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Sample records for quantifying factors determining

  1. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  2. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Greenberg

    Full Text Available Environmental limiting factors (ELFs are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1 Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2 How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3 To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET and PET minus precipitation (PET-P as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4 environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25% were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60% were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  3. PREDICTION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH POUR PERITONITIS QUANTIFYING RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Churpiy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored the possibility of quantitative assessment of risk factors of complications in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis. Highlighted 53 groups of features that are important in predicting the course of diffuse peritonitis. The proposed scheme of defining the risk of clinical course of diffuse peritonitis can quantify the severity of the source of patients and in most cases correctly predict the results of treatment of disease.

  4. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...... of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P controls are significant, and therefore relevant to the clinical management of patients with psoriasis....

  5. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chevereau

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the "morbidostat", a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations-an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation

  6. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao; Dobrowski, Solomon; Vanderbilt, Vern; Ustin, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2)

  7. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be achieved

  8. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania.This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick.Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be

  9. Quantifying credit portfolio losses under multi-factor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Colldeforns-Papiol (Gemma); L. Ortiz Gracia (Luis); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn this work, we investigate the challenging problem of estimating credit risk measures of portfolios with exposure concentration under the multi-factor Gaussian and multi-factor t-copula models. It is well-known that Monte Carlo (MC) methods are highly demanding from the computational

  10. Quantifying urbanization as a risk factor for noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Steven; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Goldacre, Michael; Matthews, David; Katulanda, Prasad

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the poorly understood relationship between the process of urbanization and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Sri Lanka using a multicomponent, quantitative measure of urbanicity. NCD prevalence data were taken from the Sri Lankan Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study, comprising a representative sample of people from seven of the nine provinces in Sri Lanka (n = 4,485/5,000; response rate = 89.7%). We constructed a measure of the urban environment for seven areas using a 7-item scale based on data from study clusters to develop an "urbanicity" scale. The items were population size, population density, and access to markets, transportation, communications/media, economic factors, environment/sanitation, health, education, and housing quality. Linear and logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between urbanicity and chronic disease risk factors. Among men, urbanicity was positively associated with physical inactivity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.22; 2.27-4.57), high body mass index (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.88-3.20) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.66-3.57). Among women, too, urbanicity was positively associated with physical inactivity (OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.64-3.21), high body mass index (OR = 2.92; 95% CI, 2.41-3.55), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.58 - 2.80). There is a clear relationship between urbanicity and common modifiable risk factors for chronic disease in a representative sample of Sri Lankan adults.

  11. Factors determining UK album success

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a recently compiled dataset on the UK album sales to determine which factors contribute to best-selling album sales success. We control for factors including length of time since release, nationality of artist, artist type and album type, testing the increasing returns to information hypothesis. Information on general public online review scores for the albums in the dataset allows for a strong test of the accuracy of online reviews in predicting music sales, as online revie...

  12. Determining Factors of Subsidiary Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben

    (the depth of activities) and level of integration in the internal MNC-network. Birkinshaw and Hood (1998a) have in their seminal paper proposed a model where subsidiary development is determined by three factors: Headquarter assignment, dynamism of local business environment and subsidiary initiatives......Subsidiary development is a multi-dimensional construct that cannot be captured just by looking at subsidiary roles, activities, etc. Three distinct dimensions of subsidiary development are identified and these are: scope of subsidiary (the breadth of activities), level of subsidiary competence....... This paper is the first to conduct a statistical test of this model on a large-sample data set including data of more than 2.100 subsidiaries located in seven different countries in Europe. The effect of the three determining factors on subsidiary development is tested simultaneously in a LISREL model....

