WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantifying signaling-induced reorientation

  1. Visually induced reorientation illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, I. P.; Hu, G.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    It is known that rotation of a furnished room around the roll axis of erect subjects produces an illusion of 360 degrees self-rotation in many subjects. Exposure of erect subjects to stationary tilted visual frames or rooms produces only up to 20 degrees of illusory tilt. But, in studies using static tilted rooms, subjects remained erect and the body axis was not aligned with the room. We have revealed a new class of disorientation illusions that occur in many subjects when placed in a 90 degrees or 180 degrees tilted room containing polarised objects (familiar objects with tops and bottoms). For example, supine subjects looking up at a wall of the room feel upright in an upright room and their arms feel weightless when held out from the body. We call this the levitation illusion. We measured the incidence of 90 degrees or 180 degrees reorientation illusions in erect, supine, recumbent, and inverted subjects in a room tilted 90 degrees or 180 degrees. We report that reorientation illusions depend on the displacement of the visual scene rather than of the body. However, illusions are most likely to occur when the visual and body axes are congruent. When the axes are congruent, illusions are least likely to occur when subjects are prone rather than supine, recumbent, or inverted.

  2. INIST: databases reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidet, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    INIST is a CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) laboratory devoted to the treatment of scientific and technical informations and to the management of these informations compiled in a database. Reorientation of the database content has been proposed in 1994 to increase the transfer of research towards enterprises and services, to develop more automatized accesses to the informations, and to create a quality assurance plan. The catalog of publications comprises 5800 periodical titles (1300 for fundamental research and 4500 for applied research). A science and technology multi-thematic database will be created in 1995 for the retrieval of applied and technical informations. ''Grey literature'' (reports, thesis, proceedings..) and human and social sciences data will be added to the base by the use of informations selected in the existing GRISELI and Francis databases. Strong modifications are also planned in the thematic cover of Earth sciences and will considerably reduce the geological information content. (J.S.). 1 tab

  3. Reorienting Hypnosis Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David S; Sugarman, Laurence Irwin

    2017-01-01

    The legacy model of professional clinical hypnosis training presents a restrictive frame increasingly incompatible with our evolving understanding of psychobiology, health, and care. Emerging science recognizes human experience not as disease and diagnosis, but as manifestations of individual, uniquely-endowed, adaptively self-regulating systems. Hypnosis is a particularly well-suited discipline for effecting beneficial change in this paradigm. Training in clinical hypnosis must progress from the current linearly-structured, diagnosis-based, reductionist model toward a more responsive, naturalistic, and client-centered curriculum in order to remain relevant and accessible to clinicians beginning to integrate it into their practices. To that end, this article extends Hope and Sugarman's (2015) thesis of hypnosis as a skill set for systemic perturbation and reorientation to consider what those skills may be, the principles on which they are based, and how they may be taught. Parsing a clinical vignette reveals how incorporation of novelty and uncertainty results in less restrictive and more naturalistic hypnotic encounters that, in response to client-generated cues, elicit psychophysiological plasticity. This disruptive hypnosis education and training framework extends the utility and benefit of applied clinical hypnosis.

  4. Spin reorientation via antiferromagnetic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar, M., E-mail: mojtaba.ranjbar@physics.gu.se [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 5, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sbiaa, R. [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 5, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat (Oman); Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Piramanayagam, S. N. [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 5, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07

    Spin reorientation in antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) Co/Pd multilayers, wherein the thickness of the constituent Co layers was varied, was studied. AFC-Co/Pd multilayers were observed to have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for a Co sublayer thickness of 1 nm, much larger than what is usually observed in systems without antiferromagnetic coupling. When similar multilayer structures were prepared without antiferromagnetic coupling, this effect was not observed. The results indicate that the additional anisotropy energy contribution arising from the antiferromagnetic coupling, which is estimated to be around 6 × 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}, induces the spin-reorientation.

  5. LANGUAGE REORIENTATION AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinwe Ugochukwu

    building and leadership challenge; language reorientation; conclusion and ... Igbo land, for example, many students enrol to study foreign languages, but the reverse is the ... Following the lead of Franz Boas, such a view is no longer relevant. ... Consequently, on International Mother Language Day, all languages share.

  6. Thermocapillary reorientation of Janus drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rodolfo; Saenz, Pedro

    2017-11-01

    Janus drops, named after the Ancient Roman two-faced god, are liquid drops formed from two immiscible fluids. Experimental observations indicate that a Janus drop may re-orientate in response to an applied external thermal gradient due to the Marangoni effect. Depending on the angle between the interior interface and the direction of the temperature gradient, disparities in the physical properties of the constituent liquids may lead to asymmetries in the thermocapillary flow. As a result, the drop will move along a curved path until a torque-free configuration is achieved, point after which it will continue on a straight trajectory. Here, we present the results of a theoretical investigation of this realignment phenomenon in the Stokes regime and in the limit of non-deformable interfaces. A 3D semi-analytical method in terms of polar spherical harmonics is developed to characterize and rationalize the hydrodynamic response (forces and torques), flow (velocity and temperature distribution) and trajectory of a Janus drop moving during the temperature-driven reorientation process. Furthermore, we discuss how this phenomenon may be exploited to develop dynamically reconfigurable micro-lenses. This work was partially supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants DMS-1614043 and DMS-1719637.

  7. Reorienting with terrain slope and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2013-02-01

    Orientation (or reorientation) is the first step in navigation, because establishing a spatial frame of reference is essential for a sense of location and heading direction. Recent research on nonhuman animals has revealed that the vertical component of an environment provides an important source of spatial information, in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. Nonetheless, humans show large individual and sex differences in the ability to use terrain slope for reorientation. To understand why some participants--mainly women--exhibit a difficulty with slope, we tested reorientation in a richer environment than had been used previously, including both a tilted floor and a set of distinct objects that could be used as landmarks. This environment allowed for the use of two different strategies for solving the task, one based on directional cues (slope gradient) and one based on positional cues (landmarks). Overall, rather than using both cues, participants tended to focus on just one. Although men and women did not differ significantly in their encoding of or reliance on the two strategies, men showed greater confidence in solving the reorientation task. These facts suggest that one possible cause of the female difficulty with slope might be a generally lower spatial confidence during reorientation.

  8. Sexual reorientation therapy: an orthodox perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates the phenomenon of sexual reorientation therapy from the standpoint of Orthodox Christian theology. It is argued that homosexual desire is the product of the fall of mankind and cannot be considered "normal." At the same time, however, reorientation therapies, whether secular or Christian, are inherently reductionistic and fail to address the underlying spiritual pathologies involved in homosexual desire (or any other deep-seated passion). The purpose of therapeia in the Orthodox Church is the psycho-somatic transfiguration of the whole person into the image of Christ, not merely the cessation of homosexual activity or the "reidentification" of one's "lifestyle."

  9. Characterization of domain reorientation in Pzt ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lente, Manuel Henrique; Povoa, Jose Marques; Eiras, Jose Antonio

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic of domains in ferroelectric materials has been intensively studied due to its importance in applications like non volatile memories. Domain reorientation was characterized in lead zirconate titanate samples, pure and doped, through measurements of the transient current, after reversal a electric field. The reorientation behavior of the domains showed to be influenced by type of impurity (Nb or Fe) and by the electrical field intensity. Analysis of the experimental results reveals mainly the existence of two contributions: a dependent (t 0.1 s) of the field intensity. (author)

  10. Tectonic patterns on a reoriented planet - Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Both geological and free-air-gravity data suggest that the positive mass anomaly associated with the Tharsis volcanoes may have reoriented Mars' lithosphere by as much as 25 deg. Since Mars is oblate, rotation of the lithosphere over the equatorial bulge by 25 deg produces membrane stresses of several kilobars, large enough to initiate faulting. Plots of the magnitude and direction of stresses in a reoriented planet show that near Tharsis the dominant fault type should be north-south-trending normal faults. This normal fault province is centered at 30 deg N latitude and extends about 45 deg east and west in longitude. Similar faults should occur at the antipodes, north of Hellas Planitia

  11. Spatial reorientation by geometry in bumblebees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Anna Sovrano

    Full Text Available Human and non-human animals are capable of using basic geometric information to reorient in an environment. Geometric information includes metric properties associated with spatial surfaces (e.g., short vs. long wall and left-right directionality or 'sense' (e.g. a long wall to the left of a short wall. However, it remains unclear whether geometric information is encoded by explicitly computing the layout of surface geometry or by matching images of the environment. View-based spatial encoding is generally thought to hold for insect navigation and, very recently, evidence for navigation by geometry has been reported in ants but only in a condition which does not allow the animals to use features located far from the goal. In this study we tested the spatial reorientation abilities of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris. After spatial disorientation, by passive rotation both clockwise and anticlockwise, bumblebees had to find one of the four exit holes located in the corners of a rectangular enclosure. Bumblebees systematically confused geometrically equivalent exit corners (i.e. corners with the same geometric arrangement of metric properties and sense, for example a short wall to the left of a long wall. However, when one wall of the enclosure was a different colour, bumblebees appeared to combine this featural information (either near or far from the goal with geometric information to find the correct exit corner. Our results show that bumblebees are able to use both geometric and featural information to reorient themselves, even when features are located far from the goal.

  12. Stress induced reorientation of vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, M.B.

    1977-10-01

    The critical stress for the reorientation of vanadium hydride was determined for the temperature range 180 0 to 280 0 K using flat tensile samples containing 50 to 500 ppM hydrogen by weight. The critical stress was observed to vary from a half to a third of the macroscopic yield stress of pure vanadium over the temperature range. The vanadium hydride could not be stress induced to precipitate above its stress-free precipitation temperature by uniaxial tensile stresses or triaxial tensile stresses induced by a notch

  13. Fundamental experiments on hydride reorientation in zircaloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Kimberly B.

    In the current study, an in-situ X-ray diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation was used to follow directly the kinetics of hydride dissolution and precipitation during thermomechanical cycles. This technique was combined with conventional microscopy (optical, SEM and TEM) to gain an overall understanding of the process of hydride reorientation. Thus this part of the study emphasized the time-dependent nature of the process, studying large volume of hydrides in the material. In addition, a micro-diffraction technique was also used to study the spatial distribution of hydrides near stress concentrations. This part of the study emphasized the spatial variation of hydride characteristics such as strain and morphology. Hydrided samples in the shape of tensile dog-bones were used in the time-dependent part of the study. Compact tension specimens were used during the spatial dependence part of the study. The hydride elastic strains from peak shift and size and strain broadening were studied as a function of time for precipitating hydrides. The hydrides precipitate in a very compressed state of stress, as measured by the shift in lattice spacing. As precipitation proceeds the average shift decreases, indicating average stress is reduced, likely due to plastic deformation and morphology changes. When nucleation ends the hydrides follow the zirconium matrix thermal contraction. When stress is applied below the threshold stress for reorientation, hydrides first nucleate in a very compressed state similar to that of unstressed hydrides. After reducing the average strain similarly to unstressed hydrides, the average hydride strain reaches a constant value during cool-down to room temperature. This could be due to a greater ease of deforming the matrix due to the applied far-field strain which would compensate for the strains due to thermal contraction. Finally when hydrides reorient, the average hydride strains become tensile during the first precipitation regime and

  14. Nanopolar reorientation in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, C.; Levy, J.; Rivkin, T. V.; Carlson, C.; Parilla, P. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of varying oxygen pressure P(O 2 ) during the growth of Ba 0.4 Sr 0.6 TiO 3 thin films is investigated using dielectric and local optical probes. A transition from in-plane to out-of-plane ferroelectricity is observed with increasing P(O 2 ). Signatures of in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity are identified using dielectric response and time-resolved confocal scanning optical microscopy (TRCSOM). At the crossover pressure between in-plane and out-of-plane polarization (P c =85 mTorr), TRCSOM measurements reveal a soft, highly dispersive out-of-plane polarization that reorients in plane under modest applied electric fields. At higher deposition pressures, the out-of-plane polarization is hardened and is less dispersive at microwave frequencies, and the dielectric tuning is suppressed. Nanopolar reorientation is believed to be responsible for the marked increase in dielectric tuning at P(O 2 )=P c

  15. Effective Parenting and Socialization for Value Re-Orientation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the meaning/concept and nature of parenting, effective parenting, some problems of parenting in Nigeria, socialization as a medium of value inculcation and value reorientation. The paper believes that value reorientation in Nigeria is a feasible project that can only be attained through the enforcement ...

  16. A study of stress reorientation of hydrides in zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourong, Jiang; Bangxin, Zhou [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu, SC (China)

    1994-10-01

    Under the conditions of circumferential tensile stress from 70 to 180 MPa for Zircaloy tubes or the tensile stress from 55 to 180 MPa for Zircaloy-4 plates and temperature cycling between 150 and 400 degree C, the effects of stress and the number of temperature cycling on hydride reorientation in Zircaloy-4 tubes and plates and Zircaloy-2 tubes containing about 220 {mu}g/g hydrogen have been investigated. With the increase of stress and/or the number of temperature cycling, the level of hydride reorientation increases. When hydride reorientation takes place, there is a threshold stress concerned with the number of temperature cycling. Below the threshold stress, hydride reorientation is not obvious. When applied stress is higher than the threshold stress, the level of hydride reorientation increases with the increase of stress and the number of temperature cycling. Hydride reorientation in Zircaloy-4 tubes develops gradually from the outer surface to inner surface. It might be related to the difference of texture between outer surface and inner surface. The threshold stress is affected by both the texture and the value of B. So controlling texture could still restrict hydride reorientation under tensile stress.

  17. Thermal reorientation of hydrogenic Pr3+ centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sets of five multi-hydrogenic centers of both CaF 2 :Pr 3+ and SrF 2 :Pr 3 + show bleaching under selective polarized-light irradiation. Two forms of bleaching behaviour are observed. In reversible polarized bleaching, irradiation creates re-oriented equivalent centers, which can be restored to the original orientation by switching the laser polarization by 90 deg. Indefinite sequences of bleaching and recovery can be established. In photoproduct bleaching, inequivalent centers are produced, which can be reverted by subsequently selectively exciting their absorption lines. Thermal recovery of the bleached centers on warming the crystals occurs abruptly over a 5 K range around 100 K and is noteworthy in occurring at essentially identical temperatures for H - , D - and T - centers. The simplest model for this thermal recovery is thermal activation of the mobile hydrogenic ions over a double well potential barrier. An alternative model proposed by Universitaet Regensburg requires the involvement of high frequency excitations in scattering processes for surmounting the barrier

  18. Re-orientation of American energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, H

    1981-01-01

    The new organization of American economic policy has shown some effects also in the sectoral policies apart from the revision of the concept, new focuses in economic policy - e.g. the struggle against inflation - and the structural re-orientation concerning the role of the government as well as the private sector. Energy policy can be regarded as a paradigm of Reagan's concept of a 'supply-oriented economic policy'. The following contribution gives a survey of the outlines of American energy policy. Chapter one sketches the philosophy of 'supply-oriented' economic policy which is in obvious contrast to the former practice of American energy policy (chapter two). Chapter three deals with the essential problem of the new approach, the deregulation of the price controls especially for natural gas. Chapter four comments on measures of tax policy. Chapter five deals with the price-independent deregulation and the sectors concerned, i.e. coal, electricity and nuclears. Chapter six discusses the governmental quantity policy (distribution of licences). Chapter seven explains the policy of research promotion for synthetic gas. Finally an assessment is made.

  19. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP C ), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP C and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP C by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases

  20. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  1. Continuous reorientation of synchronous terrestrial planets due to mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy

    2018-02-01

    Many known rocky exoplanets are thought to have been spun down by tidal interactions to a state of synchronous rotation, in which a planet's period of rotation is equal to that of its orbit around its host star. Investigations into atmospheric and surface processes occurring on such exoplanets thus commonly assume that day and night sides are fixed with respect to the surface over geological timescales. Here we use an analytical model to show that true polar wander—where a planetary body's spin axis shifts relative to its surface because of changes in mass distribution—can continuously reorient a synchronous rocky exoplanet. As occurs on Earth, we find that even weak mantle convection in a rocky exoplanet can produce density heterogeneities within the mantle sufficient to reorient the planet. Moreover, we show that this reorientation is made very efficient by the slower rotation rate of a synchronous planet when compared with Earth, which limits the stabilizing effect of rotational and tidal deformations. Furthermore, a relatively weak lithosphere limits its ability to support remnant loads and stabilize against reorientation. Although uncertainties exist regarding the mantle and lithospheric evolution of these worlds, we suggest that the axes of smallest and largest moment of inertia of synchronous exoplanets with active mantle convection change continuously over time, but remain closely aligned with the star-planet and orbital axes, respectively.

  2. Stategic reorientation of industrial R&D towards commercial objectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brook, Jacques W.; de Bruijn, E.J.; McDonough III, Edward F.; Kaynak, E.; Harcar, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to leverage R&D knowledge asset and to create more value from industrial R&D in today’s increasing liberalized and globalising business environments, some corporations adopt a strategic reorientation of their industrial R&D organisation towards commercial objectives. This study suggests

  3. Language and Spatial Reorientation: Evidence from Severe Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Blades, Mark; Siegal, Michael; Varley, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Investigating spatial cognition in individuals with acquired language impairments can inform our understanding of how components of language are involved in spatial representation. Using the reorientation paradigm of Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, and Katsnelson (1999), we examined spatial cue integration (landmark-geometry conjunctions) in individuals…

  4. Reorientation of magnetization with temperature in 2D ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu. A.; Spirin, D.V.; Klevets, Ph. N.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated 2D Heisenberg ferromagnet (monolayer) with the account of dipolar forces and uniaxial anisotropy and found a reorientation phase transition in temperature from out-of-plane to in-plane phase. This phase transition is of the first order with hysteresis. We estimated the temperatures of switching both analytically and numerically

  5. Educating Academic Staff to Reorient Curricula in ESD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Makrakis, Vassilios; Concina, Eleonora; Frate, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a professional development experience for higher education academic staff within the framework of an international Tempus project focused on reorienting university curricula to address sustainability. The project included revising curricula to phase sustainable development principles into university…

  6. Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jingli; Yang Jianjun; Sun Youyi; Zhang Douguo; Shen Jing; Zhang Qijin; Wang Keyi

    2007-01-01

    A series of polymer films containing azo groups and silver nanoparticles were prepared. Photo-induced reorientation of the film was conducted under irradiation of polarized light with wavelength at 365 nm, 442 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The influence of the concentration of dopant silver on the reorientation of the azo groups was studied. An enhancement of about 50% for the reorientation rate and about 70% for the reorientation amplitude was achieved. From a comparison of the enhancement obtained by irradiating with three different light sources, it was realized that the mechanism for enhancement of reorientation of azo groups is due to plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles doped in the polymer films

  7. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  8. Reorientation effects for 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurzynski, J.; Kihm, T.; Knopfle, K.T.; Mairle, G.; Clement, H.

    1987-01-01

    The differential cross sections and the vector analysing powers were measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons from 20 Ne, 22 Ne, 26 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, 34 S, 36 Ar and 40 Ar nuclei. Coupled channels analysis was carried out using an axially symmetric rotational model with either prolate or oblate quadrupole deformations for each isotope. Calculations assuming harmonic vibrator model were also carried out. In general, reorientation effects were found to be weak. A global optical model potential containing an imaginary spin-orbit component was found to be the most suitable in describing the experimental data at this energy

  9. Young children reorient by computing layout geometry, not by matching images of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2011-02-01

    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D layout: bumps and ridges that protruded only slightly off the floor, producing edges with low contrast. Moreover, children failed to reorient by prominent brightness contours in continuous layouts with no distinctive 3D structure. The findings provide evidence that geometric layout representations support children's reorientation.

  10. The reorientation of spatial planning systems and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Enemark, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Danish spatial planning has been increasingly subjected to profound reorientations over the past two decades. The comprehensive frame wherein planning policies and practices operated across different levels of administration has become significantly altered. This has been particularly evident after...... the implementation of a structural reform that changed the political and administrative structure in the country. Most importantly, the reform abolished the county level, which caused that planning policies, functions and responsibilities were re-scaled to municipal and national levels. This situation brought about...... radical shifts in terms of the scope of planning policies, the implementation of land-use tasks as well as the performance of the institutional arrangements operating within and beyond the planning system. Based on an in-depth analysis concerned with these changes, the paper endeavours into discussing how...

  11. Development of a computational model for astronaut reorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Willcox, Karen; Newman, Dava

    2010-08-26

    The ability to model astronaut reorientations computationally provides a simple way to develop and study human motion control strategies. Since the cost of experimenting in microgravity is high, and underwater training can lead to motions inappropriate for microgravity, these techniques allow for motions to be developed and well-understood prior to any microgravity exposure. By including a model of the current space suit, we have the ability to study both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. We present several techniques for rotating about the axes of the body and show that motions performed by the legs create a greater net rotation than those performed by the arms. Adding a space suit to the motions was seen to increase the resistance torque and limit the available range of motion. While rotations about the body axes can be performed in the current space suit, the resulting motions generated a reduced rotation when compared to the unsuited configuration. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavior learning in differential games and reorientation maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satak, Neha

    method is the Direct Approximation of Value Function (DAVF) method. In this method, unlike the CSR method, the player formulates an objective function for the opponent but does not formulates a strategy directly; rather, indirectly the player assumes that the opponent is playing optimally. Thus, a value function satisfying the HJB equation corresponding to the opponent's cost function exists. The DAVF method finds an approximate solution for the value function based on previous observations of the opponent's control. The approximate solution to the value function is then used to predict the opponent's future behavior. Game examples in which only a single player is learning its opponent's behavior are simulated. Subsequently, examples in which both players in a two-player game are learning each other's behavior are simulated. In the second part of this research, a reorientation control maneuver for a spinning spacecraft will be developed. This will aid the application of behavior learning and differential games concepts to the specific scenario involving multiple spinning spacecraft. An impulsive reorientation maneuver with coasting will be analytically designed to reorient the spin axis of the spacecraft using a single body fixed thruster. Cooperative maneuvers of multiple spacecraft optimizing fuel and relative orientation will be designed. Pareto optimality concepts will be used to arrive at mutually agreeable reorientation maneuvers for the cooperating spinning spacecraft.

  13. A magnetic relaxation study on anisotropic reorientation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, C.W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The present thesis proposes a study on anisotropic reorientation of aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions. In particular, it is directed to the question to what extent information may be obtained on anisotropic reorientation by nuclear magnetic relaxation experiments. The polymethacrylic acid/water system has been chosen as probe system. (Auth.)

  14. Surface role in reorientation of internal layers of molybdenum single crystal during rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiforov, P.N.; Gorordetskij, S.D.; Markashova, A.I.; Martynenko, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Structure, orientations and chemical composition of surface and internal layers of molybdenum rolled monocrystals are studied using electron microscopy, X-ray and Auger-analyses. Model of reorientation allowing to determine relation of deformation mechanism localized in surface layer with reorientation of internal layers, is described to explain the results

  15. Managerial strategies to reorient hospitals towards health promotion: lessons from organisational theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlin, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Reorienting health services towards health promotion is one of the major health promotion strategies stipulated by the Ottawa Charter). Important contradictions, tensions and barriers to health promotion implementation associated with organisational structures have, thus far, been underexposed in the hospital health promotion discourse. This paper aims at identifying risks and the chances for hospital management to strategically and sustainably reorient their hospitals towards health promotion. The paper combines theories and findings from organisational science and management studies as well as from capacity development in the form of a narrative literature review. The aim is to focus on the conditions hospitals, as organisational systems with a highly professionalised workforce, provide for a strategically managed reorientation towards health promotion. Models and principles helping managers to navigate the difficulties and complexities of health promotion reorientation will be suggested. Hospital managers have to deal with genuine obstacles in the complexity and structural formation of hospital organisations. Against this background, continuous management support, a transformative leadership style, participative strategic management and expert governance can be considered important organisational capacities for the reorientation towards a new concept such as health promotion. This paper discusses managerial strategies, effective structural transformations and important organisational capacities that can contribute to a sustainable reorientation of hospitals towards health promotion. It supports hospital managers in exploring their chances of facilitating and effectively supporting a sustainable health promotion reorientation of their hospitals. The paper provides an innovative approach where the focus is on enhanced possibilities for hospital managers to strategically manage the reorientation towards health promotion.

  16. MicroRNAs regulate B-cell receptor signaling-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, J. L.; Chen, C-Z

    Apoptosis induced by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for antigen-driven selection, a process critical to tolerance and immunity. Here, we examined the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BCR signaling-induced apoptosis using the widely applied WEHI-231 model. Comparison of miRNA levels in

  17. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment - A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible.

  18. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  19. The effect of stress state on zirconium hydride reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim

    Prior to storage in a dry-cask facility, spent nuclear fuel must undergo a vacuum drying cycle during which the spent fuel rods are heated up to elevated temperatures of ≤ 400°C to remove moisture the canisters within the cask. As temperature increases during heating, some of the hydride particles within the cladding dissolve while the internal gas pressure in fuel rods increases generating multi-axial hoop and axial stresses in the closed-end thin-walled cladding tubes. As cool-down starts, the hydrogen in solid solution precipitates as hydride platelets, and if the multiaxial stresses are sufficiently large, the precipitating hydrides reorient from their initial circumferential orientation to radial orientation. Radial hydrides can severely embrittle the spent nuclear fuel cladding at low temperature in response to hoop stress loading. Because the cladding can experience a range of stress states during the thermo-mechanical treatment induced during vacuum drying, this study has investigated the effect of stress state on the process of hydride reorientation during controlled thermo-mechanical treatments utilizing the combination of in situ X-ray diffraction and novel mechanical testing analyzed by the combination of metallography and finite element analysis. The study used cold worked and stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet containing approx. 180 wt. ppm hydrogen as its material basis. The failure behavior of this material containing radial hydrides was also studied over a range of temperatures. Finally, samples from reactor-irradiated cladding tubes were examined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. To reveal the stress state effect on hydride reorientation, the critical threshold stress to reorient hydrides was determined by designing novel mechanical test samples which produce a range of stress states from uniaxial to "near-equibiaxial" tension when a load is applied. The threshold stress was determined after thermo-mechanical treatments by

  20. Spin reorientation transition in Co/Au multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quispe-Marcatoma, J., E-mail: jquispem@unmsm.edu.pe [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14, Perú (Peru); Tarazona, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14, Perú (Peru); Pandey, B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Department of Applied Science, Symbiosis Institute of Technology, SIU, Lavale, Pune 412 115, India. (India); Sousa, M.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74001-970 (Brazil); Carvalho, M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Landauro, C.V. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14, Perú (Peru); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74001-970 (Brazil); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    We report a study about the spin reorientation transition (SRT) from perpendicular easy axis to in-plane easy axis of magnetization in Co/Au multilayers. A series of multilayers of Si/Au(100 Å)/{[Co(t_C_o)/Au(20 Å)]_2_0}/Au(50 Å) family were studied, with Co layer thickness varying between 6 Å to 30 Å. The thickness of the Au layer was chosen large enough in order to minimize the interlayer exchange coupling between Co layers. In such thick Au-layer samples the magnetic properties are mainly the result of competition between interlayer magnetostatic coupling due to stray field, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and shape anisotropy. The effective anisotropy constant K{sub eff} and the second order anisotropy K{sub 2} were deduced from the fit of the resonant magnetic field obtained from out of plane dependence Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) experiments. To study the SRT, we have plotted the phase diagram between K{sub eff} and K{sub 2}. The results show that SRT occurs through the metastable region with K{sub 2} ≤ −½ K{sub eff}, (K{sub eff} > 0). It is interesting to note that FMR shows the coexistence of two modes with different anisotropy for small Co thickness, while for thick Co layers the modes have the same anisotropy. Moreover, in thick Co layer samples, volume and surface spin wave resonance (SWR) modes were also excited by the microwave field, around the perpendicular FMR geometry, giving a clear evidence of a magnetic coupling between the Co layers. - Highlights: • Co/Au multilayers with varying Co layer thickness are prepared by DC-magnetron sputtering. • The spin reorientation transition (SRT) and flipping of magnetic moment are studied. • Effective anisotropy constant (K) and 2nd order anisotropy constant (K{sub 2}) are calculated. • K Vs K{sub 2} plot showed that SRT occurs through the metastable region with K{sub 2} ≤ −½ K, (K > 0). • Ferromagnetic Resonance spectra showed the coexistence of two resonance modes.

  1. Shape-assisted body reorientation enhances trafficability through cluttered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew; Haldane, Duncan; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Many birds and fishes have slender, streamlined bodies that reduce fluid dynamic drag and allow fast and efficient locomotion. Similarly, numerous terrestrial animals run through cluttered terrain where 3-D, multi-component obstacles like grass, bushes, trees, walls, doors, and pillars also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role. Here, we challenged discoid cockroaches that possess a rounded, thin, nearly ellipsoidal body to run through tall, narrowly spaced, grass-like beams. The animals primarily rolled their body to the side to maneuver through the obstacle gaps. Reduction of body roundness by artificial shells inhibited this side roll maneuver, resulting in a lower traversal probability and a longer traversal time (P exoskeleton shell to a legged robot of a nearly cuboidal body. The rounded shell enabled the robot to use passive side rolling to maneuver through beams. To explain the mechanism, we developed a simple physics model to construct an energy landscape of the body-terrain interaction, which allowed estimation of body forces and torques exerted by the beams. Our model revealed that, by passive interaction with the terrain, a rounded body (ellipsoid) rolled more easily than an angular body (cuboid) to access energy valleys between energy barriers caused by obstacles. Our study is the first to demonstrate that a terradynamically ``streamlined'' shape can reduce terrain resistance and enhance trafficability by assisting body reorientation.

  2. Detection of unusual spin reorientation induced by magnetic field in DyFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbashov, A.M.; Marchukov, P.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.V.; Rudashevskij, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    It is detected that in DyFeO 3 the vector of antiferromagnetism reorientates continuously in two mutually perpendicular planes, and transition from one plane into the other one is a first-order phase transformation

  3. A Role for Attentional Reorienting During Approximate Multiplication and Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curren Katz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to estimate the outcome of arithmetic problems, participants overestimate for addition problems and underestimate for subtraction problems, both in symbolic and non-symbolic format. This bias is referred to as operational momentum effect (OM. The attentional shifts account holds that during computation of the outcome participants are propelled too far along a spatial number representation. OM was observed in non-symbolic multiplication and division while being absent in symbolic multiplication and division. Here, we investigate whether (a the absence of the OM in symbolic multiplication and division was due to the presentation of the correct outcome amongst the response alternatives, putatively triggering verbally mediated fact retrieval, and whether (b OM is correlated with attentional parameters, as stipulated by the attentional account. Participants were presented with symbolic and non-symbolic multiplication and division problems. Among seven incorrect response alternatives participants selected the most plausible result. Participants were also presented with a Posner task, with valid (70%, invalid (15% and neutral (15% cues pointing to the position at which a subsequent target would appear. While no OM was observed in symbolic format, non-symbolic problems were subject to OM. The non-symbolic OM was positively correlated with reorienting after invalid cues. These results provide further evidence for a functional association between spatial attention and approximate arithmetic, as stipulated by the attentional shifts account of OM. They also suggest that the cognitive processes underlying multiplication and division are less prone to spatial biases compared to addition and subtraction, further underlining the involvement of differential cognitive processes.

  4. Magnetooptical studies on spin-reorientation in rare earth orthoferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, N.; Hayashi, K.; Suzuki, M.; Tsushima, T.

    1976-01-01

    Several types of spin-reorientation (SR) in some of the RFeO 3 are studied by Faraday rotation measurements; rotational SR of GAMMA 4 → GAMMA 2 type in (ErSm)FeO 3 , (Co 2+ , Ti 4+ ) doped YFeO 3 , and abrupt SR of GAMMA 4 → GAMMA 1 type in DyFeO 3 . Observations of SR by Faraday rotation were made in these crystals with incident light parallel to the optical axis. In relation with the decrease of Fe 3+ ion's anisotropy at T/sub SR/, an abrupt decrease of the coercive force are found in these systems. In general, Faraday rotation in RFeO 3 originates from Fe 3+ ions in the visible and near IR regions, while R 3+ ion's contribution to the Faraday rotation was observed for the wavelengths corresponding to the electronic transitions of R 3+ ions in ErFeO 3 and DyFeO 3 at low temperatures. In DyFeO 3 , a large contribution of Dy 3+ ions was observed at approximately 1.2 μm in the Faraday spectrum, and it is confirmed that the Dy 3+ moments are polarized along the c-axis in zero applied field above T/sub SR/. Magnetic field induced SR was also observed in DyFeO 3 , and the temperature dependence of the critical field was obtained as H/sub SR/ varies as absolute value T - T/sub SR/3/4

  5. Microstructural characteristics of the hydroxyapatite and its influence in the Tl signal induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Hernandez A, M.; Estrada G, R.; Rodriguez L, V.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis carried out on different materials has shown that the quantity and type of dopants play an important role in the behaviour thermoluminescent signal induced by the ionizing radiation. More recent studies have also shown that the grain size influences strongly in the thermoluminescent signal. Plus still, the crystal growth habit and the crystalline degree have an important effect in the type and intensity thermoluminescent signal. In this sense, we present this work on the analysis of the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation in the hydroxyapatite ceramic. Depending the growth habit, a variation of the peak temperature location, signal intensity and linearity range was observed; in particular cases a lineal relationship between glow curve and radiation dose was in the range from 2 to 1000 Gray. These results are complemented with a microstructural and crystalline degree analysis through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The dose-response over the whole irradiation range opening up the possibility of employing this bio material as a dosimeter. (Author)

  6. The reorientation of cell nucleus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity in migrating fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninová, Miloslava; Klímová, Zuzana; Parsons, J Thomas; Weber, Michael J; Iwanicki, Marcin P; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2013-06-12

    The establishment of cell polarity is an essential step in the process of cell migration. This process requires precise spatiotemporal coordination of signaling pathways that in most cells create the typical asymmetrical profile of a polarized cell with nucleus located at the cell rear and the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) positioned between the nucleus and the leading edge. During cell polarization, nucleus rearward positioning promotes correct microtubule organizing center localization and thus the establishment of front-rear polarity and directional migration. We found that cell polarization and directional migration require also the reorientation of the nucleus. Nuclear reorientation is manifested as temporally restricted nuclear rotation that aligns the nuclear axis with the axis of cell migration. We also found that nuclear reorientation requires physical connection between the nucleus and cytoskeleton mediated by the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex. Nuclear reorientation is controlled by coordinated activity of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-mediated activation of GTPase Rho and the activation of integrin, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling pathway. Integrin signaling is spatially induced at the leading edge as FAK and p190RhoGAP are predominantly activated or localized at this location. We suggest that integrin activation within lamellipodia defines cell front, and subsequent FAK, Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling represents the polarity signal that induces reorientation of the nucleus and thus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spin-reorientation magnetic transitions in Mn-doped SmFeO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spin reorientation is a magnetic phase transition in which rotation of the magnetization vector with respect to the crystallographic axes occurs upon a change in the temperature or magnetic field. For example, SmFeO3 shows a magnetization rotation from the c axis above 480 K to the a axis below 450 K, known as the Γ4 → Γ2 transition. This work reports the successful synthesis of the new single-crystal perovskite SmFe0.75Mn0.25O3 and finds interesting spin reorientations above and below room temperature. In addition to the spin reorientation of the Γ4 → Γ2 magnetic phase transition observed at around TSR2 = 382 K, a new spin reorientation, Γ2 → Γ1, was seen at around TSR1 = 212 K due to Mn doping, which could not be observed in the parent rare earth perovskite compound. This unexpected spin configuration has complete antiferromagnetic order without any canting-induced weak ferromagnetic moment, resulting in zero magnetization in the low-temperature regime. M–T and M–H measurements have been made to study the temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the observed spin reorientation transitions.

  8. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  9. Reorientation response of magnetic microspheres attached to gold electrodes under an applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L.; Reeve, R.M.; Mitrelias, T.; Langford, R.M.; Barnes, C.H.W.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.; Aguiar, J. Albino; Majima, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report the mechanical reorientation of thiolated ferromagnetic microspheres bridging a pair of gold electrodes under an external magnetic field. When an external magnetic field (7 kG) is applied during the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics of a carboxyl ferromagnetic microsphere (4 μm diameter) attached to two gold electrodes by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octane dithiol (C 8 H 18 S 2 ), the current signal is distorted. Rather than due to magnetoresistance, this effect is caused by a mechanical reorientation of the ferromagnetic sphere, which alters the number of SAMs between the sphere and the electrodes and therefore affects conduction. To study the physical reorientation of the ferromagnetic particles, we measure their hysteresis loops while suspended in a liquid solution. (author)

  10. Spontaneous reorientation is guided by perceived surface distance, not by image matching or comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ah Lee

    Full Text Available Humans and animals recover their sense of position and orientation using properties of the surface layout, but the processes underlying this ability are disputed. Although behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on animals long have suggested that reorientation depends on representations of surface distance, recent experiments on young children join experimental studies and computational models of animal navigation to suggest that reorientation depends either on processing of any continuous perceptual variables or on matching of 2D, depthless images of the landscape. We tested the surface distance hypothesis against these alternatives through studies of children, using environments whose 3D shape and 2D image properties were arranged to enhance or cancel impressions of depth. In the absence of training, children reoriented by subtle differences in perceived surface distance under conditions that challenge current models of 2D-image matching or comparison processes. We provide evidence that children's spontaneous navigation depends on representations of 3D layout geometry.

  11. Dielectric resonance in ErFeO3 in the region of spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan'shin, N.K.; Kovtun, N.M.; Sdvizhkov, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the region of spin reorientation in ErFeO 3 in the millimetre wave range a dielectric resonance has been found - excitation of electromaqnetic field natural oscillations in spherical samples. The fregurncies of dielectric resonance in samples from ErFeO 3 possess strong independence of temperature and magnetic field in the vicinity of the spin reorientation for account of a strong growth in the magnetic susceptibility. The frequencies change most considerably in the region of low-temperature spin reorientation related to antiferromagnetic rare earth ordering. Strong anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility cases various temperature and field dependences of the dielectric resonance frequencies at different orientations of the exciting electromagnetic field relative to the crystal axes. It is shown that the method of dielectric resonance permits to determine with high accuracy the temperatures of spontaneous - and crystal fields of induced phase transformations. The crystal dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability dispersion are determined

  12. Reorientation response of magnetic microspheres attached to gold electrodes under an applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L.; Reeve, R.M.; Mitrelias, T.; Langford, R.M.; Barnes, C.H.W., E-mail: luis_d_v@hotmail.com [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge Materials and Structures Laboratory (United Kingdom); Bustamante Dominguez, A. [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (Peru); Aguiar, J. Albino [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Azuma, Y. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Majima, Y. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we report the mechanical reorientation of thiolated ferromagnetic microspheres bridging a pair of gold electrodes under an external magnetic field. When an external magnetic field (7 kG) is applied during the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics of a carboxyl ferromagnetic microsphere (4 μm diameter) attached to two gold electrodes by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octane dithiol (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}S{sub 2}), the current signal is distorted. Rather than due to magnetoresistance, this effect is caused by a mechanical reorientation of the ferromagnetic sphere, which alters the number of SAMs between the sphere and the electrodes and therefore affects conduction. To study the physical reorientation of the ferromagnetic particles, we measure their hysteresis loops while suspended in a liquid solution. (author)

  13. X-ray diffraction investigation of spin reorientation in SmFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviko, V.S.; Korolyov, A.V.; Mushnikov, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous magnetoelastic crystal lattice distortions in the spin reorientation region of high magnetostrictive SmFe 2 have been investigated by X-ray diffraction in the temperature range 80-300 K. Comparison of experimental shapes of X-ray diffraction lines with calculated shapes shows that, in the region of the spin reorientation transition, a mixture of left angle 110 right angle and left angle 111 right angle phases rather than the angular left angle uuw right angle -type phase is realized. The temperature dependence of the relative volume content of left angle 110 right angle and left angle 111 right angle phases is determined using least-squares fitting. (orig.)

  14. Theory of phase transformation and reorientation in single crystalline shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J J; Liang, N G; Cai, M; Liew, K M; Huang, W M

    2008-01-01

    A constitutive model, based on an (n+1)-phase mixture of the Mori–Tanaka average theory, has been developed for stress-induced martensitic transformation and reorientation in single crystalline shape memory alloys. Volume fractions of different martensite lattice correspondence variants are chosen as internal variables to describe microstructural evolution. Macroscopic Gibbs free energy for the phase transformation is derived with thermodynamics principles and the ensemble average method of micro-mechanics. The critical condition and the evolution equation are proposed for both the phase transition and reorientation. This model can also simulate interior hysteresis loops during loading/unloading by switching the critical driving forces when an opposite transition takes place

  15. Mean-field theory of photoinduced molecular reorientation in azobenzene liquid crystalline side-chain polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.G.; Johansen, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    . The theory provides an explanation for the high long-term stability of the photoinduced anisotropy as well as a theoretical prediction of the temporal behavior of photoinduced birefringence. The theoretical results agree favorably with measurements in the entire range of writing intensities used......A novel mean-field theory of photoinduced reorientation and optical anisotropy in liquid crystalline side-chain polymers is presented and compared with experiments, The reorientation mechanism is based on photoinduced trans cis isomerization and a multidomain model of the material is introduced...

