the literature, a methodology that obtains quantitative temperature differences in the plantar area of the diabetic foot to detect ulceration risks is proposed in this work. Such methodology is based on the angiosome concept and image processing.

  13. Quantitative Study on the Dynamic Mechanism of Smart Low-Carbon City Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new generation technology and the low-carbon economy, the smart low-carbon city has become one of the academic hotspots. Many studies on it have begun; however, the dynamic mechanism is rarely involved. Therefore, this paper uses the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to creatively take a quantitative study on a Chinese smart low-carbon city’s dynamic mechanism. The results show that: (1 the three main dynamics of smart low-carbon city development in China are institutional and cultural conditions, facilities and functions conditions and economy and industry conditions, but the overall utility is relatively low; (2 the level of the dynamic operation mechanism of the Chinese smart low-carbon city is distinct between regions, indicating a diminishing spatial law from east to west and differences within regions; (3 the imbalance of the comprehensive dynamic mechanism and the operation status between smart low-carbon cities is prominent, showing a decreasing urban scale law of from big to small and differences within each scale, and a descending administration hierarchy law from high to low and differences within each class; (4 seven basic development patterns can be obtained, and most of the cities belong to the external strong/internal weak mode, which basically matches with its development realities. Finally, general policy recommendations and countermeasures of optimization and improvement are proposed.

  14. iTRAQ-based Quantitative Proteomics Study in Patients with Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Lu; Song, Qi-Fang; Xie, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Jia-Hui; Fan, Hui-Feng; Xie, Ya-Ping; Lu, Gen

    2017-09-25

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. Although MP pneumonia is usually benign and self-limited, in some cases it can develop into life-threating refractory MP pneumonia (RMPP). However, the pathogenesis of RMPP is poorly understood. The identification and characterization of proteins related to RMPP could provide a proof of principle to facilitate appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for treating paients with MP. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomic technique (iTRAQ) to analyze MP-related proteins in serum samples from 5 patients with RMPP, 5 patients with non-refractory MP pneumonia (NRMPP), and 5 healthy children. Functional classification, sub-cellular localization, and protein interaction network analysis were carried out based on protein annotation through evolutionary relationship (PANTHER) and Cytoscape analysis. A total of 260 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the RMPP and NRMPP groups. Compared to the control group, the NRMPP and RMPP groups showed 134 (70 up-regulated and 64 down-regulated) and 126 (63 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) differentially expressed proteins, respectively. The complex functional classification and protein interaction network of the identified proteins reflected the complex pathogenesis of RMPP. Our study provides the first comprehensive proteome map of RMPP-related proteins from MP pneumonia. These profiles may be useful as part of a diagnostic panel, and the identified proteins provide new insights into the pathological mechanisms underlying RMPP.

  15. Extracting quantitative measures from EAP: a small clinical study using BFOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinbor, A Pasha; Chung, Moo K; Wu, Yu-Chien; Fleming, John O; Field, Aaron S; Alexander, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble average propagator (EAP) describes the 3D average diffusion process of water molecules, capturing both its radial and angular contents, and hence providing rich information about complex tissue microstructure properties. Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR) is one of several analytical, non-Cartesian EAP reconstruction schemes employing multiple shell acquisitions that have recently been proposed. Such modeling bases have not yet been fully exploited in the extraction of rotationally invariant q-space indices that describe the degree of diffusion anisotropy/restrictivity. Such quantitative measures include the zero-displacement probability (P(o)), mean squared displacement (MSD), q-space inverse variance (QIV), and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), and all are simply scalar features of the EAP. In this study, a general relationship between MSD and q-space diffusion signal is derived and an EAP-based definition of GFA is introduced. A significant part of the paper is dedicated to utilizing BFOR in a clinical dataset, comprised of 5 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 4 healthy controls, to estimate P(o), MSD, QIV, and GFA of corpus callosum, and specifically, to see if such indices can detect changes between normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and healthy white matter (WM). Although the sample size is small, this study is a proof of concept that can be extended to larger sample sizes in the future.