  13. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  14. Quantifying cardiometabolic risk using modifiable non-self-reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non-self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut-off points for risk categories. We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14-year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender-specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non-self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10-year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012-2013. HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit chi-square=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk on the basis of modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual's commitment to prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuronal factors determining high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2016-01-05

    Many attempts have been made to correlate degrees of both animal and human intelligence with brain properties. With respect to mammals, a much-discussed trait concerns absolute and relative brain size, either uncorrected or corrected for body size. However, the correlation of both with degrees of intelligence yields large inconsistencies, because although they are regarded as the most intelligent mammals, monkeys and apes, including humans, have neither the absolutely nor the relatively largest brains. The best fit between brain traits and degrees of intelligence among mammals is reached by a combination of the number of cortical neurons, neuron packing density, interneuronal distance and axonal conduction velocity--factors that determine general information processing capacity (IPC), as reflected by general intelligence. The highest IPC is found in humans, followed by the great apes, Old World and New World monkeys. The IPC of cetaceans and elephants is much lower because of a thin cortex, low neuron packing density and low axonal conduction velocity. By contrast, corvid and psittacid birds have very small and densely packed pallial neurons and relatively many neurons, which, despite very small brain volumes, might explain their high intelligence. The evolution of a syntactical and grammatical language in humans most probably has served as an additional intelligence amplifier, which may have happened in songbirds and psittacids in a convergent manner. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadstock, David C.; Hunt, Lester C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route.

  18. Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadstock, David C.; Hunt, Lester C. [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC) and Research Group on Lifestyles Values and Environment (RESOLVE), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route. (author)

  19. PREDICTION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH POUR PERITONITIS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT QUANTIFYING RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Churpiy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated the possibility of quantitative assessment of risk factors of complications in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis. There were ditermined 70 groups of features that are important in predicting the course of diffuse peritonitis. The proposed scheme is the definition of risk clinical course of diffuse peritonitis can quantify the severity of the original patients and in most cases is correctly to predict the results of treatment of disease.

  20. Quantifying lead-time bias in risk factor studies of cancer through simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick J; Alexander, Bruce H; Anderson, Kristin E; Church, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Lead-time is inherent in early detection and creates bias in observational studies of screening efficacy, but its potential to bias effect estimates in risk factor studies is not always recognized. We describe a form of this bias that conventional analyses cannot address and develop a model to quantify it. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data form the basis for estimates of age-specific preclinical incidence, and log-normal distributions describe the preclinical duration distribution. Simulations assume a joint null hypothesis of no effect of either the risk factor or screening on the preclinical incidence of cancer, and then quantify the bias as the risk-factor odds ratio (OR) from this null study. This bias can be used as a factor to adjust observed OR in the actual study. For this particular study design, as average preclinical duration increased, the bias in the total-physical activity OR monotonically increased from 1% to 22% above the null, but the smoking OR monotonically decreased from 1% above the null to 5% below the null. The finding of nontrivial bias in fixed risk-factor effect estimates demonstrates the importance of quantitatively evaluating it in susceptible studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    1984-01-01

    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  2. Quantifying daily physical activity and determinants in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, M. L.; de Greef, M. H. G.; Speelman, A. D.; van Nimwegen, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamsma, Y. P. T.; Munneke, M.; van der Schans, C. P.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity is beneficial for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, many do not meet the recommended levels. The range of physical activity among sedentary PD patients is unknown, as are factors that determine this variability. Hence, we aimed to (1) assess daily physical

  3. Direct determination of fatty acids in fish tissues: quantifying top predator trophic connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Christopher C; Nichols, Peter D; Pethybridge, Heidi; Young, Jock W

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are a valuable tool in ecological studies because of the large number of unique structures synthesized. They provide versatile signatures that are being increasingly employed to delineate the transfer of dietary material through marine and terrestrial food webs. The standard procedure for determining fatty acids generally involves lipid extraction followed by methanolysis to produce methyl esters for analysis by gas chromatography. By directly transmethylating ~50 mg wet samples and adding an internal standard it was possible to greatly simplify the analytical methodology to enable rapid throughput of 20-40 fish tissue fatty acid analyses a day including instrumental analysis. This method was verified against the more traditional lipid methods using albacore tuna and great white shark muscle and liver samples, and it was shown to provide an estimate of sample dry mass, total lipid content, and a condition index. When large fatty acid data sets are generated in this way, multidimensional scaling, analysis of similarities, and similarity of percentages analysis can be used to define trophic connections among samples and to quantify them. These routines were used on albacore and skipjack tuna fatty acid data obtained by direct methylation coupled with literature values for krill. There were clear differences in fatty acid profiles among the species as well as spatial differences among albacore tuna sampled from different locations.