  16. Common-signal-induced synchronization in photonic integrated circuits and its application to secure key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takuma; Kakesu, Izumi; Mitsui, Yusuke; Rontani, Damien; Uchida, Atsushi; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Masanobu

    2017-10-16

    We experimentally achieve common-signal-induced synchronization in two photonic integrated circuits with short external cavities driven by a constant-amplitude random-phase light. The degree of synchronization can be controlled by changing the optical feedback phase of the two photonic integrated circuits. The change in the optical feedback phase leads to a significant redistribution of the spectral energy of optical and RF spectra, which is a unique characteristic of PICs with the short external cavity. The matching of the RF and optical spectra is necessary to achieve synchronization between the two PICs, and stable synchronization can be obtained over an hour in the presence of optical feedback. We succeed in generating information-theoretic secure keys and achieving the final key generation rate of 184 kb/s using the PICs.

  17. Microtubule array reorientation in response to hormones does not involve changes in microtubule nucleation modes at the periclinal cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Samantha; Kirik, Angela; Kirik, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Aligned microtubule arrays spatially organize cell division, trafficking, and determine the direction of cell expansion in plant cells. In response to changes in environmental and developmental signals, cells reorganize their microtubule arrays into new configurations. Here, we tested the role of microtubule nucleation during hormone-induced microtubule array reorientation. We have found that in the process of microtubule array reorientation the ratios between branching, parallel, and de-novo nucleations remained constant, suggesting that the microtubule reorientation mechanism does not involve changes in nucleation modes. In the ton2/fass mutant, which has reduced microtubule branching nucleation frequency and decreased nucleation activity of the γ-tubulin complexes, microtubule arrays were able to reorient. Presented data suggest that reorientation of microtubules into transverse arrays in response to hormones does not involve changes in microtubule nucleation at the periclinal cell surface PMID:25135522

  18. Giant magnetostriction effect near onset of spin reorientation in MnBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Ryan, P. J.; McGuire, M. A.; Sales, B. C.; Kim, J.-W.

    2018-05-01

    In materials undergoing spontaneous symmetry breaking transitions, the emergence of multiple competing order parameters is pervasive. Employing in-field x-ray diffraction, we investigate the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the crystallographic structure of MnBi, elucidating the microscopic interplay between lattices and spin. The hexagonal phase of MnBi undergoes a spin reorientation transition (TSR), whereby the easy axis direction changes from the c axis to the basal plane. Across TSR, an abrupt symmetry change is accompanied by a clear sign change in the magnetostrictive coefficient, revealing that this transition corresponds to the onset of the spin reorientation. In the vicinity of TSR, a significantly larger in-plane magnetostrictive effect is observed, presenting the emergence of an intermediate phase that is highly susceptible to an applied magnetic field. X-ray linear dichroism shows that asymmetric Bi and Mn p orbitals do not play a role in the spin reorientation. This work suggests that the spin reorientation is caused by structural modification rather than changes in the local electronic configuration, providing a strategy for manipulating the magnetic anisotropy by external strain.

  19. Effect of spin reorientation on magnetocaloric and transport properties of NdAl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.V. de, E-mail: marcos_vinicios@hotmail.com [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, J.A. da [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Silva, L.S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aloísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Tocantins, IFTO – Campus Colinas do Tocantins, AV. Bernardo Sayao S/N, Chácara Raio de Sol, Setor Santa Maria, CEP 77760-000 Colinas do Tocantins, TO (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    We report the magneto-thermal and resistive properties of rare-earth dialuminide NdAl{sub 2}, including spin reorientation transition. To this purpose, we used a theoretical model that considers the interactions of exchange and Zeeman, besides the anisotropy due to the electrical crystal field. The theoretical results obtained were compared to experimental data of the NdAl{sub 2} in single crystal and bulk forms. Explicitly, we have calculated the anisotropic variation of magnetic entropy with the magnetic field oriented along the three principal crystallographic directions: [100], [110], and [111] of NdAl{sub 2} single crystal, where a signature of the spin reorientation is observed in the [110] and [111] directions. Moreover, of magnetoresistivity we consider the applied magnetic field along the crystallographic directions [100] and [110]. In turn, for the polycrystalline form, the good agreement between theory and experiment confirms the presence of spin reorientation, which was predicted theoretically in magnetization curves. - Highlights: • Modeling of the thermodynamics quantities in NdAl{sub 2} single crystal and policrystal. • Modeling of the transport properties in NdAl{sub 2} single crystal. • Effect of reorientation of spin on caloric and transport properties.

  20. Taking the road less taken: reorienting the state for periurban water security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, Vishal; Ranjan, Pranay; Vij, S.; Dewan, Aman

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention strategy to improve water security in Sultanpur, a village in periurban Gurgaon, India. Most approaches to improving natural resource management in periurban contexts focus on mobilising the community; little attention is paid to reorienting the state or

  1. Power-induced evolution and increased dimensionality of nonlinear modes in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Zegadło, Krzysztof B; Karpierz, Miroslaw A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the evolution of higher order one-dimensional guided modes into two-dimensional solitary waves in a reorientational medium. The observations, carried out at two different wavelengths in chiral nematic liquid crystals, are in good agreement with a simple nonlocal nonlinear model.

  2. Reorientational properties of fluorescent analogues of the protein kinase C cofactors diacylglycerol and phorbol ester.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pap, E.H.W.; Ketelaars, M.; Borst, J.W.; Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    1996-01-01

    The reorientational properties of the fluorescently labelled protein kinase C (PKC) cofactors diacylglycerol (DG) and phorbol ester (PMA) in vesicles and mixed micelles have been investigated using time-resolved polarised fluorescence. The sn-2 acyl chain of DG was replaced by diphenylhexatriene-

  3. The Influence of Cue Reliability and Cue Representation on Spatial Reorientation in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Ratliff, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of children's reorientation have focused on cue representation (e.g., whether cues are geometric) as a predictor of performance but have not addressed cue reliability (the regularity of the relation between a given cue and an outcome) as a predictor of performance. Here we address both factors within the same series of…

  4. Re-orientating time in product design : a phenomenology-inspired perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, J.T.; Hengeveld, B.J.; Hummels, C.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a work in progress design case that is used to exemplify how a phenomenology-inspired perspective on time can impact the design of highly interactive systems and products. The design presents a calendar with a re-orientated layout that is based on a bodily relationship with time,

  5. Field-induced strain memory with non-180 .deg. domain-reorientation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Yoichi; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Using non-180 .deg. domain-reorientation control, we propose the strain memory effect in ferroelectric ceramics. Electric fields with asymmetric amplitudes were applied to soft-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, and the strain hysteresis and the polarization loop were measured. The butterfly curve became asymmetric under an electric field with a particular asymmetric amplitude. The asymmetric butterfly curve had two stable strain states at zero electric field. Thus, the strain memory effect was realized as the difference between the two stable strain states. An XRD analysis was carried out to verify the contribution of the non-180 .deg. domain reorientation to the strain memory effect. The non-180 .deg. domain reorientation was determined as the intensity ratio of the (002) to the (200) peak. The strain memory determined from macroscopic strain measurements had a linear relationship to the non-180 .deg. domain volume fraction. This result indicated the origin of the strain memory to be the non-180 .deg. domain reorientation.

  6. Use of Geometry for Spatial Reorientation in Children Applies Only to Symmetric Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Adina R.; Gibbons, Bryony; Murphy, Caroline; Bremner, J. Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of the geometric module hypothesis argue that following disorientation, many species reorient by use of macro-environment geometry. It is suggested that attention to the surface layout geometry of natural terrain features may have been selected for over evolutionary time due to the enduring and unambiguous location information it…

  7. Terahertz probes of magnetic field induced spin reorientation in YFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Ma, Guohong, E-mail: ghma@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Jin, Zuanming [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Wang, Dongyang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang [Center for Terahertz Waves and College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Information and Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cheng, Zhenxiang [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2015-03-02

    Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate the spin reorientation of a canted antiferromagnetic YFeO{sub 3} single crystal, by evaluating the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resonant frequency and amplitude for the quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes (AFM), a deeper insight into the dynamics of spin reorientation in rare-earth orthoferrites is established. Due to the absence of 4f-electrons in Y ion, the spin reorientation of Fe sublattices can only be induced by the applied magnetic field, rather than temperature. In agreement with the theoretical predication, the frequency of FM mode decreases with magnetic field. In addition, an obvious step of spin reorientation phase transition occurs with a relatively large applied magnetic field of 4 T. By comparison with the family members of RFeO{sub 3} (R = Y{sup 3+} or rare-earth ions), our results suggest that the chosen of R would tailor the dynamical rotation properties of Fe ions, leading to the designable spin switching in the orthoferrite antiferromagnetic systems.

  8. Molecular reorientation of dye doped nematic liquid crystals in the laser illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San, S. E.; Koeysal, O.; Ecevit, F. N.

    2002-01-01

    In this study it is investigated how dye doped nematic liquid crystals reorient under the illumination of laser beam whose wavelength is appropriate to absorbance characteristics of the doping dye. Nematic liquid crystal E7 is used with anthraquinone dye 1% wt/wt in the preparation of the sample and this material is filled in homegenously aligned measurement cell having 15 μm thickness. Mechanism of molecular reorientation includes the absorbance effects of the energy of laser by doping dye and this reorientation causes the refractive index of the material to be changed. There are potential application possibilities of such molecular reorientation based effects in nonlinear optics such as real time holography whose basis is grating diffraction that is observed and investigated in the frame of fundamentals of molecule light interaction mechanisms. Experimental analyses allowed finding characteristic values of diffraction signals depending on physical parameters of set up for a dye doped liquid crystal system and this system provided a 20 % diffraction efficiency under the optimum circumstances

  9. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  10. Canonical Wnt signaling induces a primitive endoderm metastable state in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Feodor D; Yin, Hang; Jones, Andrew; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway synergizes with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). However, in the absence of LIF, Wnt signaling is unable to maintain ESCs in the undifferentiated state. To investigate the role of canonical Wnt signaling in pluripotency and lineage specification, we expressed Wnt3a in mESCs and characterized them in growth and differentiation. We found that activated canonical Wnt signaling induced the formation of a reversible metastable primitive endoderm state in mESC. Upon subsequent differentiation, Wnt3a-stimulated mESCs gave rise to large quantities of visceral endoderm. Furthermore, we determined that the ability of canonical Wnt signaling to induce a metastable primitive endoderm state was mediated by Tbx3. Our data demonstrates a specific role for canonical Wnt signaling in promoting pluripotency while at the same time priming cells for subsequent differentiation into the primitive endoderm lineage. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  12. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  13. Photoinduced reorientation and polarization holography in a new photopolymer with 4-methoxy-N-benzylideneaniline side groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Kawatsuki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The photoinduced reorientation and surface relief (SR formation behaviors of a novel photosensitive polymer, which was transparent in visible region, were investigated using linearly polarized-313-nm light and holographic exposure with a 325-nm He-Cd laser. The polymer was comprised of photosensitive 4-methoxy-N-benzylideneaniline side groups, and exhibited a sufficient photoinduced molecular reorientation with a birefringence of 0.11. Holographic exposure generated a SR structure, which had a periodical molecular reorientation that depended on the polarization of the interference beams. The generated SR height was ∼212 nm, and the inscription of a double holographic exposure yielded a two-dimensional SR structure.

  14. Hydride reorientation in Zircaloy-4 examined by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weekes, H.E. [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Jones, N.G. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Lindley, T.C. [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Dye, D., E-mail: david.dye@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    The phenomenon of stress-reorientation has been investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction during the thermomechanical cycling of hydrided Zircaloy-4 tensile specimens. Results have shown that loading along a sample’s transverse direction (TD) leads to a greater degree of hydride reorientation when compared to rolling direction (RD)-aligned samples. The elastic lattice micro-strains associated with radially oriented hydrides have been revealed to be greater than those oriented circumferentially, a consequence of strain accommodation. Evidence of hydride redistribution after cycling, to α-Zr grains oriented in a more favourable orientation when under an applied stress, has also been observed and its behaviour has been found to be highly dependent on the loading axis. Finally, thermomechanical loading across multiple cycles has been shown to reduce the difference in terminal solid solubility of hydrogen during dissolution (TSS{sub D,H}) and precipitation (TSS{sub P,H}).

  15. Planar reorientation of a free-free beam in space using embedded electromechanical actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the planar reorientation of a free-free beam in zero gravity space can be accomplished by periodically changing the shape of the beam using embedded electromechanical actuators. The dynamics which determine the shape of the free-free beam is assumed to be characterized by the Euler-Bernoulli equation, including material damping, with appropriate boundary conditions. The coupling between the rigid body motion and the flexible motion is explained using the angular momentum expression which includes rotatory inertia and kinematically exact effects. A control scheme is proposed where the embedded actuators excite the flexible motion of the beam so that it rotates in the desired sense with respect to a fixed inertial reference. Relations are derived which relate the average rotation rate to the amplitudes and the frequencies of the periodic actuation signal and the properties of the beam. These reorientation maneuvers can be implemented by using feedback control.

  16. Social reorientation in adolescence: neurobiological changes and individual differences in empathic concern

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaauw, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent changes in adolescence is social reorientation. In other words, adolescents develop more intimate relationships with peers, they discover what it is like to be involved in a romantic relationship, and they take (social) risks by for example showing risky driving in the presence of friends. Given that social networks with peers become central elements in the adolescent’s life, investigating the role of individual differences related to the development of social reorie...

  17. Enabling health systems transformation: what progress has been made in re-orienting health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Marilyn; Nutbeam, Don

    2007-01-01

    The Ottawa Charter has been remarkably influential in guiding the development of the goals and concepts of health promotion, and in shaping global public health practice in the past 20 years. However, of the five action areas identified in the Ottawa Charter, it appears that there has been little systematic attention to the challenge of re-orienting health services, and less than optimal progress in practice. The purposes of re-orienting health services as proposed in the Ottawa Charter were to achieve a better balance in investment between prevention and treatment, and to include a focus on population health outcomes alongside the focus on individual health outcomes. However, there is little evidence that a re-orientation of health services in these terms has occurred systematically anywhere in the world. This is in spite of the fact that direct evidence of the need to re-orient health services and of the potential benefits of doing so has grown substantially since 1986. Patient education, preventive care (screening, immunisation), and organisational and environmental changes by health organisations have all been found to have positive health and environmental outcomes. However, evidence of effectiveness has not been sufficient, on its own, to sway community preferences and political decisions. The lack of progress points to the need for significant re-thinking of the approaches we have adopted to date. The paper proposes a number of ways forward. These include working effectively in partnership with the communities we want to serve to mobilise support for change, and to reinforce this by working more effectively at influencing broader public opinion through the media. The active engagement of clinical health professionals is also identified as crucial to achieving sustainable change. Finally we recognize that by working in partnership with like-minded advocacy organizations, the IUHPE could put its significant knowledge and experience to work in leading action to

  18. Molecular reorientations in the nematic and rotatory phases of di-n-pentyloxyazoxybenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, X.P.; Krawczyk, J.; Chrusciel, D.

    1986-04-01

    Results of dielectric relaxation (DR), quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS), calorimetric DSC and preliminary X-ray measurements on the fifth member - 5.OAOB - of the alkoxyazoxybenzene homologous series are presented. It has been found that 5.OAOB exhibits two mesophases: a nematic (N) and an ''intermediate'' crystalline phase (Cr I) just below it. From comparison of the DR and QNS studies one can conclude that in the N phase the molecule as a whole performs rotational diffusion around the long axis (τ perpendicular DR ∼150 ps) and at the same time the two moieties perform faster independent reorientations around N - benzene rings bonds with τ QNS ∼5 ps. The Cr I phase is identified as a solid unaxial rotational phase in which fast molecular reorientations exist. It seems that the fast reorientations observed in the N phase to some extent survive to the Cr I phase. A model of molecular arrangements in the Cr I phase is proposed and it explains the reduction of the dielectric increment observed on passing from the N phase to this phase. (author)

  19. Stable panoramic views facilitate snap-shot like memories for spatial reorientation in homing pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pecchia

    Full Text Available Following spatial disorientation, animals can reorient themselves by relying on geometric cues (metric and sense specified both by the macroscopic surface layout of an enclosed space and prominent visual landmarks in arrays. Whether spatial reorientation in arrays of landmarks is based on explicit representation of the geometric cues is a matter of debate. Here we trained homing pigeons (Columba livia to locate a food-reward in a rectangular array of four identical or differently coloured pipes provided with four openings, only one of which allowed the birds to have access to the reward. Pigeons were trained either with a stable or a variable position of the opening on pipes, so that they could view the array either from the same or a variable perspective. Explicit mapping of configural geometry would predict successful reorientation irrespective of access condition. In contrast, we found that a stable view of the array facilitated spatial learning in homing pigeons, likely through the formation of snapshot-like memories.

  20. Differences between appetitive and aversive reinforcement on reorientation in a spatial working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Taube, Jeffrey S

    2002-10-17

    Tasks using appetitive reinforcers show that following disorientation rats use the shape of an arena to reorient, and cannot distinguish two geometrically similar corners to obtain a reward, despite the presence of a prominent visual cue that provides information to differentiate the two corners. Other studies show that disorientation impairs performance on certain appetitive, but not aversive, tasks. This study evaluated whether rats would make similar geometric errors in a working memory task that used aversive reinforcement. We hypothesized that in a task that used aversive reinforcement rats that were initially disoriented would not reorient by arena shape and thus make similar geometric errors. Tests were performed in a rectangular arena having one polarizing cue. In the appetitive condition water consumption was the reward. The aversive condition was a water maze task with reinforcement provided by escape to a hidden platform. In the aversive condition rats returned to the reinforced corner significantly more often than in the dry condition, and did not favor the diagonally opposite corner. Results show that rats can use cues besides arena shape to reorient in an aversive reinforcement condition. These findings may also reflect different strategies, with an escape/homing strategy in the wet condition and a foraging strategy in the dry condition.

  1. Molecular reorientations in a substance with liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Phuc.

    1986-05-01

    Results of dielectric relaxation (DR), quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS), far infrared absorption (FIR), proton magnetic resonance (PMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and preliminary X-ray diffraction measurements on the di-n-pentyloxyazoxybenzene (5.OAOB) are presented. The measurements carried out by all these methods showed that 5.OAOB exhibits a nontypical for liquid-crystalline materials phase diagram. It has two mesophases: a nematic (N) and an ''intermediate'' crystalline phase just below it. A complex interpretation of results obtained is given. All suggestions concerning the character of reorientational motions of the molecule as a whole as well as of its segments in mesomorphic phases are analyzed. From comparison of the DR and QNS studies one can conclude that in the N phase the molecule as a whole performs rotational diffusion around the long axis (τ DR ∼ 100 ps) and at the same time the two moieties perform faster independent reorientations around N - benzene rings bonds withτ QNS ∼ 5 ps. On the basis of various experimental data it is shown that the CrI phase is a plastic-crystalline phase for which the molecule and its segments perform fast stochastic unaxial reorientations. This is the first case where the existence of such a phase in liquid-crystalline materials has been experimentally confirmed. (author)

  2. Characteristics of hydride precipitation and reorientation in spent-fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.; Strain, R. V.; Billone, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    The morphology, number density, orientation, distribution, and crystallographic aspects of Zr hydrides in Zircaloy fuel cladding play important roles in fuel performance during all phases before and after discharge from the reactor, i.e., during normal operation, transient and accident situations in the reactor, temporary storage in a dry cask, and permanent storage in a waste repository. In the past, partly because of experimental difficulties, hydriding behavior in irradiated fuel cladding has been investigated mostly by optical microscopy (OM). In the present study, fundamental metallurgical and crystallographic characteristics of hydride precipitation and reorientation were investigated on the microscopic level by combined techniques of OM and transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) of spent-fuel claddings discharged from several boiling and pressurized water reactors (BWRs and PWRs). Defueled sections of standard and Zr-lined Zircaloy-2 fuel claddings, irradiated to fluences of ∼3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 and ∼9.2 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV), respectively, were obtained from spent fuel rods discharged from two BWRs. Sections of standard and low-tin Zircaloy-4 claddings, irradiated to fluences of ∼4.4 x 10 21 n cm -2 , ∼5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 , and ∼9.6 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) in three PWRs, were also obtained. Microstructural characteristics of hydrides were analyzed in as-irradiated condition and after gas-pressurization-burst or expanding-mandrel tests at 292-325 C in Ar for some of the spent-fuel claddings. Analyses were also conducted of hydride habit plane, morphology, and reorientation characteristics on unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding that contained dense radial hydrides. Reoriented hydrides in the slowly cooled unirradiated cladding were produced by expanding-mandrel loading

  3. A reorientation strategy for reducing delirium in the critically ill. Results of an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, R; Corona, A; Praga, F; Minari, C; Giannotti, C; Castelli, A; Raimondi, F

    2012-09-01

    A wide variability in the approach towards delirium prevention and treatment in the critically ill results from the dearth of prospective randomised studies. We launched a two-stage prospective observational study to assess delirium epidemiology, risk factors and impact on patient outcome, by enrolling all patients admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over a year. The first step - from January to June 2008 was the observational phase, whereas the second one from July to December 2008 was interventional. All the patients admitted to our ICU were recruited but those with pre-existing cognitive disorders, dementia, psychosis and disability after stroke were excluded from the data analysis. Delirium assessment was performed according with Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU twice per day after sedation interruption. During phase 2, patients underwent both a re-orientation strategy and environmental, acoustic and visual stimulation. We admitted a total of respectively 170 (I-ph) and 144 patients (II-ph). The delirium occurrence was significantly lower in (II-ph) 22% vs. 35% in (I-ph) (P=0.020). A Cox's Proportional Hazard model found the applied reorientation strategy as the strongest protective predictors of delirium: (HR 0.504, 95% C.I. 0.313-0.890, P=0.034), whereas age (HR 1.034, 95% CI: 1.013-1.056, P=0.001) and sedation with midazolam plus opiate (HR 2.145, 95% CI: 2.247-4.032, P=0.018) were negative predictors. A timely reorientation strategy seems to be correlated with significantly lower occurrence of delirium.

  4. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  5. Macroscopic Magnetization Control by Symmetry Breaking of Photoinduced Spin Reorientation with Intense Terahertz Magnetic Near Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Makoto; Karube, Shutaro; Oto, Kenichi; Otani, YoshiChika; Suemoto, Tohru

    2018-03-01

    We exploit an intense terahertz magnetic near field combined with femtosecond laser excitation to break the symmetry of photoinduced spin reorientation paths in ErFeO3 . We succeed in aligning macroscopic magnetization reaching up to 80% of total magnetization in the sample to selectable orientations by adjusting the time delay between terahertz and optical pump pulses. The spin dynamics are well reproduced by equations of motion, including time-dependent magnetic potential. We show that the direction of the generated magnetization is determined by the transient direction of spin tilting and the magnetic field at the moment of photoexcitation.

  6. Large isosymmetric reorientation of oxygen octahedra rotation axes in epitaxially strained perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinelli, James M; Coh, Sinisa

    2011-06-10

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we discover an anomalously large biaxial strain-induced octahedral rotation axis reorientation in orthorhombic perovskites with tendency towards rhombohedral symmetry. The transition between crystallographically equivalent (isosymmetric) structures with different octahedral rotation magnitudes originates from strong strain-octahedral rotation coupling available to perovskites and the energetic hierarchy among competing octahedral tilt patterns. By elucidating these criteria, we suggest many functional perovskites would exhibit the transition in thin film form, thus offering a new landscape in which to tailor highly anisotropic electronic responses.

  7. Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong

    2015-11-20

    We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.

  8. QNS study of uniaxial molecular reorientation in solid t-cyanobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Nawrocik, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS) investigation on a t-cyanobutane, (CH 3 ) 3 CCN, sample jn three solid phases are presented. It was found there is a fast uniaxial reorientation of the t-cyanobutane molecules in phase 1, characterized by correlation times of the order of several picoseconds and an activation barrier ΔE= (0.5 +- 0.2) kcal/mole. The lack of quasielastic broadening in the neutron spectra of lower-temperature phases implies that molecular rotation then is much slower or completely hindered. (author)

  9. Spin reorientation and structural relaxation of atomic layers: Pushing the limits of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The correlation between an ad-layer-induced spin reorientation transition (SRT) and the ad-layer-induced structural relaxation is investigated by combined in situ surface x-ray diffraction and magneto-optical Kerr-effect experiments on Ni/Fe/Ni(111) layers on W(110). The Fe-induced SRT from in-plane to out-of-plane, and the SRT back to in-plane upon subsequent coverage by Ni, are each accompanied by a small lattice relaxation of at most 0.002 Angstrom. Such a small strain variation excludes a magnetoelasticity driven SRT, and we suggest the interface anisotropy as a possible driving force

  10. Effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects on relaxation of crystal elastic coefficients of high order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects in uniform fields of elastic stresses on the relaxation of the elastic coefficients of a crystal was investigated in the nonlinear elasticity theory approximation. In calculating the interaction of point defects with elastic-stress fields was taken into consideration. The expression for the relaxations of the elasticity coefficients are obtained in an analytical form. The relaxation of the second-order elasticity coefficients is due to the dimentional interaction of a point defect with an applied-stress field, whereas the relaxation of the higher-order elasticity coefficients is determined both by dimentional and module effects

  11. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    OpenAIRE

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  12. Reorientation-effect measurement of the first 2+ state in 12C: Confirmation of oblate deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar Raju

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A Coulomb-excitation reorientation-effect measurement using the TIGRESS γ−ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF/ISAC II facility has permitted the determination of the 〈21+‖E2ˆ‖21+〉 diagonal matrix element in 12C from particle−γ coincidence data and state-of-the-art no-core shell model calculations of the nuclear polarizability. The nuclear polarizability for the ground and first-excited (21+ states in 12C have been calculated using chiral NN N4LO500 and NN+3NF350 interactions, which show convergence and agreement with photo-absorption cross-section data. Predictions show a change in the nuclear polarizability with a substantial increase between the ground state and first excited 21+ state at 4.439 MeV. The polarizability of the 21+ state is introduced into the current and previous Coulomb-excitation reorientation-effect analyses of 12C. Spectroscopic quadrupole moments of QS(21+=+0.053(44 eb and QS(21+=+0.08(3 eb are determined, respectively, yielding a weighted average of QS(21+=+0.071(25 eb, in agreement with recent ab initio calculations. The present measurement confirms that the 21+ state of 12C is oblate and emphasizes the important role played by the nuclear polarizability in Coulomb-excitation studies of light nuclei.

  13. Intragranular twinning, detwinning, and twinning-like lattice reorientation in magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Li, Nan; Parish, Chad M.; Liu, Wenjun; Liaw, Peter K.; An, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Deformation twinning plays a critical role on improving metals or alloys ductility, especially for hexagonal close-packed materials with low symmetry crystal structure. A rolled Mg alloy was selected as a model system to investigate the extension twinning behaviors and characteristics of parent-twin interactions by nondestructive in situ 3D synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction. Besides twinning-detwinning process, the “twinning-like” lattice reorientation process was captured within an individual grain inside a bulk material during the strain reversal. The distributions of parent, twin, and reorientated grains and sub-micron level strain variation across the twin boundary are revealed. A theoretical calculation of the lattice strain confirms that the internal strain distribution in parent and twinned grains correlates with the experimental setup, grain orientation of parent, twin, and surrounding grains, as well as the strain path changes. The study suggests a novel deformation mechanism within the hexagonal close-packed structure that cannot be determined from surface-based characterization methods.

  14. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Reorientation-effect measurement of the first 2+ state in 12C: Confirmation of oblate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Raju, M.; Orce, J. N.; Navrátil, P.; Ball, G. C.; Drake, T. E.; Triambak, S.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Abrahams, K. J.; Akakpo, E. H.; Al Falou, H.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D. S.; Djongolov, M. K.; Erasmus, N.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Jenkins, D. G.; Kshetri, R.; Leach, K. G.; Masango, S.; Mavela, D. L.; Mehl, C. V.; Mokgolobotho, M. J.; Ngwetsheni, C.; O'Neill, G. G.; Rand, E. T.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E. R.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.

    2018-02-01

    A Coulomb-excitation reorientation-effect measurement using the TIGRESS γ-ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF/ISAC II facility has permitted the determination of the 〈 21+ ‖ E 2 ˆ ‖21+ 〉 diagonal matrix element in 12C from particle-γ coincidence data and state-of-the-art no-core shell model calculations of the nuclear polarizability. The nuclear polarizability for the ground and first-excited (21+) states in 12C have been calculated using chiral NN N4LO500 and NN+3NF350 interactions, which show convergence and agreement with photo-absorption cross-section data. Predictions show a change in the nuclear polarizability with a substantial increase between the ground state and first excited 21+ state at 4.439 MeV. The polarizability of the 21+ state is introduced into the current and previous Coulomb-excitation reorientation-effect analyses of 12C. Spectroscopic quadrupole moments of QS (21+) = + 0.053 (44) eb and QS (21+) = + 0.08 (3) eb are determined, respectively, yielding a weighted average of QS (21+) = + 0.071 (25) eb, in agreement with recent ab initio calculations. The present measurement confirms that the 21+ state of 12C is oblate and emphasizes the important role played by the nuclear polarizability in Coulomb-excitation studies of light nuclei.

  16. Spin reorientation transition and hard magnetic properties of MnBi intermetallic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Wu, X.; Ly, V.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of mechanical grinding (MG) on the crystallite size, the spin reorientation transition temperature (TSR) and the hard magnetic properties in melt-spun low temperature phase (LTP) MnBi have been investigated in order to understand the origin of magnetic hardening induced by MG. The room-temperature coercive field (μ0Hcj) is enhanced dramatically from 0.08 T before MG to 1.5 T after MG for 43.2 ks while TSR is concurrently suppressed from 110 to 38 K. The coercive force exhibits positive temperature dependence approximately 50-60 K above TSR and the lowered TSR after MG could result in magnetic hardening at room temperature. The room-temperature coercive force of LTP-MnBi is highly dependent on the crystallite size (D) and is found to be described phenomenologically by the following relationship: μ0Hcj = μ0Ha(δ/D)n, where μ0Ha is ˜ 4 T, the Bloch wall width δ is 7 nm, and the exponent n is approximately 0.7. Our results suggest that the grain refinement is the primary origin of the hardening effect induced by MG with a possible minor hardening effect due to the suppression of the spin reorientation transition temperature.

  17. The influence of stress state on the reorientation of hydrides in a zirconium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N.; Koss, Donald A.; Motta, Arthur T.

    2016-01-01

    Hydride reorientation can occur in spent nuclear fuel cladding when subjected to a tensile hoop stress above a threshold value during cooling. Because in these circumstances the cladding is under a multiaxial stress state, the effect of stress biaxiality on the threshold stress for hydride reorientation is investigated using hydrided CWSR Zircaloy-4 sheet specimens containing ∼180 wt ppm of hydrogen and subjected to a two-cycle thermo-mechanical treatment. The study is based on especially designed specimens within which the stress biaxiality ratios range from uniaxial (σ_2/σ_1 = 0) to “near-equibiaxial” tension (σ_2/σ_1 = 0.8). The threshold stress is determined by mapping finite element calculations of the principal stresses and of the stress biaxiality ratio onto the hydride microstructure obtained after the thermo-mechanical treatment. The results show that the threshold stress (maximum principal stress) decreases from 155 to 75 MPa as the stress biaxiality increases from uniaxial to “near-equibiaxial” tension.

  18. Successes of trade reorientation and expansion in post-communist transition: an enterprise-level approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winiecki

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an approach to the westward reorientation of foreign trade by the post-communist economies of East-Central Europe at the micro--i.e. enterprise--level. Having presented the dynamics of reorientation and its theoretical/historical underpinnings, the writer then goes on to underline the surprisingly large number of microeconomic determinants behind the strong westbound export surge. The article starts with the most often cited factor, namely the distressed sale argument, and then shifts the focus to determinants that have received far less attention: an unusual extension of the "distressed sale" argument and another, more important one, namely the legacy of the oversized industrial sector and resultant availability of firms ready (or forced to test their mettle on the world markets. The following section extends the list of determinants to foreign direct investment and the growing export activity of domestic de novo firms. The linkages between the determinants are also pointed out. The final section sums up the observations.

  19. Target berthing and base reorientation of free-floating space robotic system after capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenfu; Li, Cheng; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng; Liu, Yu; Qiang, Wenyi

    2009-01-01

    Space robots are playing an increasingly important role in on-orbital servicing, including repairing, refueling, or de-orbiting the satellite. The target must be captured and berthed before the servicing task starts. However, the attitude of the base may lean much and needs re-orientating after capturing. In this paper, a method is proposed to berth the target, and re-orientate the base at the same time, using manipulator motion only. Firstly, the system state is formed of the attitude quaternion and joint variables, and the joint paths are parameterized by sinusoidal functions. Then, the trajectory planning is transformed to an optimization problem. The cost function, defined according to the accuracy requirements of system variables, is the function of the parameters to be determined. Finally, we solve the parameters using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Two typical cases of the spacecraft with a 6-DOF manipulator are dynamically simulated, one is that the variation of base attitude is limited; the other is that both the base attitude and the joint rates are constrained. The simulation results verify the presented method.

  20. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  1. Hard-magnetic surface layer effect on the erbium orthoferrite plate domain structure in the region of gradual spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, A.I.; Vojtsenya, S.V.; Yur'ev, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Rearrangement of domain structures in the erbium orthoferrite plates with hard-magnetic surface layer is investigated during gradual spin reorientation. This phenomenon is explained by means of the proposed physical models. It is shown that in these plates an approach to the temperature interval of spin reorientation causes a decrease in the density of energy of domain walls separating the internal and surface domains. This decrease results in transition to the domain structure which are close to equilibrium ones inside the crystal. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  2. Model for field-induced reorientation strain in magnetic shape memory alloy with tensile and compressive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yuping; Dui Guansuo

    2008-01-01

    A model based on the micromechanical and the thermodynamic theory is presented for field-induced martensite reorientation in magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) single crystals. The influence of variants morphology and the material property to constitutive behavior is considered. The nonlinear and hysteretic strain and magnetization response of MSMA are investigated for two main loading cases, namely the magnetic field-induced reorientation of variants under constant compressive stress and tensile stress. The predicted results have shown that increasing tensile loading reduces the required field for actuation, while increasing compressive loads result in the required magnetic field growing considerably. It is helpful to design the intelligent composite with MSMA fibers

  3. Superconducting spin valves controlled by spiral re-orientation in B20-family magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, N. G.; Safonchik, M.; Champel, T.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.; Lähderanta, E.; Eschrig, M.; Lacroix, C.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a superconducting spin-triplet valve, which consists of a superconductor and an itinerant magnetic material, with the magnet showing an intrinsic non-collinear order characterized by a wave vector that may be aligned in a few equivalent preferred directions under the control of a weak external magnetic field. Re-orienting the spiral direction allows one to controllably modify long-range spin-triplet superconducting correlations, leading to spin-valve switching behavior. Our results indicate that the spin-valve effect may be noticeable. This bilayer may be used as a magnetic memory element for cryogenic nanoelectronics. It has the following advantages in comparison to superconducting spin valves proposed previously: (i) it contains only one magnetic layer, which may be more easily fabricated and controlled; (ii) its ground states are separated by a potential barrier, which solves the "half-select" problem of the addressed switch of memory elements.

  4. Dynamic selective switching in antiferromagnetically-coupled bilayers close to the spin reorientation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Pacheco, A.; Mansell, R.; Petit, D.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P.; Ummelen, F. C.; Swagten, H. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a bilayer synthetic antiferromagnet where the order of layer reversal can be selected by varying the sweep rate of the applied magnetic field. The system is formed by two ultra-thin ferromagnetic layers with different proximities to the spin reorientation transition, coupled antiferromagnetically using Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions. The different dynamic magnetic reversal behavior of both layers produces a crossover in their switching fields for field rates in the kOe/s range. This effect is due to the different effective anisotropy of both layers, added to an appropriate asymmetric antiferromagnetic coupling between them. Field-rate controlled selective switching of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy layers as shown here can be exploited in sensing and memory applications.

  5. Renal SPECT with 99m Tc-Dmsa. Reorientation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.L.; Perera, A.; Fraxedas, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the study of different renal affections with repercussion in the parenchyma is widely used the plane gammagraphy wit 99m Tc-Dmsa though not in the same way the SPECT technique. In general, the different inclination and orientation of the longitudinal axes of both kidneys in the patients entail aid to high variability in the detection of the different types of defects which leads to a possible mistaken diagnostic. With a view to this,it was developed in our centre a methodology for the automated reorientation of the different renal volumes obtained by SPECT and its posterior processing, obtaining as result a software with a high grade of independence from the operator. In this way, it is obtained a procedure standardization and so it let us with major rigor to realize evolutive studies of the patients. (Author)

  6. Subsidies to energy in the world: their extent, their efficiency and their necessary reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-10-01

    This report aims at analyzing the extent of subsidies to energy in the world, at assessing theoretical and practical arguments against different forms of subsidy, and at synthesizing reflections on reforms of subsidies to energy, mainly in developing countries. In the first part, the author recalls the theoretical and practical backgrounds of subsidies to energy, indicates the different forms of support to energy production and consumption, and discusses the existing assessments in the world and in some regions while specifying subsidies to fuels in the transport sector. In a second part, he addresses theoretical and practical critics of subsidies (notably in terms of environmental and economical inefficiency), assessments of economical and environmental benefits of their withdrawal, and ways of reorienting subsidies for fossil fuels in developing countries

  7. Magnetic ordering and spin-reorientation transitions in TbCo3B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubman, Moshe; Caspi, El'ad N.; Ettedgui, Hanania; Keller, Lukas; Melamud, Mordechai; Shaked, Hagai

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic structure of the compound TbCo 3 B 2 has been studied in the temperature range 1.5 K≤T≤300 K by means of neutron powder diffraction, magnetization, magnetic ac susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements. The compound is of hexagonal symmetry and is paramagnetic at 300 K, undergoes a magnetic Co-Co ordering transition at ∼170 K, and a second magnetic Tb-Tb ordering transition at ∼30 K. The latter induces a spin-reorientation transition, in which the magnetic axis rotates from the c axis toward the basal plane. Below this transition a symmetry decrease (γ magnetostriction) sets in, leading to an orthorhombic distortion of the crystal lattice. The crystal and magnetic structures and interactions and their evolution with temperature are discussed using a microscopic physical model

  8. Power-controlled transition from standard to negative refraction in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Armando; Alberucci, Alessandro; Kravets, Nina; Buchnev, Oleksandr; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-25

    Refraction at a dielectric interface can take an anomalous character in anisotropic crystals, when light is negatively refracted with incident and refracted beams emerging on the same side of the interface normal. In soft matter subject to reorientation, such as nematic liquid crystals, the nonlinear interaction with light allows tuning of the optical properties. We demonstrate that in such material a beam of light can experience either positive or negative refraction depending on input power, as it can alter the spatial distribution of the optic axis and, in turn, the direction of the energy flow when traveling across an interface. Moreover, the nonlinear optical response yields beam self-focusing and spatial localization into a self-confined solitary wave through the formation of a graded-index waveguide, linking the refractive transition to power-driven readdressing of copolarized guided-wave signals, with a number of output ports not limited by diffraction.

  9. Solid triphenylmethanol: A molecular material that undergoes multiple internal reorientational processes on different timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchin, Simon J.; Xu Mingcan; Serrano-Gonzalez, Heliodoro; Coates, Laura J.; Zaka Ahmed, S.; Glidewell, Christopher; Harris, Kenneth D.M.

    2006-01-01

    In solid triphenylmethanol, the molecules are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tetramers, and it is already well established that the hydrogen bonding in this material undergoes a dynamic switching process between different hydrogen bonding arrangements. In addition to this motion, we show here, from solid-state 2 H NMR studies of the deuterated material (C 6 D 5 ) 3 COH, that each phenyl ring in this material undergoes a 180 deg.-jump reorientation about the C 6 D 5 -C(OH) bond, with an activation energy of ca. 50 kJ mol -1 . The timescale for the phenyl ring dynamics is several orders of magnitude longer than the timescale for the hydrogen bond dynamics in this material, and is uncorrelated with the dynamics of the hydrogen bonding arrangement

  10. Nuclear reorientation in static and radio-frequency electro-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbers, D.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reorientation by external electromagnetic fields is treated using Fano's irreducible tensor formulation of the problem. Although the main purpose of this paper is the description of the effects of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on an ensemble of oriented nuclei in the presence of a crystal electric field gradient (efg), the results are applicable to all types of nuclear or atomic orientation or angular correlation work. The theory is applied to a number of exemplary cases: magnetic field dependence of nuclear orientation in the presence of quadrupole interactions; sign determination in electric quadrupole coupling; line shapes of nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) signals; quadrupole splitting and multiquantum transitions in NMR with oriented nuclei. (orig./WBU) [de

  11. Early mammalian development under conditions of reorientation relative to the gravity vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A clinostat was used to assess the effects of reorientation relative to the gravity vector on mammalian germ cells cultured in vitro. Previous studies using this system revealed an inhibition of meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. In the present study, the effects of clinostat rotation on in vitro fertilization were examined. The frequency of fertilization of experimental cultures did not vary from that of the clinostat vertical control cultures at either of the rotation rates examined. Importantly, no abnormalities of fertilization, such as parthenogenetic activation, fragmentation, or polyspermy were seen. It is concluded that the initial events of fertilization were unaffected by this treatment, although the developmental potential of these embryos remains to be assessed.