  16. Career interest, self-efficacy, and perception in undecided and nursing undergraduate students: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Valentina M

    2015-01-01

    Career choice variables of career interest, self-efficacy, and perception were chosen based upon Social Cognitive Career Theory concepts for study between nursing and undecided undergraduate student groups. Components of the Career Search Questionnaire and Perceptions of Professional Nursing instruments were combined and adapted to form the Career Choice Survey for use in this research. This web-based survey totaling 40 questions was sent to 577 undergraduate students with a 12% response rate (N=68). Due to the need to increase nursing recruitment and retention, hypotheses were developed that distinguish if any relationship existed between groups. Findings of this quantitative study resulted in statistically significant results on two of the three variable hypotheses (p=.006 for career interest, p=.002 for self-efficacy, p=.395 for perception), aligning with previous research and provide insight into the change in nursing perception. Overall, scores for each subscale were encouraging to current nurses and expected from undecided students. Implications for practice include increases in accurate nursing portrayal in the media and early career counseling to younger populations. Nurse educators can further research in career choice with focus on continuing education for current nurses and recruitment of young nursing hopefuls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationship Between Online Social Networking and Depression: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David A; Algorta, Guillermo Perez

    2016-11-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace are used by billions of people every day to communicate and interact with others. There has been increasing interest in the potential impact of online social networking on wellbeing, with a broadening body of new research into factors associated with both positive and negative mental health outcomes such as depression. This systematic review of empirical studies (n = 30) adds to existing research in this field by examining current quantitative studies focused on the relationship between online social networking and symptoms of depression. The academic databases PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched systematically using terms related to online social networking and depression. Reporting quality was critically appraised and the findings discussed with reference to their wider implications. The findings suggest that the relationship between online social networking and symptoms of depression may be complex and associated with multiple psychological, social, behavioral, and individual factors. Furthermore, the impact of online social networking on wellbeing may be both positive and negative, highlighting the need for future research to determine the impact of candidate mediators and moderators underlying these heterogeneous outcomes across evolving networks.

  18. Boiling-Water Reactor internals aging degradation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of an aging assessment study for boiling water reactor (BWR) internals. Major stressors for BWR internals are related to unsteady hydrodynamic forces generated by the primary coolant flow in the reactor vessel. Welding and cold-working, dissolved oxygen and impurities in the coolant, applied loads and exposures to fast neutron fluxes are other important stressors. Based on results of a component failure information survey, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue are identified as the two major aging-related degradation mechanisms for BWR internals. Significant reported failures include SCC in jet-pump holddown beams, in-core neutron flux monitor dry tubes and core spray spargers. Fatigue failures were detected in feedwater spargers. The implementation of a plant Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) program is considered as a promising method for controlling SCC problems in BWR. More operating data are needed to evaluate its effectiveness for internal components. Long-term fast neutron irradiation effects and high-cycle fatigue in a corrosive environment are uncertainty factors in the aging assessment process. BWR internals are examined by visual inspections and the method is access limited. The presence of a large water gap and an absence of ex-core neutron flux monitors may handicap the use of advanced inspection methods, such as neutron noise vibration measurements, for BWR

  19. Water hammer and its effect on ageing: an analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedia, Suruchi

    2006-01-01

    Water hammer can be disastrous from the point of view of ageing of the pipe(s)/Piping system. Design of restraints and protection devices for the various piping systems must consider severe stresses that may generate because of fluid transients. These fluid transients are termed as water hammer when it is restricted to water. But to have limited margins on the stress loads of piping system it is very important to predict the actual dimensions of the stresses. This paper covers various causes and analyses of the situations under which water hammer waves get generated and also way(s) to have control on occurrences of such situations. Few case studies are also covered showing the results and graphs of the stress waves generated because of water hammer. Effort has also been made in the paper in the direction to find out the methodology to compute the ageing of the system because of water hammer waves. Further in this paper an attempt is made to show the systematic methodology towards the diagnosis of water hammer that can be treated as a foundation stone for the creation of water hammer diagnosis system. Active measures to minimize the water hammer intensity by influencing fluid dynamic conditions of the system will also be suggested. Finally the paper will present the ageing aspects because of the stresses that generate due to water hammer. (author)

  20. A Systematic Review for Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Reserve Across the Cognitive Aging Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Mia; Lin, Feng

    2017-12-13

    Cognitive reserve has been proposed to explain the discrepancy between clinical symptoms and the effects of aging or Alzheimer's pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help elucidate how neural reserve and compensation delay cognitive decline and identify brain regions associated with cognitive reserve. This systematic review evaluated neural correlates of cognitive reserve via fMRI (resting-state and task-related) studies across the cognitive aging spectrum (i.e., normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease). This review examined published articles up to March 2017. There were 13 cross-sectional observational studies that met the inclusion criteria, including relevance to cognitive reserve, subjects 60 years or older with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and/or Alzheimer's disease, at least one quantitative measure of cognitive reserve, and fMRI as the imaging modality. Quality assessment of included