  4. Quantifying the contributions of behavioral and biological risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease incidence: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Droomers, Mariël; Robinson, Whitney R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of different modifiable behavioral and biological risk factors on socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) may help inform targeted, population-specific strategies to reduce the unequal distribution of the disease. Previous studies have used analytic

  5. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  6. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-05

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities.

  7. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, Branka; Ochieng, Washington Y.; Straeter, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  8. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  9. Quantifying the determinants of decremental response in critical ventricular tachycardia substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mohammadali; Nayyar, Sachin; Magtibay, Karl; Massé, Stéphane; Porta-Sanchez, Andreu; Haldar, Shouvik; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Vigmond, Edward; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2018-05-28

    Decremental response evoked with extrastimulation (DEEP) is a useful tool for determining diastolic return path of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Though a targeted VT ablation is feasible with this approach, determinants of DEEP response have not been studied OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the effects of clinically relevant factors, specifically, the proximity of the stimulation site to the arrhythmogenic scar, stimulation wave direction, number of channels open in the scar, size of the scar and number of extra stimuli on decrement and entropy of DEEP potentials. In a 3-dimensional bi-domain simulation of human ventricular tissue (TNNP cell model), an irregular subendocardial myopathic region was generated. An irregular channel of healthy tissue with five potential entry branches was shaped into the myopathic region. A bipolar electrogram was derived from two electrodes positioned in the centre of the myopathic region. Evoked delays between far-field and local Electrogram (EGM) following an extrastimulus (S1-S2, 500-350 ms) were measured as the stimulation site, channel branches, and inexcitable tissue size were altered. Stimulation adjacent to the inexcitable tissue from the side opposite to the point-of-entry produces longest DEEP delay. The DEEP delay shortens when the stimulation point is farther away from the scar, and it decreases maximally when stimulation is done from a site beside a conduction barrier. Entropy increases with S2 when stimulation site is from farther away. An unprotected channel structure with multiple side-branch openings had shorter DEEP delay compared to a protected channel structure with a paucity of additional side-branch openings and a point-of-entry on the side opposite to the pacing source. Addition of a second shorter extrastimulus did not universally lead to higher DEEP delay CONCLUSIONS: Location and direction of the wavefront in relation to scar entry and size of scar determine the degree of evoked response while the number of

  10. Semantic and pragmatic factors influencing deaf and hearing students' comprehension of english sentences containing numeral quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R; Berent, Gerald P

    2011-01-01

    This research contrasted deaf and hearing students' interpretive knowledge of English sentences containing numeral quantifier phrases and indefinite noun phrases. A multiple-interpretation picture task methodology was used to assess 305 participants' judgments of the compatibility of sentence meanings with depicted discourse contexts. Participants' performance was assessed on the basis of hearing level (deaf, hearing) and grade level (middle school, high school, college). The deaf students were predicted to have differential access to specific sentence interpretations in accordance with the relative derivational complexity of the targeted sentence types. Hypotheses based on the pressures of derivational economy on acquisition were largely supported. The results also revealed that the deaf participants tended to overactivate pragmatic processes that yielded principled, though non-target, sentence interpretations. Collectively, the results not only contribute to the understanding of English acquisition under conditions of restricted access to spoken language input, they also suggest that pragmatic factors may play a broad role in influencing, and compromising, deaf students' reading comprehension and written expression.