  12. Spacecraft reorientation control in presence of attitude constraint considering input saturation and stochastic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Ye, Dong; Sun, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shijie

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel feedback control law for spacecraft to deal with attitude constraint, input saturation, and stochastic disturbance during the attitude reorientation maneuver process. Applying the parameter selection method to improving the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function, the universality of the potential-function-based algorithm is enhanced. Moreover, utilizing the auxiliary system driven by the difference between saturated torque and command torque, a backstepping control law, which satisfies the input saturation constraint and guarantees the spacecraft stability, is presented. Unlike some methods that passively rely on the inherent characteristic of the existing controller to stabilize the adverse effects of external stochastic disturbance, this paper puts forward a nonlinear disturbance observer to compensate the disturbance in real-time, which achieves a better performance of robustness. The simulation results validate the effectiveness, reliability, and universality of the proposed control law.

  13. Observation of second spin reorientation transition within ultrathin region in Fe films on Ag(001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khim, T.-Y.; Shin, M.; Lee, H.; Park, B.-G.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-01-01

    We acquired direct measurements for in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane magnetic moments of Fe films using an x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique with increase of the Fe thickness (up to 40 Å) on the Ag(001) surface. Epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) films were grown in situ with the thickness varying from 2 Å to 40 Å, and the magnetic anisotropy was carefully investigated as a function of the film thickness. We found re-entrance of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the Fe film in ultrathin region. The results manifest that the epitaxial Fe/Ag(001) film undergoes two distinct spin reorientation transitions from in-plane to out-of-plane at the film thickness t ≈ 9 Å and back to in-plane at t ≈ 18 Å as t increases.

  14. A geometrical approach to determine reorientation start and continuation conditions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys considering the effects of loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, M; Kadkhodaei, M

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) and magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) are metallic alloys that can undergo inelastic responses when exposed to magnetic fields. Several constitutive models have been proposed so far to model the behaviors of FSMAs. In this work, the effects of loading history on reorientation start conditions are considered, and it is shown that reorientation start conditions are not fixed values; rather, they change with respect to the amount of loading history. To consider the effects of loading history on reorientation start conditions, an available phase diagram in stress-field space is generalized to reorientation surfaces in stress-field-loading history space. Correspondingly, kinetic laws are derived in a continuum framework to be used with the reorientation surfaces to determine the amount of the martensitic variant 2 volume fraction. Based on the geometry of the reorientation surfaces, conditions that must be satisfied to ensure the continuation of reorientations are obtained. Available experimental findings validate the proposed model and the reorientation surfaces. (paper)

  15. Young Children's Use of Features to Reorient Is More than Just Associative: Further Evidence against a Modular View of Spatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Shallcross, Wendy L.; Twyman, Alexandra D.

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of a geometric module have argued that instances of young children's use of features as well as geometry to reorient can be explained by a two-stage process. In this model, only the first stage is a true reorientation, accomplished by using geometric information alone; features are considered in a second stage using association (Lee,…

  16. Studying Dynamic Myofiber Aggregate Reorientation in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Using In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Deuster, Constantin; Sammut, Eva; Asner, Liya; Nordsletten, David; Lamata, Pablo; Stoeck, Christian T; Kozerke, Sebastian; Razavi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and myocyte aggregate orientations were compared between both cohorts. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction, torsion, and strain. Computational modeling was used to study the impact of cardiac shape on fiber reorientation and how fiber orientations affect strain. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, a more longitudinal orientation of diastolic myofiber aggregates was measured compared with controls. Although a significant steepening of helix angles (HAs) during contraction was found in the controls, consistent change in HAs during contraction was absent in patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac torsion, and strain were significantly lower in the patients compared with controls. Computational modeling revealed that the dilated heart results in reduced HA changes compared with a normal heart. Reduced torsion was found to be exacerbated by steeper HAs. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed reduced reorientation of myofiber aggregates during cardiac contraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to controls. Left ventricular remodeling seems to be an important factor in the changes to myocyte orientation. Steeper HAs are coupled with a worsening in strain and torsion. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the structural alterations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. A role of right middle frontal gyrus in reorienting of attention: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japee, Shruti; Holiday, Kelsey; Satyshur, Maureen D; Mukai, Ikuko; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2015-01-01

    The right middle fontal gyrus (MFG) has been proposed to be a site of convergence of the dorsal and ventral attention networks, by serving as a circuit-breaker to interrupt ongoing endogenous attentional processes in the dorsal network and reorient attention to an exogenous stimulus. Here, we probed the contribution of the right MFG to both endogenous and exogenous attention by comparing performance on an orientation discrimination task of a patient with a right MFG resection and a group of healthy controls. On endogenously cued trials, participants were shown a central cue that predicted with 90% accuracy the location of a subsequent peri-threshold Gabor patch stimulus. On exogenously cued trials, a cue appeared briefly at one of two peripheral locations, followed by a variable inter-stimulus interval (ISI; range 0-700 ms) and a Gabor patch in the same or opposite location as the cue. Behavioral data showed that for endogenous, and short ISI exogenous trials, valid cues facilitated responses compared to invalid cues, for both the patient and controls. However, at long ISIs, the patient exhibited difficulty in reverting to top-down attentional control, once the facilitatory effect of the exogenous cue had dissipated. When explicitly cued during long ISIs to attend to both stimulus locations, the patient was able to engage successfully in top-down control. This result indicates that the right MFG may play an important role in reorienting attention from exogenous to endogenous attentional control. Resting state fMRI data revealed that the right superior parietal lobule and right orbitofrontal cortex, showed significantly higher correlations with a left MFG seed region (a region tightly coupled with the right MFG in controls) in the patient relative to controls. We hypothesize that this paradoxical increase in cortical coupling represents a compensatory mechanism in the patient to offset the loss of function of the resected tissue in right prefrontal cortex.

  18. Stress-induced martensite variant reorientation in magnetic shape memory Ni–Mn–Ga single crystal studied by neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Šittner, Petr; Lukáš, Petr; Hannula, S.-P.; Heczko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2008), 035014/1-035014/4 ISSN 0964-1726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : NiMnGa single crystal * neutron diffraction * stress induced martensite reorientation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2008

  19. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Jeong, Ho Gul; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions.

  20. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  1. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  2. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  3. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  4. The quantified relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaher, J.; Nyholm, S.R.; Earp, B.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of self-tracking and personal surveillance has given rise to the Quantified Self movement. Members of this movement seek to enhance their personal well-being, productivity, and self-actualization through the tracking and gamification of personal data. The technologies that make this

  5. Quantifying IT estimation risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed for quantifying the impact of factors that influence the quality of the estimation of costs for IT-enabled business projects. We call these factors risk drivers as they influence the risk of the misestimation of project costs. The method can effortlessly be

  6. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  7. Investigation of hydraulic fracture re-orientation effects in tight gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, B.; Wegner, J.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    In tight gas formations where the low matrix permeability prevents successful and economic production rates, hydraulic fracturing is required to produce a well at economic rates. The initial fracture opens in the direction of minimum stress and propagates into the direction of maximum stress. As production from the well and its initial fracture declines, re-fracturing treatments are required to accelerate recovery. The orientation of the following hydraulic fracture depends on the actual stress-state of the formation in the vicinity of the wellbore. Previous investigations by Elbel and Mack (1993) demonstrated that the stress alters during depletion and a stress reversal region appears. This behavior causes a different fracture orientation of the re-fracturing operation. For the investigation of re-fracture orientation a two-dimensional reservoir model has been designed using COMSOL Multiphysics. The model represents a fractured vertical well in a tight gas reservoir of infinite thickness. A time dependent study was set up to simulate the reservoir depletion by the production from the fractured well. The theory of poroelasticity was used to couple the fluid flow and geo-mechanical behavior. The stress state is initially defined as uniform and the attention is concentrated to the alteration of stress due to the lowered pore pressure. Different cases with anisotropic and heterogeneous permeability are set up to determine its significance. The simulation shows that an elliptical shaped drainage area appears around the fracture. The poroelastic behavior effects that the stress re-orientates and a stress reversal region originates, if the difference between minimum and maximum horizontal stresses is small. The consideration of time indicates that the dimension of the region initially extends fast until it reaches its maximum. Subsequently, the stress reversal region's extent shrinks slowly until it finally disappears. The reservoir characteristics, e.g. the

  8. Characteristics of hydride precipitation and reorientation in spent-fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Daum, R.S.; Hiller, J.M.; Billone, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine Zircaloy fuel cladding, either discharged from several PWRs and a BWR after irradiation to fluence levels of 3.3 to 8.6 X 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) or hydrogen-charged and heat-treated under stress to produce radial hydrides; the goal was to determine the microstructural and crystallographic characteristics of hydride precipitation. Morphologies, distributions, and habit planes of various types of hydrides were determined by stereo-TEM. In addition to the normal macroscopic hydrides commonly observed by optical microscopy, small 'microscopic' hydrides are present in spent-fuel cladding in number densities at least a few orders of magnitude greater than that of macroscopic hydrides. The microscopic hydrides, observed to be stable at least up to 333 deg C, precipitate in association with -type dislocations. While the habit plane of macroscopic tangential hydrides in the spent-fuel cladding is essentially the same as that of unirradiated unstressed Zircaloys, i.e., the [107] Zr plane, the habit plane of tangential hydrides that precipitate under high tangential stress is the [104] Zr plane. The habit plane of radial hydrides that precipitate under tangential stress is the [011] Zr pyramidal plane, a naturally preferred plane for a cladding that has 30 basal-pole texture. Effects of texture on the habit plane and the threshold stress for hydride reorientation are also discussed. (authors)

  9. Reorientation-effect measurement of the matrix element in 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orce, J. N.; Drake, T. E.; Djongolov, M. K.; Navrátil, P.; Triambak, S.; Ball, G. C.; Al Falou, H.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D. S.; Finlay, P.; Forssén, C.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hayes, A. B.; Kshetri, R.; Lassen, J.; Leach, K. G.; Li, R.; Meissner, J.; Pearson, C. J.; Rand, E. T.; Sarazin, F.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Stoyer, M. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E. R.; Teigelhoefer, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wu, C. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The highly-efficient and segmented TIGRESS γ-ray spectrometer at TRIUMF has been used to perform a reorientation-effect Coulomb-excitation study of the 21+ state at 3.368 MeV in 10Be. This is the first Coulomb-excitation measurement that enables one to obtain information on diagonal matrix elements for such a high-lying first excited state from γ-ray data. With the availability of accurate lifetime data, a value of -0.110±0.087 eb is determined for the diagonal matrix element, which assuming the rotor model, leads to a negative spectroscopic quadrupole moment of QS(21+)=-0.083±0.066 eb. This result is in agreement with both no-core shell-model calculations performed in this work with the CD-Bonn 2000 two-nucleon potential and large shell-model spaces, and Green's function Monte Carlo predictions with two- plus three-nucleon potentials.

  10. Embodiment and self in reorientation to everyday life following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Marianne; Normann, Britt

    2015-03-01

    People with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) are often young and need long-term follow-up as many suffer complex motor, sensory, perceptual and cognitive impairments. This paper aims to introduce phenomenological notions of embodiment and self as a framework to help understand how people with sTBI experience reorientation to everyday life, and to inform clinical practice in neurological physiotherapy. The impairments caused by the sTBI may lead to a sense of alienation of one's own body and changes in operative intentionality and in turn disrupt the reorganization of self, identity, everyday life and integration/co-construction of meaning with others. Applying a first-person conception of the body may extend insights into the importance of an adapted and individualized approach to strengthen the sensory, perceptual and motor body functions, which underpin the pre-reflective and reflective aspects of the self. It seems important to integrate these aspects, while also paying attention to optimizing co-construction of meaning for the person with sTBI in the treatment context. This requires understanding the patient as an experiencing and expressive body, a lived body (body-as-subject) and not just the body-as-object as is favored in more traditional frameworks of physiotherapy.

  11. Pressure-induced spin reorientation transition in layered ferromagnetic insulator Cr2Ge2Te6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhisheng; Lohmann, Mark; Ali, Zulfikhar A.; Tang, Chi; Li, Junxue; Xing, Wenyu; Zhong, Jiangnan; Jia, Shuang; Han, Wei; Coh, Sinisa; Beyermann, Ward; Shi, Jing

    2018-05-01

    The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of Cr2Ge2Te6 (CGT), a layered ferromagnetic insulator, is investigated under an applied hydrostatic pressure up to 2 GPa. The easy-axis direction of the magnetization is inferred from the AMR saturation feature in the presence and absence of an applied pressure. At zero applied pressure, the easy axis is along the c direction or perpendicular to the layer. Upon application of a hydrostatic pressure > 1 GPa, the uniaxial anisotropy switches to easy-plane anisotropy which drives the equilibrium magnetization from the c axis to the a b plane at zero magnetic field, which amounts to a giant magnetic anisotropy energy change (> 100%). As the temperature is increased across the Curie temperature, the characteristic AMR effect gradually decreases and disappears. Our first-principles calculations confirm the giant magnetic anisotropy energy change with moderate pressure and assign its origin to the increased off-site spin-orbit interaction of Te atoms due to a shorter Cr-Te distance. Such a pressure-induced spin reorientation transition is very rare in three-dimensional ferromagnets, but it may be common to other layered ferromagnets with similar crystal structures to CGT, and therefore offers a unique way to control magnetic anisotropy.

  12. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  14. Anisotropic molecular reorientations of quinuclidine in its plastic solid phase: 1H and 14N NMR relaxation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brot, C.; Virlet, J.

    1979-01-01

    14 N and 1 H NMR relaxation times have been measured in quinuclidine in its plastic phase. These measurements rule out isotropic motion. Correlation times for several anisotropic reorientational models are calculated from these NMR data. The best agreement with the values calculated from neutron scattering experiments (preceding paper) is obtained for a model where the molecules reorient by +-90 0 jumps about the crystallographic C 4 axes with a residence time of (22.2+-2).10 -12 s, and by +-120 0 jumps about the molecular C 3 axes with a residence of (5.25+-2.8).10 -12 s, at room temperature. The activation enthalpy is 15.3 kJ.mol. -1 for the +-90 0 jumps, and higher for the +-120 0 jumps. Translational correlation times have also been measured at high temperature, below the melting point

  15. A 3D finite-strain-based constitutive model for shape memory alloys accounting for thermomechanical coupling and martensite reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Moumni, Ziad; Zhang, Weihong; Xu, Yingjie; Zaki, Wael

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a finite-strain constitutive model for shape memory alloys (SMAs) that accounts for thermomechanical coupling and martensite reorientation. The finite-strain formulation is based on a two-tier, multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into thermal, elastic, and inelastic parts, where the inelastic deformation is further split into phase transformation and martensite reorientation components. A time-discrete formulation of the constitutive equations is proposed and a numerical integration algorithm is presented featuring proper symmetrization of the tensor variables and explicit formulation of the material and spatial tangent operators involved. The algorithm is used for finite element analysis of SMA components subjected to various loading conditions, including uniaxial, non-proportional, isothermal and adiabatic loading cases. The analysis is carried out using the FEA software Abaqus by means of a user-defined material subroutine, which is then utilized to simulate a SMA archwire undergoing large strains and rotations.

  16. Spin-reorientation and anisotropy of the magnetization in single crystalline Ho2Co15Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of a Ho 2 Co 15 Si 2 single crystal. The easy magnetization direction is parallel to the c-axis in an extended temperature region below the Curie temperature. A spin-reorientation transition takes place at 323 K, leading to an easy magnetization direction perpendicular to the c-axis below this temperature. We have compared the present results with those obtained previously on various R 2 Co 17 single crystals and found that Si substitution not only leads to a sign reversal in the Co sublattice anisotropy but also leads to a substantial anisotropy of the saturation magnetization. Sign and magnitude of the magnetization anisotropy are conserved during the spin-reorientation transition. (orig.)

  17. Signal-inducing bone cements for MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty: evaluation of contrast-agent-based polymethylmethacrylate cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bail, Hermann Josef; Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Wichlas, Florian; Sattig, Christoph; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl Mart

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate two signal-inducing bone cements for MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty. The bone cements were made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, 5 ml monomeric, 12 g polymeric) and gadoterate meglumine as a contrast agent (CA, 0-40 μl) with either saline solution (NaCl, 2-4 ml) or hydroxyapatite bone substitute (HA, 2-4 ml). The cement's signal was assessed in an open 1-Tesla MR scanner, with T1W TSE and fast interventional T1W TSE pulse sequences, and the ideal amount of each component was determined. The compressive and bending strength for different amounts of NaCl and HA were evaluated. The cement's MRI signal depended on the concentration of CA, the amount of NaCl or HA, and the pulse sequence. The signal peaks were recorded between 1 and 10 μl CA per ml NaCl or HA, and were higher in fast T1W TSE than in T1W TSE images. The NaCl-PMMA-CA cements had a greater MRI signal intensity and compressive strength; the HA-PMMA-CA cements had a superior bending strength. Concerning the MR signal and biomechanical properties, these cements would permit MRI-guided cementoplasty. Due to its higher signal and greater compressive strength, the NaCl-PMMA-CA compound appears to be superior to the HA-PMMA-CA compound. (orig.)

  18. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants at risk who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  19. Influence of the spin reorientation transition on the hysteresis characteristics of Nd-Fe-B film and bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lileev, A.S.; Parilov, A.A.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison was made of the hysteresis characteristics of hard magnetic films with those of bulk samples based on Nd 2 Fe 14 B in the temperature range between 4.2 and 293 K. In both types of specimens characteristic 'dips' appear below 135 K in the demagnetisation curves which are caused by both the spin reorientation from easy axis to easy cone and the deviation from a perfect texture of the sample

  20. Dual reorientation relaxation routes of water molecules in oxyanion’s hydration shell: A molecular geometry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wen Jun; Yang, Yi Isaac; Gao, Yi Qin, E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering and Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we examine how complex ions such as oxyanions influence the dynamic properties of water and whether differences exist between simple halide anions and oxyanions. Nitrate anion is taken as an example to investigate the hydration properties of oxyanions. Reorientation relaxation of its hydration water can occur through two different routes: water can either break its hydrogen bond with the nitrate to form one with another water or switch between two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate. The latter molecular mechanism increases the residence time of oxyanion’s hydration water and thus nitrate anion slows down the translational motion of neighbouring water. But it is also a “structure breaker” in that it accelerates the reorientation relaxation of hydration water. Such a result illustrates that differences do exist between the hydration of oxyanions and simple halide anions as a result of different molecular geometries. Furthermore, the rotation of the nitrate solute is coupled with the hydrogen bond rearrangement of its hydration water. The nitrate anion can either tilt along the axis perpendicularly to the plane or rotate in the plane. We find that the two reorientation relaxation routes of the hydration water lead to different relaxation dynamics in each of the two above movements of the nitrate solute. The current study suggests that molecular geometry could play an important role in solute hydration and dynamics.

  1. Dual reorientation relaxation routes of water molecules in oxyanion’s hydration shell: A molecular geometry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wen Jun; Yang, Yi Isaac; Gao, Yi Qin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine how complex ions such as oxyanions influence the dynamic properties of water and whether differences exist between simple halide anions and oxyanions. Nitrate anion is taken as an example to investigate the hydration properties of oxyanions. Reorientation relaxation of its hydration water can occur through two different routes: water can either break its hydrogen bond with the nitrate to form one with another water or switch between two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate. The latter molecular mechanism increases the residence time of oxyanion’s hydration water and thus nitrate anion slows down the translational motion of neighbouring water. But it is also a “structure breaker” in that it accelerates the reorientation relaxation of hydration water. Such a result illustrates that differences do exist between the hydration of oxyanions and simple halide anions as a result of different molecular geometries. Furthermore, the rotation of the nitrate solute is coupled with the hydrogen bond rearrangement of its hydration water. The nitrate anion can either tilt along the axis perpendicularly to the plane or rotate in the plane. We find that the two reorientation relaxation routes of the hydration water lead to different relaxation dynamics in each of the two above movements of the nitrate solute. The current study suggests that molecular geometry could play an important role in solute hydration and dynamics

  2. Extrinsic Curie temperature and spin reorientation changes in Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.H.; Panchanathan, V.

    1998-05-01

    The Curie temperatures and spin reorientation temperatures of a series of four melt-spun nanocomposite materials comprised of Nd 2 Fe 1 4B and varying amounts of α-Fe were measured using independent techniques. The phase constitution and grain size was assessed with synchrotron x-ray diffraction; the Curie temperatures were measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dc SQUID magnetometry in the temperature range 375 K ≤ T ≤ 800 K, whereas the spin reorientation transition temperature was determined from ac susceptibility measurements taken in the range 10 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. The Curie temperature increases with increasing excess iron content, resulting in a 18 degree enhancement over the Curie temperature of pure Nd 2 Fe 14 B for 27 wt% excess α-Fe. The spin reorientation temperatures are depressed from the single-crystal value by an average of 10 degrees. Both anomalous effects are attributed to intergranular exchange coupling present in the alloys, although the effects of uncompensated stress between the constituent phases cannot be ruled out The experimental results suggest that while the Curie temperature of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase may be extrinsically enhanced significantly beyond the bulk value, possibly extending the range of applications of this compound, the anisotropy may be simultaneously lowered, impeding the attainment of high coercivities in these alloys

  3. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  4. Reorientation Timescales and Pattern Dynamics for Titan's Dunes: Does the Tail Wag the Dog or the Dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. G.; Ewing, R. C.; Cassini Radar Science Team, T.

    2011-12-01

    Fields of bedform patterns persist across many orders of magnitude, from cm-scale sub-aqueous current ripples to km-scale aeolian dunes, and form with surprisingly little difference in expression despite a range of formative environments. Because of the remarkable similarity between and among patterns, extracting information about climate and environment from these patterns is a challenge. For example, crest orientation is not diagnostic of a particular flow regime; similar patterns form under many different flow configurations. On Titan, these challenges have played out with many attempts to reconcile dune-field patterns with modeled and expected wind regimes. We propose that thinking about the change in dune orientation, rather than the orientation itself, can provide new insights on the long-term stability of the dune-field patterns and the formative wind regime. In this work, we apply the re-orientation model presented by Werner and Kocurek [Geology, 1997] to the equatorial dune fields of Titan. We measure variations in pattern parameters (crest spacing, crest length and defect density, which is the number of defect pairs per total crest length) both within and between Titan's dune fields to describe pattern maturity and identify areas where changes in dune orientation are likely to occur (or may already be occurring). Measured defect densities are similar to Earth's largest linear dune fields, such as the Namib Sand Sea and the Simpson Desert. We use measured defect densities in the Werner and Kocurek model to estimate crestline reorientation rates. We find reorientation timescales varying from ten to a hundred thousand times the average migration timescale (time to migrate a bedform one meter, ~1 Titan year according to Tokano (Aeolian Research, 2010)). Well organized patterns have the longest reorientation time scales (~10^5 migration timescales), while the topographically or spatially isolated patches of dunes show the shortest reorientation times (~10

  5. Re-orienting crop improvement for the changing climatic conditions of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mba Chikelu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 70% increase in food production is required over the next four decades to feed an ever-increasing population. The inherent difficulties in achieving this unprecedented increase are exacerbated by the yield-depressing consequences of climate change and variations and by the pressures on food supply by other competing demographic and socioeconomic demands. With the dwindling or stagnant agricultural land and water resources, the sought-after increases will therefore be attained mainly through the enhancement of crop productivity under eco-efficient crop production systems. ‘Smart’ crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs will be pivotal to success. Plant breeding must be re-oriented in order to generate these ‘smart’ crop varieties. This paper highlights some of the scientific and technological tools that ought to be the staple of all breeding programs. We also make the case that plant breeding must be enabled by adequate policies, including those that spur innovation and investments. To arrest and reverse the worrisome trend of declining capacities for crop improvement, a new generation of plant breeders must also be trained. Equally important, winning partnerships, including public-private sector synergies, are needed for 21st century plant breeding to bear fruits. We also urge the adoption of the continuum approach to the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture as means to improved cohesion of the components of its value chain. Compellingly also, the National Agricultural Research and Extension System of developing countries require comprehensive overhauling and strengthening as crop improvement and other interventions require a sustained platform to be effective. The development of a suite of actionable policy interventions to be packaged for assisting countries in developing result-oriented breeding programs is also called for.

  6. Attentional reorienting triggers spatial asymmetries in a search task with cross-modal spatial cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Paladini

    visual attention has to be reoriented towards the left hemifield.

  7. From non-linear magnetoacoustics and spin reorientation transition to magnetoelectric micro/nano-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercelin, Nicolas; Preobrazhensky, Vladimir; BouMatar, Olivier; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Giordano, Stefano; Dusch, Yannick; Klimov, Alexey; Mathurin, Théo.; Elmazria, Omar; Hehn, Michel; Pernod, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of a strongly nonlinear spin system with a crystalline lattice through magnetoelastic coupling results in significant modifications of the acoustic properties of magnetic materials, especially in the vicinity of magnetic instabilities associated with the spin-reorientation transition (SRT). The magnetoelastic coupling transfers the critical properties of the magnetic subsystem to the elastic one, which leads to a strong decrease of the sound velocity in the vicinity of the SRT, and allows a large control over acoustic nonlinearities. The general principles of the non-linear magneto-acoustics (NMA) will be introduced and illustrated in `bulk' applications such as acoustic wave phase conjugation, multi-phonon coupling, explosive instability of magneto-elastic vibrations, etc. The concept of the SRT coupled to magnetoelastic interaction has been transferred into nanostructured magnetoelastic multilayers with uni-axial anisotropy. The high sensitivity and the non-linear properties have been demonstrated in cantilever type actuators, and phenomena such as magneto-mechanical RF demodulation have been observed. The combination of the magnetic layers with piezoelectric materials also led to stress-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) composites with high ME coefficients, thanks to the SRT. The magnetoacoustic effects of the SRT have also been studied for surface acoustic waves propagating in the magnetoelastic layers and found to be promising for highly sensitive magnetic field sensors working at room temperature. On the other hand, mechanical stress is a very efficient way to control the magnetic subsystem. The principle of a very energy efficient stress-mediated magnetoelectric writing and reading in a magnetic memory is described.

  8. Reorientation Timescales and Pattern Dynamics for Titan's Dunes: Does the Tail Wag the Dog or the Dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Hayes, A. G.; McCormick, C.; Ballard, C.; Troy, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Fields of bedform patterns persist across many orders of magnitude, from cm-scale sub-aqueous current ripples to km-scale aeolian dunes, and form with surprisingly little difference in expression despite a range of formative environments. Because of the remarkable similarity among bedform patterns, extracting information about climate and environment from these patterns is a challenge. For example, crestline orientation is not diagnostic of a particular flow regime; similar patterns form under many different flow configurations. On Titan, these challenges have played out with many attempts to reconcile dune crestline orientation with modeled and expected wind regimes. We propose that thinking about the time-scale of the change in dune orientation, rather than the orientation itself, can provide new insights on the long-term stability of the dune-field patterns and the formative wind regime. In this work, we apply the crestline re-orientation model developed by Werner and Kocurek [Geology, 1997] to the equatorial dune fields of Titan. We use Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images processed through a de-noising algorithm recently developed by Lucas et al. [LPSC, 2012] to measure variations in pattern parameters (crest spacing, crest length and defect density, which is the number of defect pairs per total crest length) both within and between Titan's dune fields to describe pattern maturity and identify areas where changes in dune orientation are likely to occur (or may already be occurring). Measured defect densities are similar to Earth's largest linear dune fields, such as the Namib Sand Sea and the Simpson Desert. We use measured defect densities in the Werner and Kocurek model to estimate crestline reorientation rates. We find reorientation timescales varying from ten to a hundred thousand times the average migration timescale (time to migrate a bedform one meter, ~1 Titan year according to Tokano (Aeolian Research, 2010)). Well-organized patterns have the

  9. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  10. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  11. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  12. FY 2016 Status Report: CIRFT Testing on Spent Nuclear Fuels and Hydride Reorientation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Bevard, Bruce B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-08-04

    This report provides a detailed description of the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) testing conducted on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods in FY 2016, including hydride reorientation test results. Contact-based measurement, or three-LVDT-based curvature measurement, of SNF rods has proven to be quite reliable in CIRFT testing. However, how the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) head contacts the SNF rod may have a significant effect on the curvature measurement, depending on the magnitude and direction of rod curvature. To correct such contact/curvature issues, sensor spacing, defined as the amount of separation between the three LVDT probes, is a critical measurement that can be used to calculate rod curvature once the deflections are obtained. Recently developed CIRFT data analyses procedures were integrated into FY 2016 CIRFT testing results for the curvature measurements. The variations in fatigue life are provided in terms of moment, equivalent stress, curvature, and equivalent strain for the tested SNFs. The equivalent stress plot collapsed the data points from all of the SNFs into a single zone. A detailed examination revealed that, at same stress level, fatigue lives display a descending order as follows: H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), Limerick Nuclear Power Station (LMK), mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX). If looking at the strain, then LMK fuel has a slightly longer fatigue life than HBR fuel, but the difference is subtle. The knee point of endurance limit in the curve of moment and curvature or equivalent quantities is more clearly defined for LMK and HBR fuels. The treatment affects the fatigue life of specimens. Both a drop of 12 in. and radial hydride treatment (RHT) have a negative impact on fatigue life. The effect of thermal annealing on MOX fuel rods was relatively small at higher amplitude but became significant at low amplitude of moment. Thermal annealing tended to extend the fatigue life of

  13. FY 2016 Status Report: Documentation of All CIRFT Data including Hydride Reorientation Tests (Draft M2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Bevard, Bruce B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-09-04

    The first portion of this report provides a detailed description of fiscal year (FY) 2015 test result corrections and analysis updates based on FY 2016 updates to the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) program methodology, which is used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal conditions of transport (NCT). The CIRFT consists of a U-frame test setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages connecting to a universal testing machine. The curvature SNF rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame and used to capture deformation of the rod. The second portion of this report provides the latest CIRFT data, including data for the hydride reorientation test. The variations in fatigue life are provided in terms of moment, equivalent stress, curvature, and equivalent strain for the tested SNFs. The equivalent stress plot collapsed the data points from all of the SNF samples into a single zone. A detailed examination revealed that, at the same stress level, fatigue lives display a descending order as follows: H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), LMK, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX). Just looking at the strain, LMK fuel has a slightly longer fatigue life than HBR fuel, but the difference is subtle. The third portion of this report provides finite element analysis (FEA) dynamic deformation simulation of SNF assemblies . In a horizontal layout under NCT, the fuel assembly’s skeleton, which is formed by guide tubes and spacer grids, is the primary load bearing apparatus carrying and transferring vibration loads within an SNF assembly. These vibration loads include interaction forces between the SNF assembly and the canister basket walls. Therefore, the integrity of the guide

  14. The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2012 18 The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk David E. Frick, Ph.D. Frick is a 35-year veteran of the Department of...a key to risk analysis was “choosing the right technique” of quantifying risk . The weakness in this argument stems not from the assertion that one...of information about the enemy), yet achiev- ing great outcomes. Attempts at quantifying risk are not, in and of themselves, objectionable. Prudence

  15. Reorientational Dynamics of Enzymes Adsorbed on Quartz: A Temperature-Dependent Time-Resolved TIRF Anisotropy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeslik, C.; Royer, C.; Hazlett, T.; Mantulin, W.

    2003-01-01

    The preservation of enzyme activity and protein binding capacity upon protein adsorption at solid interfaces is important for biotechnological and medical applications. Because these properties are partly related to the protein flexibility and mobility, we have studied the internal dynamics and the whole-body reorientational rates of two enzymes, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) and hen egg white lysozyme, over the temperature range of 20–80°C when the proteins are adsorbed at the silica/water interface and, for comparison, when they are dissolved in buffer. The data were obtained using a combination of two experimental techniques, total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements in the frequency domain, with the protein Trp residues as intrinsic fluorescence probes. It has been found that the internal dynamics and the whole-body rotation of SNase and lysozyme are markedly reduced upon adsorption over large temperature ranges. At elevated temperatures, both protein molecules appear completely immobilized and the fractional amplitudes for the whole-body rotation, which are related to the order parameter for the local rotational freedom of the Trp residues, remain constant and do not approach zero. This behavior indicates that the angular range of the Trp reorientation within the adsorbed proteins is largely restricted even at high temperatures, in contrast to that of the dissolved proteins. The results of this study thus provide a deeper understanding of protein activity at solid surfaces. PMID:12668461

  16. Multidominance, ellipsis, and quantifier scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Tanja Maria Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a novel perspective on the interaction between quantifier scope and ellipsis. It presents a detailed investigation of the scopal interaction between English negative indefinites, modals, and quantified phrases in ellipsis. One of the crucial observations is that a negative

  17. Stress-induced reorientation of hydride precipitates in Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu garter springs under complex loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, P.K.; John, J.T.; Raman, V.V.; Banerjee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu garter springs which are placed between coolant and calandria tubes in PHWRs experience complex loading due to simultaneous application of tension, compression and torus bending moment due to coolant tubes. The gradual pick up of hydrogen by the garter springs during service is likely to have hydride platelets reoriented under the applied stresses. In the present paper, the magnitudes and the directions of the principal stresses under the complex loading condition obtained have been calculated and the extent of hydride reorientation predicted. Simulation experiments consisting of simulated loading of hydrogen (upto 400 ppm) precharged springs at the service temperature (300degC) and also in-situ hydrogen charging of the springs under simulated loading conditions have been carried out. In addition, hydrogen precharged springs have been subjected to temperature cycling between 50 and 300degC under complex loading conditions, to evaluate the influence of temperature variation on hydride reorientation. Metallographic examination of the hydride platelets in the above springs has shown an excellent agreement with the analytical prediction. Torus bending moment values appear to play a significant role in reorienting the hydride platelets. It has been observed that under normal torus bending moment corresponding to 90 mm dia coolant tubes hydrogen platelets close to the outer rim of the spiral get reoriented in the radial direction. However, on application a torus bending moment corresponding to 30 mm dia tubes, hydride platelets get reoriented along the radial direction, irrespective of the magnitude of tensile and compression loading. (author). 9 refs., 15 figs., 1 appendix

  18. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  19. Quantified Self in de huisartsenpraktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martijn; Timmers, Bart; Kooiman, Thea; van Ittersum, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Quantified Self staat voor de zelfmetende mens. Het aantal mensen dat met zelf gegeneerde gezondheidsgegevens het zorgproces binnenwandelt gaat de komende jaren groeien. Verschillende soorten activity trackers en gezondheidsapplicaties voor de smartphone maken het relatief eenvoudig om persoonlijke

  20. [The Rockefeller Foundation and its efforts toward a reorientation of German medicine and public health in the 1950s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiermacher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation invested substantial funds into promoting the development of public health as a discipline and a re-orientation of medical training in West Germany to support the democratization of German society. Not limiting itself to the simple provision of literature, the Foundation pursued a two-pronged strategy. Firstly, the Foundation organized a program for German university physicians and public health officers to visit various universities and teaching hospitals in the USA and Canada. A second aim was to establish training institutes for postgraduate physicians. However, rather than simply imposing the US model, the Foundation intended to adapt it to the German context, in the form of a postgraduate course for physicians that integrated practical experience with a university setting. My research to date shows that the Foundation's activities did not meet with much enthusiasm from German medical professionals. Intellectual, cultural, cognitive and political differences impaired constructive collaboration between the Foundation's staff and local practitioners and academics.

  1. A Framework for the Development of Automatic DFA Method to Minimize the Number of Components and Assembly Reorientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhlani; Samadhi, T. M. A. Ari; Ma’ruf, Anas; Setiasyah Toha, Isa

    2018-03-01

    Assembly is a part of manufacturing processes that must be considered at the product design stage. Design for Assembly (DFA) is a method to evaluate product design in order to make it simpler, easier and quicker to assemble, so that assembly cost is reduced. This article discusses a framework for developing a computer-based DFA method. The method is expected to aid product designer to extract data, evaluate assembly process, and provide recommendation for the product design improvement. These three things are desirable to be performed without interactive process or user intervention, so product design evaluation process could be done automatically. Input for the proposed framework is a 3D solid engineering drawing. Product design evaluation is performed by: minimizing the number of components; generating assembly sequence alternatives; selecting the best assembly sequence based on the minimum number of assembly reorientations; and providing suggestion for design improvement.

  2. Reorientation precession measurements on /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd and the quadrupole moments of their first 2/sup +/ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselgren, L; Fahlander, C; Falk, F; Edvardson, L O; Thun, J E; Ghuman, B S [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Fysiska Institutionen; Skaali, B [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Institutt

    1976-06-28

    The reorientation precession technique, REPREC, for measurements of quadrupole moments is described. The application of REPREC to the measurement of the static electric quadrupole moments of the first excited 2/sup +/ states in /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd is presented. The possibility to measure the sign of the matrix product P/sub 4/ = M/sub 02/Msub(22')Msub(02')M/sub 22/ is also discussed. Such measurements are presented for /sup 108/ /sup 110/Pd. The results of these measurements are P/sub 4/ < 0 for both /sup 108/Pd and /sup 110/Pd. For /sup 108/Pd the quadrupole moment of the first excited 2/sup +/ state was found to be -0.66+-0.18e.b and for /sup 110/Pd, -0.72+-0.14e.b. Intrinsic nuclear properties for /sup 106 -110/Pd are derived using the sum rules suggested by Kumar.

  3. Spin reorientation and giant low-temperature magnetostriction of polycrystalline NdFe1.9 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y. M.; He, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Tang, S. L.; Du, Y. W.

    2018-04-01

    The spin reorientation and magnetostriction of polycrystalline NdFe1.9 cubic Laves phase compound were investigated. A prominent transition from tetragonal symmetry to orthorhombic symmetry in NdFe1.9 compound was determined by X-ray crystallographic study. Meanwhile, a large spontaneous magnetostriction λ111 of ∼3100 ppm was detected at 15 K, which is larger than the theoretical value of 2000 ppm predicted by single-ion model. NdFe1.9 exhibits larger low-field magnetostriction than PrFe1.9 and TbFe1.9 at 5 K in the magnetic field range of H ≤ 13 kOe, which makes it a promising material for low-temperature applications. The present work might be helpful to discover inexpensive Nd-based high-performance magnetostrictive and even magnetoelectric materials for low-temperature applications.

  4. Ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling in h-YbMnO{sub 3}: Spin reorientation and defect effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Gang; Fang, Yifei; Lu, Xiaowen; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang, E-mail: jczhang@shu.edu.cn [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-01-11

    Low-temperature magnetic and electric properties in hexagonal multiferroic compound YbMnO{sub 3} were studied. The Mn{sup 3+} spin moments order at T{sub N} = 85 K and reoriented around 43.5 K, leading to the magnetic phase transition from B{sub 2}(P6{sub 3}cm) → A{sub 2}(P6{sub 3}cm). The concomitant ferroelectric polarization is observed and explained microscopically by the destruction of initial symmetric relationship of the polarization between the upper and lower half of the magnetic unit cell. The asymmetry of the polarization vs temperature curves under opposite poling voltage revealed the pinning effect of the defects on the electrical polarization.

  5. Reorientational motion of a cross-link junction in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) network measured by time-resolved fluorescence depolarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, A.D. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)); Hoffman, D.A. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)); Frank, C.W. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)); Fayer, M.D. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States))

    1992-02-15

    The reorientational dynamics of a cross-link junction in poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks, measured by the fluorescence anisotropy decay of a chromophore tagged to the cross-link, have been investigated over a range of temperatures from {ital T}{sub {ital g}}+75 to {ital T}{sub {ital g}}+150. The probe chromophore, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfonylnaphthalene amide (dansyl amide), is pendant to a trifunctional silane that acts as a cross-linking molecule. In cyclohexanol, the fluorescence anisotropy decay is in agreement with Debye--Stokes--Einstein hydrodynamic theory (rotational diffusion) demonstrating that the cross-linker can be used as a probe of orientational relaxation. The fluorescence anisotropy decays at a rapid rate in an end-linked poly(dimethyl siloxane) network reflecting fast reorientational motion of the cross-link junction. This reorientation appears diffusive and has a temperature dependence in accord with the Williams--Landel--Ferry equation. A model is proposed that suggests that reorientation and translational motion of the cross-link occur simultaneously and are both coupled to fluctuations of the polymer chain ends.

  6. Reorientational motion of a cross-link junction in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) network measured by time-resolved fluorescence depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.D.; Hoffman, D.A.; Frank, C.W.; Fayer, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The reorientational dynamics of a cross-link junction in poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks, measured by the fluorescence anisotropy decay of a chromophore tagged to the cross-link, have been investigated over a range of temperatures from T g +75 to T g +150. The probe chromophore, 1-dimethylamino-5-sulfonylnaphthalene amide (dansyl amide), is pendant to a trifunctional silane that acts as a cross-linking molecule. In cyclohexanol, the fluorescence anisotropy decay is in agreement with Debye--Stokes--Einstein hydrodynamic theory (rotational diffusion) demonstrating that the cross-linker can be used as a probe of orientational relaxation. The fluorescence anisotropy decays at a rapid rate in an end-linked poly(dimethyl siloxane) network reflecting fast reorientational motion of the cross-link junction. This reorientation appears diffusive and has a temperature dependence in accord with the Williams--Landel--Ferry equation. A model is proposed that suggests that reorientation and translational motion of the cross-link occur simultaneously and are both coupled to fluctuations of the polymer chain ends

  7. X-ray circular magnetic dichroism as a probe of spin reorientation transitions in Nd2Fe14B and Er2Fe14B systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboy, J.; Marcelli, A.; Garcia, L.M.; Bartolome, J.; Kuz'min, M.D.; Maruyama, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Kawata, H.; Iwazumi, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present the first experimental observation of spin reorientation phase transitions (SRT) with the X-Ray circular magnetic dichroism (XCMD) technique. Both the first-order SRT in Er 2 Fe 14 B and the second-order one in Nd 2 Fe 14 B have been clearly detected, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique for studying SRTs. ((orig.))