  11. Determinants of Transitional Zone Area and Porosity of the Proximal Femur Quantified In Vivo in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdel, Rajesh; Osima, Marit; Lukic, Marko; Ahmed, Luai A; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Eriksen, Erik F; Bjørnerem, Åshild

    2016-04-01

    Bone architecture as well as size and shape is important for bone strength and risk of fracture. Most bone loss is cortical and occurs by trabecularization of the inner part of the cortex. We therefore wanted to identify determinants of the bone architecture, especially the area and porosity of the transitional zone, an inner cortical region with a large surface/matrix volume available for intracortical remodeling. In 211 postmenopausal women aged 54 to 94 years with nonvertebral fractures and 232 controls from the Tromsø Study, Norway, we quantified femoral subtrochanteric architecture in CT images using StrAx1.0 software, and serum levels of bone turnover markers (BTM, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen). Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to quantify associations of age, weight, height, and bone size with bone architecture and BTM, and odds ratio (OR) for fracture. Increasing age, height, and larger total cross-sectional area (TCSA) were associated with larger transitional zone CSA and transitional zone CSA/TCSA (standardized coefficients [STB] = 0.11 to 0.80, p ≤ 0.05). Increasing weight was associated with larger TCSA, but smaller transitional zone CSA/TCSA and thicker cortices (STB = 0.15 to 0.22, p zone (STB = 0.12 to 0.46, p zone CSA/TCSA, and higher porosity of each of the cortical compartments (p zone CSA and higher porosity than controls (p zone, OR for fracture was 1.71 (95% CI, 1.37 to 2.14) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.23 to 1.85), respectively. Cortical bone architecture is determined mainly by bone size as built during growth and is modified by lifestyle factors throughout life through bone turnover. Fracture cases exhibited larger transitional zone area and porosity, highlighting the importance of cortical bone architecture for fracture propensity. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Step Complexity Measure for Emergency Operating Procedures - Determining Weighting Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Jaewhan; Ha, Jaejoo

    2003-01-01

    In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human error has been regarded as the primary cause of many events. Therefore, to ensure system safety, extensive effort has been made to identify the significant factors that can cause human error. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the important factors, and the understandability is pointed out as one of the major reasons for procedure-related human errors.Many qualitative checklists have been suggested to evaluate emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs so as to minimize procedure-related human errors. However, since qualitative evaluations using checklists have some drawbacks, a quantitative measure that can quantify the complexity of EOPs is indispensable.From this necessity, Park et al. suggested the step complexity (SC) measure to quantify the complexity of procedural steps included in EOPs. To verify the appropriateness of the SC measure, averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event were compared with estimated SC scores. However, although averaged step performance time data and estimated SC scores show meaningful correlation, some important issues such as determining proper weighting factors have to be clarified to ensure the appropriateness of the SC measure. These were not properly dealt with due to a lack of backup data.In this paper, to resolve one of the important issues, emergency training records are additionally collected and analyzed in order to determine proper weighting factors. The total number of collected records is 66, and the training scenarios cover five emergency conditions including the LOCA, the steam generator tube rupture, the loss of all feedwater, the loss of off-site power, and the station blackout. From these records, average step performance time data are retrieved, and new

  13. Feed/meat transfer factor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The transfer of cesium from the feed to bovine meat is taken as an example to discuss natural environmental conditions and their effects on the determination of the transfer factor. Criteria for estimating the validity of experimentally determined transfer factors are given and used for a critical evaluation of significant literature data. The evaluation presented in this report is not a merely statistical evaluation of transfer data, indicating one single value as the correct one (sometimes within a certain margin), but rather scans the data available for incertainties and drawbacks of the experimental methods applied, finally stating a range of variation within which transfer factors can be considered to be correct. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Quantifying Factors Affecting Optical Turbulence Propagation Using a Controlled Towed Vehicle From an Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the optical system design and/or to predict their operational conditions. The main objective of this study is to quantify optical turbulence in the...design and/or to predict their operational conditions. The main objective of this study is to quantify optical turbulence in the marine atmospheric...Research Facility Pier, Duck , North Carolina. Source: Field Research Facility (1992). ..........................18 Figure 6. Data Collection

  15. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF STUDENTS ENTREPRENEURSHIP INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Dwijayanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the dominant factor as a determinant of the entrepreneurship intent of the students of the Department of Economic Education of the State University of Surabaya.This research uses explanatory research method, the sample used is 166 students from the total population of 286 students with purposiverandom sampling technique. The results showed that locus of control, subjective norms, and entrepreneurial attitudes affect the intention of student entrepreneurship. From the three determining variables of the entrepreneurship intentions, there is one dominant variable as determinant of student entrepreneurship intention, it is locus of control. The locus of control of students related to entrepreneurship is a personal belief in the success gained from the business and learning process. The implication of this research is students need to strengthen the formation ofentrepreneurial mindset to be able to grow their self-confidence on their own potentials.

  16. Determination of some radiative view factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, B.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Lele, H.G.; Fichot, F.; Guillard, G.

    2011-01-01

    View factors are essential components for analysis for of radiative heat transfer through enclosure methods like radiosity approach, direct/total exchange area approach etc. View factor is defined as the integral over the interacting surface. View factor integral can be calculated by following various approaches, such as: view factor algebra, direction analytical approach, contour integration method, Monte Carlo method, numerical methods based of FDM or FEM, Hottle's string method etc. The present module of work on determination of view factor is aimed for use in ASTEC code system for severe accident analysis. There exist many routines (RADB, RADC, GRADEB, RADR, RADL) in the ICARE module of ASTEC code system to model radiative heat transfer from different types of assemblies of interacting surfaces of different nature. The present work is specially targeted for radiative heat transfer model for lower plenum (RADILOWE) and for extension of ICARE module for IPHWR. In interacting surfaces within the lower plenum comprises of different types of circular, cylindrical and conical surface. In the work completed so far, view factor relations have been derived/compiled based on exact/approximate analytical and numerical approaches. (author)

  17. Local multiboson factorization of the quark determinant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ce, Marco [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut; Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Giusti, Leonardo [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Dept.; Milano-Bicocca Univ., Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Schaefer, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the recently proposed multiboson domain-decomposed factorization of the gauge-field dependence of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD. In particular, we focus on the case of a lattice divided in an arbitrary number of thick time slices. As a consequence, multiple space-time regions can be updated independently. This allows to address the exponential degradation of the signal-to-noise ration of correlation functions with multilevel Monte Carlo sampling. We show numerical evidence of the effectiveness of a two-level integration for pseudoscalar propagators with momentum and for vector propagators, in a two active regions setup. These results are relevant to lattice computation of the hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and to heavy meson decay form factors.

  18. Quantifying watershed surface depression storage: determination and application in a hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph K. O. Amoah; Devendra M. Amatya; Soronnadi. Nnaji

    2012-01-01

    Hydrologic models often require correct estimates of surface macro-depressional storage to accurately simulate rainfall–runoff processes. Traditionally, depression storage is determined through model calibration or lumped with soil storage components or on an ad hoc basis. This paper investigates a holistic approach for estimating surface depressional storage capacity...

  19. Quantifying surgical complexity with machine learning: looking beyond patient factors to improve surgical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esbroeck, Alexander; Rubinfeld, Ilan; Hall, Bruce; Syed, Zeeshan

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the use of machine learning to empirically determine the risk of individual surgical procedures and to improve surgical models with this information. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data from 2005 to 2009 were used to train support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to learn the relationship between textual constructs in current procedural terminology (CPT) descriptions and mortality, morbidity, Clavien 4 complications, and surgical-site infections (SSI) within 30 days of surgery. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers were validated on data from 2010 in univariate and multivariate analyses. The procedural risk scores produced by the SVM classifiers achieved moderate-to-high levels of discrimination in univariate analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.871 for mortality, 0.789 for morbidity, 0.791 for SSI, 0.845 for Clavien 4 complications). Addition of these scores also substantially improved multivariate models comprising patient factors and previously proposed correlates of procedural risk (net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.54 and 0.001 for mortality, 0.46 and 0.011 for morbidity, 0.68 and 0.022 for SSI, 0.44 and 0.001 for Clavien 4 complications; P risk for individual procedures. This information can be measured in an entirely data-driven manner and substantially improves multifactorial models to predict postoperative complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Fano's factor in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.