  8. Spatial reorientation in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Use of geometric and featural information as a function of arena size and feature location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Fontanari, L.; Regolin, L.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were used in a spatial reorientation task to assess their ability to use geometric and non-geometric, featural, information. Experimental conditions differed in the size of the arena (small, medium, or large) and whether the food-baited corner was near or far from a visual feature. The main

  9. Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.

  10. Effect of the crystallinity in the Tl signal induced by the gamma radiation in Al2O3: Eu obtained by the sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Custodio, E.; Rubio, E.; Rodriguez L, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the synthesis and characterization process of Al 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 : Eu by sol gel method is reported. A previous thermal treatment at 500 and 1000 C on the material powder type showed a notable influences on the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation, such that the intensity thermoluminescent signal produced by samples with thermal treatment at 1000 C is much bigger that thermoluminescent signal produced by samples thermal treatment at 500 C. In order to explain this behavior, an analysis for X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy was also realized. The results show a notably influence of the crystalline array and the microstructure on the thermoluminescent behavior of the alumina. (Author)

  11. Traditional Birth Attendant reorientation and Motherpacks incentive's effect on health facility delivery uptake in Narok County, Kenya: An impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitui, John Emmanuel; Dutton, Vaughan; Bester, Dirk; Ndirangu, Rachel; Wangai, Susan; Ngugi, Stephen

    2017-04-21

    A community health programme in Narok County in Kenya aimed to improve skilled birth assistance during childbirth through two demand side interventions. First, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) were co-opted into using their influence to promote use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at health facilities during delivery, and to accompany pregnant women to health facilities in return for a Ksh500 (Approximately USD5 as of August 2016) cash incentive for each pregnant mother they accompanied. Secondly, a free Motherpack consisting of a range of baby care items was given to each mother after delivering at a health facility. This paper estimates the impact of these two interventions on trends of facility deliveries over a 36-month period here. Dependency or inferred causality was estimated between reorientation of TBAs and provision of Motherpacks with changes in facility delivery numbers. The outcome variable consists of monthly facility delivery data from 28 health facilities starting from January 2013 to December 2015 obtained from the District Health Information Systems 2 (DHIS2). Data were collected on the 13th, 14th or 15th of each month, resulting in a total of 35 collections, over 35 months. The intervention data consisted of the starting month for each of the two interventions at each of the 28 facilities. A negative binomial generalized linear model framework is applied to model the relationship as all variables were measured as count data and were overdispersed. All analyses were conducted using R software. During the 35 months considered, a total of 9095 health facility deliveries took place, a total of 408 TBAs were reached, and 2181 Motherpacks were distributed. The reorientation of TBAs was significant (p = 0.009), as was the provision of Motherpacks (p = .0001). The number of months that passed since the start of the intervention was also found to be significant (p = 0.033). The introduction of Motherpacks had the greatest effect on the

  12. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  13. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  14. New possibilities in diagnosis of diseases of the vertebral column and reorientation of diagnostic approach via CT of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzl, G.; Rath, M.; Steinhoff, H.; Matzen, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last three years (from May 1981 to March 1984) we performed 1368 CT examinations of the spine, 447 of the cervical, 264 of the thoracic and 657 of the lumbar vertebral column. 30% of the CT examinations of the lumbar spine revealed a prolapse of an intervertebral disk. In 38% of the cases involving the thoracic spine metastases were seen. We diagnosed fractures in 10% of the cervical spine and 11% of the thoracic spine examinations. Posttraumatic or postoperative intravertebral haemorrhage was hardly ever diagnosed in our patients (1.9% of the cases). Spinal trauma: The anterior-posterior and lateral plain films continue to be the mainstay of radiographic screening in spinal injury. Nevertheless, the degree of injury is underestimated in a significant number of patients with spinal trauma if conventional radiography is the only diagnostic approach. For further clarification CT proved to be the fastest and best method to recognise the causes and extent of compression of the vertebral canal. CT has attained a high degree of accuracy in the diagnosis of prolapse of intervertebral disks, replacing myelography if the findings are unequivocally established. CT should also be preferred to myelography in suspected recurrent prolapse. Localisation, shape and density are criteria for differentiating between scarification and prolapse via CT. The results show that CT has opened up new possibilities in the diagnosis of spinal diseases and has resulted in a reorientation of the diagnostic approach. (orig.) [de

  15. Domain structures and temperature-dependent spin reorientation transitions in c-axis oriented Co-Cr thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusinski, Greg J.; Krishnan, Kannan M.; Thomas, Gareth; Nelson, E. C.

    2000-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented Co 95 Cr 5 films with perpendicular anisotropy were grown epitaxially on Si (111), using an Ag seed layer, by physical vapor deposition. Films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, and Lorentz microscopy in a TEM. The following epitaxial relationship was confirmed: (111) Si (parallel sign)(111) Ag (parallel sign)(0001) CoCr ;[2(bar sign)20] Si (parallel sign)[2(bar sign)20] Ag (parallel sign)[1(bar sign)100] CoCr . Magnetic domain structures of these films were observed as a function of thickness; t, in the range, 200 Aa c ≅300 Aa, the magnetization was found to be effectively in-plane of the film, and above t c a regular, stripe-like domain pattern with a significant, alternating in sign, perpendicular component was observed. The spin reorientation transitions of the stripe domains to the in-plane magnetization were studied dynamically by observing the domains as a function of temperature by in situ heating up to 350 degree sign C. The critical transition thickness, t c , which is a function of K u and magnetostatic energy, was found to increase with increasing temperature. The stripe-domain period, L observed at room temperature was found to increase gradually with thickness; L=90 nm at t=300 Aa, and L=110 nm at t=700 Aa. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  17. Oxidation-induced spin reorientation in Co adatoms and CoPd dimers on Ni/Cu(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Beeck, T.; Fiedler, S.; Baev, I.; Wurth, W.; Martins, M.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasmall magnetic clusters and adatoms are of strong current interest because of their possible use in future technological applications. Here, we demonstrate that the magnetic coupling between the adsorbates and the substrate can be significantly changed through oxidation. The magnetic properties of Co adatoms and CoPd dimers deposited on a remanently magnetized Ni/Cu(100) substrate have been investigated by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy at the Co L2 ,3 edges. Using spectral differences, pure and oxidized components are distinguished, and their respective magnetic moments are determined. The Co adatoms and the CoPd dimers are coupled ferromagnetically to the substrate, while their oxides, Co-O and CoPd-O, are coupled antiferromagnetically to the substrate. Along with the spin reorientation from the pure to the oxidized state, the magnetic moment of the adatom is highly reduced from Co to Co-O. In contrast, the magnetic moment of the dimer is of similar order for CoPd and CoPd-O.

  18. Spin reorientation in α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles induced by interparticle exchange interactions in alpha-Fe2O3/NiO nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Lefmann, Kim; Lebech, Bente

    2011-01-01

    We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearan......, similarities to the Morin transition in bulk alpha-Fe2O3, but its origin is different-it is caused by exchange coupling between aggregated nanoparticles of alpha-Fe2O3 and NiO with different directions of easy axes of magnetization.......We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearance...

  19. A 1D constitutive model for shape memory alloy using strain and temperature as control variables and including martensite reorientation and asymmetric behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, M Ben; Mehrez, S; Ghazouani, O

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new 1D constitutive model for shape memory alloy using strain and temperature as control variables is presented. The new formulation is restricted to the 1D stress case and takes into account the martensite reorientation and the asymmetry of the SMA behavior in tension and compression. Numerical implementation of the new model in a finite element code was conducted. The numerical results for superelastic behavior in tension and compression tests are presented and were compared to experimental data taken from the literature. Other numerical tests are presented, showing the model’s ability to reproduce the main aspects of SMA behavior such as the shape memory effect and the martensite reorientation under cyclic loading. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of the new constitutive model, a dynamic test of a bi-clamped SMA bending beam under forced oscillation is described. (paper)

  20. The role of surface charging during the coadsorption of mercaptohexanol to DNA layers on gold: direct observation of desorption and layer reorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, K; Rant, U; Tornow, M; Fujita, S; Abstreiter, G; Yokoyama, N

    2006-06-20

    We study the coadsorption of mercaptohexanol onto preimmobilized oligonucleotide layers on gold. Monitoring the position of the DNA relative to the surface by optical means directly shows the mercaptohexanol-induced desorption of DNA and the reorientation of surface-tethered strands in situ and in real time. By simultaneously recording the electrochemical electrode potential, we are able to demonstrate that changes in the layer conformation are predominantly of electrostatic origin and can be reversed by applying external bias to the substrate.

  1. Electric field triggering the spin reorientation and controlling the absorption and release of heat in the induced multiferroic compound EuTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P. J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, P. O.; Alho, B. P.; Alvarenga, T. S. T.; Nobrega, E. P.; Caldas, A.; Sousa, V. S. R. de; Lopes, P. H. O.; Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro–UERJ, Rua São, Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janerio (Brazil); Gama, S. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema, 09971-270 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CNPEM, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-12-28

    We report remarkable results due to the coupling between the magnetization and the electric field induced polarization in EuTiO{sub 3}. Using a microscopic model Hamiltonian to describe the three coupled sublattices, Eu-(spin-up), Eu-(spin-down), and Ti-(moment), the spin flop and spin reorientation phase transitions were described with and without the electric-magnetic coupling interaction. The external electric field can be used to tune the temperature of the spin reorientation phase transition T{sub SR} = T{sub SR}(E). When the T{sub SR} is tuned around the EuTiO{sub 3}—Néel temperature (T{sub N} = 5.5 K), an outstanding effect emerges in which EuTiO{sub 3} releases heat under magnetic field change. The electric field controlling the spin reorientation transition and the endo-exothermic processes are discussed through the microscopic interactions model parameters.

  2. Spin reorientation and magnetic anisotropy in Y2Co17-xCr x (x 1.17-3.0) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquan, B.; Tegus, O.; Dagula, W.; Brueck, E.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Spin reorientation transitions and magnetic anisotropy in Y 2 Co 17-x Cr x (x = 1.17-3.0) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that most samples crystallize as a single phase with the rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure. However, in the compound Y 2 Co 14 Cr 3 the Th 2 Zn 17 phase coexist with the hexagonal Th 2 Ni 17 -type phase. The lattice parameters a and c hardly change and the unit cell volume V increases slightly with increasing Cr content. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the aligned powder of the samples have confirmed that at room temperature the compound with x = 1.17 has planar anisotropy, but the compounds with x = 1.76, 2.34 and 3.00 have uniaxial anisotropy. Spin reorientation phenomena occur in all of the compounds. With increasing Cr content, the Curie temperature, the spin reorientation temperature, the spontaneous magnetization, and the anisotropy constant K 2 of the Y 2 Co 17-x Cr x (x = 1.17-3.0) compounds decrease strongly while the anisotropy constant K 1 increases in the range of x from 1.17 to 2.34 and then decreases in the range of x from 2.34 to 3.00

  3. The Effect of Peak Temperatures and Hoop Stresses on Hydride Reorientations of Zirconium Alloy Cladding Tubes under Interim Dry Storage Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyun Jin; Jang, Ki Nam; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on hydride reorientation in cladding was investigated. It was shown that the 250ppm-H specimens generated larger radial hydride fractions and longer radial hydrides than the 500ppm-H ones. The precipitated hydride in radial direction severely degrades mechanical properties of spent fuel rod. Hydride reorientation is related to cladding material, cladding temperature, hydrogen contents, thermal cycling, hoop stress and cooling rate. US NRC established the regulation on cladding temperature during the dry storage, which is the maximum fuel cladding temperature should not exceed 400 .deg. C for all fuel burnups under normal conditions of storage. However, if it is proved that the best estimate cladding hoop stress is equal to or less than 90MPa for the temperature limit proposed, a higher short-term temperature limit is allowed for low burnup fuel. In this study, 250ppm and 500ppm hydrogen-charged Zr-Nb alloy cladding tubes were selected to evaluate the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on the hydride reorientation during the dry storage. In order to evaluate threshold stresses in relation to various peak temperatures, four peak temperatures of 250, 300, 350, and 400 .deg. C and three tensile hoop stresses of 80, 100, 120MPa were selected.

  4. Quantifying Quantum-Mechanical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jen-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Che-Ming

    2017-10-19

    The act of describing how a physical process changes a system is the basis for understanding observed phenomena. For quantum-mechanical processes in particular, the affect of processes on quantum states profoundly advances our knowledge of the natural world, from understanding counter-intuitive concepts to the development of wholly quantum-mechanical technology. Here, we show that quantum-mechanical processes can be quantified using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry can be ruled out. We demonstrate the success of this formalism using fundamental processes postulated in quantum mechanics, the dynamics of open quantum systems, quantum-information processing, the fusion of entangled photon pairs, and the energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Since our framework does not depend on any specifics of the states being processed, it reveals a new class of correlations in the hierarchy between entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and paves the way for the elaboration of a generic method for quantifying physical processes.

  5. Reorienting health services in the Northern Territory of Australia: a conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jenni; Keleher, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Reorienting work practices to include health promotion and prevention is complex and requires specific strategies and interventions. This paper presents original research that used 'real-world' practice to demonstrate that knowledge gathered from practice is relevant for the development of practice-based evidence. The paper shows how practitioners can inform and influence improvements in health promotion practice. Practitioner-informed evidence necessarily incorporates qualitative research to capture the richness of their reflective experiences. Using a participatory action research (PAR) approach, the research question asked 'what are the core dimensions of building health promotion capacity in a primary health care workforce in a real-world setting?' PAR is a method in which the researcher operates in full collaboration with members of the organisation being studied for the purposes of achieving some kind of change, in this case to increase the amount of health promotion and prevention practice within this community health setting. The PAR process involved six reflection and action cycles over two years. Data collection processes included: survey; in-depth interviews; a training intervention; observations of practice; workplace diaries; and two nominal groups. The listen/reflect/act process enabled lessons from practice to inform future capacity-building processes. This research strengthened and supported the development of health promotion to inform 'better health' practices through respectful change processes based on research, practitioner-informed evidence, and capacity-building strategies. A conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the primary health care workforce was informed by the PAR processes and recognised the importance of the determinants approach. Practitioner-informed evidence is the missing link in the evidence debate and provides the links between evidence and its translation to practice. New models of health promotion service

  6. Reorientational dynamics in molecular liquids as revealed by dynamic light scattering: from boiling point to glass transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, B; Petzold, N; Kahlau, R; Rössler, E A

    2013-08-28

    We determine the reorientational correlation time τ of a series of molecular liquids by performing depolarized light scattering experiments (double monochromator, Fabry-Perot interferometry, and photon correlation spectroscopy). Correlation times in the range 10(-12) s-100 s are compiled, i.e., the full temperature interval between the boiling point and the glass transition temperature T(g) is covered. We focus on low-T(g) liquids for which the high-temperature limit τ ≅ 10(-12) s is easily accessed by standard spectroscopic equipment (up to 440 K). Regarding the temperature dependence three interpolation formulae of τ(T) with three parameters each are tested: (i) Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, (ii) the approach recently discussed by Mauro et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 19780 (2009)], and (iii) our approach decomposing the activation energy E(T) in a constant high temperature value E∞ and a "cooperative part" E(coop)(T) depending exponentially on temperature [Schmidtke et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012)]. On the basis of the present data, approaches (i) and (ii) are insufficient as they do not provide the correct crossover to the high-temperature Arrhenius law clearly identified in the experimental data while approach (iii) reproduces the salient features of τ(T). It allows to discuss the temperature dependence of the liquid's dynamics in terms of a E(coop)(T)/E∞ vs. T/E∞ plot and suggests that E∞ controls the energy scale of the glass transition phenomenon.

  7. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  8. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  9. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  10. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Quantify the complexity of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingtian; Wu, Huixuan

    2017-11-01

    Many researchers have used Reynolds stress, power spectrum and Shannon entropy to characterize a turbulent flow, but few of them have measured the complexity of turbulence. Yet as this study shows, conventional turbulence statistics and Shannon entropy have limits when quantifying the flow complexity. Thus, it is necessary to introduce new complexity measures- such as topology complexity and excess information-to describe turbulence. Our test flow is a classic turbulent cylinder wake at Reynolds number 8100. Along the stream-wise direction, the flow becomes more isotropic and the magnitudes of normal Reynolds stresses decrease monotonically. These seem to indicate the flow dynamics becomes simpler downstream. However, the Shannon entropy keeps increasing along the flow direction and the dynamics seems to be more complex, because the large-scale vortices cascade to small eddies, the flow is less correlated and more unpredictable. In fact, these two contradictory observations partially describe the complexity of a turbulent wake. Our measurements (up to 40 diameters downstream the cylinder) show that the flow's degree-of-complexity actually increases firstly and then becomes a constant (or drops slightly) along the stream-wise direction. University of Kansas General Research Fund.

  12. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  14. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  15. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  17. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  18. Negotiated reorienting: a grounded theory of nurses' end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Bousso, Regina Szylit; McCarthy, Joan; Kohlen, Helen; Andrews, Tom; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim; Cox, Anna; Haas, Margit; Arber, Anne; Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalil; Baliza, Michelle Freire; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2015-04-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) focus on treatment for those who are critically ill and interventions to prolong life. Ethical issues arise when decisions have to be made regarding the withdrawal and withholding of life-sustaining treatment and the shift to comfort and palliative care. These issues are particularly challenging for nurses when there are varying degrees of uncertainty regarding prognosis. Little is known about nurses' end-of-life (EoL) decision-making practice across cultures. To understand nurses' EoL decision-making practices in ICUs in different cultural contexts. We collected and analysed qualitative data using Grounded Theory. Interviews were conducted with experienced ICU nurses in university or hospital premises in five countries: Brazil, England, Germany, Ireland and Palestine. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 nurses (10 in Brazil, 9 in England, 10 in Germany, 10 in Ireland and 12 nurses in Palestine). They were purposefully and theoretically selected to include nurses having a variety of characteristics and experiences concerning end-of-life (EoL) decision-making. The study used grounded theory to inform data collection and analysis. Interviews were facilitated by using key questions. The comparative analysis of the data within and across data generated by the different research teams enabled researchers to develop a deeper understanding of EoL decision-making practices in the ICU. Ethical approval was granted in each of the participating countries and voluntary informed consent obtained from each participant. The core category that emerged was 'negotiated reorienting'. Whilst nurses do not make the 'ultimate' EoL decisions, they engage in two core practices: consensus seeking (involving coaxing, information cuing and voice enabling); and emotional holding (creating time-space and comfort giving). There was consensus regarding the core concept and core practices employed by nurses in the ICUs in the five countries. However

  19. Neural basis for generalized quantifier comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Corey T; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Devita, Christian; Grossman, Murray

    2005-01-01

    Generalized quantifiers like "all cars" are semantically well understood, yet we know little about their neural representation. Our model of quantifier processing includes a numerosity device, operations that combine number elements and working memory. Semantic theory posits two types of quantifiers: first-order quantifiers identify a number state (e.g. "at least 3") and higher-order quantifiers additionally require maintaining a number state actively in working memory for comparison with another state (e.g. "less than half"). We used BOLD fMRI to test the hypothesis that all quantifiers recruit inferior parietal cortex associated with numerosity, while only higher-order quantifiers recruit prefrontal cortex associated with executive resources like working memory. Our findings showed that first-order and higher-order quantifiers both recruit right inferior parietal cortex, suggesting that a numerosity component contributes to quantifier comprehension. Moreover, only probes of higher-order quantifiers recruited right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting involvement of executive resources like working memory. We also observed activation of thalamus and anterior cingulate that may be associated with selective attention. Our findings are consistent with a large-scale neural network centered in frontal and parietal cortex that supports comprehension of generalized quantifiers.

  20. Nano and micro reoriented domains and their relation with the crystal structure in the new ferroelectric boracite Zn3B7O13Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa-Molina, J; Ulloa-Godinez, S; Barrera, A; Bucio, L; Mata, J

    2006-01-01

    A new zinc brome boracite Zn 3 B 7 O 13 Br has been grown by a chemical transport reaction in closed quartz ampoules at 920 K. The crystal structure was characterized by Rietveld refinement. Ferroelectric nano and micro reorientable domains were found in this material using polarizing optical microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chemical analysis was performed with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). In the crystal, a new structure transition at 586 K from orthorhombic (Pca 2 1 ) to cubic cell (F4-bar3c) has been found. This transition was corroborated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  1. Neutron powder diffraction investigation of magnetic structure and spin reorientation transition of HoFe{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinzhi [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Hao, Lijie, E-mail: haolijie@ciae.ac.cn [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Liu, Yuntao; Ma, Xiaobai; Meng, Siqin; Li, Yuqing; Gao, Jianbo; Guo, Hao; Han, Wenze; Sun, Kai; Wu, Meimei [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Klose, Frank [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Department of Physics and Materials Science, The City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciae.ac.cn [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Orthoferrite solid solution HoFe{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0, 0.2,…,1.0) was synthesized via solid state reaction methods. The crystal structure, magnetism and spin reorientation properties of this system were investigated by X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction and magnetic measurements. For compositions of x≤0.6, the system exhibits similar magnetic properties to HoFeO{sub 3}. With increasing Cr-doping, the system adopts a Γ{sub 4}(G{sub x}A{sub y}F{sub z}) magnetic configuration with a decreased Neel temperature from 640 K to 360 K. A Γ{sub 42} spin reorientation of Fe(Cr){sup 3+} was also observed in this system with an increase in transition temperature from 56 K to about 200 K due to competition between the Fe(Cr)–Fe(Cr) and Ho–Fe(Cr) interactions. For the x≥0.8, the system behaves more like HoCrO{sub 3} which adopts a Γ{sub 2}(F{sub x}C{sub y}G{sub z}) configuration with no spin reorientation below the Neel temperature T{sub N}. Throughout the whole substitution range, we found that the saturated moment of Fe(Cr) was less than the ideal value for a free ion, which implies the existence of spin fluctuation in this system. A systematic magnetic structure variation with Cr-substitution is revealed by Rietveld refinement. A phase diagram combining the results of the magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction results was obtained. - Highlights: • With Cr-substitution in the HoFe{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} system, A Γ{sub 42} spin reorientation of Fe(Cr){sup 3+} was observed with an increase in transition temperature from 56 K to about 200 K for x=0−0.6. • The saturated moment of Fe(Cr) position was found to be systematically less than the ideal value of free ion, and thus implies the presence of spin quantum fluctuation. • A composition–temperature phase diagram throughout x=0–1 for HoFe{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} system was established.

  2. Reorientation of molecules in a Cl3P/Dirac h/NCCl2CF3 crystal according to NQR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyuntsel', I.A.; Mokeeva, V.A.; Soifer, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The structural-dynamic inequivalence of the molecules in solid Cl 3 P/Dirac h/NCCl 2 CF 3 has been established, and their rotational mobility has been studied with the aid of the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and of the spin-lattice relaxation time of the 35 Cl nuclei. The observed motion has been interpreted with consideration of the molecular structure as reorientation between unequal potential wells in the crystal lattice, and the corresponding activation parameters have been determined from the 35 Cl NQR data

  3. Nano and micro reoriented domains and their relation with the crystal structure in the new ferroelectric boracite Zn3B7O13Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa-Molina, J.; Ulloa-Godínez, S.; Barrera, A.; Bucio, L.; Mata, J.

    2006-05-01

    A new zinc brome boracite Zn3B7O13Br has been grown by a chemical transport reaction in closed quartz ampoules at 920 K. The crystal structure was characterized by Rietveld refinement. Ferroelectric nano and micro reorientable domains were found in this material using polarizing optical microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chemical analysis was performed with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). In the crystal, a new structure transition at 586 K from orthorhombic (Pca 21) to cubic cell (F\\overline 4 3c ) has been found. This transition was corroborated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  4. Zero-Field Spin Structure and Spin Reorientations in Layered Organic Antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Rui; Tsunakawa, Hitoshi; Oinuma, Kohsuke; Michimura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Hiromi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    Detailed magnetization measurements enabled us to claim that the layered organic insulator κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl [BEDT-TTF: bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene] with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction has an antiferromagnetic spin structure with the easy axis being the crystallographic c-axis and the net canting moment parallel to the a-axis at zero magnetic field. This zero-field spin structure is significantly different from that proposed in the past studies. The assignment was achieved by arguments including a correction of the direction of the weak ferromagnetism, reinterpretations of magnetization behaviors, and reasoning based on known high-field spin structures. We suggest that only the contributions of the strong intralayer antiferromagnetic interaction, the moderately weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and the very weak interlayer ferromagnetic interaction can realize this spin structure. On the basis of this model, characteristic magnetic-field dependences of the magnetization can be interpreted as consequences of intriguing spin reorientations. The first reorientation is an unusual spin-flop transition under a magnetic field parallel to the b-axis. Although the existence of this transition is already known, the interpretation of what happens at this transition has been significantly revised. We suggest that this transition can be regarded as a spin-flop phenomenon of the local canting moment. We also claim that half of the spins rotate by 180° at this transition, in contrast to the conventional spin flop transition. The second reorientation is the gradual rotation of the spins during the variation of the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. In this process, all the spins rotate around the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vectors by 90°. The results of our simulation based on the classical spin model well reproduce these spin reorientation behaviors, which strongly support our claimed zero-field spin structure. The present study highlights the

  5. Reorientations in [Mg(H2O)6](CLO4)2 studied by the proton magnetic resonance and the quasielastic neutron scattering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svare, I.; Fimland, B.O.; Janik, J.A.; Janik, J.M.; Mikuli, E.; Migdal-Mikuli, A.

    1980-01-01

    Proton magnetic relaxation measurements carried out for [Mg(H 2 O)XL6](CLO 4 ) 2 revealed two processes responsible for T 1 vs temperature dependence: one connected with H 2 O 180deg flips about the symmetry axes and second connected with a tumbling of the complex cation. Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements gave another evidence of H 2 O 180deg flips. The reorientational corelation times, which in the 273 K - 325 K region are of the order of picoseconds, as derived from NMR coincide perfectly well with those derived from QNS. (author)

  6. Spin reorientation phenomena in (R{sub 1-x}R`{sub x}){sub 2}Co{sub 14}B (R = La, R` = Dy and Ho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myojin, T. [Takamatsu Nat. Coll. of Technol. (Japan); Ohno, T. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mizuno, K. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Tsujimura, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima Bunri Univ., Kagawa Shido (Japan); Kojima, K. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences

    1997-07-01

    The variations of magnetization with temperature in (La{sub 1-x}R`{sub x}){sub 2}Co{sub 14}B (R` = Dy and Ho) have been measured to determine spin reorientation temperature T{sub SR} of these compounds. The phase diagrams of spin arrangement thus obtained indicate monotonous increase in T{sub SR} with R` concentration x. Also, T{sub SR}`s of R{sub 2}Co{sub 14}B(R = Tb, Dy and Ho) are found to vary linearly with the Stevens factor {alpha} of R. (orig.). 4 refs.

  7. Quantifying forecast quality of IT business value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, J.L.; van der Pas, M.; Verhoef, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how to quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value. We address a common economic indicator often used to determine the business value of project proposals, the Net Present Value (NPV). To quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value, we develop a generalized

  8. Bare quantifier fronting as contrastive topicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that indefinites (in particular bare quantifiers such as ‘something’, ‘somebody’, etc. which are neither existentially presupposed nor in the restriction of a quantifier over situations, can undergo topicalization in a number of Romance languages (Catalan, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, but only if the sentence contains “verum” focus, i.e. focus on a high degree of certainty of the sentence. I analyze these indefinites as contrastive topics, using Büring’s (1999 theory (where the term ‘S-topic’ is used for what I call ‘contrastive topic’. I propose that the topic is evaluated in relation to a scalar set including generalized quantifiers such as {lP $x P(x, lP MANYx P(x, lP MOSTx P(x, lP “xP(x} or {lP $xP(x, lP P(a, lP P(b …}, and that the contrastive topic is the weakest generalized quantifier in this set. The verum focus, which is part of the “comment” that co-occurs with the “Topic”, introduces a set of alternatives including degrees of certainty of the assertion. The speaker asserts that his claim is certainly true or highly probable, contrasting it with stronger claims for which the degree of probability is unknown. This explains the observation that in downward entailing contexts, the fronted quantified DPs are headed by ‘all’ or ‘many’, whereas ‘some’, small numbers or ‘at least n’ appear in upward entailing contexts. Unlike other cases of non-specific topics, which are property topics, these are quantifier topics: the topic part is a generalized quantifier, the comment is a property of generalized quantifiers. This explains the narrow scope of the fronted quantified DP.

  9. Renal SPECT with {sup 99m} Tc-Dmsa. Reorientation and processing; SPECT renal con {sup 99m} Tc-Dmsa. Reorientacion y procesamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.L.; Perera, A.; Fraxedas, R. [Centro de InvestigacionesClinicas 34 no.4501 e/45 y 47 Kohly, Playa C. Habana (Cuba)

    1998-12-31

    For the study of different renal affections with repercussion in the parenchyma is widely used the plane gammagraphy wit {sup 99m} Tc-Dmsa though not in the same way the SPECT technique. In general, the different inclination and orientation of the longitudinal axes of both kidneys in the patients entail aid to high variability in the detection of the different types of defects which leads to a possible mistaken diagnostic. With a view to this,it was developed in our centre a methodology for the automated reorientation of the different renal volumes obtained by SPECT and its posterior processing, obtaining as result a software with a high grade of independence from the operator. In this way, it is obtained a procedure standardization and so it let us with major rigor to realize evolutive studies of the patients. (Author)

  10. Spin reorientation transitions of Fe/Ni/Cu(001) studied by using the depth-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Amemiya, Kenta; Matsumura, Daiju; Kitagawa, Soichiro; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Yokoyama, Toshihiko; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The spin reorientation transition (SRT) of Ni/Cu(001) induced by Fe deposition was investigated using the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) method. In-plane magnetized Ni films (= =10ML) also exhibit a transition to in-plane by 1-2ML Fe deposition. A precise magnetic anisotropy phase diagram was obtained using a combination of wedge-shaped Ni samples and stepwise Fe deposition. Magnetic anisotropy energies in the bulk, surface and interface layers of Ni films were separately determined using the depth-resolved XMCD technique, while values in the 1ML and 2ML portions of the Fe films were obtained from the conventional XMCD measurements. The origin of the SRTs is successfully explained with a simple phenomenological layer model using the obtained magnetic anisotropy energies. es

  11. Reoriention of diprotonated DABCO (1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) cation and proton transfer in organic ferroelectric adduct DABCO-2(2-Chlorobenzoic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaji, Tetsuo

    2018-05-01

    Temperature dependences of 1H NMR as well as 35Cl NQR spin-lattice relaxation times T1 were investigated of a ferroelectric molecular adduct with Tc = 323 K, in which 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) is sandwiched between two 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2-ClBA). The NQR frequencies clearly show that proton transfer from 2-ClBA to DABCO is occurred and the molecular adduct consists of diprotonated DABCO cation and two 2-chlorobenzoate anions. The correlation time of reorientational motion of the diprotonated DABCO molecule was determined as a function of temperature. The activation energy Ea of the motion was estimated as 22 kJ mol-1 below Tc. The steep decrease of the NQR T1 with Ea = 50 kJ mol-1, observed above ca. 280 K in the ferroelectric phase, suggests a slow fluctuation of electric field gradient at chlorine nucleus.

  12. Evaluation of Thermal Creep and Hydride Re-orientation Properties of High Burnup Spent Fuel Cladding under Long Term Dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, K [JNES (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    In Japan, spent fuels will be reprocessed as recyclable energy source at a reprocessing plant. The first commercial plant is under-constructing and will start operation in 2008. It is necessary that spent fuels should be stored in the independent interim storage facilities (ISF) until reprocessing. Utilities plan the operation of the first ISF in 2010. JNES has a mission to support the safety body by researching the data of technical standard and regulation. Investigating of spent fuel integrity during long term dry storage is one of them. The objectives are: 1) Evaluation of the effects of material design changes on creep properties of high burnup spent fuel cladding; 2) Evaluation of the effects of alloy elements and texture of irradiated Zircaloy on hydride re-orientation properties and the effects of radial hydrides on cladding mechanical properties; 3) Evaluation of the effects of temperature on irradiation hardening recovery.

  13. Investigation of spin-reorientation phase transitions at surface and in volume of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 monocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kamzin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic structure of the surface layer and volume and the processes, observed by the spin-reorientation phase transition (SRPT), are studied in the direct comparison of the properties of the thin surface layer and the volume of the hematite (alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3) macroscopic crystals. The method of simultaneous gamma, X-ray and electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in the studies. The direct data on the existence of the transition layer on the hematite crystals surface are obtained. It is established, that the Morin-type SRPT in the sample volume occurs by a jump (the first-order phase transition). The SRPT in the surface layer as well as in the crystal volume is accompanied by formation of the intermediate state, wherein the low- and high-temperature phases coexist. The obtained experimental data on the SRPT mechanism in the surface layer agree well with the conclusions of the phenomenological theory

  14. Quantify Risk to Manage Cost and Schedule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Too many projects suffer from unachievable budget and schedule goals, caused by unrealistic estimates and the failure to quantify and communicate the uncertainty of these estimates to managers and sponsoring executives...

  15. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS

  16. New frontiers of quantified self 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Quantified Self (QS) field needs to start thinking of how situated needs may affect the use of self-tracking technologies. In this workshop we will focus on the idiosyncrasies of specific categories of users....

  17. Crystal growth of Sm0.3Tb0.7FeO3 and spin reorientation transition in Sm1−xTbxFeO3 orthoferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Anhua; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Xiangyang; Xie, Tao; Man, Peiwen; Su, Liangbi; Kalashnikova, A.M.; Pisarev, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystal was successfully grown by optical floating zone method. Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 samples with a-, b-, and c-orientation were manufactured by means of Laue photograph. Magnetic properties of Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystals are studied over a wide temperature range from 2 to 400 K. Spin reorientation transition from Γ 2 to Γ 4 are observed by means of the temperature dependence of magnetization It indicated the reorientation transition temperature of Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 single crystals is lowered with the contents of Tb contents rising based on this work and our previous works, thus the spin reorientation transition temperature can be adjusted through changing the compound in orthoferrites materials, which means that we can get orthoferrites single crystals with high magnetism property in various temperature through material design. - Highlights: • Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystals with various compounds were successfully grown by optical floating zone method. • The relation between SRT temperature and composition in Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 orthoferrite was indicated. • The spin reorientation transition temperature of Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 single crystals can be adjusted through changing the compound in orthoferrites materials.

  18. Microstructural characteristics of the hydroxyapatite and its influence in the Tl signal induced by gamma radiation; Caracteristicas microestructurales de la hidroxiapatita y su influencia en la senal Tl inducida por la radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Hernandez A, M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Estrada G, R. [Depto. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Santa Fe, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [Centro Universitario de Vinculacion, BUAP, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The analysis carried out on different materials has shown that the quantity and type of dopants play an important role in the behaviour thermoluminescent signal induced by the ionizing radiation. More recent studies have also shown that the grain size influences strongly in the thermoluminescent signal. Plus still, the crystal growth habit and the crystalline degree have an important effect in the type and intensity thermoluminescent signal. In this sense, we present this work on the analysis of the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation in the hydroxyapatite ceramic. Depending the growth habit, a variation of the peak temperature location, signal intensity and linearity range was observed; in particular cases a lineal relationship between glow curve and radiation dose was in the range from 2 to 1000 Gray. These results are complemented with a microstructural and crystalline degree analysis through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The dose-response over the whole irradiation range opening up the possibility of employing this bio material as a dosimeter. (Author)

  19. Influence of the noble metals (Pd, Au, Ag) in the thermoluminescent signal induced by radiation in the ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa S, G.

    2006-01-01

    When increasing the use of the ionizing and non ionizing radiations (for example, gamma and ultraviolet radiation) in different areas of the science and technology, there is necessary to apply more accurate safety measures and to avoid over-exposures that could put in risk the life of workers that manipulate radiation sources, patient that are exposed to this under some medical treatment, as well as materials that undergo intentionally to radiation. Also, the UV radiation that arrives to the earth can cause some damages, to the one to weaken the protector layer of ozone the UV radiation increases that arrives to the earth surface being able to affect the alive beings and the materials. By this so much the development of new materials able to take a census of in a more accurate way, fields of gamma and UV radiation is becoming necessary. In this sense, this work presents the obtained results when quantifying radiation fields, through the analysis in the thermoluminescent behavior (TL) induced by the gamma and UV radiation in the zirconium dioxide synthesized by the sol gel method and doped with nanoparticles of Pd, Au and Ag. It is necessary to mention that in reported works in this respect its mention that the zircon has good thermoluminescent sensitivity induced by these radiation types, however it has shown high thermoluminescent instability that is translated in an important lost of the information after the irradiation. For that through the incorporation of the metallic nanoparticles it was intended to stabilize the TL behavior of zircon. The results showed that the doped zircon has a high sensitivity to the gamma and UV radiation. These also show that the ionizing and non ionizing radiation induce a thermoluminescent curve consisting of two TL peaks with maxima located around 65 C and 145 C and that the intensity is increased with the dose, following a lineal behavior in certain interval of dose exposure that is influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles

  20. Description of spin reorientation transition in Au/Co/Au sandwich with Co film thickness within a simple phenomenological model of ferromagnetic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Simple phenomenological model of ferromagnetic film characterized by equal energies of surface anisotropies at two sides of a film (symmetric film) is considered. The model is used to describe a two-step spin reorientation transition (SRT) in Au/Co/Au sandwich with Co film thickness: the SRT from perpendicular to canted noncollinear (CNC) state at N ⊥ =6.3 atomic layers and the subsequent SRT from CNC to in-plane state at N ∥ =10.05 atomic layers. Analytic expressions for the stability criterion of collinear perpendicular and in-plane states of a film are derived with account of discrete location of atomic layers. The dependence of borders that separate regions corresponding to various magnetic states of a film in the (k B ,k S )-diagram on film thickness N is established. k S (k B ) is surface (bulk) reduced anisotropy constant. The comparison of theory with experiment related to Au/Co/Au sandwich shows that there is a whole region in the (k B ,k S )-diagram corresponding to experimentally determined values of threshold film thicknesses N ⊥ =6.3 and N ∥ =10.05. The comparison of this region with similar region determined earlier for a bare Co/Au film within the same model of asymmetric film and characterized by N ⊥ =3.5, N ∥ =5.5 shows that the intersection of these regions is not empty. Hence, both the SRT in Au/Co/Au sandwich and in bare Co/Au film with Co film thickness can be described within the same model using the same magnitudes of model parameters k S , k B . Based on this result we conclude that the energy of Neel surface anisotropy at free Co surface is negligible compared to the energy of Co–Au interface anisotropy. It is demonstrated that the destabilization of collinear states in symmetric film leads to occurrence of the ground CNC state and two novel metastable CNC states. These three CNC states exhibit different kinds of symmetry. In case of asymmetric film only ground CNC state occurs on destabilization of collinear states of a film

  1. Quantifying graininess of glossy food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Flemming; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    The sensory quality of yoghurt can be altered when changing the milk composition or processing conditions. Part of the sensory quality may be assessed visually. It is described how a non-contact method for quantifying surface gloss and grains in yoghurt can be made. It was found that the standard...

  2. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  3. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  4. Quantifying recontamination through factory environments - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt-den Aantrekker, van E.D.; Boom, R.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Schothorst, van M.

    2003-01-01

    Recontamination of food products can be the origin of foodborne illnesses and should therefore be included in quantitative microbial risk assessment (MRA) studies. In order to do this, recontamination should be quantified using predictive models. This paper gives an overview of the relevant

  5. Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X N; Wei, L F

    2017-11-14

    Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.

  6. Interbank exposures: quantifying the risk of contagion

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Furfine

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the likelihood that failure of one bank would cause the subsequent collapse of a large number of other banks. Using unique data on interbank payment flows, the magnitude of bilateral federal funds exposures is quantified. These exposures are used to simulate the impact of various failure scenarios, and the risk of contagion is found to be economically small.

  7. Quantifying Productivity Gains from Foreign Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fons-Rosen (Christian); S. Kalemli-Ozcan (Sebnem); B.E. Sorensen (Bent); C. Villegas-Sanchez (Carolina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe quantify the causal effect of foreign investment on total factor productivity (TFP) using a new global firm-level database. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the difference in the amount of foreign investment by financial and industrial investors and simultaneously

  8. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  9. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  10. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    . nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  11. New frontiers of quantified self 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2016-01-01

    While the Quantified Self (QS) community is described in terms of "self-knowledge through numbers" people are increasingly demanding value and meaning. In this workshop we aim at refocusing the QS debate on the value of data for providing new services....