    1975-07-01

    A study was made of three different semiconductor detectors: intrinsic germanium, germanium drifted with lithium, and silicon drifted with lithium. In the efficiency measurements for these detectors, special attention was paid to the escape of the germanium X-rays produced within the detector. The principal part of this work is the determination of the Fano factor for germanium and silicon. A great deal of attention was given to the analysis of experimental results. Different criteria for eliminating the linewidth contribution due to charge collection fluctuations lead to widely different values and have caused great controversy over the value of the Fano factor. Measurements were made for the three detectors using energies of 14.4 kev, 35.4 kev, 46.5 kev, 59.5 kev, 81 kev, 88 kev, 122 kev and 136.5 kev and the results indicate a Fano factor of 0.105 +- 0.004 for germanium and 0.130 +- 0.120 for silicon. (author) [pt

  1. Comparison of leaching tests to determine and quantify the release of inorganic contaminants in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, Markus; Lager, Tanja; Schulz, Horst D.; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2007-01-01

    The changes in waste management policy caused by the massive generation of waste materials (e.g. construction and demolition waste material, municipal waste incineration products) has led to an increase in the reuse and recycling of waste materials. For environmental risk assessment, test procedures are necessary to examine waste materials before they can be reused. In this article, results of column and lysimeter leaching tests having been applied to inorganic compounds in a reference demolition waste material are presented. The results show a good agreement between the leaching behaviour determined with the lysimeter unit and the column units used in the laboratory. In view of less time and system requirements compared to lysimeter systems, laboratory column units can be considered as a practicable instrument to assess the time-dependent release of inorganic compounds under conditions similar to those encountered in a natural environment. The high concentrations of elements in the seepage water at the initial stage of elution are reflected by the laboratory column leaching tests. In particular, authorities or laboratories might benefit and have an easy-to-use, but nevertheless reliable, method to serve as a basis for decision-making

  2. Factors determining dengue outbreak in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rohani; Suzilah, Ismail; Wan Najdah, Wan Mohamad Ali; Topek, Omar; Mustafakamal, Ibrahim; Lee, Han Lim

    2018-01-01

    A large scale study was conducted to elucidate the true relationship among entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors that contributed to dengue outbreak in Malaysia. Two large areas (Selayang and Bandar Baru Bangi) were selected in this study based on five consecutive years of high dengue cases. Entomological data were collected using ovitraps where the number of larvae was used to reflect Aedes mosquito population size; followed by RT-PCR screening to detect and serotype dengue virus in mosquitoes. Notified cases, date of disease onset, and number and type of the interventions were used as epidemiological endpoint, while rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and air pollution index (API) were indicators for environmental data. The field study was conducted during 81 weeks of data collection. Correlation and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model were used to determine the relationship. The study showed that, notified cases were indirectly related with the environmental data, but shifted one week, i.e. last 3 weeks positive PCR; last 4 weeks rainfall; last 3 weeks maximum relative humidity; last 3 weeks minimum and maximum temperature; and last 4 weeks air pollution index (API), respectively. Notified cases were also related with next week intervention, while conventional intervention only happened 4 weeks after larvae were found, indicating ample time for dengue transmission. Based on a significant relationship among the three factors (epidemiological, entomological and environmental), estimated Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) model for both locations produced high accuracy 84.9% for Selayang and 84.1% for Bandar Baru Bangi in predicting the actual notified cases. Hence, such model can be used in forestalling dengue outbreak and acts as an early warning system. The existence of relationships among the entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors can be used to build an early warning system for the prediction of dengue outbreak so

  3. Determinant Factors of Dividend Payments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Augusto Borges Forti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies factors that shaped cash disbursement distribution policies employed by Brazilian public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA from 1995 to 2011. Relationships between Dividends/Total Assets and potential determinants discussed in the literature, including firm size, corporate governance, profitability, leverage, market to book, liquidity, investment, risk, profit growth, information asymmetry and agency conflict, are examined. The following econometric methods are employed: (1 Tobit, given the nature of the dividend data, and (2 the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM to control for endogenous regressors. Significant positive variables found include size, return on assets (ROA, market to book, liquidity and profit growth. It can thus be inferred that larger firm size, profitability, market value, liquidity and profit growth correlate with greater firm pro pensity to distribute money to shareholders, thus supporting the theory of corporate finance. Significant negative variables found include leverage, liquidity squared, capex, beta and tag along 100%. It is thus inferred that more significantly leveraged companies that invest more heavily in fixed assets and that exhibit high liquidity, higher risk and less conflict between controlling and minority shareholders will be less likely to pay dividends to shareholders.

  4. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  5. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, T.; Heuvelink, E.; Dueck, T.A.; Janse, J.; Gort, G.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in

  6. 40 CFR 94.218 - Deterioration factor determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factor determination. 94... Deterioration factor determination. Manufacturers shall determine exhaust emission deterioration factors using good engineering judgement according to the provisions of this section. Every deterioration factor must...

  7. Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, G.; Menage, F.; Schneiter, J.R.; Spurgin, A.; Vogel, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

  8. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Hume, Patria A

    2012-09-01

    Targeted injury prevention strategies, based on biomechanical analyses, have the potential to help reduce the incidence and severity of gymnastics injuries. This review outlines the potential benefits of biomechanics research to contribute to injury prevention strategies for women's artistic gymnastics by identification of mechanisms of injury and quantification of the effects of injury risk factors. One hundred and twenty-three articles were retained for review after searching electronic databases using key words, including 'gymnastic', 'biomech*', and 'inj*', and delimiting by language and relevance to the paper aim. Impact load can be measured biomechanically by the use of instrumented equipment (e.g. beatboard), instrumentation on the gymnast (accelerometers), or by landings on force plates. We need further information on injury mechanisms and risk factors in gymnastics and practical methods of monitoring training loads. We have not yet shown, beyond a theoretical approach, how biomechanical analysis of gymnastics can help reduce injury risk through injury prevention interventions. Given the high magnitude of impact load, both acute and accumulative, coaches should monitor impact loads per training session, taking into consideration training quality and quantity such as the control of rotation and the height from which the landings are executed.

  9. Some remarks about engineering factor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarny, J.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the power distribution uncertainties is in general a multidimensional problem of random vector and problem of multidimensional Probability Density Function. The standard methodology of derivation WWER engineering factors is based on representation of analyzed power peaking in the linear form of random factors and on presumption about their normal Probability Density Function. In this paper is presented the derivation of locally defined engineering factors and for mechanical factors has been performed their reformulation. Final formulation of engineering factors as a statistics of relative deviations involves new parameter-mean. Engineering factors definition from so called endpoints of uncertainty tolerance interval is recommended. Approach (95%/95%) for normal Probability Density Function is discussed in detail, the relation to present standard uncertainty methodology of power distribution is found and problem of optimality in tolerance factor finding including limitation of sample size is discussed. On the bases of statistically based uncertainty kinf analysis for linear model has been shown that multivariate outputs vector of power peaking has nearly normal Probability Density Function independently on the Probability Density Function character of input multivariate vector from under its small dimension (lower than number of fuel assemblies in 1/6 core symmetry). Finally the development of the methodological part of the engineering factors for WWER-1000 design macrocode MOBY-DICK is described and their calculation direct on the bases of self-powered detector experimental data of Temelin NPP and Volgodonsk NPP has been performed with inclusion the variability of detector (self-powered detector). (Author)