  12. Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuling, I.A.; Kohlrausch, A.G.; Juola, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from

  13. Reliability-How to Quantify and Improve?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Reliability - How to Quantify and Improve? - Improving the Health of Products. N K Srinivasan. General Article Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Vibrations and reorientations of H2O molecules in [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 studied by Raman light scattering, incoherent inelastic neutron scattering and proton magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Lukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Harańczyk, Hubert

    2014-04-24

    Vibrational-reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), quasielastic and inelastic incoherent Neutron Scattering (QENS and IINS) methods. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements, performed simultaneously with QENS, did not indicated a change of the crystal structure at the phase transition (detected earlier by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at TC(h)=252.9 K (on heating) and at TC(c)=226.5K (on cooling)). Temperature dependence of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of νs(OH) band at ca. 3248 cm(-1) in the RS spectra indicated small discontinuity in the vicinity of phase transition temperature, what suggests that the observed phase transition may be associated with a change of the H2O reorientational dynamics. However, an activation energy value (Ea) for the reorientational motions of H2O ligands in both phases is nearly the same and equals to ca. 8 kJ mol(-1). The QENS peaks, registered for low temperature phase do not show any broadening. However, in the high temperature phase a small QENS broadening is clearly visible, what implies that the reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands undergoes a change at the phase transition. (1)H NMR line is a superposition of two powder Pake doublets, differentiated by a dipolar broadening, suggesting that there are two types of the water molecules in the crystal lattice of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 which are structurally not equivalent average distances between the interacting protons are: 1.39 and 1.18 Å. However, their reorientational dynamics is very similar (τc=3.3⋅10(-10) s). Activation energies for the reorientational motion of these both kinds of H2O ligands have nearly the same values in an experimental error limit: and equal to ca. 40 kJ mole(-1). The phase transition is not seen in the (1)H NMR spectra temperature dependencies. Infrared (IR), Raman (RS) and inelastic

  15. Growth-temperature- and thermal-anneal-induced crystalline reorientation of aluminum on GaAs (100) grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Xiang, N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the growth of Al thin films on GaAs (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the growth at 550 degree sign C results in a texture that consists of (100)Al[010](parallel sign)(100)GaAs[011] and (100)Al[010](parallel sign)(100)GaAs[010] rotated 45 degree sign with respect to each other, while the growth at 300 degree sign C leads to a mixture phase of (100)Al[010](parallel sign)(100)GaAs[011] and (110)Al[001](parallel sign)(100)GaAs[011]. In situ annealing of the Al film grown at 300 degree sign C causes a reorientation of the crystalline from (100)Al[010](parallel sign)(100)GaAs[011] to (110)Al[001](parallel sign)(100)GaAs[011]. The grain sizes of the Al film are increased by the increased growth temperature and in situ annealing; the ratio of the exposed to the covered surface is not changed significantly by changing the growth temperature but decreased by annealing; and the small islands in between the large ones are removed by annealing. These observations are explained based on island migration and coalescence

  16. The Reorientation of T-Cell Polarity and Inhibition of Immunological Synapse Formation by CD46 Involves Its Recruitment to Lipid Rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy J. Ludford-Menting

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many infectious agents utilize CD46 for infection of human cells, and therapeutic applications of CD46-binding viruses are now being explored. Besides mediating internalization to enable infection, binding to CD46 can directly alter immune function. In particular, ligation of CD46 by antibodies or by measles virus can prevent activation of T cells by altering T-cell polarity and consequently preventing the formation of an immunological synapse. Here, we define a mechanism by which CD46 reorients T-cell polarity to prevent T-cell receptor signaling in response to antigen presentation. We show that CD46 associates with lipid rafts upon ligation, and that this reduces recruitment of both lipid rafts and the microtubule organizing centre to the site of receptor cross-linking. These data combined indicate that polarization of T cells towards the site of CD46 ligation prevents formation of an immunological synapse, and this is associated with the ability of CD46 to recruit lipid rafts away from the site of TCR ligation.

  17. Reorientation of the Methyl Group in MAs(III) is the Rate-Limiting Step in the ArsM As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, Charles; Li, Jiaojiao; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P

    2018-03-01

    The most common biotransformation of trivalent inorganic arsenic (As(III)) is methylation to mono-, di-, and trimethylated species. Methylation is catalyzed by As(III) S -adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferase (termed ArsM in microbes and AS3MT in animals). Methylarsenite (MAs(III)) is both the product of the first methylation step and the substrate of the second methylation step. When the rate of the overall methylation reaction was determined with As(III) as the substrate, the first methylation step was rapid, whereas the second methylation step was slow. In contrast, when MAs(III) was used as the substrate, the rate of methylation was as fast as the first methylation step when As(III) was used as the substrate. These results indicate that there is a slow conformational change between the first and second methylation steps. The structure of CmArsM from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae sp. 5508 was determined with bound MAs(III) at 2.27 Å resolution. The methyl group is facing the solvent, as would be expected when MAs(III) is bound as the substrate rather than facing the SAM-binding site, as would be expected for MAs(III) as a product. We propose that the rate-limiting step in arsenic methylation is slow reorientation of the methyl group from the SAM-binding site to the solvent, which is linked to the conformation of the side chain of a conserved residue Tyr70.

  18. Effects of particle size on the spin reorientation transition in R2F14B (R=Nd, Er) hard magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldeaki, M.; Koszegi, L.; Dunlap, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Spin reorientation transitions (SRTs) were observed via ac-susceptibility measurements in powdered and as-cast R 2 F 14 B (R=Nd, Er) alloys. The temperature dependence of the susceptibility was found to be largely structure sensitive: powdered samples showed a moderate increase before the transition and a sharp decrease following the transition, while a sharp cusp in the susceptibility preceeded the transition in bulk samples. At the same time, the transition temperature and the relative intensity of the effects did not show any frequency dependence in the 0.1-10 kHz range. The results were compared with existing theoretical models assuming different magnetization mechanisms such as rotation of the magnetization vector, domain wall bowing and domain wall displacement. Domain wall contributions to the overall susceptibility cannot be neglected in either sample. At the same time, the rotational susceptibility is more significantly influenced by the sign reversal of the anisotropy constant, and this is the main contribution to the susceptibility maximum at the SRT. In powders, the expected sharp increase of the rotational susceptibility is counterbalanced by magnetostatic surface effects (''μ * effect''). In bulk materials the influence of surface effects is less significant and the cusp can be observed. (orig.)

  19. Experimental investigation on transformation, reorientation and plasticity of Ni47Ti44Nb9 SMA under biaxial thermal–mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiang; Peng, Xianghe; Chen, Bin; Han, Jia; Zeng, Zhongmin; Hu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) Ni 47 Ti 44 Nb 9 specimens subjected to different thermal–mechanical loading histories was investigated experimentally. This involved the application of strain by different proportional or non-proportional paths in the biaxial ϵ−γ plane at −60 °C (M s + 30 °C), the interaction between stress-induced martensitic transformation, reorientation and plastic deformation, temperature-induced reverse martensitic transformation and strain recovery. The results show that the equivalent stress–strain curves, as well as the pure shear and pure tensile curves, depend strongly on the thermal–mechanical loading history. For specimens deformed previously to the same equivalent strains by different paths, the equivalent recovery strains after unloading are similar, as are the spans between the reverse transformation start and final temperatures. The activated martensite variants depend strongly on loading history. The recovery of the axial strain component and that of the shear strain component due to reverse transformation occur synchronously and develop along the shortest path in the ϵ−γ plane. The results may provide some new and useful information on the effects of transformation, plasticity and loading paths for further studies and applications of such materials. (paper)

  20. Quantifying Stock Return Distributions in Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Federico; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Being able to quantify the probability of large price changes in stock markets is of crucial importance in understanding financial crises that affect the lives of people worldwide. Large changes in stock market prices can arise abruptly, within a matter of minutes, or develop across much longer time scales. Here, we analyze a dataset comprising the stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average at a second by second resolution in the period from January 2008 to July 2010 in order to quantify the distribution of changes in market prices at a range of time scales. We find that the tails of the distributions of logarithmic price changes, or returns, exhibit power law decays for time scales ranging from 300 seconds to 3600 seconds. For larger time scales, we find that the distributions tails exhibit exponential decay. Our findings may inform the development of models of market behavior across varying time scales.

  1. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  2. How are the catastrophical risks quantifiable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1985-01-01

    For the assessment and evaluation of industrial risks the question must be asked how are the catastrophical risks quantifiable. Typical real catastrophical risks and risk assessment based on modelling assumptions have been placed against each other in order to put the risks into proper perspective. However, the society is risk averse when there is a catastrophic potential of severe accidents in a large scale industrial facility even though there is extremely low probability of occurence. (orig.) [de

  3. Quantifying Distributional Model Risk via Optimal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Jose; Murthy, Karthyek R. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of quantifying the impact of model misspecification when computing general expected values of interest. The methodology that we propose is applicable in great generality, in particular, we provide examples involving path dependent expectations of stochastic processes. Our approach consists in computing bounds for the expectation of interest regardless of the probability measure used, as long as the measure lies within a prescribed tolerance measured in terms ...

  4. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R. Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to e...

  5. Spin reorientation in (R[sub 1-x]R'[sub x])[sub 2]Co[sub 14]B (R=Y and Gd, R'=Tb, Dy and Ho). [YTbCoB; YDyCoB; YHoCoB; GdTbCoB; GdDyCoB; GdHoCoB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myojin, T. (Takamatsu National Coll. of Technology, Takamatsu (Japan)); Ohno, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima Univ. (Japan)); Tsujimura, A. (Faculty of Engineering, Tokushima Bunri Univ., Kagawa Shido (Japan)); Hihara, T. (Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    In order to investigate spin reorientation mechanism microscopically, the constituent dependences of the spin reorientation temperature T[sub SR] have been determined in (R[sub 1-x]R'[sub x])[sub 2]Co[sub 14]B by magnetization and [sup 59]Co NMR measurements. The spin arrangement phase diagrams are prorosed and the results are discussed with the crystalline electric field effect and Co-R exchange interaction. (orig.)

  6. Quantifier spreading: children misled by ostensive cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin É. Kiss

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls attention to a methodological problem of acquisition experiments. It shows that the economy of the stimulus employed in child language experiments may lend an increased ostensive effect to the message communicated to the child. Thus, when the visual stimulus in a sentence-picture matching task is a minimal model abstracting away from the details of the situation, children often regard all the elements of the stimulus as ostensive clues to be represented in the corresponding sentence. The use of such minimal stimuli is mistaken when the experiment aims to test whether or not a certain element of the stimulus is relevant for the linguistic representation or interpretation. The paper illustrates this point by an experiment involving quantifier spreading. It is claimed that children find a universally quantified sentence like 'Every girl is riding a bicycle 'to be a false description of a picture showing three girls riding bicycles and a solo bicycle because they are misled to believe that all the elements in the visual stimulus are relevant, hence all of them are to be represented by the corresponding linguistic description. When the iconic drawings were replaced by photos taken in a natural environment rich in accidental details, the occurrence of quantifier spreading was radically reduced. It is shown that an extra object in the visual stimulus can lead to the rejection of the sentence also in the case of sentences involving no quantification, which gives further support to the claim that the source of the problem is not (or not only the grammatical or cognitive difficulty of quantification but the unintended ostensive effect of the extra object.  This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  7. Spin reorientation and magnetoelastic properties of ferromagnetic T b1 -xN dxC o2 systems with a morphotropic phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Adil; Yang, Sen; Chang, Tieyan; Ghani, Awais; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Chao; Song, Xiaoping; Suchomel, Matthew; Ren, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The spin reorientation (SR) and magnetoelastic properties of pseudobinary ferromagnetic T b1 -xN dxC o2 (0 ≤x ≤1.0 ) systems involving a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were studied by high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetization, and magnetostriction measurements. The easy magnetization direction of the Laves phase lies along the 〈111 〉 axis with x 0.65 below Curie temperature (TC). The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed SR; this can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Based on the synchrotron (XRD) and magnetization measurements, the SR phase diagram for a MPB composition of T b0.35N d0.65C o2 was obtained. Contrary to previously reported ferromagnetic systems involving MPB, the MPB composition of T b0.35N d0.65C o2 exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x =0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. The decrease in magnetostriction can be attributed to the decrease of spontaneous magnetostriction λ111 and increase of λ100 with opposite sign to λ111. This paper indicates an anomalous type of MPB in the ferromagnetic T b1 -xN dxC o2 system and provides an active way to design novel functional materials with exotic properties.

  8. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attackers...... capable to observe the internal behavior of the system, and quantify the information leakage of such systems. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed and non-timed attacks...

  9. Characterization of autoregressive processes using entropic quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversaro, Francisco; Redelico, Francisco O.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the contribution is to introduce a novel information plane, the causal-amplitude informational plane. As previous works seems to indicate, Bandt and Pompe methodology for estimating entropy does not allow to distinguish between probability distributions which could be fundamental for simulation or for probability analysis purposes. Once a time series is identified as stochastic by the causal complexity-entropy informational plane, the novel causal-amplitude gives a deeper understanding of the time series, quantifying both, the autocorrelation strength and the probability distribution of the data extracted from the generating processes. Two examples are presented, one from climate change model and the other from financial markets.

  10. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  11. An index for quantifying flocking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera, Vicenç; Herrando, Salvador; Beltran, Francesc S; Salas, Laura; Miñano, Meritxell

    2007-12-01

    One of the classic research topics in adaptive behavior is the collective displacement of groups of organisms such as flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of mammals, and crowds of people. However, most agent-based simulations of group behavior do not provide a quantitative index for determining the point at which the flock emerges. An index was developed of the aggregation of moving individuals in a flock and an example was provided of how it can be used to quantify the degree to which a group of moving individuals actually forms a flock.

  12. A Generalizable Methodology for Quantifying User Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Te-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Huang, Polly; Lei, Chin-Laung

    Quantifying user satisfaction is essential, because the results can help service providers deliver better services. In this work, we propose a generalizable methodology, based on survival analysis, to quantify user satisfaction in terms of session times, i. e., the length of time users stay with an application. Unlike subjective human surveys, our methodology is based solely on passive measurement, which is more cost-efficient and better able to capture subconscious reactions. Furthermore, by using session times, rather than a specific performance indicator, such as the level of distortion of voice signals, the effects of other factors like loudness and sidetone, can also be captured by the developed models. Like survival analysis, our methodology is characterized by low complexity and a simple model-developing process. The feasibility of our methodology is demonstrated through case studies of ShenZhou Online, a commercial MMORPG in Taiwan, and the most prevalent VoIP application in the world, namely Skype. Through the model development process, we can also identify the most significant performance factors and their impacts on user satisfaction and discuss how they can be exploited to improve user experience and optimize resource allocation.

  13. Quantifying the efficiency of river regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rödel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-affected hydrologic time series give rise to uncertainties when they are used for calibrating large-scale hydrologic models or for analysing runoff records. It is therefore necessary to identify and to quantify the impact of impoundments on runoff time series. Two different approaches were employed. The first, classic approach compares the volume of the dams that are located upstream from a station with the annual discharge. The catchment areas of the stations are calculated and then related to geo-referenced dam attributes. The paper introduces a data set of geo-referenced dams linked with 677 gauging stations in Europe. Second, the intensity of the impoundment impact on runoff times series can be quantified more exactly and directly when long-term runoff records are available. Dams cause a change in the variability of flow regimes. This effect can be measured using the model of linear single storage. The dam-caused storage change ΔS can be assessed through the volume of the emptying process between two flow regimes. As an example, the storage change ΔS is calculated for regulated long-term series of the Luleälven in northern Sweden.

  14. Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-08-01

    Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.

  15. Quantifying climate risk - the starting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairweather, Helen; Luo, Qunying; Liu, De Li; Wiles, Perry

    2007-01-01

    Full text: All natural systems have evolved to their current state as a result inter alia of the climate in which they developed. Similarly, man-made systems (such as agricultural production) have developed to suit the climate experienced over the last 100 or so years. The capacity of different systems to adapt to changes in climate that are outside those that have been experienced previously is largely unknown. This results in considerable uncertainty when predicting climate change impacts. However, it is possible to quantify the relative probabilities of a range of potential impacts of climate change. Quantifying current climate risks is an effective starting point for analysing the probable impacts of future climate change and guiding the selection of appropriate adaptation strategies. For a farming system to be viable within the current climate, its profitability must be sustained and, therefore, possible adaptation strategies need to be tested for continued viability in a changed climate. The methodology outlined in this paper examines historical patterns of key climate variables (rainfall and temperature) across the season and their influence on the productivity of wheat growing in NSW. This analysis is used to identify the time of year that the system is most vulnerable to climate variation, within the constraints of the current climate. Wheat yield is used as a measure of productivity, which is also assumed to be a surrogate for profitability. A time series of wheat yields is sorted into ascending order and categorised into five percentile groupings (i.e. 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th percentiles) for each shire across NSW (-100 years). Five time series of climate data (which are aggregated daily data from the years in each percentile) are analysed to determine the period that provides the greatest climate risk to the production system. Once this period has been determined, this risk is quantified in terms of the degree of separation of the time series

  16. Reorientation measurements on tungsten isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J J; Saladin, J X; Baktash, C; Alessi, J G [Pittsburgh Univ., Pa. (USA)

    1977-11-14

    In a particle-..gamma.. coincidence experiment, a thick tungsten target, of natural isotopic abundance, was bombarded with ..cap alpha.. and /sup 16/O beams. From analysis of the deexcitation ..gamma..-rays following Coulomb excitation, the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the second 2/sup +/ state (the 2/sup +/' state) was determined for /sup 186/W and /sup 184/W. In a separate Coulomb excitation experiment a thin, isotopically enriched /sup 186/W target was bombarded with /sup 16/O ions. From analysis of projectiles scattered elastically and inelastically the quadrupole moment of the 2/sup +/' state of /sup 186/W was extracted. The results of the two experiments are in good agreement. The quadrupole moment of the 2/sup +/' state is found to be opposite in sign to that of the first 2/sup +/ state for both isotopes studied. However, its magnitude decreases rapidly in going from /sup 186/W to /sup 184/W, in contrast to the predictions of the rotation-vibration of asymmetric rotor models. The microscopic theory of Kumar and Baranger does predict the experimental trend, qualitatively. Thus the present results are interpreted as being evidence of strong coupling between ..beta.. and ..gamma.. degrees of freedom in the tungsten isotopes, which, according to the theory of Kumar and Baranger, is the source of the reduced value of the quadrupole moment.

  17. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  18. Towards Quantifying a Wider Reality: Shannon Exonerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Ulanowicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1872 Ludwig von Boltzmann derived a statistical formula to represent the entropy (an apophasis of a highly simplistic system. In 1948 Claude Shannon independently formulated the same expression to capture the positivist essence of information. Such contradictory thrusts engendered decades of ambiguity concerning exactly what is conveyed by the expression. Resolution of widespread confusion is possible by invoking the third law of thermodynamics, which requires that entropy be treated in a relativistic fashion. Doing so parses the Boltzmann expression into separate terms that segregate apophatic entropy from positivist information. Possibly more importantly, the decomposition itself portrays a dialectic-like agonism between constraint and disorder that may provide a more appropriate description of the behavior of living systems than is possible using conventional dynamics. By quantifying the apophatic side of evolution, the Shannon approach to information achieves what no other treatment of the subject affords: It opens the window on a more encompassing perception of reality.

  19. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  20. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  1. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; Illuminati, F; De Siena, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  2. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    material used amounting to 19,000–26,000tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000MWh. In terms of the environmental burden...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted.......Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...

  5. Pendulum Underwater - An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long and lightweight wire that carries a ball at its lower end, which is totally immersed in water, so as to determine the water viscosity. The system used represents a viscous damped pendulum and we tried different theoretical models to describe it. The experimental part of the present paper is based on a very simple and low-cost image capturing apparatus that can easily be replicated in a physics classroom. Data on the pendulum's amplitude as a function of time were acquired using digital video analysis with the open source software Tracker.

  6. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  7. Quantifying brain microstructure with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Dmitry S.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2016-01-01

    the potential to quantify the relevant length scales for neuronal tissue, such as the packing correlation length for neuronal fibers, the degree of neuronal beading, and compartment sizes. The second avenue corresponds to the long-time limit, when the observed signal can be approximated as a sum of multiple non......-exchanging anisotropic Gaussian components. Here the challenge lies in parameter estimation and in resolving its hidden degeneracies. The third avenue employs multiple diffusion encoding techniques, able to access information not contained in the conventional diffusion propagator. We conclude with our outlook...... on the future research directions which can open exciting possibilities for developing markers of pathology and development based on methods of studying mesoscopic transport in disordered systems....

  8. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction of quantifiable information from complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Griebel, Michael; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Ritter, Klaus; Schneider, Reinhold; Schwab, Christoph; Yserentant, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In April 2007, the  Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) approved the  Priority Program 1324 “Mathematical Methods for Extracting Quantifiable Information from Complex Systems.” This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the most important results obtained over the course of the program.   Mathematical models of complex systems provide the foundation for further technological developments in science, engineering and computational finance.  Motivated by the trend toward steadily increasing computer power, ever more realistic models have been developed in recent years. These models have also become increasingly complex, and their numerical treatment poses serious challenges.   Recent developments in mathematics suggest that, in the long run, much more powerful numerical solution strategies could be derived if the interconnections between the different fields of research were systematically exploited at a conceptual level. Accordingly, a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations as w...

  10. Quantifying the evolution of individual scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Roberta; Wang, Dashun; Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-11-04

    Despite the frequent use of numerous quantitative indicators to gauge the professional impact of a scientist, little is known about how scientific impact emerges and evolves in time. Here, we quantify the changes in impact and productivity throughout a career in science, finding that impact, as measured by influential publications, is distributed randomly within a scientist's sequence of publications. This random-impact rule allows us to formulate a stochastic model that uncouples the effects of productivity, individual ability, and luck and unveils the existence of universal patterns governing the emergence of scientific success. The model assigns a unique individual parameter Q to each scientist, which is stable during a career, and it accurately predicts the evolution of a scientist's impact, from the h-index to cumulative citations, and independent recognitions, such as prizes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-03-01

    Because the cognitive neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon of creativity, the issue arises of how creativity is to be optimally measured. Unlike intelligence, which can be assessed across the full range of intellectual ability creativity measures tend to concentrate on different sections of the overall spectrum. After first defining creativity in terms of the three criteria of novelty, usefulness, and surprise, this article provides an overview of the available measures. Not only do these instruments vary according to whether they focus on the creative process, person, or product, but they differ regarding whether they tap into "little-c" versus "Big-C" creativity; only productivity and eminence measures reach into genius-level manifestations of the phenomenon. The article closes by discussing whether various alternative assessment techniques can be integrated into a single measure that quantifies creativity across the full spectrum.

  12. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  13. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted

  14. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  15. Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of international consensus on the expression of uncertainty in measurements was recognised by the late 1970s and led, after the issuance of a series of rather generic recommendations, to the publication of a general publication, known as GUM, the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This publication, issued in 1993, was based on co-operation over several years by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the Organisation internationale de metrologie legale. The purpose was to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for harmonized reporting and the international comparison of measurement results. The need to provide more specific guidance to different measurement disciplines was soon recognized and the field of analytical chemistry was addressed by EURACHEM in 1995 in the first edition of a guidance report on Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurements, produced by a group of experts from the field. That publication translated the general concepts of the GUM into specific applications for analytical laboratories and illustrated the principles with a series of selected examples as a didactic tool. Based on feedback from the actual practice, the EURACHEM publication was extensively reviewed in 1997-1999 under the auspices of the Co-operation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry (CITAC), and a second edition was published in 2000. Still, except for a single example on the measurement of radioactivity in GUM, the field of nuclear and radiochemical measurements was not covered. The explicit requirement of ISO standard 17025:1999, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration

  16. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  17. QUANTIFYING LIFE STYLE IMPACT ON LIFESPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Lorenzini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, physical activity and avoiding dangerous habits such as smoking are effective ways of increasing health and lifespan. Although a significant portion of the world's population still suffers from malnutrition, especially children, the most common cause of death in the world today is non-communicable diseases. Overweight and obesity significantly increase the relative risk for the most relevant non communicable diseases: cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and some cancers. Childhood overweight also seems to increase the likelihood of disease in adulthood through epigenetic mechanisms. This worrisome trend now termed "globesity" will deeply impact society unless preventive strategies are put into effect. Researchers of the basic biology of aging have clearly established that animals with short lifespans live longer when their diet is calorie restricted. Although similar experiments carried on rhesus monkeys, a longer-lived species more closely related to humans, yielded mixed results, overall the available scientific data suggest keeping the body mass index in the "normal" range increases the chances of living a longer, healthier life. This can be successfully achieved both by maintaining a healthy diet and by engaging in physical activity. In this review we will try to quantify the relative impact of life style choices on lifespan.

  18. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  19. Stimfit: quantifying electrophysiological data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Jose Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular electrophysiological recordings provide crucial insights into elementary neuronal signals such as action potentials and synaptic currents. Analyzing and interpreting these signals is essential for a quantitative understanding of neuronal information processing, and requires both fast data visualization and ready access to complex analysis routines. To achieve this goal, we have developed Stimfit, a free software package for cellular neurophysiology with a Python scripting interface and a built-in Python shell. The program supports most standard file formats for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical signals through the Biosig library. To quantify and interpret the activity of single neurons and communication between neurons, the program includes algorithms to characterize the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials and postsynaptic currents, estimate latencies between pre- and postsynaptic events, and detect spontaneously occurring events. We validate and benchmark these algorithms, give estimation errors, and provide sample use cases, showing that Stimfit represents an efficient, accessible and extensible way to accurately analyze and interpret neuronal signals.

  20. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  2. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  3. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-10-10

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (h out ) and inflow (h in ). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime. We subsequently present two scenarios of changes in human water withdrawals and return flow to the system (individually and combined). Results show that approximately one-third of the selected aquifers in the USA, and half of the selected aquifers in Iran are dominated by human activities, while the selected aquifers in Germany are natural flow-dominated. The scenario analysis results also show that reduced human withdrawals could help with regime change in some aquifers. For instance, in two of the selected USA aquifers, a decrease in anthropogenic influences by ~20% may change the condition of depleted regime to natural flow-dominated regime. We specifically highlight a trending threat to the sustainability of groundwater in northwest Iran and California, and the need for more careful assessment and monitoring practices as well as strict regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation.

  4. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  5. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  6. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Leidig

    Full Text Available Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI. The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  7. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  8. Quantifying the microvascular origin of BOLD-fMRI from first principles with two-photon microscopy and an oxygen-sensitive nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Frédéric; Musacchia, Joseph J; Lefebvre, Joël; Fang, Qianqian; Yücel, Meryem A; Evans, Karleyton C; Mandeville, Emiri T; Cohen-Adad, Jülien; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Lo, Eng H; Greve, Douglas N; Buxton, Richard B; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A

    2015-02-25

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast is widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies aimed at investigating neuronal activity. However, the BOLD signal reflects changes in blood volume and oxygenation rather than neuronal activity per se. Therefore, understanding the transformation of microscopic vascular behavior into macroscopic BOLD signals is at the foundation of physiologically informed noninvasive neuroimaging. Here, we use oxygen-sensitive two-photon microscopy to measure the BOLD-relevant microvascular physiology occurring within a typical rodent fMRI voxel and predict the BOLD signal from first principles using those measurements. The predictive power of the approach is illustrated by quantifying variations in the BOLD signal induced by the morphological folding of the human cortex. This framework is then used to quantify the contribution of individual vascular compartments and other factors to the BOLD signal for different magnet strengths and pulse sequences. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353663-13$15.00/0.

  9. Quantifying Riverscape Connectivity with Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; Milledge, D.; Sinha, R.; Tandon, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial catchments convey fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and aquatic biota. At continental scales, crustal topography defines the overall path of channels whilst at local scales depositional and/or erosional features generally determine the exact path of a channel. Furthermore, constructions such as dams, for either water abstraction or hydropower, often have a significant impact on channel networks.The concept of ';connectivity' is commonly invoked when conceptualising the structure of a river network.This concept is easy to grasp but there have been uneven efforts across the environmental sciences to actually quantify connectivity. Currently there have only been a few studies reporting quantitative indices of connectivity in river sciences, notably, in the study of avulsion processes. However, the majority of current work describing some form of environmental connectivity in a quantitative manner is in the field of landscape ecology. Driven by the need to quantify habitat fragmentation, landscape ecologists have returned to graph theory. Within this formal setting, landscape ecologists have successfully developed a range of indices which can model connectivity loss. Such formal connectivity metrics are currently needed for a range of applications in fluvial sciences. One of the most urgent needs relates to dam construction. In the developed world, hydropower development has generally slowed and in many countries, dams are actually being removed. However, this is not the case in the developing world where hydropower is seen as a key element to low-emissions power-security. For example, several dam projects are envisaged in Himalayan catchments in the next 2 decades. This region is already under severe pressure from climate change and urbanisation, and a better understanding of the network fragmentation which can be expected in this system is urgently needed. In this paper, we apply and adapt connectivity metrics from landscape ecology. We then examine the

  10. Quantifying human vitamin kinetics using AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillegonds, D; Dueker, S; Ognibene, T; Buchholz, B; Lin, Y; Vogel, J; Clifford, A

    2004-02-19

    Tracing vitamin kinetics at physiologic concentrations has been hampered by a lack of quantitative sensitivity for chemically equivalent tracers that could be used safely in healthy people. Instead, elderly or ill volunteers were sought for studies involving pharmacologic doses with radioisotopic labels. These studies fail to be relevant in two ways: vitamins are inherently micronutrients, whose biochemical paths are saturated and distorted by pharmacological doses; and while vitamins remain important for health in the elderly or ill, their greatest effects may be in preventing slow and cumulative diseases by proper consumption throughout youth and adulthood. Neither the target dose nor the target population are available for nutrient metabolic studies through decay counting of radioisotopes at high levels. Stable isotopic labels are quantified by isotope ratio mass spectrometry at levels that trace physiologic vitamin doses, but the natural background of stable isotopes severely limits the time span over which the tracer is distinguishable. Indeed, study periods seldom ranged over a single biological mean life of the labeled nutrients, failing to provide data on the important final elimination phase of the compound. Kinetic data for the absorption phase is similarly rare in micronutrient research because the phase is rapid, requiring many consecutive plasma samples for accurate representation. However, repeated blood samples of sufficient volume for precise stable or radio-isotope quantitations consume an indefensible amount of the volunteer's blood over a short period. Thus, vitamin pharmacokinetics in humans has often relied on compartmental modeling based upon assumptions and tested only for the short period of maximal blood circulation, a period that poorly reflects absorption or final elimination kinetics except for the most simple models.

  11. Quantifying Sentiment and Influence in Blogspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Peter SY; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-07-25

    The weblog, or blog, has become a popular form of social media, through which authors can write posts, which can in turn generate feedback in the form of user comments. When considered in totality, a collection of blogs can thus be viewed as a sort of informal collection of mass sentiment and opinion. An obvious topic of interest might be to mine this collection to obtain some gauge of public sentiment over the wide variety of topics contained therein. However, the sheer size of the so-called blogosphere, combined with the fact that the subjects of posts can vary over a practically limitless number of topics poses some serious challenges when any meaningful analysis is attempted. Namely, the fact that largely anyone with access to the Internet can author their own blog, raises the serious issue of credibility— should some blogs be considered to be more influential than others, and consequently, when gauging sentiment with respect to a topic, should some blogs be weighted more heavily than others? In addition, as new posts and comments can be made on almost a constant basis, any blog analysis algorithm must be able to handle such updates efficiently. In this paper, we give a formalization of the blog model. We give formal methods of quantifying sentiment and influence with respect to a hierarchy of topics, with the specific aim of facilitating the computation of a per-topic, influence-weighted sentiment measure. Finally, as efficiency is a specific endgoal, we give upper bounds on the time required to update these values with new posts, showing that our analysis and algorithms are scalable.

  12. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  13. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  14. Quantifying seasonal velocity at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, E.; Quincey, D. J.; Miles, K.; Hubbard, B. P.; Rowan, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    While the low-gradient debris-covered tongues of many Himalayan glaciers exhibit low surface velocities, quantifying ice flow and its variation through time remains a key challenge for studies aimed at determining the long-term evolution of these glaciers. Recent work has suggested that glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal may show seasonal variability in surface velocity, with ice flow peaking during the summer as monsoon precipitation provides hydrological inputs and thus drives changes in subglacial drainage efficiency. However, satellite and aerial observations of glacier velocity during the monsoon are greatly limited due to cloud cover. Those that do exist do not span the period over which the most dynamic changes occur, and consequently short-term (i.e. daily) changes in flow, as well as the evolution of ice dynamics through the monsoon period, remain poorly understood. In this study, we combine field and remote (satellite image) observations to create a multi-temporal, 3D synthesis of ice deformation rates at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, focused on the 2017 monsoon period. We first determine net annual and seasonal surface displacements for the whole glacier based on Landsat-8 (OLI) panchromatic data (15m) processed with ImGRAFT. We integrate inclinometer observations from three boreholes drilled by the EverDrill project to determine cumulative deformation at depth, providing a 3D perspective and enabling us to assess the role of basal sliding at each site. We additionally analyze high-frequency on-glacier L1 GNSS data from three sites to characterize variability within surface deformation at sub-seasonal timescales. Finally, each dataset is validated against repeat-dGPS observations at gridded points in the vicinity of the boreholes and GNSS dataloggers. These datasets complement one another to infer thermal regime across the debris-covered ablation area of the glacier, and emphasize the seasonal and spatial variability of ice deformation for glaciers in High

  15. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  16. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  17. Quantifying motion for pancreatic radiotherapy margin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, Gillian; Jain, Pooja; Green, Melanie; Watkins, Gillian; Henry, Ann; Stratford, Julie; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Thomas; Moore, Christopher; Price, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pancreatic radiotherapy (RT) is limited by uncertain target motion. We quantified 3D patient/organ motion during pancreatic RT and calculated required treatment margins. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and orthogonal fluoroscopy images were acquired post-RT delivery from 13 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Bony setup errors were calculated from CBCT. Inter- and intra-fraction fiducial (clip/seed/stent) motion was determined from CBCT projections and orthogonal fluoroscopy. Results: Using an off-line CBCT correction protocol, systematic (random) setup errors were 2.4 (3.2), 2.0 (1.7) and 3.2 (3.6) mm laterally (left–right), vertically (anterior–posterior) and longitudinally (cranio-caudal), respectively. Fiducial motion varied substantially. Random inter-fractional changes in mean fiducial position were 2.0, 1.6 and 2.6 mm; 95% of intra-fractional peak-to-peak fiducial motion was up to 6.7, 10.1 and 20.6 mm, respectively. Calculated clinical to planning target volume (CTV–PTV) margins were 1.4 cm laterally, 1.4 cm vertically and 3.0 cm longitudinally for 3D conformal RT, reduced to 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively, if using 4D planning and online setup correction. Conclusions: Commonly used CTV–PTV margins may inadequately account for target motion during pancreatic RT. Our results indicate better immobilisation, individualised allowance for respiratory motion, online setup error correction and 4D planning would improve targeting.

  18. 3D modelling of the flow of self-compacting concrete with or without steel fibres. Part II: L-box test and the assessment of fibre reorientation during the flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional Lagrangian particle-based smooth particle hydrodynamics method described in Part I of this two-part paper is used to simulate the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with and without steel fibres in the L-box configuration. As in Part I, the simulation of the SCC mixes without fibres emphasises the distribution of large aggregate particles of different sizes throughout the flow, whereas the simulation of high strength SCC mixes which contain steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The capabilities of this methodology are validated by comparing the simulation results with the L-box test carried out in the laboratory. A simple method is developed to assess the reorientation and distribution of short steel fibres in self-compacting concrete mixes during the flow. The reorientation of the fibres during the flow is used to estimate the fibre orientation factor (FOF) in a cross section perpendicular to the principal direction of flow. This estimation procedure involves the number of fibres cut by the section and their inclination to the cutting plane. This is useful to determine the FOF in practical image analysis on cut sections.

  19. A Methodological Approach to Quantifying Plyometric Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark M; Graham-Smith, Phil; Comfort, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Jarvis, MM, Graham-Smith, P, and Comfort, P. A Methodological approach to quantifying plyometric intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2522-2532, 2016-In contrast to other methods of training, the quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a range of neuromuscular and mechanical variables to describe the intensity of plyometric exercises. Seven male recreationally active subjects performed a series of 7 plyometric exercises. Neuromuscular activity was measured using surface electromyography (SEMG) at vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Surface electromyography data were divided into concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases of movement. Mechanical output was measured by ground reaction forces and processed to provide peak impact ground reaction force (PF), peak eccentric power (PEP), and impulse (IMP). Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability intraclass correlation coefficient and sensitivity smallest detectable difference of all variables. Mean values of SEMG demonstrate high reliability (r ≥ 0.82), excluding ECC VL during a 40-cm drop jump (r = 0.74). PF, PEP, and IMP demonstrated high reliability (r ≥ 0.85). Statistical power for force variables was excellent (power = 1.0), and good for SEMG (power ≥0.86) excluding CON BF (power = 0.57). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in CON SEMG between exercises. Eccentric phase SEMG only distinguished between exercises involving a landing and those that did not (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [%MVIC] = no landing -65 ± 5, landing -140 ± 8). Peak eccentric power, PF, and IMP all distinguished between exercises. In conclusion, CON neuromuscular activity does not appear to vary when intent is maximal, whereas ECC activity is dependent on the presence of a landing. Force characteristics provide a reliable and sensitive measure enabling precise description of intensity

  20. Quantifying Permafrost Characteristics with DCR-ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, W.; Trochim, E.; Munk, J.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methods are an efficient method for quantifying permafrost characteristics for Arctic road design and engineering. In the Alaskan Arctic construction and maintenance of roads requires integration of permafrost; ground that is below 0 degrees C for two or more years. Features such as ice content and temperature are critical for understanding current and future ground conditions for planning, design and evaluation of engineering applications. This study focused on the proposed Foothills West Transportation Access project corridor where the purpose is to construct a new all-season road connecting the Dalton Highway to Umiat. Four major areas were chosen that represented a range of conditions including gravel bars, alluvial plains, tussock tundra (both unburned and burned conditions), high and low centered ice-wedge polygons and an active thermokarst feature. Direct-current resistivity using galvanic contact (DCR-ERT) was applied over transects. In conjunction complimentary site data including boreholes, active layer depths, vegetation descriptions and site photographs was obtained. The boreholes provided information on soil morphology, ice texture and gravimetric moisture content. Horizontal and vertical resolutions in the DCR-ERT were varied to determine the presence or absence of ground ice; subsurface heterogeneity; and the depth to groundwater (if present). The four main DCR-ERT methods used were: 84 electrodes with 2 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 0.5 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 2 m spacing; and 84 electrodes with 1 m spacing. In terms of identifying the ground ice characteristics the higher horizontal resolution DCR-ERT transects with either 42 or 84 electrodes and 0.5 or 1 m spacing were best able to differentiate wedge-ice. This evaluation is based on a combination of both borehole stratigraphy and surface characteristics. Simulated apparent resistivity values for permafrost areas varied from a low of 4582 Ω m to a high of 10034 Ω m. Previous

  1. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  2. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  3. Quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moltmann, Sara; Hagemann, Markus; Eisbrenner, Katja; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Sterk, Wolfgang; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Watanabe, Rie [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Further action is needed that goes far beyond what has been agreed so far under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol to 'prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC. It is out of question that developed countries (Annex I countries) will have to take a leading role. They will have to commit to substantial emission reductions and financing commitments due to their historical responsibility and their financial capability. However, the stabilisation of the climate system will require global emissions to peak within the next decade and decline well below half of current levels by the middle of the century. It is hence a global issue and, thus, depends on the participation of as many countries as possible. This report provides a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including their national climate plans, of the major emitting developing countries Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea. It includes an overview of emissions and economic development, existing national climate change strategies, uses a consistent methodology for estimating emission reduction potential, costs of mitigation options, provides an estimate of the reductions to be achieved through the national climate plans and finally provides a comparison of the results to the allocation of emission rights according to different global effort-sharing approaches. In addition, the report discusses possible nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) the six countries could take based on the analysis of mitigation options. This report is an output of the project 'Proposals for quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economies' by Ecofys and the Wuppertal Institute for the Federal Environment Agency in Dessau. It builds upon earlier joint work ''Proposals for contributions of emerging economies to the climate

  4. Quantifying the impacts of global disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. M.; Ross, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Hansen, R. A.; Johnson, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Thio, H. K.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Geological Survey, and other entities are developing a Tsunami Scenario, depicting a realistic outcome of a hypothetical but plausible large tsunami originating in the eastern Aleutian Arc, affecting the west coast of the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The scenario includes earth-science effects, damage and restoration of the built environment, and social and economic impacts. Like the earlier ShakeOut and ARkStorm disaster scenarios, the purpose of the Tsunami Scenario is to apply science to quantify the impacts of natural disasters in a way that can be used by decision makers in the affected sectors to reduce the potential for loss. Most natural disasters are local. A major hurricane can destroy a city or damage a long swath of coastline while mostly sparing inland areas. The largest earthquake on record caused strong shaking along 1500 km of Chile, but left the capital relatively unscathed. Previous scenarios have used the local nature of disasters to focus interaction with the user community. However, the capacity for global disasters is growing with the interdependency of the global economy. Earthquakes have disrupted global computer chip manufacturing and caused stock market downturns. Tsunamis, however, can be global in their extent and direct impact. Moreover, the vulnerability of seaports to tsunami damage can increase the global consequences. The Tsunami Scenario is trying to capture the widespread effects while maintaining the close interaction with users that has been one of the most successful features of the previous scenarios. The scenario tsunami occurs in the eastern Aleutians with a source similar to the 2011 Tohoku event. Geologic similarities support the argument that a Tohoku-like source is plausible in Alaska. It creates a major nearfield tsunami in the Aleutian arc and peninsula, a moderate tsunami in the US Pacific Northwest, large but not the

  5. Quantifier spreading in child eye movements: A case of the Russian quantifier kazhdyj ‘every'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Sekerina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cross-linguistic work has documented that children up to the age of 9–10 make errors when performing a sentence-picture verification task that pairs spoken sentences with the universal quantifier 'every 'and pictures with entities in partial one-to-one correspondence. These errors stem from children’s difficulties in restricting the domain of a universal quantifier to the appropriate noun phrase and are referred in the literature as 'quantifier-spreading '('q'-spreading. We adapted the task to be performed in conjunction with eye-movement recordings using the Visual World Paradigm. Russian-speaking 5-to-6-year-old children ('N '= 31 listened to sentences like 'Kazhdyj alligator lezhit v vanne '‘Every alligator is lying in a bathtub’ and viewed pictures with three alligators, each in a bathtub, and two extra empty bathtubs. Non-spreader children ('N '= 12 were adult-like in their accuracy whereas 'q'-spreading ones ('N '= 19 were only 43% correct in interpreting such sentences compared to the control sentences. Eye movements of 'q'-spreading children revealed that more looks to the extra containers (two empty bathtubs correlated with higher error rates reflecting the processing pattern of 'q'-spreading. In contrast, more looks to the distractors in control sentences did not lead to errors in interpretation. We argue that 'q'-spreading errors are caused by interference from the extra entities in the visual context, and our results support the processing difficulty account of acquisition of quantification. Interference results in cognitive overload as children have to integrate multiple sources of information, i.e., visual context with salient extra entities and the spoken sentence in which these entities are mentioned in real-time processing.   This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  6. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988), Giusti (1990) and Shlonsky (1991) in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004) to constituent (quantifier) negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theor...

  7. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification over individuals, times, and worlds can in principle be made explicit in the syntax of the object language, or left to the semantics and spelled out in the meta-language. The traditional view is that quantification over individuals is syntactically explicit, whereas quantification over times and worlds is not. But a growing body of literature proposes a uniform treatment. This paper examines the scopal interaction of aspectual raising verbs (begin, modals (can, and intensional raising verbs (threaten with quantificational subjects in Shupamem, Dutch, and English. It appears that aspectual raising verbs and at least modals may undergo the same kind of overt or covert scope-changing operations as nominal quantifiers; the case of intensional raising verbs is less clear. Scope interaction is thus shown to be a new potential diagnostic of object-linguistic quantification, and the similarity in the scope behavior of nominal and verbal quantifiers supports the grammatical plausibility of ontological symmetry, explored in Schlenker (2006.ReferencesBen-Shalom, D. 1996. Semantic Trees. Ph.D. thesis, UCLA.Bittner, M. 1993. Case, Scope, and Binding. Dordrecht: Reidel.Cresswell, M. 1990. Entities and Indices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Cresti, D. 1995. ‘Extraction and reconstruction’. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01252885Curry, B. H. & Feys, R. 1958. Combinatory Logic I. Dordrecht: North-Holland.Dowty, D. R. 1988. ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction’. In Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon W. Bach & Deirdre Wheeler (eds. ‘Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures’, 153–197. Dordrecht: Reidel.Fox, D. 2002. ‘TOn Logical Form’. In Randall Hendrick (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–124. Oxford: Blackwell.Gallin, D. 1975. Intensional and higher-order modal logic: with applications to Montague semantics. North Holland Pub. Co.; American Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam

  8. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  9. Quantifying uncertainty in observational rainfall datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Dosio, Alessandro; Nikulin, Grigory; Pinto, Izidine; Seid, Hussen

    2015-04-01

    rainfall datasets available over Africa on monthly, daily and sub-daily time scales as appropriate to quantify spatial and temporal differences between the datasets. We find regional wet and dry biases between datasets (using the ensemble mean as a reference) with generally larger biases in reanalysis products. Rainfall intensity is poorly represented in some datasets which demonstrates some datasets should not be used for rainfall intensity analyses. Using 10 CORDEX models we show in east Africa that the spread between observed datasets is often similar to the spread between models. We recommend that specific observational rainfall datasets datasets be used for specific investigations and also that where many datasets are applicable to an investigation, a probabilistic view be adopted for rainfall studies over Africa. Endris, H. S., P. Omondi, S. Jain, C. Lennard, B. Hewitson, L. Chang'a, J. L. Awange, A. Dosio, P. Ketiem, G. Nikulin, H-J. Panitz, M. Büchner, F. Stordal, and L. Tazalika (2013) Assessment of the Performance of CORDEX Regional Climate Models in Simulating East African Rainfall. J. Climate, 26, 8453-8475. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00708.1 Gbobaniyi, E., A. Sarr, M. B. Sylla, I. Diallo, C. Lennard, A. Dosio, A. Dhie ?diou, A. Kamga, N. A. B. Klutse, B. Hewitson, and B. Lamptey (2013) Climatology, annual cycle and interannual variability of precipitation and temperature in CORDEX simulations over West Africa. Int. J. Climatol., DOI: 10.1002/joc.3834 Hernández-Díaz, L., R. Laprise, L. Sushama, A. Martynov, K. Winger, and B. Dugas (2013) Climate simulation over CORDEX Africa domain using the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). Clim. Dyn. 40, 1415-1433. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1387-z Kalognomou, E., C. Lennard, M. Shongwe, I. Pinto, A. Favre, M. Kent, B. Hewitson, A. Dosio, G. Nikulin, H. Panitz, and M. Büchner (2013) A diagnostic evaluation of precipitation in CORDEX models over southern Africa. Journal of Climate, 26, 9477-9506. DOI:10

  10. Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2010-06-01

    We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters.

  11. Visual Attention and Quantifier-Spreading in Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Sauermann, Antje

    2015-01-01

    It is well established in language acquisition research that monolingual children and adult second language learners misinterpret sentences with the universal quantifier "every" and make quantifier-spreading errors that are attributed to a preference for a match in number between two sets of objects. The present Visual World eye-tracking…

  12. Gender Differences in Knee Joint Congruity Quantified from MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Schiphof, Dieuwke; Byrjalsen, Inger

    2018-01-01

    was located and quantified using Euclidean distance transform. Furthermore, the CI was quantified over the contact area by assessing agreement of the first- and second-order general surface features. Then, the gender differences between CA and CI values were evaluated at different stages of radiographic OA...

  13. Anatomy of Alternating Quantifier Satisfiability (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Bjørner, Nikolaj; Monniaux, David

    We report on work in progress to generalize an algorithm recently introduced in [10] for checking satisfiability of formulas with quantifier alternation. The algorithm uses two auxiliary procedures: a procedure for producing a candidate formula for quantifier elimination and a procedure for elimi...

  14. The Role of Quantifier Alternations in Cut Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Extending previous results on the complexity of cut elimination for the sequent calculus LK, we discuss the role of quantifier alternations and develop a measure to describe the complexity of cut elimination in terms of quantifier alternations in cut formulas and contractions on such formulas...

  15. Reorienting the future role of the religión: humanize humanity. The role of the religión in society of the future will be purely spiritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Vigil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The post-Religional paradigm enables emerge in many people, questions about the future of religiosity and religions. The author confronts himself with this concern and tries to control, in a concrete way, the possibilities of a future for religions. In order, and as a starting point, the current process of secularization and the new and growing social phenomenon of 'no religion', this article analyzes the profound changes that are occurring in this time of transition. Then makes a proposal for extension and conversion of the old anthropological concept of spirituality to redirect it towards human depth. In presenting these profound changes, this new concept of spirituality seeks to understand the dimensions and functions that religions are no longer able to keep in post agrarian society what is to come, contributing with ideas and suggestions to deploy creativity with the central task from which religions should reorient and focus, that is, the task of humanizing humanity.

  16. Temperature-induced spin reorientation and magnetization jump of rare-earth orthoferrite Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohua; Zhao, Weiyao; Cao, Yiming; Kang, Baojuan [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, Jincang [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cao, Shixun, E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-07-25

    We report temperature-induced spin reorientation and magnetization jump effects in the rare earth (RE) orthoferrite Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal. The single crystal of about 6 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length was successfully grown by optical floating zone method. Both X-ray diffraction and Laue photograph confirmed the homogeneity and high quality of the crystal. Magnetic properties of Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal are studied over a wide temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Spin reorientation transition from Γ{sub 2} to Γ{sub 4} phase is observed in the temperature range of 75–90 K. At lower temperature, the Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} shows an abrupt jump of magnetization along the a-axis, which occurs only in the field-cooling process, and is sensitive to external applied magnetic field. By analyzing the jump temperature and magnitude of the magnetization, we conclude that it is caused by the spin reversal of the rare earth ions. The isothermal magnetization versus field hysteresis loop measurements along a axis explain the spin configuration variation from 3 K to 60 K. - Highlights: • Ho{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} single crystal was grown by optical floating zone method. • It shows an abrupt jump of magnetization along a axis at low temperature. • The jump height and temperature is sensitive to external applied magnetic field. • It is attributed to the spin reversal of the rare earth ions.

  17. Quantified Effects of Late Pregnancy and Lactation on the Osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantified Effects of Late Pregnancy and Lactation on the Osmotic Stability of ... in the composition of erythrocyte membranes associated with the physiologic states. Keywords: Erythrocyteosmotic stability, osmotic fragility, late pregnancy, ...

  18. Study Quantifies Physical Demands of Yoga in Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Study Quantifies Physical Demands of Yoga in Seniors Share: A recent NCCAM-funded study measured the ... performance of seven standing poses commonly taught in senior yoga classes: Chair, Wall Plank, Tree, Warrior II, ...

  19. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... Value Method was employed to estimate the average production value of irrigation water, ... invasions of this nature, as they present significant costs to the economy and ...

  20. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Laura C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Saco, Patricia M.; Ravetti, Martin Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  1. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpi, Laura C., E-mail: Laura.Carpi@studentmail.newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: rosso@fisica.ufmg.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saco, Patricia M., E-mail: Patricia.Saco@newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Hidraulica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, Rosario (Argentina); Ravetti, Martin Gomez, E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.b [Departamento de Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil)

    2011-01-24

    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  2. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988, Giusti (1990 and Shlonsky (1991 in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004 to constituent (quantifier negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theory, a negation marker in the Romance languages is the head of a NegP that dominates vP, whereas in the Germanic languages a negation marker is a maximal projection that occupies the specifier position of a verbal phrase. I will show that the non-occurrence of stranded negated quantifiers in the Romance languages follows from the fact that negation markers in the Romance languages are highly positioned syntactic heads.

  3. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun; Ding, Yu; Xie, Le; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine's upgrade

  4. Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Condori-Fernández, N.; Pastor, O; Daneva, Maia; Abran, A.; Castro, J.; Quer, C.; Carvallo, J. B.; Fernandes da Silva, L.

    2008-01-01

    Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability

  5. User guide : process for quantifying the benefits of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services has adopted a process for quantifying the monetary benefits of research projects, such as the dollar value of particular ideas when implemented across the states transportation system. T...

  6. How to Quantify Deterrence and Reduce Critical Infrastructure Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Taquechel, Eric F.; Lewis, Ted G.

    2012-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (August 2012), v.8, article 12 "We propose a definition of critical infrastructure deterrence and develop a methodology to explicitly quantify the deterrent effects of critical infrastructure security strategies. We leverage historical work on analyzing deterrence, game theory and utility theory. Our methodology quantifies deterrence as the extent to which an attacker's expected utility from an infrastructure attack changes after a defende...

  7. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  8. Quantifying the value of E and P technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, R.F.; Donlon, W.P.; Hoefner, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative value-to-cost analysis was performed for the upstream technology portfolio of Mobil Oil for the period 1993 to 1998, by quantifying the cost of developing and delivering various technologies, including the net present value from technologies applied to thirty major assets. The value captured was classified into four general categories: (1) reduced capital costs, (2) reduced operating costs, (3) increased hydrocarbon production, and (4) increased proven reserves. The methodology used in quantifying the value-to-cost of upstream technologies and the results of asset analysis were described, with examples of value of technology to specific assets. A method to incorporate strategic considerations and business alignment to set overall program priorities was also discussed. Identifying and quantifying specific cases of technology application on an asset by asset basis was considered to be the principal advantage of using this method. figs

  9. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying ventilation in sewer systems is a prerequisite to predict transport of odorous and corrosive gasses within the system as well as their interaction with the urban atmosphere. This paper studies ventilation in sewer systems quantified by measurements of the natural...... occurring compound CO2. Most often Danish wastewater is supersaturated with CO2 and hence a potential for stripping is present. A novel model was built based on the kinetics behind the stripping process. It was applied to simulate ventilation rates from field measurements of wastewater temperature, p...

  10. Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of spin reorientations in amorphous and crystalline (Co0.2Fe0.8)72.5Si12.5B15 glass coated micro-wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowik, I.; Felner, I.; Garcia-Miquel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric, differential scanning calorimetry and comprehensive 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of amorphous and crystalline ferromagnetic glass coated (Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 ) 72.5 Si 12.5 B 15 micro-wires have been recorded. The Curie temperature of the amorphous phase is T C (amorp) ∼730 K. The analysis of the Moessbauer spectra reveals that below 623 K the easy axis of the magnetization is axial-along the wires, and that a tangential or/and radial orientation occurs at higher temperatures. At 770 K, in the first 4 hours the Moessbauer spectrum exhibits a pure paramagnetic doublet. Crystallization and decomposition to predominantly α-Fe(Si) and Fe 2 B occurs either by raising the temperature above 835 K or isothermally in time at lower temperatures. Annealing for a day at 770 K, leads to crystallization. In the crystalline material the magnetic moments have a complete random orientation. After cooling back to ambient temperature, both α-Fe(Si) and Fe 2 B in the glass coated wire show pure axial magnetic orientation like in the original amorphous state. The observed spin reorientations are associated with changes in the stress induced by the glass coating

  11. A user-oriented and quantifiable approach to irrigation design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, E.; Bastiaansen, A.P.M.; Menenti, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new user-oriented approach is presented to apply marketing research techniques to quantify perceptions, preferences and utility values of farmers. This approach was applied to design an improved water distribution method for an irrigation scheme in Mendoza, Argentina. The approach comprises two

  12. Quantifying the CO{sub 2} permit price sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruell, Georg; Kiesel, Ruediger [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. of Energy Trading and Financial Services

    2012-06-15

    Equilibrium models have been widely used in the literature with the aim of showing theoretical properties of emissions trading schemes. This paper applies equilibrium models to empirically study permit prices and to quantify the permit price sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrate that emission trading schemes both with and without banking are inherently prone to price jumps. (orig.)

  13. Quantifying Creative Destruction Entrepreneurship and Productivity in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    John McMillan

    2005-01-01

    This paper (a) provides a framework for quantifying any economy’s flexibility, and (b) reviews the evidence on New Zealand firms’ birth, growth and death. The data indicate that, by and large, the labour market and the financial market are doing their job.

  14. Comparing methods to quantify experimental transmission of infectious agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bree, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission of an infectious agent can be quantified from experimental data using the transient-state (TS) algorithm. The TS algorithm is based on the stochastic SIR model and provides a time-dependent probability distribution over the number of infected individuals during an epidemic, with no need

  15. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin...

  16. Quantifying levels of animal activity using camera trap data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowcliffe, J.M.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Carbone, C.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    1.Activity level (the proportion of time that animals spend active) is a behavioural and ecological metric that can provide an indicator of energetics, foraging effort and exposure to risk. However, activity level is poorly known for free-living animals because it is difficult to quantify activity

  17. Information on Quantifiers and Argument Structure in English Learner's Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas Hun-tak

    1993-01-01

    Lexicographers have been arguing for the inclusion of abstract and complex grammatical information in dictionaries. This paper examines the extent to which information about quantifiers and the argument structure of verbs is encoded in English learner's dictionaries. The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (1989), the Longman Dictionary of…

  18. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Riedel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...

  19. Coupling and quantifying resilience and sustainability in facilities management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider how to couple and quantify resilience and sustainability, where sustainability refers to not only environmental impact, but also economic and social impacts. The way a particular function of a building is provisioned may have significant repercus......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider how to couple and quantify resilience and sustainability, where sustainability refers to not only environmental impact, but also economic and social impacts. The way a particular function of a building is provisioned may have significant...... repercussions beyond just resilience. The goal is to develop a decision support tool for facilities managers. Design/methodology/approach – A risk framework is used to quantify both resilience and sustainability in monetary terms. The risk framework allows to couple resilience and sustainability, so...... that the provisioning of a particular building can be investigated with consideration of functional, environmental, economic and, possibly, social dimensions. Findings – The method of coupling and quantifying resilience and sustainability (CQRS) is illustrated with a simple example that highlights how very different...

  20. Quantifying Time Dependent Moisture Storage and Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut H

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental and numerical approach to quantify the time dependence of sorption mechanisms for some hygroscopic building - mostly insulation - materials. Some investigations of retarded sorption and non-Fickian phenomena, mostly on wood, have given inspiration to the present...

  1. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapsomaniki, E.; White, I.R.; Wood, A.M.; Thompson, S.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit)

  2. Using multiple linear regression techniques to quantify carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallow ecosystems provide a significant carbon stock that can be quantified for inclusion in the accounts of global carbon budgets. Process and statistical models of productivity, though useful, are often technically rigid as the conditions for their application are not easy to satisfy. Multiple regression techniques have been ...

  3. Quantifying Stakeholder Values of VET Provision in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Margriet E.; Reezigt, Gerry J.; Borghans, Lex

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the quality of vocational education and training (VET) depends on how well a given programme aligns with the values and interests of its stakeholders, but it is less well-known what these values and interests are and to what extent they are shared across different groups of stakeholders. We use vignettes to quantify the…

  4. Cross-linguistic patterns in the acquisition of quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Chris; Gavarró, Anna; Kuvač Kraljević, Jelena; Hrzica, Gordana; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Skordi, Athina; Jensen de López, Kristine; Sundahl, Lone; van Hout, Angeliek; Hollebrandse, Bart; Overweg, Jessica; Faber, Myrthe; van Koert, Margreet; Smith, Nafsika; Vija, Maigi; Zupping, Sirli; Kunnari, Sari; Morisseau, Tiffany; Rusieshvili, Manana; Yatsushiro, Kazuko; Fengler, Anja; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Konstantzou, Katerina; Farby, Shira; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Vernice, Mirta; Okabe, Reiko; Isobe, Miwa; Crosthwaite, Peter; Hong, Yoonjee; Balčiūnienė, Ingrida; Ahmad Nizar, Yanti Marina; Grech, Helen; Gatt, Daniela; Cheong, Win Nee; Asbjørnsen, Arve; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Haman, Ewa; Miękisz, Aneta; Gagarina, Natalia; Puzanova, Julia; Anđelković, Darinka; Savić, Maja; Jošić, Smiljana; Slančová, Daniela; Kapalková, Svetlana; Barberán, Tania; Özge, Duygu; Hassan, Saima; Chan, Cecilia Yuet Hung; Okubo, Tomoya; van der Lely, Heather; Sauerland, Uli; Noveck, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Learners of most languages are faced with the task of acquiring words to talk about number and quantity. Much is known about the order of acquisition of number words as well as the cognitive and perceptual systems and cultural practices that shape it. Substantially less is known about the acquisition of quantifiers. Here, we consider the extent to which systems and practices that support number word acquisition can be applied to quantifier acquisition and conclude that the two domains are largely distinct in this respect. Consequently, we hypothesize that the acquisition of quantifiers is constrained by a set of factors related to each quantifier’s specific meaning. We investigate competence with the expressions for “all,” “none,” “some,” “some…not,” and “most” in 31 languages, representing 11 language types, by testing 768 5-y-old children and 536 adults. We found a cross-linguistically similar order of acquisition of quantifiers, explicable in terms of four factors relating to their meaning and use. In addition, exploratory analyses reveal that language- and learner-specific factors, such as negative concord and gender, are significant predictors of variation. PMID:27482119

  5. FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McGarigal; Barbara J. Marks

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a program, FRAGSTATS, developed to quantify landscape structure. FRAGSTATS offers a comprehensive choice of landscape metrics and was designed to be as versatile as possible. The program is almost completely automated and thus requires little technical training. Two separate versions of FRAGSTATS exist: one for vector images and one for raster...

  6. Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping : Experiments and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin Hall effects intermix spin and charge currents even in nonmagnetic materials and, therefore, ultimately may allow the use of spin transport without the need for ferromagnets. We show how spin Hall effects can be quantified by integrating Ni80Fe20|normal metal (N) bilayers into a coplanar

  7. Quantifying Effectiveness of Streambank Stabilization Practices on Cedar River, Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisargi Dave

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sediment is a major pollutant to surface waters worldwide. In some watersheds, streambanks are a significant source of this sediment, leading to the expenditure of billions of dollars in stabilization projects. Although costly streambank stabilization projects have been implemented worldwide, long-term monitoring to quantify their success is lacking. There is a critical need to document the long-term success of streambank restoration projects. The objectives of this research were to (1 quantify streambank retreat before and after the stabilization of 18 streambanks on the Cedar River in North Central Nebraska, USA; (2 assess the impact of a large flood event; and (3 determine the most cost-efficient stabilization practice. The stabilized streambanks included jetties (10, rock-toe protection (1, slope reduction/gravel bank (1, a retaining wall (1, rock vanes (2, and tree revetments (3. Streambank retreat and accumulation were quantified using aerial images from 1993 to 2016. Though streambank retreat has been significant throughout the study period, a breached dam in 2010 caused major flooding and streambank erosion on the Cedar River. This large-scale flood enabled us to quantify the effect of one extreme event and evaluate the effectiveness of the stabilized streambanks. With a 70% success rate, jetties were the most cost-efficient practice and yielded the most deposition. If minimal risk is unacceptable, a more costly yet immobile practice such as a gravel bank or retaining wall is recommended.

  8. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  9. Quantifying soil respiration at landscape scales. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Soil CO2, efflux, or soil respiration, represents a substantial component of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, quantifying soil respiration over large areas and long time periods is an increasingly important goal. However, soil respiration rates vary dramatically in space and time in response to both environmental conditions...

  10. Lecture Note on Discrete Mathematics: Predicates and Quantifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note supplements the treatment of predicates and quantifiers given in standard textbooks on Discrete Mathematics (e.g.: [1]) and introduces the notation used in this course. We will present central concepts that are important, when predicate logic is used for specification...

  11. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong; Sulentic, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the ''Catalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere'' by Karachentsev (1972) and a well matched comparison sample taken from the ''Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies'' by Karachentseva (1973) in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies. 8 refs, 6 figs

  12. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  13. Designing a systematic landscape monitoring approach for quantifying ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key problem encountered early on by governments striving to incorporate the ecosystem services concept into decision making is quantifying ecosystem services across large landscapes. Basically, they are faced with determining what to measure, how to measure it and how to aggre...

  14. Challenges in quantifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, M.A.; Nemitz, E.; Erisman, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research in nitrogen exchange with the atmosphere has separated research communities according to N form. The integrated perspective needed to quantify the net effect of N on greenhouse-gas balance is being addressed by the NitroEurope Integrated Project (NEU). Recent advances have depende...

  15. Quantifying and mapping spatial variability in simulated forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin R. Corral; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    We used computer simulations to test the efficacy of multivariate statistical methods to detect, quantify, and map spatial variability of forest stands. Simulated stands were developed of regularly-spaced plantations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We assumed no affects of competition or mortality, but random variability was added to individual tree characteristics...

  16. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Maggi Kelly; Scott Stephens

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base...

  17. Quantifying a Negative: How Homeland Security Adds Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    access to future victims. The Law Enforcement agency could then identifying and quantifying the value of future crimes. For example, if a serial ... killer is captured with evidence of the next victim or an established pattern of victimization, network theory could be used to identify the next

  18. The benefits and risks of quantified relationship technologies : response to open peer commentaries on "the quantified relationship"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaher, J.; Nyholm, S.R.; Earp, B.D.

    2018-01-01

    Our critics argue that quantified relationships (QR) will threaten privacy, undermine autonomy, reinforce problematic business models, and promote epistemic injustice. We do not deny these risks. But to determine the appropriate policy response, it will be necessary to assess their likelihood,

  19. Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

  20. A new paradigm of quantifying ecosystem stress through chemical signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, MSIN K9-30 Richland Washington 99352 USA; Guenther, Alex B. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California Irvine, 3200 Croul Hall Street Irvine California 92697 USA; Gu, Lianhong [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Karl, Thomas [Institute of Atmospheric and Crysopheric Sciences, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52f A-6020 Innsbruck Austria; Kaser, Lisa [National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000 Boulder Colorado 80307 USA; Pallardy, Stephen G. [Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, 203 Anheuser-Busch Natural Resources Building Columbia Missouri 65211 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 Catalonia Spain; Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, CSIC, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 Catalonia Spain; Potosnak, Mark J. [Department of Environmental Science and Studies, DePaul University, McGowan South, Suite 203 Chicago Illinois 60604 USA; Seco, Roger [Department of Earth System Science, University of California Irvine, 3200 Croul Hall Street Irvine California 92697 USA

    2016-11-01

    Stress-induced emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems may be one of the dominant sources of VOC emissions world-wide. Understanding the ecosystem stress response could reveal how ecosystems will respond and adapt to climate change and, in turn, quantify changes in the atmospheric burden of VOC oxidants and secondary organic aerosols. Here we argue, based on preliminary evidence from several opportunistic measurement sources, that chemical signatures of stress can be identified and quantified at the ecosystem scale. We also outline future endeavors that we see as next steps toward uncovering quantitative signatures of stress, including new advances in both VOC data collection and analysis of "big data."

  1. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple...

  2. Quantifying the value of SHM for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Tcherniak, Dmitri; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    is developed to quantify the value of SHM for an 8 MW OWT using a decision framework based on Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis. Deterioration is modelled as a Markov chain developed based on data, and the costs are obtained from a service provider for OWTs. Discrete Bayesian networks are used......In this paper, the value of information (VoI) from structural health monitoring (SHM) is quantified in a case study for offshore wind turbines (OWTs). This is done by combining data from an operating turbine equipped with a blade SHM system with cost information from a service provider for OWTs...... is compared to a statistical model from the healthy state using a metric that yields a damage index representing the structural integrity. As the damage was introduced artificially, it is possible to statistically estimate the confusion matrix corresponding to different threshold values, and here we opt...

  3. Quantifiers for randomness of chaotic pseudo-random number generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, L; Larrondo, H A; Plastino, A; Rosso, O A

    2009-08-28

    We deal with randomness quantifiers and concentrate on their ability to discern the hallmark of chaos in time series used in connection with pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs). Workers in the field are motivated to use chaotic maps for generating PRNGs because of the simplicity of their implementation. Although there exist very efficient general-purpose benchmarks for testing PRNGs, we feel that the analysis provided here sheds additional didactic light on the importance of the main statistical characteristics of a chaotic map, namely (i) its invariant measure and (ii) the mixing constant. This is of help in answering two questions that arise in applications: (i) which is the best PRNG among the available ones? and (ii) if a given PRNG turns out not to be good enough and a randomization procedure must still be applied to it, which is the best applicable randomization procedure? Our answer provides a comparative analysis of several quantifiers advanced in the extant literature.

  4. Resolving and quantifying overlapped chromatographic bands by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski

    2000-09-15

    A new chemometric technique called "transmutation" is developed for the purpose of sharpening overlapped chromatographic bands in order to quantify the components. The "transmutation function" is created from the chromatogram of the pure component of interest, obtained from the same instrument, operating under the same experimental conditions used to record the unresolved chromatogram of the sample mixture. The method is used to quantify mixtures containing toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, naphthalene, and biphenyl from unresolved chromatograms previously reported. The results are compared to those obtained using window factor analysis, rank annihilation factor analysis, and matrix regression analysis. Unlike the latter methods, the transmutation method is not restricted to two-dimensional arrays of data, such as those obtained from HPLC/DAD, but is also applicable to chromatograms obtained from single detector experiments. Limitations of the method are discussed.

  5. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simulation model that illustrates the problem theoretically and then I demonstrate the problem empirically using a long-term dataset of plant species turnover on islands. Results from both exercises indicate that empirical estimates of species turnover may be susceptible to significant observer bias, which may potentially cloud a better understanding of how the composition of ecological communities changes through time.

  6. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  7. Quantifying the Lateral Bracing Provided by Standing Steam Roof Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Taylor J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges of engineering is finding the proper balance between economical and safe. Currently engineers at Nucor Corporation have ignored the additional lateral bracing provided by standing seam roofing systems to joists because of the lack of methods available to quantify the amount of bracing provided. Based on the results of testing performed herein, this bracing is significant, potentially resulting in excessively conservative designs and unnecessary costs. This proje...

  8. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    OpenAIRE

    Rapsomaniki, E.; White, I.R.; Wood, A.M.; Thompson, S.G.; Ford, I.

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measure...

  9. PREDICTION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH POUR PERITONITIS QUANTIFYING RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Churpiy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored the possibility of quantitative assessment of risk factors of complications in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis. Highlighted 53 groups of features that are important in predicting the course of diffuse peritonitis. The proposed scheme of defining the risk of clinical course of diffuse peritonitis can quantify the severity of the source of patients and in most cases correctly predict the results of treatment of disease.

  10. Simulating non-prenex cuts in quantified propositional calculus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil; Nguyen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2011), s. 524-532 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : proof complexity * prenex cuts * quantified propositional calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.496, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.201020093/abstract

  11. Quantifying high dimensional entanglement with two mutually unbiased bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We derive a framework for quantifying entanglement in multipartite and high dimensional systems using only correlations in two unbiased bases. We furthermore develop such bounds in cases where the second basis is not characterized beyond being unbiased, thus enabling entanglement quantification with minimal assumptions. Furthermore, we show that it is feasible to experimentally implement our method with readily available equipment and even conservative estimates of physical parameters.

  12. Parkinson's Law Quantified: Three Investigations on Bureaucratic Inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Peter; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We formulate three famous, descriptive essays of C.N. Parkinson on bureaucratic inefficiency in a quantifiable and dynamical socio-physical framework. In the first model we show how the use of recent opinion formation models for small groups can be used to understand Parkinson's observation that decision making bodies such as cabinets or boards become highly inefficient once their size exceeds a critical 'Coefficient of Inefficiency', typically around 20. A second observation of Parkinson - w...

  13. The quantified self a sociology of self-tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of digital devices and software, self-tracking practices have gained new adherents and have spread into a wide array of social domains. The Quantified Self movement has emerged to promote 'self knowledge through numbers'. In this ground-breaking book, Deborah Lupton critically analyses the social, cultural and political dimensions of contemporary self-tracking and identifies the concepts of selfhood, human embodiment and the value of data that underpin them.

  14. Quantifying the ice-albedo feedback through decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ice-albedo feedback involves numerous individual components, whereby warming induces sea ice melt, inducing reduced surface albedo, inducing increased surface shortwave absorption, causing further warming. Here we attempt to quantify the sea ice albedo feedback using an analogue of the "partial radiative perturbation" method, but where the governing mechanisms are directly decoupled in a climate model. As an example, we can isolate the insulating effects of sea ice on surface energy and moisture fluxes by allowing sea ice thickness to change but fixing Arctic surface albedo, or vice versa. Here we present results from such idealized simulations using the Community Earth System Model in which individual components are successively fixed, effectively decoupling the ice-albedo feedback loop. We isolate the different components of this feedback, including temperature change, sea ice extent/thickness, and air-sea exchange of heat and moisture. We explore the interactions between these different components, as well as the strengths of the total feedback in the decoupled feedback loop, to quantify contributions from individual pieces. We also quantify the non-additivity of the effects of the components as a means of investigating the dominant sources of nonlinearity in the ice-albedo feedback.

  15. A novel approach to quantify cybersecurity for electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaster, Paul R., Jr.

    Electric Power grid cybersecurity is a topic gaining increased attention in academia, industry, and government circles, yet a method of quantifying and evaluating a system's security is not yet commonly accepted. In order to be useful, a quantification scheme must be able to accurately reflect the degree to which a system is secure, simply determine the level of security in a system using real-world values, model a wide variety of attacker capabilities, be useful for planning and evaluation, allow a system owner to publish information without compromising the security of the system, and compare relative levels of security between systems. Published attempts at quantifying cybersecurity fail at one or more of these criteria. This document proposes a new method of quantifying cybersecurity that meets those objectives. This dissertation evaluates the current state of cybersecurity research, discusses the criteria mentioned previously, proposes a new quantification scheme, presents an innovative method of modeling cyber attacks, demonstrates that the proposed quantification methodology meets the evaluation criteria, and proposes a line of research for future efforts.

  16. Clinical relevance of quantified fundus autofluorescence in diabetic macular oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, S; Murakami, T; Uji, A; Unoki, N; Dodo, Y; Horii, T; Yoshimura, N

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the signal intensity of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and evaluate its association with visual function and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in diabetic macular oedema (DMO). We reviewed 103 eyes of 78 patients with DMO and 30 eyes of 22 patients without DMO. FAF images were acquired using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, and the signal levels of FAF in the individual subfields of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid were measured. We evaluated the association between quantified FAF and the logMAR VA and OCT findings. One hundred and three eyes with DMO had lower FAF signal intensity levels in the parafoveal subfields compared with 30 eyes without DMO. The autofluorescence intensity in the parafoveal subfields was associated negatively with logMAR VA and the retinal thickness in the corresponding subfields. The autofluorescence levels in the parafoveal subfield, except the nasal subfield, were lower in eyes with autofluorescent cystoid spaces in the corresponding subfield than in those without autofluorescent cystoid spaces. The autofluorescence level in the central subfield was related to foveal cystoid spaces but not logMAR VA or retinal thickness in the corresponding area. Quantified FAF in the parafovea has diagnostic significance and is clinically relevant in DMO.

  17. Information criteria for quantifying loss of reversibility in parallelized KMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourgoulias, Konstantinos, E-mail: gourgoul@math.umass.edu; Katsoulakis, Markos A., E-mail: markos@math.umass.edu; Rey-Bellet, Luc, E-mail: luc@math.umass.edu

    2017-01-01

    Parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) is a potent tool to simulate stochastic particle systems efficiently. However, despite literature on quantifying domain decomposition errors of the particle system for this class of algorithms in the short and in the long time regime, no study yet explores and quantifies the loss of time-reversibility in Parallel KMC. Inspired by concepts from non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, we propose the entropy production per unit time, or entropy production rate, given in terms of an observable and a corresponding estimator, as a metric that quantifies the loss of reversibility. Typically, this is a quantity that cannot be computed explicitly for Parallel KMC, which is why we develop a posteriori estimators that have good scaling properties with respect to the size of the system. Through these estimators, we can connect the different parameters of the scheme, such as the communication time step of the parallelization, the choice of the domain decomposition, and the computational schedule, with its performance in controlling the loss of reversibility. From this point of view, the entropy production rate can be seen both as an information criterion to compare the reversibility of different parallel schemes and as a tool to diagnose reversibility issues with a particular scheme. As a demonstration, we use Sandia Lab's SPPARKS software to compare different parallelization schemes and different domain (lattice) decompositions.

  18. Effect of the crystallinity in the Tl signal induced by the gamma radiation in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu obtained by the sol gel method; Efecto de la cristalinidad en la senal Tl inducida por la radiacion gamma en Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu obtenida por el metodo sol gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R. [ININ, Gerencia de Ciencias de Materiales. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Custodio, E. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, DACB, Carr. Cunduacan-Jalpa, km. 1.5, 86680 Tabasco (Mexico); Rubio, E.; Rodriguez L, V. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, BUAP. Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur Col. San Manuel. C. P. 72570.C.U. Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work the synthesis and characterization process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu by sol gel method is reported. A previous thermal treatment at 500 and 1000 C on the material powder type showed a notable influences on the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation, such that the intensity thermoluminescent signal produced by samples with thermal treatment at 1000 C is much bigger that thermoluminescent signal produced by samples thermal treatment at 500 C. In order to explain this behavior, an analysis for X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy was also realized. The results show a notably influence of the crystalline array and the microstructure on the thermoluminescent behavior of the alumina. (Author)

  19. Quantifying the tibiofemoral joint space using x-ray tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinosky, Benjamin; Sabol, John M; Piacsek, Kelly; Heckel, Beth; Gilat Schmidt, Taly

    2011-12-01

    Digital x-ray tomosynthesis (DTS) has the potential to provide 3D information about the knee joint in a load-bearing posture, which may improve diagnosis and monitoring of knee osteoarthritis compared with projection radiography, the current standard of care. Manually quantifying and visualizing the joint space width (JSW) from 3D tomosynthesis datasets may be challenging. This work developed a semiautomated algorithm for quantifying the 3D tibiofemoral JSW from reconstructed DTS images. The algorithm was validated through anthropomorphic phantom experiments and applied to three clinical datasets. A user-selected volume of interest within the reconstructed DTS volume was enhanced with 1D multiscale gradient kernels. The edge-enhanced volumes were divided by polarity into tibial and femoral edge maps and combined across kernel scales. A 2D connected components algorithm was performed to determine candidate tibial and femoral edges. A 2D joint space width map (JSW) was constructed to represent the 3D tibiofemoral joint space. To quantify the algorithm accuracy, an adjustable knee phantom was constructed, and eleven posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral DTS scans were acquired with the medial minimum JSW of the phantom set to 0-5 mm in 0.5 mm increments (VolumeRad™, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, United Kingdom). The accuracy of the algorithm was quantified by comparing the minimum JSW in a region of interest in the medial compartment of the JSW map to the measured phantom setting for each trial. In addition, the algorithm was applied to DTS scans of a static knee phantom and the JSW map compared to values estimated from a manually segmented computed tomography (CT) dataset. The algorithm was also applied to three clinical DTS datasets of osteoarthritic patients. The algorithm segmented the JSW and generated a JSW map for all phantom and clinical datasets. For the adjustable phantom, the estimated minimum JSW values were plotted against the measured values for all

  20. Radiology reports: a quantifiable and objective textual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.; Palmer, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the feasibility of using automated lexical analysis in conjunction with machine learning to create a means of objectively characterising radiology reports for quality improvement. Materials and methods: Twelve lexical parameters were quantified from the collected reports of four radiologists. These included the number of different words used, number of sentences, reading grade, readability, usage of the passive voice, and lexical metrics of concreteness, ambivalence, complexity, passivity, embellishment, communication and cognition. Each radiologist was statistically compared to the mean of the group for each parameter to determine outlying report characteristics. The reproducibility of these parameters in a given radiologist's reporting style was tested by using only these 12 parameters as input to a neural network designed to establish the authorship of 60 unknown reports. Results: Significant differences in report characteristics were observed between radiologists, quantifying and characterising deviations of individuals from the group reporting style. The 12 metrics employed in a neural network correctly identified the author in each of 60 unknown reports tested, indicating a robust parametric signature. Conclusion: Automated and quantifiable methods can be used to analyse reporting style and provide impartial and objective feedback as well as to detect and characterise significant differences from the group. The parameters examined are sufficiently specific to identify the authors of reports and can potentially be useful in quality improvement and residency training. - Highlights: • Radiology reports can be objectively studied based upon their lexical characteristics. • This analysis can help establish norms for reporting, resident training and authorship attribution. • This analysis can complement higher level subjective analysis in quality improvement efforts.

  1. Using nitrate to quantify quick flow in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Garner, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    In karst aquifers, contaminated recharge can degrade spring water quality, but quantifying the rapid recharge (quick flow) component of spring flow is challenging because of its temporal variability. Here, we investigate the use of nitrate in a two-endmember mixing model to quantify quick flow in Barton Springs, Austin, Texas. Historical nitrate data from recharging creeks and Barton Springs were evaluated to determine a representative nitrate concentration for the aquifer water endmember (1.5 mg/L) and the quick flow endmember (0.17 mg/L for nonstormflow conditions and 0.25 mg/L for stormflow conditions). Under nonstormflow conditions for 1990 to 2005, model results indicated that quick flow contributed from 0% to 55% of spring flow. The nitrate-based two-endmember model was applied to the response of Barton Springs to a storm and results compared to those produced using the same model with ??18O and specific conductance (SC) as tracers. Additionally, the mixing model was modified to allow endmember quick flow values to vary over time. Of the three tracers, nitrate appears to be the most advantageous because it is conservative and because the difference between the concentrations in the two endmembers is large relative to their variance. The ??18O- based model was very sensitive to variability within the quick flow endmember, and SC was not conservative over the timescale of the storm response. We conclude that a nitrate-based two-endmember mixing model might provide a useful approach for quantifying the temporally variable quick flow component of spring flow in some karst systems. ?? 2008 National Ground Water Association.

  2. A simple method for quantifying jump loads in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Kenneally-Dabrowski, Claire; Sheppard, Jeremy; Spratford, Wayne

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the validity of a commercially available wearable device, the Vert, for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in volleyball athletes. Propose a potential method of quantifying external load during training and match play within this population. Validation study. The ability of the Vert device to measure vertical displacement in male, junior elite volleyball athletes was assessed against reference standard laboratory motion analysis. The ability of the Vert device to count jumps during training and match-play was assessed via comparison with retrospective video analysis to determine precision and recall. A method of quantifying external load, known as the load index (LdIx) algorithm was proposed using the product of the jump count and average kinetic energy. Correlation between two separate Vert devices and three-dimensional trajectory data were good to excellent for all jump types performed (r=0.83-0.97), with a mean bias of between 3.57-4.28cm. When matched against jumps identified through video analysis, the Vert demonstrated excellent precision (0.995-1.000) evidenced by a low number of false positives. The number of false negatives identified with the Vert was higher resulting in lower recall values (0.814-0.930). The Vert is a commercially available tool that has potential for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in elite junior volleyball athletes without the need for time-consuming analysis and bespoke software. Subsequently, allowing the collected data to better quantify load using the proposed algorithm (LdIx). Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A simplified score to quantify comorbidity in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Putcha

    Full Text Available Comorbidities are common in COPD, but quantifying their burden is difficult. Currently there is a COPD-specific comorbidity index to predict mortality and another to predict general quality of life. We sought to develop and validate a COPD-specific comorbidity score that reflects comorbidity burden on patient-centered outcomes.Using the COPDGene study (GOLD II-IV COPD, we developed comorbidity scores to describe patient-centered outcomes employing three techniques: 1 simple count, 2 weighted score, and 3 weighted score based upon statistical selection procedure. We tested associations, area under the Curve (AUC and calibration statistics to validate scores internally with outcomes of respiratory disease-specific quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ, six minute walk distance (6MWD, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC dyspnea score and exacerbation risk, ultimately choosing one score for external validation in SPIROMICS.Associations between comorbidities and all outcomes were comparable across the three scores. All scores added predictive ability to models including age, gender, race, current smoking status, pack-years smoked and FEV1 (p<0.001 for all comparisons. Area under the curve (AUC was similar between all three scores across outcomes: SGRQ (range 0·7624-0·7676, MMRC (0·7590-0·7644, 6MWD (0·7531-0·7560 and exacerbation risk (0·6831-0·6919. Because of similar performance, the comorbidity count was used for external validation. In the SPIROMICS cohort, the comorbidity count performed well to predict SGRQ (AUC 0·7891, MMRC (AUC 0·7611, 6MWD (AUC 0·7086, and exacerbation risk (AUC 0·7341.Quantifying comorbidity provides a more thorough understanding of the risk for patient-centered outcomes in COPD. A comorbidity count performs well to quantify comorbidity in a diverse population with COPD.

  4. Quantifying the ventilatory control contribution to sleep apnoea using polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Edwards, Bradley A; Nemati, Shamim; Butler, James P; Owens, Robert L; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; Sands, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    Elevated loop gain, consequent to hypersensitive ventilatory control, is a primary nonanatomical cause of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but it is not possible to quantify this in the clinic. Here we provide a novel method to estimate loop gain in OSA patients using routine clinical polysomnography alone. We use the concept that spontaneous ventilatory fluctuations due to apnoeas/hypopnoeas (disturbance) result in opposing changes in ventilatory drive (response) as determined by loop gain (response/disturbance). Fitting a simple ventilatory control model (including chemical and arousal contributions to ventilatory drive) to the ventilatory pattern of OSA reveals the underlying loop gain. Following mathematical-model validation, we critically tested our method in patients with OSA by comparison with a standard (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) drop method), and by assessing its ability to detect the known reduction in loop gain with oxygen and acetazolamide. Our method quantified loop gain from baseline polysomnography (correlation versus CPAP-estimated loop gain: n=28; r=0.63, p<0.001), detected the known reduction in loop gain with oxygen (n=11; mean±sem change in loop gain (ΔLG) -0.23±0.08, p=0.02) and acetazolamide (n=11; ΔLG -0.20±0.06, p=0.005), and predicted the OSA response to loop gain-lowering therapy. We validated a means to quantify the ventilatory control contribution to OSA pathogenesis using clinical polysomnography, enabling identification of likely responders to therapies targeting ventilatory control. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. Probabilistic structural analysis to quantify uncertainties associated with turbopump blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Vinod K.; Rubinstein, Robert; Chamis, Christos C.

    1987-01-01

    A probabilistic study of turbopump blades has been in progress at NASA Lewis Research Center for over the last two years. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of uncertainties in geometry and material properties on the structural response of the turbopump blades to evaluate the tolerance limits on the design. A methodology based on probabilistic approach has been developed to quantify the effects of the random uncertainties. The results of this study indicate that only the variations in geometry have significant effects.

  6. Quantifying uncertainties in the structural response of SSME blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Vinod K.

    1987-01-01

    To quantify the uncertainties associated with the geometry and material properties of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump blade, a computer code known as STAEBL was used. A finite element model of the blade used 80 triangular shell elements with 55 nodes and five degrees of freedom per node. The whole study was simulated on the computer and no real experiments were conducted. The structural response has been evaluated in terms of three variables which are natural frequencies, root (maximum) stress, and blade tip displacements. The results of the study indicate that only the geometric uncertainties have significant effects on the response. Uncertainties in material properties have insignificant effects.

  7. Quantifying DNA melting transitions using single-molecule force spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Christopher P; Chen, W-H; Harris, Nolan C; Kiang, C-H; Lin, K-J

    2009-01-01

    We stretched a DNA molecule using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and quantified the mechanical properties associated with B and S forms of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), molten DNA, and single-stranded DNA. We also fit overdamped diffusion models to the AFM time series and used these models to extract additional kinetic information about the system. Our analysis provides additional evidence supporting the view that S-DNA is a stable intermediate encountered during dsDNA melting by mechanical force. In addition, we demonstrated that the estimated diffusion models can detect dynamical signatures of conformational degrees of freedom not directly observed in experiments.

  8. Quantifying DNA melting transitions using single-molecule force spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, Christopher P [Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, W-H; Harris, Nolan C; Kiang, C-H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX (United States); Lin, K-J [Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chkiang@rice.edu

    2009-01-21

    We stretched a DNA molecule using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and quantified the mechanical properties associated with B and S forms of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), molten DNA, and single-stranded DNA. We also fit overdamped diffusion models to the AFM time series and used these models to extract additional kinetic information about the system. Our analysis provides additional evidence supporting the view that S-DNA is a stable intermediate encountered during dsDNA melting by mechanical force. In addition, we demonstrated that the estimated diffusion models can detect dynamical signatures of conformational degrees of freedom not directly observed in experiments.

  9. Quantifying unsteadiness and dynamics of pulsatory volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, L.; Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Connor, C. B.; Andronico, D.; Harris, A. J. L.; Ripepe, M.

    2016-06-01

    Pulsatory eruptions are marked by a sequence of explosions which can be separated by time intervals ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The quantification of the periodicities associated with these eruptions is essential not only for the comprehension of the mechanisms controlling explosivity, but also for classification purposes. We focus on the dynamics of pulsatory activity and quantify unsteadiness based on the distribution of the repose time intervals between single explosive events in relation to magma properties and eruptive styles. A broad range of pulsatory eruption styles are considered, including Strombolian, violent Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions. We find a general relationship between the median of the observed repose times in eruptive sequences and the viscosity of magma given by η ≈ 100 ṡtmedian. This relationship applies to the complete range of magma viscosities considered in our study (102 to 109 Pa s) regardless of the eruption length, eruptive style and associated plume heights, suggesting that viscosity is the main magma property controlling eruption periodicity. Furthermore, the analysis of the explosive sequences in terms of failure time through statistical survival analysis provides further information: dynamics of pulsatory activity can be successfully described in terms of frequency and regularity of the explosions, quantified based on the log-logistic distribution. A linear relationship is identified between the log-logistic parameters, μ and s. This relationship is useful for quantifying differences among eruptive styles from very frequent and regular mafic events (Strombolian activity) to more sporadic and irregular Vulcanian explosions in silicic systems. The time scale controlled by the parameter μ, as a function of the median of the distribution, can be therefore correlated with the viscosity of magmas; while the complexity of the erupting system, including magma rise rate, degassing and fragmentation efficiency

  10. Quantifying environmental performance using an environmental footprint calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.B.; Loney, A.C.; Chan, V. [Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a case study using relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the environmental performance of a business. Using recognized calculation and reporting frameworks, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) designed the Environmental Footprint Calculator to quantify the environmental performance of a Canadian construction materials company. CRA designed the Environmental Footprint calculator for our client to track and report their environmental performance in accordance with their targets, based on requirements of relevant guidance documents. The objective was to design a tool that effectively manages, calculates, and reports environmental performance to various stakeholders in a user-friendly format. (author)

  11. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Petersen, Per H.; Nielsen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest...... on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials...

  12. Quantifying capital goods for collection and transport of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    he capital goods for collection and transport of waste were quantified for different types of containers (plastic containers, cubes and steel containers) and an 18-tonnes compacting collection truck. The data were collected from producers and vendors of the bins and the truck. The service lifetime...... tonne of waste handled. The impact of producing the capital goods for waste collection and transport cannot be neglected as the capital goods dominate (>85%) the categories human-toxicity (non-cancer and cancer), ecotoxicity, resource depletion and aquatic eutrophication, but also play a role (>13...

  13. Quantifying camouflage: how to predict detectability from appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Skelhorn, John; Stevens, Martin

    2017-01-06

    Quantifying the conspicuousness of objects against particular backgrounds is key to understanding the evolution and adaptive value of animal coloration, and in designing effective camouflage. Quantifying detectability can reveal how colour patterns affect survival, how animals' appearances influence habitat preferences, and how receiver visual systems work. Advances in calibrated digital imaging are enabling the capture of objective visual information, but it remains unclear which methods are best for measuring detectability. Numerous descriptions and models of appearance have been used to infer the detectability of animals, but these models are rarely empirically validated or directly compared to one another. We compared the performance of human 'predators' to a bank of contemporary methods for quantifying the appearance of camouflaged prey. Background matching was assessed using several established methods, including sophisticated feature-based pattern analysis, granularity approaches and a range of luminance and contrast difference measures. Disruptive coloration is a further camouflage strategy where high contrast patterns disrupt they prey's tell-tale outline, making it more difficult to detect. Disruptive camouflage has been studied intensely over the past decade, yet defining and measuring it have proven far more problematic. We assessed how well existing disruptive coloration measures predicted capture times. Additionally, we developed a new method for measuring edge disruption based on an understanding of sensory processing and the way in which false edges are thought to interfere with animal outlines. Our novel measure of disruptive coloration was the best predictor of capture times overall, highlighting the importance of false edges in concealment over and above pattern or luminance matching. The efficacy of our new method for measuring disruptive camouflage together with its biological plausibility and computational efficiency represents a substantial

  14. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  15. The quantified patient of the future: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, Maulik D; Colucci, Lina Avancini; Landman, Adam B

    2015-09-01

    The healthcare system is undergoing rapid transformation as national policies increase patient access, reward positive health outcomes, and push for an end to the current era of episodic care. Advances in health sensors are rapidly moving diagnostic and monitoring capabilities into consumer products, enabling new care models. Although hospitals and health care providers have been slow to embrace novel health technologies, such innovations may help meet mounting pressure to provide timely, high quality, and low-cost care to large populations. This leading edge perspective focuses on the quantified-self movement and highlights the opportunities and challenges for patients, providers, and researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantifying environmental performance using an environmental footprint calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Loney, A.C.; Chan, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a case study using relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the environmental performance of a business. Using recognized calculation and reporting frameworks, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) designed the Environmental Footprint Calculator to quantify the environmental performance of a Canadian construction materials company. CRA designed the Environmental Footprint calculator for our client to track and report their environmental performance in accordance with their targets, based on requirements of relevant guidance documents. The objective was to design a tool that effectively manages, calculates, and reports environmental performance to various stakeholders in a user-friendly format. (author)

  17. Reorienting development: towards and engendered employment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim Jahan

    2005-01-01

    Development strategies, in the name of gender-neutral, are gender-blind. The gender blindness of development strategies are derived from the gender-insensitiveness of dominant development paradigms, which, in the name of work, do not make any distinction between productive and reproductive work and does not differentiate, in the name of household, the asymmetries faced by its different members on the basis of sex. Given the nature of gender blindness of development strategies, it is clear tha...

  18. Epistemological Reorientations and L2 Interactional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    ), negotiation of/for meaning (Eskildsen), and corrections and metalinguistic explanations (Theodórsdóttir). Their re-specification adds value to these concepts because it furnishes them with a publicly visible interactional grounding and shows in each case how linguistic items becomes objects for reflexive......’) are brought into being by the participants through their joint action, at particular moments in the ongoing activity be it in a classroom or a situation in the life-world. The four papers re-specify standard SLA concepts in interactional terms: attention and noticing (Kunitz), corrective feedback (Majlesi...

  19. Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mason

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step towards the kind of dialogue that democratic participation requires.

  20. The reorientation of spatial planning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    comprehensiveness and integration that once characterised planning policies and institutional practices occurring within and across the different administrative levels that constitute the Danish planning system have long since been at stake. Accordingly, the social and welfarist rationales behind spatial planning...... could be clarified in accordance with three different yet also interrelated categorisations: (a) the evolving conception of spatial planning; (b) the shifting roles of spatial planning in handling spatial development and economic growth; and (c) the changing governance structures embedded in spatial...... planning practices at different administrative levels. As a whole, the outcome of this dissertation confirms that there is an increasing policy and institutional mismatch between national, regional and urban/local planning practices. It further suggests that the lack of spatial reflexion embedded...

  1. Reorientation dynamics of cyclohexadienyl radicals in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolmar, M.; Roduner, E.; Dilger, H.; Himmer, U.; Shelley, M.; Reid, I.D.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of the muonium substituted cyclohexadienyl radical adsorbed on silicalite and NaZSM-5 is investigated by means of avoided level crossing muon spin resonance. The influence of benzene loading on the mobility of the radical is studied. At low loadings the radicals were found to be located on a single adsorption site where they undergo a wobbling type of motion. With increasing loading an additional species adsorbed on a different site is observed

  2. Olfaction, Valuation, and Action: Reorienting Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brian Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophy of perception, olfaction is the perennial problem child, presenting a range of difficulties to those seeking to define its proper referents, and its phenomenological content. Here, we argue that many of these difficulties can be resolved by recognizing the object-like representation of odors in the brain, and by postulating that the basic objects of olfaction are best defined by their biological value to the organism, rather than physico-chemical dimensions of stimuli. Building on this organism-centered account, we speculate that the phenomenological space of olfaction is organized into a number of coarse affective dimensions that apply categorically. This organization may be especially useful for coupling sensation to decision-making and instrumental action in a sensory modality where the stimulus space is especially complex and high-dimensional.

  3. REORIENTATION IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA Okoroafor, Ejike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child gain the right knowledge and socialization that can prepare that child ... cannot adopt the “over-free” and even in some cases, non-challant approach ..... promotes perversion among our youths, but it is about art, literature and good music.

  4. Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes: Reorienting approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh eKhardori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70 % of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. However, the same can’t be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of glycemic control superiority in reducing macrovascular complications or death rate in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes. There are trends that suggest that benefits are restricted to those with lesser burden and shorter duration of disease. Furthermore, it is also suggested that benefits might accrue but it would take longer time to manifest. Clinicians are fraught with challenge to decide how to triage patients for intensified care versus less intense care. This review focusses on evidence and attempts to provide a balanced view of literature that has radically affected how physicians treat patients with macrovascular disease. It also takes cognizance of the fact that natural course of disease may be changing as well possibly related to better overall awareness and possibly improved access to information about better individual healthcare. The review further takes note of some hard held notions about pathobiology of disease that must be interpreted with caution in light of new emerging data. In light of recent developments ADA and EASD have taken step to provide some guidance to clinicians through a joint position statement. A lot more research would be required to figure out how best to manage macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Glucocentric stance would have to yield to evidence based, and possibly, concurrent multifactorial intervention to enhance quality of care that is safe and effective.

  5. Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes: reorienting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardori, Romesh; Nguyen, Diep D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70% of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the same cannot be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of the superiority of glycemic control in reducing macrovascular complications or death rates in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes. There are trends that suggest that benefits are restricted to those with lesser burden and shorter duration of disease. Furthermore, it is also suggested that benefits might accrue but it would take a longer time to manifest. Clinicians are faced with the challenge to decide how to triage patients for intensified care vs less intense care. This review focuses on evidence and attempts to provide a balanced view of the literature that has radically affected how physicians treat patients with macrovascular disease. It also takes cognizance of the fact that the natural course of the disease may be changing as well, possibly related to better overall awareness and possibly improved access to information about better individual healthcare. The review further takes note of some hard held notions about the pathobiology of the disease that must be interpreted with caution in light of new and emerging data. In light of recent developments ADA and EASD have taken step to provide some guidance to clinicians through a joint position statement. A lot more research would be required to figure out how best to manage macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Glucocentric stance would need to be reconsidered, and attention paid to concurrent multifactorial interventions that seem to be effective in reducing vascular outcomes.

  6. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-06-14

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  7. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  8. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  9. Statistical Measures to Quantify Similarity between Molecular Dynamics Simulation Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Farmer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulation is commonly employed to explore protein dynamics. Despite the disparate timescales between functional mechanisms and molecular dynamics (MD trajectories, functional differences are often inferred from differences in conformational ensembles between two proteins in structure-function studies that investigate the effect of mutations. A common measure to quantify differences in dynamics is the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF about the average position of residues defined by C α -atoms. Using six MD trajectories describing three native/mutant pairs of beta-lactamase, we make comparisons with additional measures that include Jensen-Shannon, modifications of Kullback-Leibler divergence, and local p-values from 1-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. These additional measures require knowing a probability density function, which we estimate by using a nonparametric maximum entropy method that quantifies rare events well. The same measures are applied to distance fluctuations between C α -atom pairs. Results from several implementations for quantitative comparison of a pair of MD trajectories are made based on fluctuations for on-residue and residue-residue local dynamics. We conclude that there is almost always a statistically significant difference between pairs of 100 ns all-atom simulations on moderate-sized proteins as evident from extraordinarily low p-values.

  10. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: An analytical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T.W.; Shen, Liyin; Liu, Guiwen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prevailing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified and compared. • One specific methodology cannot fulfill all waste quantification scenarios. • A relevance tree for appropriate quantification methodology selection is proposed. • More attentions should be paid to civil and infrastructural works. • Classified information is suggested for making an effective waste management plan. - Abstract: Quantifying construction and demolition (C and D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C and D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested

  11. Methods to Quantify Nickel in Soils and Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Wurr Rodak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other micronutrients, the levels of nickel (Ni available in soils and plant tissues are very low, making quantification very difficult. The objective of this paper is to present optimized determination methods of Ni availability in soils by extractants and total content in plant tissues for routine commercial laboratory analyses. Samples of natural and agricultural soils were processed and analyzed by Mehlich-1 extraction and by DTPA. To quantify Ni in the plant tissues, samples were digested with nitric acid in a closed system in a microwave oven. The measurement was performed by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. There was a positive and significant correlation between the levels of available Ni in the soils subjected to Mehlich-1 and DTPA extraction, while for plant tissue samples the Ni levels recovered were high and similar to the reference materials. The availability of Ni in some of the natural soil and plant tissue samples were lower than the limits of quantification. Concentrations of this micronutrient were higher in the soil samples in which Ni had been applied. Nickel concentration differed in the plant parts analyzed, with highest levels in the grains of soybean. The grain, in comparison with the shoot and leaf concentrations, were better correlated with the soil available levels for both extractants. The methods described in this article were efficient in quantifying Ni and can be used for routine laboratory analysis of soils and plant tissues.

  12. Development of an algorithm for quantifying extremity biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Ana L.M.; Miranda, Jose R.A.; Pina, Diana R. de

    2013-01-01

    The computerized radiology (CR) has become the most widely used device for image acquisition and production, since its introduction in the 80s. The detection and early diagnosis, obtained via CR, are important for the successful treatment of diseases such as arthritis, metabolic bone diseases, tumors, infections and fractures. However, the standards used for optimization of these images are based on international protocols. Therefore, it is necessary to compose radiographic techniques for CR system that provides a secure medical diagnosis, with doses as low as reasonably achievable. To this end, the aim of this work is to develop a quantifier algorithm of tissue, allowing the construction of a homogeneous end used phantom to compose such techniques. It was developed a database of computed tomography images of hand and wrist of adult patients. Using the Matlab ® software, was developed a computational algorithm able to quantify the average thickness of soft tissue and bones present in the anatomical region under study, as well as the corresponding thickness in simulators materials (aluminium and lucite). This was possible through the application of mask and Gaussian removal technique of histograms. As a result, was obtained an average thickness of soft tissue of 18,97 mm and bone tissue of 6,15 mm, and their equivalents in materials simulators of 23,87 mm of acrylic and 1,07mm of aluminum. The results obtained agreed with the medium thickness of biological tissues of a patient's hand pattern, enabling the construction of an homogeneous phantom

  13. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Thompson, Simon G

    2012-01-30

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple-study setting. The method is illustrated in the context of cardiovascular disease risk prediction using an individual participant data meta-analysis. We estimate the number of cardiovascular-disease-free life years gained when statin treatment is allocated based on a risk prediction model with five established risk factors instead of a model with just age, gender and region. We explore methodological issues associated with the multistudy design and show that cost-effectiveness comparisons based on the proposed methodology are robust against a range of modelling assumptions, including adjusting for competing risks. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Thompson, Simon G

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple-study setting. The method is illustrated in the context of cardiovascular disease risk prediction using an individual participant data meta-analysis. We estimate the number of cardiovascular-disease-free life years gained when statin treatment is allocated based on a risk prediction model with five established risk factors instead of a model with just age, gender and region. We explore methodological issues associated with the multistudy design and show that cost-effectiveness comparisons based on the proposed methodology are robust against a range of modelling assumptions, including adjusting for competing risks. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21905066

  15. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  16. Quantifying Diffuse Contamination: Method and Application to Pb in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-06-20

    A new method for detecting and quantifying diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale is based on the analysis of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). It uses cumulative probability (CP) plots for spatially representative data sets, preferably containing >1000 determinations. Simulations demonstrate how different types of contamination influence elemental CDFs of different sample media. It is found that diffuse contamination is characterized by a distinctive shift of the low-concentration end of the distribution of the studied element in its CP plot. Diffuse contamination can be detected and quantified via either (1) comparing the distribution of the contaminating element to that of an element with a geochemically comparable behavior but no contamination source (e.g., Pb vs Rb), or (2) comparing the top soil distribution of an element to the distribution of the same element in subsoil samples from the same area, taking soil forming processes into consideration. Both procedures are demonstrated for geochemical soil data sets from Europe, Australia, and the U.S.A. Several different data sets from Europe deliver comparable results at different scales. Diffuse Pb contamination in surface soil is estimated to be contamination sources and can be used to efficiently monitor diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale.

  17. Quantifying facial paralysis using the Kinect v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Amira; Taher, Mona F; Wahed, Manal Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of facial paralysis (FP) and quantitative grading of facial asymmetry are essential in order to quantify the extent of the condition as well as to follow its improvement or progression. As such, there is a need for an accurate quantitative grading system that is easy to use, inexpensive and has minimal inter-observer variability. A comprehensive automated system to quantify and grade FP is the main objective of this work. An initial prototype has been presented by the authors. The present research aims to enhance the accuracy and robustness of one of this system's modules: the resting symmetry module. This is achieved by including several modifications to the computation method of the symmetry index (SI) for the eyebrows, eyes and mouth. These modifications are the gamma correction technique, the area of the eyes, and the slope of the mouth. The system was tested on normal subjects and showed promising results. The mean SI of the eyebrows decreased slightly from 98.42% to 98.04% using the modified method while the mean SI for the eyes and mouth increased from 96.93% to 99.63% and from 95.6% to 98.11% respectively while using the modified method. The system is easy to use, inexpensive, automated and fast, has no inter-observer variability and is thus well suited for clinical use.

  18. Digitally quantifying cerebral hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian Nan; Berman, Ari Ethan; Swanson, Raymond Alan; Yenari, Midori Anne

    2010-07-15

    A spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay is widely used to estimate the extent of brain hemorrhage by measuring the amount of hemoglobin in the brain. However, this method requires using the entire brain sample, leaving none for histology or other assays. Other widely used measures of gross brain hemorrhage are generally semi-quantitative and can miss subtle differences. Semi-quantitative brain hemorrhage scales may also be subject to bias. Here, we present a method to digitally quantify brain hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J, and compared this method to the spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received varying amounts of autologous blood injected into the cerebral hemispheres in order to generate different sized hematomas. 24h later, the brains were harvested, sectioned, photographed then prepared for the hemoglobin assay. From the brain section photographs, pixels containing hemorrhage were identified by Photoshop and the optical intensity was measured by Image J. Identification of hemorrhage size using optical intensities strongly correlated to the hemoglobin assay (R=0.94). We conclude that our method can accurately quantify the extent of hemorrhage. An advantage of this technique is that brain tissue can be used for additional studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. DIGITALLY QUANTIFYING CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE USING PHOTOSHOP® AND IMAGE J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian Nan; Berman, Ari Ethan; Swanson, Raymond Alan; Yenari, Midori Anne

    2010-01-01

    A spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay is widely used to estimate the extent of brain hemorrhage by measuring the amount of hemoglobin in the brain. However, this method requires using the entire brain sample, leaving none for histology or other assays. Other widely used measures of gross brain hemorrhage are generally semi-quantitative and can miss subtle differences. Semi-quantitative brain hemorrhage scales may also be subject to bias. Here, we present a method to digitally quantify brain hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J, and compared this method to the spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received varying amounts of autologous blood injected into the cerebral hemispheres in order to generate different sized hematomas. 24 hours later, the brains were harvested, sectioned, photographed then prepared for the hemoglobin assay. From the brain section photographs, pixels containing hemorrhage were identified by Photoshop® and the optical intensity was measured by Image J. Identification of hemorrhage size using optical intensities strongly correlated to the hemoglobin assay (R=0.94). We conclude that our method can accurately quantify the extent of hemorrhage. An advantage of this technique is that brain tissue can be used for additional studies. PMID:20452374

  20. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: an analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T W; Shen, Liyin; Liu, Guiwen

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C&D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C&D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

  2. Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootzén, Holger; Katz, Richard W.

    2013-09-01

    In the past, the concepts of return levels and return periods have been standard and important tools for engineering design. However, these concepts are based on the assumption of a stationary climate and do not apply to a changing climate, whether local or global. In this paper, we propose a refined concept, Design Life Level, which quantifies risk in a nonstationary climate and can serve as the basis for communication. In current practice, typical hydrologic risk management focuses on a standard (e.g., in terms of a high quantile corresponding to the specified probability of failure for a single year). Nevertheless, the basic information needed for engineering design should consist of (i) the design life period (e.g., the next 50 years, say 2015-2064); and (ii) the probability (e.g., 5% chance) of a hazardous event (typically, in the form of the hydrologic variable exceeding a high level) occurring during the design life period. Capturing both of these design characteristics, the Design Life Level is defined as an upper quantile (e.g., 5%) of the distribution of the maximum value of the hydrologic variable (e.g., water level) over the design life period. We relate this concept and variants of it to existing literature and illustrate how they, and some useful complementary plots, may be computed and used. One practically important consideration concerns quantifying the statistical uncertainty in estimating a high quantile under nonstationarity.

  3. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David A; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. A three-phase integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, the authors found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research.

  4. Quantifying the strength of quorum sensing crosstalk within microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinga Pavan T Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In multispecies microbial communities, the exchange of signals such as acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL enables communication within and between species of Gram-negative bacteria. This process, commonly known as quorum sensing, aids in the regulation of genes crucial for the survival of species within heterogeneous populations of microbes. Although signal exchange was studied extensively in well-mixed environments, less is known about the consequences of crosstalk in spatially distributed mixtures of species. Here, signaling dynamics were measured in a spatially distributed system containing multiple strains utilizing homologous signaling systems. Crosstalk between strains containing the lux, las and rhl AHL-receptor circuits was quantified. In a distributed population of microbes, the impact of community composition on spatio-temporal dynamics was characterized and compared to simulation results using a modified reaction-diffusion model. After introducing a single term to account for crosstalk between each pair of signals, the model was able to reproduce the activation patterns observed in experiments. We quantified the robustness of signal propagation in the presence of interacting signals, finding that signaling dynamics are largely robust to interference. The ability of several wild isolates to participate in AHL-mediated signaling was investigated, revealing distinct signatures of crosstalk for each species. Our results present a route to characterize crosstalk between species and predict systems-level signaling dynamics in multispecies communities.

  5. Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L 2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source–sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa. (invited article)

  6. Constructing carbon offsets: The obstacles to quantifying emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard-Ball, Adam; Ortolano, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature generally ascribes the virtual absence of the transport sector from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to the inherent complexity of quantifying emission reductions from mobile sources. We use archival analysis and interviews with CDM decision-makers and experts to identify two additional groups of explanations. First, we show the significance of aspects of the CDM's historical evolution, such as the order in which methodologies were considered and the assignment of expert desk reviewers. Second, we highlight inconsistencies in the treatment of uncertainty across sectors. In contrast to transport methodologies, other sectors are characterized by a narrow focus on sources of measurement uncertainty and a neglect of economic effects ('market leakages'). We do not argue that the rejection of transport methodologies was unjustified, but rather than many of the same problems are inherent in other sectors. Thus, the case of transport sheds light on fundamental problems in quantifying emission reductions under the CDM. We argue that a key theoretical attraction of the CDM-equalization of marginal abatement costs across all sectors-has been difficult to achieve in practice.

  7. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2014-04-21

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine\\'s upgrade, the results may not be accurate because many other environmental factors in addition to wind speed, such as temperature, air pressure, turbulence intensity, wind shear and humidity, all potentially affect the turbine\\'s power output. Wind industry practitioners are aware of the need to filter out effects from environmental conditions. Toward that objective, we developed a kernel plus method that allows incorporation of multivariate environmental factors in a power curve model, thereby controlling the effects from environmental factors while comparing power outputs. We demonstrate that the kernel plus method can serve as a useful tool for quantifying a turbine\\'s upgrade because it is sensitive to small and moderate changes caused by certain turbine upgrades. Although we demonstrate the utility of the kernel plus method in this specific application, the resulting method is a general, multivariate model that can connect other physical factors, as long as their measurements are available, with a turbine\\'s power output, which may allow us to explore new physical properties associated with wind turbine performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Disordered crystals from first principles I: Quantifying the configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Thomas D.; Prodan, Emil

    2018-04-01

    This work represents the first chapter of a project on the foundations of first-principle calculations of the electron transport in crystals at finite temperatures. We are interested in the range of temperatures, where most electronic components operate, that is, room temperature and above. The aim is a predictive first-principle formalism that combines ab-initio molecular dynamics and a finite-temperature Kubo-formula for homogeneous thermodynamic phases. The input for this formula is the ergodic dynamical system (Ω , G , dP) defining the thermodynamic crystalline phase, where Ω is the configuration space for the atomic degrees of freedom, G is the space group acting on Ω and dP is the ergodic Gibbs measure relative to the G-action. The present work develops an algorithmic method for quantifying (Ω , G , dP) from first principles. Using the silicon crystal as a working example, we find the Gibbs measure to be extremely well characterized by a multivariate normal distribution, which can be quantified using a small number of parameters. The latter are computed at various temperatures and communicated in the form of a table. Using this table, one can generate large and accurate thermally-disordered atomic configurations to serve, for example, as input for subsequent simulations of the electronic degrees of freedom.

  9. Quantifying Fire Cycle from Dendroecological Records Using Survival Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Cyr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying fire regimes in the boreal forest ecosystem is crucial for understanding the past and present dynamics, as well as for predicting its future dynamics. Survival analyses have often been used to estimate the fire cycle in eastern Canada because they make it possible to take into account the censored information that is made prevalent by the typically long fire return intervals and the limited scope of the dendroecological methods that are used to quantify them. Here, we assess how the true length of the fire cycle, the short-term temporal variations in fire activity, and the sampling effort affect the accuracy and precision of estimates obtained from two types of parametric survival models, the Weibull and the exponential models, and one non-parametric model obtained with the Cox regression. Then, we apply those results in a case area located in eastern Canada. Our simulation experiment confirms some documented concerns regarding the detrimental effects of temporal variations in fire activity on parametric estimation of the fire cycle. Cox regressions appear to provide the most accurate and robust estimator, being by far the least affected by temporal variations in fire activity. The Cox-based estimate of the fire cycle for the last 300 years in the case study area is 229 years (CI95: 162–407, compared with the likely overestimated 319 years obtained with the commonly used exponential model.

  10. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A; Alsberg, Tomas; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2017-09-19

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a "congener group" C n Cl m . Recently, we resolved individual C n Cl m by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying C n Cl m by introducing C n Cl m specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each C n Cl m are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were -0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q-Orbitrap-MS. C n Cl m concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R 2 > 0.90) with each other.

  11. Superlative Quantifiers as Modifiers of Meta-Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Cohen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The superlative quantifiers, at least and  at most, are commonly assumed  to have the same truth-conditions as the comparative quantifiers  more than and  fewer than. However, as Geurts & Nouwen (2007  have demonstrated, this is wrong, and several theories have been proposed to account for them. In this paper we propose that superlative quantifiers are illocutionary operators; specifically, they modify meta-speech acts. Meta speech-acts are operators that do not express a speech act, but a willingness to make or refrain from making a certain speech  act. The classic example is speech act denegation, e.g. I don't promise to come, where the speaker is explicitly refraining from performing the speech act of promising What denegations do is to delimit the future development of conversation, that is, they delimit future admissible speech acts. Hence we call them meta-speech acts. They are not moves in a game, but rather commitments to behave in certain ways in the future. We formalize the notion of meta speech acts as commitment development spaces, which are rooted graphs: The root of the graph describes the commitment development up to the current point in conversation; the continuations from the  root describe the admissible future directions. We define and formalize the meta-speech act GRANT, which indicates that the speaker, while not necessarily subscribing to a proposition, refrains from asserting its negation. We propose that superlative quantifiers are quantifiers over GRANTs. Thus, Mary petted at least three rabbits means that the minimal number n such that the speaker GRANTs that Mary petted  n rabbits is n = 3. In other words, the speaker denies that Mary petted two, one, or no rabbits, but GRANTs that she petted more. We formalize this interpretation of superlative quantifiers in terms of commitment development spaces, and show how the truth conditions that are derived from it are partly entailed and partly conversationally

  12. Fit by Bits: An Explorative Study of Sports Physiotherapists' Perception of Quantified Self Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouch, Somaya Ben; van Velsen, Lex

    2018-01-01

    Our aim was to determine sport physiotherapists' attitudes towards Quantified Self technology usage and adoption and to analyze factors that may influence this attitude. A survey was used to study a sample in the Netherlands. Assessment was made of attitudes of towards Quantified Self technology usage by clients of therapists, by therapists themselves and intention to adopt Quantified Self technology. Results show that the uptake of Quantified Self technology by sports physiotherapists is rather low but that the intention to adopt Quantified Self technology by sports physiotherapists is quite high. These results can provide a foundation to provide an infrastructure for sports physiotherapists to fulfill their wishes with regard to Quantified Self technology.

  13. Quantifying the relationship between financial news and the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanyali, Merve; Moat, Helen Susannah; Preis, Tobias

    2013-12-20

    The complex behavior of financial markets emerges from decisions made by many traders. Here, we exploit a large corpus of daily print issues of the Financial Times from 2(nd) January 2007 until 31(st) December 2012 to quantify the relationship between decisions taken in financial markets and developments in financial news. We find a positive correlation between the daily number of mentions of a company in the Financial Times and the daily transaction volume of a company's stock both on the day before the news is released, and on the same day as the news is released. Our results provide quantitative support for the suggestion that movements in financial markets and movements in financial news are intrinsically interlinked.

  14. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  15. Quantifying human response capabilities towards tsunami threats at community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on tsunami risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of tsunamis on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred tsunami risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards tsunami threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps tsunami affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards tsunami impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a tsunami, the time until technical or natural warning signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a tsunami warning and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a tsunami. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed tsunami scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early warning center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience

  16. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...... of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P controls are significant, and therefore relevant to the clinical management of patients with psoriasis....

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Unavailability in Cyber-Physical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Federick T. [University of Memphis; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system discussed in this work manages a distributed control network for the Tunisian Electric & Gas Utility. The network is dispersed over a large geographic area that monitors and controls the flow of electricity/gas from both remote and centralized locations. The availability of the SCADA system in this context is critical to ensuring the uninterrupted delivery of energy, including safety, security, continuity of operations and revenue. Such SCADA systems are the backbone of national critical cyber-physical infrastructures. Herein, we propose adapting the Mean Failure Cost (MFC) metric for quantifying the cost of unavailability. This new metric combines the classic availability formulation with MFC. The resulting metric, so-called Econometric Availability (EA), offers a computational basis to evaluate a system in terms of the gain/loss ($/hour of operation) that affects each stakeholder due to unavailability.

  18. Quantifying chemical uncertainties in simulations of the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Simon

    2018-06-01

    The ever-increasing power of large parallel computers now makes it possible to include increasingly sophisticated chemical models in three-dimensional simulations of the interstellar medium (ISM). This allows us to study the role that chemistry plays in the thermal balance of a realistically-structured, turbulent ISM, as well as enabling us to generated detailed synthetic observations of important atomic or molecular tracers. However, one major constraint on the accuracy of these models is the accuracy with which the input chemical rate coefficients are known. Uncertainties in these chemical rate coefficients inevitably introduce uncertainties into the model predictions. In this talk, I will review some of the methods we can use to quantify these uncertainties and to identify the key reactions where improved chemical data is most urgently required. I will also discuss a few examples, ranging from the local ISM to the high-redshift universe.

  19. Quantified safety objectives in high technology: Meaning and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.F.; Gilby, E.; Chicken, J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview and trends-analysis is given of the types of quantified criteria and objectives which are presently applied or envisaged and discussed in Europe in the nuclear application, more specifically Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), and in non-nuclear applications, more specifically in the chemical and petrochemical process industry. Some comparative deductions are made. Attention is paid to the similarities or discrepancies between such criteria and objectives and to problems associated with the demonstration that they are implemented. The role of cost-effectiveness of Risk deduction is briefly discussed and mention made of a search made into combining the technical, economic and socio-political factors playing a role in Risk acceptance

  20. Quantifying ground impact fatality rate for small unmanned aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    is based on a standard stochastic model, and employs a parameterized high fidelity ground impact distribution model that accounts for both aircraft specifications, parameter uncertainties, and wind. The method also samples the flight path to create an almost continuous quantification of the risk......One of the major challenges of conducting operation of unmanned aircraft, especially operations beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS), is to make a realistic and sufficiently detailed risk assessment. An important part of such an assessment is to identify the risk of fatalities, preferably...... in a quantitative way since this allows for comparison with manned aviation to determine whether an equivalent level of safety is achievable. This work presents a method for quantifying the probability of fatalities resulting from an uncontrolled descent of an unmanned aircraft conducting a BVLOS flight. The method...

  1. Quantifying tidally driven benthic oxygen exchange across permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Sommer, Stefan; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Continental shelves are predominately (approximate to 70%) covered with permeable, sandy sediments. While identified as critical sites for intense oxygen, carbon, and nutrient turnover, constituent exchange across permeable sediments remains poorly quantified. The central North Sea largely consists...... of permeable sediments and has been identified as increasingly at risk for developing hypoxia. Therefore, we investigate the benthic O-2 exchange across the permeable North Sea sediments using a combination of in situ microprofiles, a benthic chamber, and aquatic eddy correlation. Tidal bottom currents drive...... the variable sediment O-2 penetration depth (from approximate to 3 to 8 mm) and the concurrent turbulence-driven 25-fold variation in the benthic sediment O-2 uptake. The O-2 flux and variability were reproduced using a simple 1-D model linking the benthic turbulence to the sediment pore water exchange...

  2. Planck and the local Universe: quantifying the tension

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2013-01-01

    We use the latest Planck constraints, and in particular constraints on the derived parameters (Hubble constant and age of the Universe) for the local universe and compare them with local measurements of the same quantities. We propose a way to quantify whether cosmological parameters constraints from two different experiments are in tension or not. Our statistic, T, is an evidence ratio and therefore can be interpreted with the widely used Jeffrey's scale. We find that in the framework of the LCDM model, the Planck inferred two dimensional, joint, posterior distribution for the Hubble constant and age of the Universe is in "strong" tension with the local measurements; the odds being ~ 1:50. We explore several possibilities for explaining this tension and examine the consequences both in terms of unknown errors and deviations from the LCDM model. In some one-parameter LCDM model extensions, tension is reduced whereas in other extensions, tension is instead increased. In particular, small total neutrino masses ...

  3. National survey describing and quantifying students with communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andzik, Natalie R; Schaefer, John M; Nichols, Robert T; Chung, Yun-Ching

    2018-01-01

    Research literature has yet to quantify and describe how students with complex communication needs are supported in the classroom and how special educators are being prepared to offer support. This study sought out special educators to complete a survey about their students with complex communication needs. Over 4,000 teachers representing 50 states reported on the communicative and behavioral characteristics of 15,643 students. Teachers described the training they have received and instructional approaches they used. The majority of students were reported to use speech as their primary communication mode. Over half of students utilizing alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) were reported to have non-proficient communication. Teacher training varied across respondents as well as the supports they used to support these students in the classroom. The majority of students with disabilities using AAC when communicating across the nation are not proficiently communicating. Implications and recommendations will be discussed.

  4. Gradient approach to quantify the gradation smoothness for output media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn Jin; Bang, Yousun; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2010-01-01

    We aim to quantify the perception of color gradation smoothness using objectively measurable properties. We propose a model to compute the smoothness of hardcopy color-to-color gradations. It is a gradient-based method that can be determined as a function of the 95th percentile of second derivative for the tone-jump estimator and the fifth percentile of first derivative for the tone-clipping estimator. Performance of the model and a previously suggested method were psychophysically appreciated, and their prediction accuracies were compared to each other. Our model showed a stronger Pearson correlation to the corresponding visual data, and the magnitude of the Pearson correlation reached up to 0.87. Its statistical significance was verified through analysis of variance. Color variations of the representative memory colors-blue sky, green grass and Caucasian skin-were rendered as gradational scales and utilized as the test stimuli.

  5. Quantifying intrinsic quality of commercial varieties of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, M.A.; Salim, M.; Siddiqui, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve quality-trait of five commercial varieties of Basmati rice viz: Basmati 370, Basmati 385, Basmati 198, Basmati 6129 and Super Basmati, were determined according to standard methods. Under existing conditions, it is very difficult to assess overall quality of Basmati rice-varieties, because if a variety is superior in one quality trait, it is inferior in another quality trait, to some other Basmati rice variety, which creates confusion. In order to determine the overall quality-status, we have made an effort to quantify the various quality-traits. Each quality-trait has been allotted a score, in terms of its importance, and the overall status of each variety is computed. Based on our estimation, Super Basmati is of highest quality (98.21%), followed by Basmati 6129 (96.46%), Basmati 370 (95.59%), Basmati 385 (95.26%) and Basmati 198 (92.95%). (author)

  6. GRAPH THEORY APPROACH TO QUANTIFY UNCERTAINTY OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D. Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance measurement process is studied to quantify the uncertainty induced in the resulting performance measure (PM. To that end, the causes of uncertainty are identified, analysing the activities undertaken in the three following stages of the performance measurement process: design and implementation, data collection and record, and determination and analysis. A quantitative methodology based on graph theory and on the sources of uncertainty of the performance measurement process is used to calculate an uncertainty index to evaluate the level of uncertainty of a given PM or (key performance indicator. An application example is presented. The quantification of PM uncertainty could contribute to better represent the risk associated with a given decision and also to improve the PM to increase its precision and reliability.

  7. Quantifying the limits of transition state theory in enzymatic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovjev, Kirill; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2017-11-21

    While being one of the most popular reaction rate theories, the applicability of transition state theory to the study of enzymatic reactions has been often challenged. The complex dynamic nature of the protein environment raised the question about the validity of the nonrecrossing hypothesis, a cornerstone in this theory. We present a computational strategy to quantify the error associated to transition state theory from the number of recrossings observed at the equicommittor, which is the best possible dividing surface. Application of a direct multidimensional transition state optimization to the hydride transfer step in human dihydrofolate reductase shows that both the participation of the protein degrees of freedom in the reaction coordinate and the error associated to the nonrecrossing hypothesis are small. Thus, the use of transition state theory, even with simplified reaction coordinates, provides a good theoretical framework for the study of enzymatic catalysis. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  8. Quantifying entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkis, Spyros; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2017-12-01

    Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure that is straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.

  9. Quantifying phenomenological importance in best-estimate plus uncertainty analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for quantifying the importance of specific phenomenological elements to analysis measures evaluated from non-parametric best-estimate plus uncertainty evaluation methodologies. The principal objective of an importance analysis is to reveal those uncertainty contributors having the greatest influence on key analysis measures. This characterization supports the credibility of the uncertainty analysis, the applicability of the analytical tools, and even the generic evaluation methodology through the validation of the engineering judgments that guided the evaluation methodology development. A demonstration of the importance analysis is provided using data from a sample problem considered in the development of AREVA's Realistic LBLOCA methodology. The results are presented against the original large-break LOCA Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table developed by the Technical Program Group responsible for authoring the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty methodology. (author)

  10. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: The Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss cur-rent and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and, environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from are think in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications

  11. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: the Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss current and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from a rethink in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Quantifying the BICEP2-Planck tension over gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendrick M; Dvorkin, Cora; Boyle, Latham; Turok, Neil; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary; Gold, Ben

    2014-07-18

    The recent BICEP2 measurement of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (r = 0.2(-0.05)(+0.07)), a possible indication of primordial gravity waves, appears to be in tension with the upper limit from WMAP (r < 0.13 at 95% C.L.) and Planck (r < 0.11 at 95% C.L.). We carefully quantify the level of tension and show that it is very significant (around 0.1% unlikely) when the observed deficit of large-scale temperature power is taken into account. We show that measurements of TE and EE power spectra in the near future will discriminate between the hypotheses that this tension is either a statistical fluke or a sign of new physics. We also discuss extensions of the standard cosmological model that relieve the tension and some novel ways to constrain them.

  13. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Jacobs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  14. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-)Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA) and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  15. Quantifying and analysing food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandasari, P.

    2018-03-01

    Despite the fact that environmental consequences derived from food waste have been widely known, studies on the amount of food waste and its influencing factors have relatively been paid little attention. Addressing this shortage, this paper aimed to quantify monthly avoidable food waste generated by Indonesian undergraduate students and analyse factors influencing the occurrence of avoidable food waste. Based on data from 106 undergraduate students, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied in this study. The results indicated that 4,987.5 g of food waste was generated in a month (equal to 59,850 g yearly); or 47.05 g per person monthly (equal to 564.62 g per person per a year). Meanwhile, eating out frequency and gender were found to be significant predictors of food waste occurrence.

  16. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob

    to be in-stalled in any vehicle and thereby enabling measurements wherever there were roads. The validation of the measurement method was done by releasing a controlled amount of methane and quantifying the emission using the release of tracer gas. The validation test showed that even in areas with large...... treatment plants. The PhD study reviewed and evaluated previously used methane measurement methods and found the tracer dispersion method promising. The method uses release of tracer gas and the use of mobile equipment with high analytical sensitivity, to measure the downwind plumes of methane and tracer...... ranged from 10 to 92 kg per hour and was found to change in even short timescales of a few hours. The periods with large emissions correlated with a drop in methane utilization, indicating that emissions came from the digesters tanks or gas storage/use. The measurements indicated that the main emissions...

  17. Quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2013-01-01

    method for quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data. In addition, we present a strategy to investigate population structure via Principal Components Analysis. Through extensive simulations, we compare the new method herein proposed to approaches based...... on genotype calling and demonstrate a marked improvement in estimation accuracy for a wide range of conditions. We apply the method to a large-scale genomic data set of domesticated and wild silkworms sequenced at low coverage. We find that we can infer the fine-scale genetic structure of the sampled......Over the last few years, new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically increased speed and reduced sequencing costs. However, the use of these sequencing technologies is often challenged by errors and biases associated with the bioinformatical methods used for analyzing the data...

  18. Word embeddings quantify 100 years of gender and ethnic stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nikhil; Schiebinger, Londa; Jurafsky, Dan; Zou, James

    2018-04-17

    Word embeddings are a powerful machine-learning framework that represents each English word by a vector. The geometric relationship between these vectors captures meaningful semantic relationships between the corresponding words. In this paper, we develop a framework to demonstrate how the temporal dynamics of the embedding helps to quantify changes in stereotypes and attitudes toward women and ethnic minorities in the 20th and 21st centuries in the United States. We integrate word embeddings trained on 100 y of text data with the US Census to show that changes in the embedding track closely with demographic and occupation shifts over time. The embedding captures societal shifts-e.g., the women's movement in the 1960s and Asian immigration into the United States-and also illuminates how specific adjectives and occupations became more closely associated with certain populations over time. Our framework for temporal analysis of word embedding opens up a fruitful intersection between machine learning and quantitative social science.

  19. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires.

  20. Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Roth, Doris; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator. However, the total cellular pools of thiols and disulfides and their relative abundance have never been...... determined. In this study, we have assembled a global picture of the cellular thiol-disulfide status in cultured mammalian cells. We have quantified the absolute levels of protein thiols, protein disulfides, and glutathionylated protein (PSSG) in all cellular protein, including membrane proteins. These data...... cell types. However, when cells are exposed to a sublethal dose of the thiol-specific oxidant diamide, PSSG levels increase to >15% of all protein cysteine. Glutathione is typically characterized as the "cellular redox buffer"; nevertheless, our data show that protein thiols represent a larger active...

  1. Quantifying chaotic dynamics from integrate-and-fire processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, A. N. [Department of Physics, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Str. 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya Str. 77, 410054 Saratov (Russian Federation); Pavlova, O. N. [Department of Physics, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Str. 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Mohammad, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Str. 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Tikrit University Salahudin, Tikrit Qadisiyah, University Str. P.O. Box 42, Tikrit (Iraq); Kurths, J. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Characterizing chaotic dynamics from integrate-and-fire (IF) interspike intervals (ISIs) is relatively easy performed at high firing rates. When the firing rate is low, a correct estimation of Lyapunov exponents (LEs) describing dynamical features of complex oscillations reflected in the IF ISI sequences becomes more complicated. In this work we discuss peculiarities and limitations of quantifying chaotic dynamics from IF point processes. We consider main factors leading to underestimated LEs and demonstrate a way of improving numerical determining of LEs from IF ISI sequences. We show that estimations of the two largest LEs can be performed using around 400 mean periods of chaotic oscillations in the regime of phase-coherent chaos. Application to real data is discussed.

  2. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate a simple method for counting mast cells, thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome (BPS, formerly interstitial cystitis, a syndrome of pelvic pain perceived to be related to the urinary bladder and accompanied by other urinary symptoms, e. g....... frequency and nocturia), as > 28 mast cells/mm(2) is defined as mastocytosis and correlated with clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS The current enzymatic staining method (naphtolesterase) on 10 mu m sections for quantifying mast cells is complicated. In the present study, 61 patients had detrusor...... sections between, respectively. Mast cells were counted according to a well-defined procedure. RESULTS The old and the new methods, on 10 and 3 mu m sections, showed a good correlation between mast cell counts. When using tryptase staining and 3 mu m sections, the mast cell number correlated well...

  3. Methods for quantifying T cell receptor binding affinities and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Gloor, Brian E.; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptide antigens bound and presented by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Recognition of a peptide/MHC complex is required for initiation and propagation of a cellular immune response, as well as the development and maintenance of the T cell repertoire. Here we discuss methods to quantify the affinities and thermodynamics of interactions between soluble ectodomains of TCRs and their peptide/MHC ligands, focusing on titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence anisotropy. As TCRs typically bind ligand with weak-to-moderate affinities, we focus the discussion on means to enhance the accuracy and precision of low affinity measurements. In addition to further elucidating the biology of the T cell mediated immune response, more reliable low affinity measurements will aid with more probing studies with mutants or altered peptides that can help illuminate the physical underpinnings of how TCRs achieve their remarkable recognition properties. PMID:21609868

  4. Current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nick

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation, we give an overview of current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone. A review of the literature suggests that current generation models do not fully reflect the present state of process understanding and empirical knowledge of preferential flow. We believe that the development of improved models will be stimulated by the increasingly widespread application of novel imaging technologies as well as future advances in computational power and numerical techniques. One of the main challenges in this respect is to bridge the large gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (pore to Darcy scales) and the scale of interest for management (fields, catchments, regions). Studies at the pore scale are being supported by the development of 3-D non-invasive imaging and numerical simulation techniques. These studies are leading to a better understanding of how macropore network topology and initial/boundary conditions control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow. Extrapolation of this knowledge to larger scales would require support from theoretical frameworks such as key concepts from percolation and network theory, since we lack measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these large scales. Linked hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data enable investigation of the larger-scale heterogeneities that can generate preferential flow patterns at pedon, hillslope and field scales. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help in parameterizing models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  5. Quantifiably secure power grid operation, management, and evolution :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Genetha Anne.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Gramacy, Robert B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes findings and results of the Quantifiably Secure Power Grid Operation, Management, and Evolution LDRD. The focus of the LDRD was to develop decisionsupport technologies to enable rational and quantifiable risk management for two key grid operational timescales: scheduling (day-ahead) and planning (month-to-year-ahead). Risk or resiliency metrics are foundational in this effort. The 2003 Northeast Blackout investigative report stressed the criticality of enforceable metrics for system resiliency the grids ability to satisfy demands subject to perturbation. However, we neither have well-defined risk metrics for addressing the pervasive uncertainties in a renewable energy era, nor decision-support tools for their enforcement, which severely impacts efforts to rationally improve grid security. For day-ahead unit commitment, decision-support tools must account for topological security constraints, loss-of-load (economic) costs, and supply and demand variability especially given high renewables penetration. For long-term planning, transmission and generation expansion must ensure realized demand is satisfied for various projected technological, climate, and growth scenarios. The decision-support tools investigated in this project paid particular attention to tailoriented risk metrics for explicitly addressing high-consequence events. Historically, decisionsupport tools for the grid consider expected cost minimization, largely ignoring risk and instead penalizing loss-of-load through artificial parameters. The technical focus of this work was the development of scalable solvers for enforcing risk metrics. Advanced stochastic programming solvers were developed to address generation and transmission expansion and unit commitment, minimizing cost subject to pre-specified risk thresholds. Particular attention was paid to renewables where security critically depends on production and demand prediction accuracy. To address this

  6. THE SEGUE K GIANT SURVEY. III. QUANTIFYING GALACTIC HALO SUBSTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5–125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position–velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (∼33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  7. Quantifying center of pressure variability in chondrodystrophoid dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, S R; Davis, L M; Gorney, A M; Dohse, C S; Williams, K D; Lim, J-H; Pfitzner, W G; Laber, E; Sawicki, G S; Olby, N J

    2017-08-01

    The center of pressure (COP) position reflects a combination of proprioceptive, motor and mechanical function. As such, it can be used to quantify and characterize neurologic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the movement of COP and its variability in healthy chondrodystrophoid dogs while walking to provide a baseline for comparison to dogs with spinal cord injury due to acute intervertebral disc herniations. Fifteen healthy adult chondrodystrophoid dogs were walked on an instrumented treadmill that recorded the location of each dog's COP as it walked. Center of pressure (COP) was referenced from an anatomical marker on the dogs' back. The root mean squared (RMS) values of changes in COP location in the sagittal (y) and horizontal (x) directions were calculated to determine the range of COP variability. Three dogs would not walk on the treadmill. One dog was too small to collect interpretable data. From the remaining 11 dogs, 206 trials were analyzed. Mean RMS for change in COPx per trial was 0.0138 (standard deviation, SD 0.0047) and for COPy was 0.0185 (SD 0.0071). Walking speed but not limb length had a significant effect on COP RMS. Repeat measurements in six dogs had high test retest consistency in the x and fair consistency in the y direction. In conclusion, COP variability can be measured consistently in dogs, and a range of COP variability for normal chondrodystrophoid dogs has been determined to provide a baseline for future studies on dogs with spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Jamison M; Williams, Gareth J; McManus, Margaret A; Heron, Scott F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vetter, Oliver J; Foley, David G

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help

  9. Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay

    2006-08-24

    Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.

  10. A robust nonparametric method for quantifying undetected extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Giam, Xingli; Sadanandan, Keren R; Fung, Tak; Rheindt, Frank E

    2016-06-01

    How many species have gone extinct in modern times before being described by science? To answer this question, and thereby get a full assessment of humanity's impact on biodiversity, statistical methods that quantify undetected extinctions are required. Such methods have been developed recently, but they are limited by their reliance on parametric assumptions; specifically, they assume the pools of extant and undetected species decay exponentially, whereas real detection rates vary temporally with survey effort and real extinction rates vary with the waxing and waning of threatening processes. We devised a new, nonparametric method for estimating undetected extinctions. As inputs, the method requires only the first and last date at which each species in an ensemble was recorded. As outputs, the method provides estimates of the proportion of species that have gone extinct, detected, or undetected and, in the special case where the number of undetected extant species in the present day is assumed close to zero, of the absolute number of undetected extinct species. The main assumption of the method is that the per-species extinction rate is independent of whether a species has been detected or not. We applied the method to the resident native bird fauna of Singapore. Of 195 recorded species, 58 (29.7%) have gone extinct in the last 200 years. Our method projected that an additional 9.6 species (95% CI 3.4, 19.8) have gone extinct without first being recorded, implying a true extinction rate of 33.0% (95% CI 31.0%, 36.2%). We provide R code for implementing our method. Because our method does not depend on strong assumptions, we expect it to be broadly useful for quantifying undetected extinctions. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Quantifying Selective Pressures Driving Bacterial Evolution Using Lineage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use a variety of strategies to adapt to their environments and maximize long-term growth potential, but quantitative characterization of the benefits conferred by the use of such strategies, as well as their impact on the whole population's rate of growth, remains challenging. Here, we use a path-integral framework that describes how selection acts on lineages—i.e., the life histories of individuals and their ancestors—to demonstrate that lineage-based measurements can be used to quantify the selective pressures acting on a population. We apply this analysis to Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to cyclical treatments of carbenicillin, an antibiotic that interferes with cell-wall synthesis and affects cells in an age-dependent manner. While the extensive characterization of the life history of thousands of cells is necessary to accurately extract the age-dependent selective pressures caused by carbenicillin, the same measurement can be recapitulated using lineage-based statistics of a single surviving cell. Population-wide evolutionary pressures can be extracted from the properties of the surviving lineages within a population, providing an alternative and efficient procedure to quantify the evolutionary forces acting on a population. Importantly, this approach is not limited to age-dependent selection, and the framework can be generalized to detect signatures of other trait-specific selection using lineage-based measurements. Our results establish a powerful way to study the evolutionary dynamics of life under selection and may be broadly useful in elucidating selective pressures driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the evolution of survival strategies in biological systems.

  12. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  13. Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    During the fall, winter, and spring of 1991-1992, a measurement program was conducted in Denver, Colorado to quantify the technical and economic effectiveness of oxygenated gasoline in reducing automobile carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Emissions from 80,000 vehicles under a variety of operating conditions were measured before, during, and after the seasonal introduction of oxygenated gasoline into the region. Gasoline samples were taken from several hundred vehicles to confirm the actual oxygen content of the fuel in use. Vehicle operating conditions, such as cold starts and warm operations, and ambient conditions were characterized. The variations in emissions attributable to fuel type and to operating conditions were then quantified. This paper describes the measurement program and its results. The 1991-1992 Colorado oxygenated gasoline program contributed to a reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. The measurement program demonstrated that most of the reduction is concentrated in a small percentage of the vehicles that use oxygenated gasoline. The remainder experience little or not reduction in emissions. The oxygenated gasoline program outlays are approximately $25 to $30 million per year in Colorado. These are directly measurable costs, incurred through increased government expenditures, higher costs to private industry, and losses in fuel economy. The measurement program determined the total costs of oxygenated gasoline as an air pollution control strategy for the region. Costs measured included government administration and enforcement, industry production and distribution, and consumer and other user costs. This paper describes the ability of the oxygenated gasoline program to reduce pollution; the overall cost of the program to government, industry, and consumers; and the effectiveness of the program in reducing pollution compared to its costs

  14. Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Jamison M.; Williams, Gareth J.; McManus, Margaret A.; Heron, Scott F.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Foley, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic–biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will

  15. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  16. Quantified social and aesthetic values in environmental decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, J.B.; Maynard, W.S.; Jones, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been devised for quantifying the social criteria to be considered when selecting a nuclear design and/or site option. Community judgement of social values is measured directly and indirectly on eight siting factors. These same criteria are independently analysed by experts using techno-economic methods. The combination of societal and technical indices yields a weighted score for each alternative. The aesthetic impact was selected as the first to be quantified. A visual quality index was developed to measure the change in the visual quality of a viewscape caused by construction of a facility. Visual quality was measured by reducing it to its component parts - intactness, vividness and unity - and rating each part with and without the facility. Urban planners and landscape architects used the technique to analyse three viewscapes, testing three different methods on each viewscape. The three methods used the same aesthetic elements but varied in detail and depth. As expected, the technique with the greatest analytical detail (and least subjective judgement) was the most reliable method. Social value judgements were measured by social psychologists applying a questionnaire technique, using a number of design and site options to illustrate the range of criteria. Three groups of predictably different respondents - environmentalists, high-school students and businessmen - were selected. The three groups' response patterns were remarkably similar, though businessmen were consistently more biased towards nuclear power than were environmentalists. Correlational and multiple regression analyses provided indirect estimates of the relative importance of each impact category. Only the environmentalists showed a high correlation between the two methods. This is partially explained by their interest and knowledge. Also, the regression analysis encounters problems when small samples are used, and the environmental sample was considerably larger than the other two

  17. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  18. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes on a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63, and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but indicates that there are still large errors at 120 km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over east Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution. However, subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is not greatly affected. We find that the export of short-lived precursors such as NOx by convection is overestimated at coarse resolution.

  19. Electromyographic permutation entropy quantifies diaphragmatic denervation and reinnervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kramer

    Full Text Available Spontaneous reinnervation after diaphragmatic paralysis due to trauma, surgery, tumors and spinal cord injuries is frequently observed. A possible explanation could be collateral reinnervation, since the diaphragm is commonly double-innervated by the (accessory phrenic nerve. Permutation entropy (PeEn, a complexity measure for time series, may reflect a functional state of neuromuscular transmission by quantifying the complexity of interactions across neural and muscular networks. In an established rat model, electromyographic signals of the diaphragm after phrenicotomy were analyzed using PeEn quantifying denervation and reinnervation. Thirty-three anesthetized rats were unilaterally phrenicotomized. After 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days, diaphragmatic electromyographic PeEn was analyzed in vivo from sternal, mid-costal and crural areas of both hemidiaphragms. After euthanasia of the animals, both hemidiaphragms were dissected for fiber type evaluation. The electromyographic incidence of an accessory phrenic nerve was 76%. At day 1 after phrenicotomy, PeEn (normalized values was significantly diminished in the sternal (median: 0.69; interquartile range: 0.66-0.75 and mid-costal area (0.68; 0.66-0.72 compared to the non-denervated side (0.84; 0.78-0.90 at threshold p<0.05. In the crural area, innervated by the accessory phrenic nerve, PeEn remained unchanged (0.79; 0.72-0.86. During reinnervation over 81 days, PeEn normalized in the mid-costal area (0.84; 0.77-0.86, whereas it remained reduced in the sternal area (0.77; 0.70-0.81. Fiber type grouping, a histological sign for reinnervation, was found in the mid-costal area in 20% after 27 days and in 80% after 81 days. Collateral reinnervation can restore diaphragm activity after phrenicotomy. Electromyographic PeEn represents a new, distinctive assessment characterizing intramuscular function following denervation and reinnervation.

  20. Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison M Gove

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km from 85% of our study locations

  1. Quantifying risk of transfusion in children undergoing spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Michael G; Levy, Douglas E; Park, Maxwell C; Choi, Hyunok; Choe, Julie C; Roye, David P

    2002-01-01

    The risks and costs of transfusion are a great concern in the area of pediatric spine surgery, because it is a blood-intensive procedure with a high risk for transfusion. Therefore, determining the predictors of transfusion in this patient population is an important first step and has the potential to improve upon the current approaches to reducing transfusion rates. In this study, we reveal several predictors of transfusion in a pediatric patient population undergoing spine surgery. In turn, we present a general rule of thumb ("rule of two's") for gauging transfusion risk, thus enhancing the surgeon's approach to avoiding transfusion in certain clinical scenarios. This study was conducted to determine the main factors of transfusion in a population of pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. The goal was to present an algorithm for quantifying the true risk of transfusion for various patient groups that would highlight patients "at high risk" for transfusion. This is especially important in light of the various risks associated with undergoing a transfusion, as well as the costs involved in maintaining and disposing of exogenous blood materials. This is a retrospective review of a group of children who underwent scoliosis surgery between 1988 and 1995 at an academic institution. A total of 290 patients were analyzed in this study, of which 63 were transfused and 227 were not. No outcomes measures were used in this study. A retrospective review of 290 patients presenting to our institution for scoliosis surgery was conducted, with a focus on socioclinical data related to transfusion risk. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to quantify the determinants of transfusion risk. Univariate analysis identified many factors that were associated with the risk of transfusion. However, it is clear that several of these factors are dependent on each other, obscuring the true issues driving transfusion need. We used multivariate analysis to control for

  2. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  3. Quantifying uncertainties of permafrost carbon–climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Burke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The land surface models JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, two versions and ORCHIDEE-MICT (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems, each with a revised representation of permafrost carbon, were coupled to the Integrated Model Of Global Effects of climatic aNomalies (IMOGEN intermediate-complexity climate and ocean carbon uptake model. IMOGEN calculates atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 and local monthly surface climate for a given emission scenario with the land–atmosphere CO2 flux exchange from either JULES or ORCHIDEE-MICT. These simulations include feedbacks associated with permafrost carbon changes in a warming world. Both IMOGEN–JULES and IMOGEN–ORCHIDEE-MICT were forced by historical and three alternative future-CO2-emission scenarios. Those simulations were performed for different climate sensitivities and regional climate change patterns based on 22 different Earth system models (ESMs used for CMIP3 (phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, allowing us to explore climate uncertainties in the context of permafrost carbon–climate feedbacks. Three future emission scenarios consistent with three representative concentration pathways were used: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Paired simulations with and without frozen carbon processes were required to quantify the impact of the permafrost carbon feedback on climate change. The additional warming from the permafrost carbon feedback is between 0.2 and 12 % of the change in the global mean temperature (ΔT by the year 2100 and 0.5 and 17 % of ΔT by 2300, with these ranges reflecting differences in land surface models, climate models and emissions pathway. As a percentage of ΔT, the permafrost carbon feedback has a greater impact on the low-emissions scenario (RCP2.6 than on the higher-emissions scenarios, suggesting that permafrost carbon should be taken into account when evaluating scenarios of heavy mitigation and stabilization

  4. Quantifying Livestock Heat Stress Impacts in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Livestock heat stress, especially in regions of the developing world with limited adaptive capacity, has a largely unquantified impact on food supply. Though dominated by ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation all affect heat stress, which can decrease livestock growth, milk production, reproduction rates, and mortality. Indices like the thermal-humidity index (THI) are used to quantify the heat stress experienced from climate variables. Livestock experience differing impacts at different index critical thresholds that are empirically determined and specific to species and breed. This lack of understanding has been highlighted in several studies with a limited knowledge of the critical thresholds of heat stress in native livestock breeds, as well as the current and future impact of heat stress,. As adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change depend on a solid quantitative foundation, this knowledge gap has limited such efforts. To address the lack of study, we have investigated heat stress impacts in the pastoral system of Sub-Saharan West Africa. We used a stochastic weather generator to quantify both the historic and future variability of heat stress. This approach models temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation, the climate variables controlling heat stress. Incorporating large-scale climate as covariates into this framework provides a better historical fit and allows us to include future CMIP5 GCM projections to examine the climate change impacts on heat stress. Health and production data allow us to examine the influence of this variability on livestock directly, and are considered in conjunction with the confounding impacts of fodder and water access. This understanding provides useful information to decision makers looking to mitigate the impacts of climate change and can provide useful seasonal forecasts of heat stress risk. A comparison of the current and future heat stress conditions based on

  5. Quantifying forest mortality with the remote sensing of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily Hewitt

    Greenhouse gas emissions have altered global climate significantly, increasing the frequency of drought, fire, and pest-related mortality in forests across the western United States, with increasing area affected each year. Associated changes in forests are of great concern for the public, land managers, and the broader scientific community. These increased stresses have resulted in a widespread, spatially heterogeneous decline of forest canopies, which in turn exerts strong controls on the accumulation and melt of the snowpack, and changes forest-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy. Most satellite-based retrievals of summer-season forest data are insufficient to quantify canopy, as opposed to the combination of canopy and undergrowth, since the signals of the two types of vegetation greenness have proven persistently difficult to distinguish. To overcome this issue, this research develops a method to quantify forest canopy cover using winter-season fractional snow covered area (FSCA) data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. In areas where the ground surface and undergrowth are completely snow-covered, a pixel comprises only forest canopy and snow. Following a snowfall event, FSCA initially rises, as snow is intercepted in the canopy, and then falls, as snow unloads. A select set of local minima in a winter F SCA timeseries form a threshold where canopy is snow-free, but forest understory is snow-covered. This serves as a spatially-explicit measurement of forest canopy, and viewable gap fraction (VGF) on a yearly basis. Using this method, we determine that MODIS-observed VGF is significantly correlated with an independent product of yearly crown mortality derived from spectral analysis of Landsat imagery at 25 high-mortality sites in northern Colorado. (r =0.96 +/-0.03, p =0.03). Additionally, we determine the lag timing between green-stage tree mortality and

  6. Quantifying the Climate-Scale Accuracy of Satellite Cloud Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Liang, L.; Di Girolamo, L.

    2014-12-01

    Instrument calibration and cloud retrieval algorithms have been developed to minimize retrieval errors on small scales. However, measurement uncertainties and assumptions within retrieval algorithms at the pixel level may alias into decadal-scale trends of cloud properties. We first, therefore, quantify how instrument calibration changes could alias into cloud property trends. For a perfect observing system the climate trend accuracy is limited only by the natural variability of the climate variable. Alternatively, for an actual observing system, the climate trend accuracy is additionally limited by the measurement uncertainty. Drifts in calibration over time may therefore be disguised as a true climate trend. We impose absolute calibration changes to MODIS spectral reflectance used as input to the CERES Cloud Property Retrieval System (CPRS) and run the modified MODIS reflectance through the CPRS to determine the sensitivity of cloud properties to calibration changes. We then use these changes to determine the impact of instrument calibration changes on trend uncertainty in reflected solar cloud properties. Secondly, we quantify how much cloud retrieval algorithm assumptions alias into cloud optical retrieval trends by starting with the largest of these biases: the plane-parallel assumption in cloud optical thickness (τC) retrievals. First, we collect liquid water cloud fields obtained from Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) measurements to construct realistic probability distribution functions (PDFs) of 3D cloud anisotropy (a measure of the degree to which clouds depart from plane-parallel) for different ISCCP cloud types. Next, we will conduct a theoretical study with dynamically simulated cloud fields and a 3D radiative transfer model to determine the relationship between 3D cloud anisotropy and 3D τC bias for each cloud type. Combining these results provides distributions of 3D τC bias by cloud type. Finally, we will estimate the change in

  7. Quantifying Pollutant Emissions from Office Equipment Phase IReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Hodgson, A.T.; McKone, T.E.; Perino, C.

    2006-12-01

    Although office equipment has been a focal point for governmental efforts to promote energy efficiency through programs such as Energy Star, little is known about the relationship between office equipment use and indoor air quality. This report provides results of the first phase (Phase I) of a study in which the primary objective is to measure emissions of organic pollutants and particulate matter from a selected set of office equipment typically used in residential and office environments. The specific aims of the overall research effort are: (1) use screening-level measurements to identify and quantify the concentrations of air pollutants of interest emitted by major categories of distributed office equipment in a controlled environment; (2) quantify the emissions of air pollutants from generally representative, individual machines within each of the major categories in a controlled chamber environment using well defined protocols; (3) characterize the effects of ageing and use on emissions for individual machines spanning several categories; (4) evaluate the importance of operational factors that can be manipulated to reduce pollutant emissions from office machines; and (5) explore the potential relationship between energy consumption and pollutant emissions for machines performing equivalent tasks. The study includes desktop computers (CPU units), computer monitors, and three categories of desktop printing devices. The printer categories are: (1) printers and multipurpose devices using color inkjet technology; (2) low- to medium output printers and multipurpose devices employing monochrome or color laser technology; and (3) high-output monochrome and color laser printers. The literature review and screening level experiments in Phase 1 were designed to identify substances of toxicological significance for more detailed study. In addition, these screening level measurements indicate the potential relative importance of different categories of office equipment

  8. Quantifying the Influence of Urbanization on a Coastal Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, A.; Juan, A.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Gulf Coast is the fastest growing region in the United States; between 1960 and 2010, the number of housing units along the Gulf of Mexico increased by 246%, vastly outpacing growth in other parts of the country (NOAA 2013). Numerous studies have shown that increases in impervious surface associated with urbanization reduce infiltration and increase surface runoff. While empirical evidence suggests that changes in land use are leading to increased flood damage in overland areas, earlier studies have largely focused on the impacts of urbanization on surface runoff and watershed hydrology, rather than quantifying its influence on the spatial extent of flooding. In this study, we conduct a longitudinal assessment of the evolution of flood risk since 1970 in an urbanizing coastal watershed. Utilizing the distributed hydrologic model, Vflo®, in combination with the hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, we quantify the impact of localized land use/land cover (LULC) change on the spatial extent of flooding in the watershed and the underlying flood hazard structure. The results demonstrate that increases in impervious cover between 1970 and 2010 (34%) and 2010 and 2040 (18%) increase the size of the floodplain by 26 and 17%, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate that the depth and frequency of flooding in neighborhoods within the 1% floodplain have increased substantially (see attached figure). Finally, this analysis provides evidence that outdated FEMA floodplain maps could be underestimating the extent of the floodplain by upwards of 25%, depending on the rate of urbanization in the watershed; and, that by incorporating physics-based distributed hydrologic models into floodplain studies, floodplain maps can be easily updated to reflect the most recent LULC information available. The methods presented in this study have important implications for the development of mitigation strategies in coastal areas, such as deterring future development in flood prone areas

  9. A method to quantify the "cone of economy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, Ram; Lieberman, Isador H

    2018-05-01

    A non-randomized, prospective, concurrent control cohort study. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method to quantify the dimensions of the cone of economy (COE) and the energy expenditure associated with maintaining a balanced posture within the COE, scoliosis patients and compare them to matched non-scoliotic controls in a group of adult degenerative. Balance is defined as the ability of the human body to maintain its center of mass (COM) within the base of support with minimal postural sway. The cone of economy refers to the stable region of upright standing posture. The underlying assumption is that deviating outside one's individual cone challenges the balance mechanisms. Adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) patients exhibit a variety of postural changes within their COE, involving the spine, pelvis and lower extremities, in their effort to compensate for the altered posture. Ten ADS patients and ten non-scoliotic volunteers performed a series of functional balance tests. The dimensions of the COE and the energy expenditure related to maintaining balance within the COE were measured using a human motion video capture system and dynamic surface electromyography. ADS patients presented more COM sway in the sagittal (ADS: 1.59 cm vs. H: 0.61 cm; p = 0.049) and coronal (ADS: 2.84 cm vs. H: 1.72 cm; p = 0.046) directions in comparison to the non-scoliotic control. ADS patients presented with more COM (ADS: 33.30 cm vs. H: 19.13 cm; p = 0.039) and head (ADS: 31.06 cm vs. H: 19.13 cm; p = 0.013) displacements in comparison to the non-scoliotic controls. Scoliosis patients expended more muscle activity to maintain static standing, as manifest by increased muscle activity in their erector spinae (ADS: 37.16 mV vs. H: 20.31 mV; p = 0.050), and gluteus maximus (ADS: 33.12 mV vs. H: 12.09 mV; p = 0.001) muscles. We were able to develop and evaluate a method that quantifies the COE boundaries, COM displacement, and amount of sway within the COE

  10. Quantifying morphological changes of cape-related shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Adams, P. N.; Parra, S. M.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The rising demand for marine resources has motivated the study of inner shelf transport processes, especially in locations with highly-developed coastlines, endangered-species habitats, and valuable economic resources. These characteristics are found at Cape Canaveral shoals, on the Florida Atlantic coast, where transport dynamics and morphological evolution are not well understood. To study morphological changes at these shoals, two sets of paired upward- and downward-pointing acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed in winter 2015-2016. One set was deployed at the inner swale of Shoal E, 20 km southeast of the cape tip in 13 m depth, while the other set was located at the edge of Southeast shoal in 5 m deep. Upward-pointing velocity profiles and suspended particle concentrations were implemented in the Exner equation to quantify instantaneous rates of change in bed elevation. This computation includes changes in sediment concentration and the advection of suspended particles, but does not account for spatial gradients in bed-load fluxes and water velocities. The results of the computation were then compared to bed change rates measured directly by the downward-pointing ADCPs. At the easternmost ridge, quantified bed elevation change rates ranged from -7×10-7 to 4×10-7 m/s, and those at the inner swale ranged from -4×10-7 to 8×10-7 m/s. These values were two orders of magnitude smaller than rates measured by downward-pointing ADCPs. Moreover, the cumulative changes were two orders of magnitude larger at the ridge (-0.33 m, downward, and -0.13, m upward) than at the inner swale (cf. -6×10-3 m, downward, and 3×10-3 m, upward). These values suggest that bedform migration may be occurring at the ridge, that suspended sediments account for up to 30% of total bed changes, and that gradients in bed-load fluxes exert control on morphological change over the shoals. Despite uncertainties related to the ADCP-derived sediment concentrations, these

  11. Quantifiers and the Foundations of Quasi-Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas R. Becker Arenhart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some questions proposed by Prof. Newton da Costa on the foundations of quasi-set theory. His main doubts concern the possibility of a reasonable semantical understanding of the theory, mainly due to the fact that identity and difference do not apply to some entities of the theory’s intended domain of discourse. According to him, the quantifiers employed in the theory, when understood in the usual way, rely on the assumption that identity applies to all entities in the domain of discourse. Inspired by his provocation, we suggest that, using some ideas presented by da Costa himself in his seminars at UFSC (the Federal University of Santa Catarina and by one of us (DK in some papers, these difficulties can be overcome both on a formal level and on an informal level, showing how quantification over items for which identity does not make sense can be understood without presupposing a semantics based on a ‘classical’ set theory.

  12. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stoessel, Franziska; Baier, Urs; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying stretching and rearrangement in epithelial sheet migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Rachel M; Nordstrom, Kerstin N; Losert, Wolfgang; Kelley, Douglas H; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2013-01-01

    Although understanding the collective migration of cells, such as that seen in epithelial sheets, is essential for understanding diseases such as metastatic cancer, this motion is not yet as well characterized as individual cell migration. Here we adapt quantitative metrics used to characterize the flow and deformation of soft matter to contrast different types of motion within a migrating sheet of cells. Using a finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) analysis, we find that—in spite of large fluctuations—the flow field of an epithelial cell sheet is not chaotic. Stretching of a sheet of cells (i.e. positive FTLE) is localized at the leading edge of migration and increases when the cells are more highly stimulated. By decomposing the motion of the cells into affine and non-affine components using the metric D m in 2 , we quantify local plastic rearrangements and describe the motion of a group of cells in a novel way. We find an increase in plastic rearrangements with increasing cell densities, whereas inanimate systems tend to exhibit less non-affine rearrangements with increasing density. (paper)

  14. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  15. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Ning [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Michael Z Q [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Su Riqi; Zhou Tao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: zht@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.hk, E-mail: zhutou@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  16. Quantifying mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ibrahim Mahmoud Athamneh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical force plays a fundamental role in neuronal development, physiology, and regeneration. In particular, research has shown that force is involved in growth cone-mediated axonal growth and guidance as well as stretch-induced elongation when an organism increases in size after forming initial synaptic connections. However, much of the details about the exact role of force in these fundamental processes remain unknown. In this review, we highlight (1 standing questions concerning the role of mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance and (2 different experimental techniques used to quantify forces in axons and growth cones. We believe that satisfying answers to these questions will require quantitative information about the relationship between elongation, forces, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, signaling, substrate adhesion, and stiffness contributing to directional growth advance. Furthermore, we address why a wide range of force values have been reported in the literature, and what these values mean in the context of neuronal mechanics. We hope that this review will provide a guide for those interested in studying the role of force in development and regeneration of neuronal networks.

  17. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  18. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  19. Quantifying Pemex E and P benefits from foreign strategic associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent critique by the Heritage Foundation of the management of Mexico's petroleum sector deserves attention by oil industry observers of Mexico as well as government and academic analysts. The foundation argues that sweeping changes are needed-for Mexico's own good-in upstream and downstream policy. The following analysis presents one form of quantifying the upstream argument: the Mexican government stands to gain $5.7 billion/year in taxable revenue from state petroleum company Petroleos Mexicanos by 2000 from strategic associations with international petroleum companies. In addition, there are efficiency advantages that Pemex would gain by strategic associations with international petroleum companies. The ripple effects would include not only oil production and tax revenue increases from Pemex operations but also the advantages of new management skills, new sources of funding and technology, and lower operating and overhead costs in Pemex. It will not be possible, however, for the Mexican government to choose one or more strategic partners by quantitative methods alone. To the contrary, a significant measure of trust will be required

  20. Wikipedia Culture Gap: Quantifying Content Imbalances Across 40 Language Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miquel-Ribé

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is the largest general information repository created through collaborative efforts from all over the globe. Despite the project's goal being to achieve the sum of human knowledge, there are strong content imbalances across the language editions. In order to quantify and investigate these imbalances, we study the impact of cultural context in 40 language editions. To this purpose, we developed a computational method to identify articles that can be related to the editors' cultural context associated to each Wikipedia language edition. We employed a combination of strategies taking into account geolocated articles, specific keywords and categories, as well as links between articles. We verified the method's quality with manual assessment and found an average precision of 0.92 and an average recall of 0.95. The results show that about a quarter of each Wikipedia language edition is dedicated to represent the corresponding cultural context. Although a considerable part of this content was created during the first years of the project, its creation is sustained over time. An analysis of cross-language coverage of this content shows that most of it is unique in its original language, and reveals special links between cultural contexts; at the same time, it highlights gaps where the encyclopedia could extend its content. The approach and findings presented in this study can help to foster participation and inter-cultural enrichment of Wikipedias. The datasets produced are made available for further research.