  10. Quantifying direct effects of social determinants of health on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if self-care is the pathway through which social determinants of health impact diabetes outcomes by analyzing the direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on self-care and glycemic control. Six hundred fifteen adults were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses identified the latent factors underlying social status, psychosocial determinants (psychological distress, self-efficacy, and social support), and self-care (diet, exercise, foot care, glucose testing, and medication adherence). Structured equation modeling investigated the relationship among social determinants, self-care and glycemic control. Latent variables were created for diabetes self-care, psychological distress, self-efficacy, social support, and social status. The final model [χ(2)(275)=450.07, Psocial support (r=0.14, P=0.01), and higher self-efficacy (r=0.47, Psocial support (r=0.10, P=0.02), and higher self-efficacy (r=-0.37, Psocial determinants of health variables were included in the model, self-care was no longer significantly associated with glycemic control (r=0.01, P=0.83). This study suggests a direct relationship between psychosocial determinants of health and glycemic control. Although associated with self-care, the relationship between social determinants of health and glycemic control is not mediated by self-care. Development of interventions should take psychosocial factors into account as independent influences on diabetes outcomes, rather than as indirect influences via self-care behavior.

  11. Determination of quality factors by microdosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I.A.M.; Watt, D.E.

    1987-03-15

    The application of microdose parameters for the specification of a revised scale of quality factors which would be applicable at low doses and dose rates is examined in terms of an original proposal by Rossi. Two important modifications are suggested to enable an absolute scale of quality factors to be constructed. Allowance should be made to allow for the dependence of the saturation threshold of lineal energy on the type of heavy charged particle. Also, an artificial saturation threshold should be introduced for electron tracks as a means of modifying the measurements made in the microdosimeter to the more realistic site sizes of nanometer dimensions. The proposed absolute scale of quality factors nicely encompasses the high RBEs of around 3 observed at low doses for tritium ..beta.. rays and is consistent with the recent recommendation of the ICRP that the quality factor for fast neutrons be increased by a factor of two, assuming that there is no biological repair for the reference radiation.

  12. Enhancing China’s energy security: Determining influential factors and effective strategic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The most influential factors affecting China’s energy security are identified. • Fuzzy AHP is used to quantify the importance of influential factors. • Strategic measures for enhancing China’s energy security are prioritized. • Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures. - Abstract: This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies and improving energy efficiency is the most salient, positive, and necessary strategic measure

  13. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable ... Related content ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  14. Determination of quality factors by microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Affan, I.A.M.; Watt, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The application of microdose parameters for the specification of a revised scale of quality factors which would be applicable at low doses and dose rates is examined in terms of an original proposal by Rossi. Two important modifications are suggested to enable an absolute scale of quality factors to be constructed. Allowance should be made to allow for the dependence of the saturation threshold of lineal energy on the type of heavy charged particle. Also, an artificial saturation threshold should be introduced for electron tracks as a means of modifying the measurements made in the microdosimeter to the more realistic site sizes of nanometer dimensions. The proposed absolute scale of quality factors nicely encompasses the high RBEs of around 3 observed at low doses for tritium β rays and is consistent with the recent recommendation of the ICRP that the quality factor for fast neutrons be increased by a factor of two, assuming that there is no biological repair for the reference radiation. (orig.)

  15. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Topographic and edaphic factors determining Chromolaena odorata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wet grasslands of floodplains were located on soils with a high concentration of clay and silt, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, as well as a high cation exchange capacity. Conclusions and application of findings: It could be concluded that the texture-moisture of the soil is the main factor, which explained the invasion ...

  17. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions

  18. Psychological distress as a factor in environmental impact assessment: Some methods and ideas for quantifying this intangible intangible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egna, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    A case study describing citizens' contentions that restarting Three Mile Island's nuclear reactor (TMI-1) would cause psychological distress provides historical and legislative impetus for federal agencies to consider psycho-social dimensions in their environmental impact statements (EISs). Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rejected citizens' complaints on the grounds that distress is not easily quantifiable, experts associated with the case noted that the NRC's contention was not entirely valid and that the National Environmental Protection Act missed a golden opportunity to promote the development of methodology and models for incorporating psychosocial factors into the EIS. This study describes some of the methods that have subsequently been used for measuring distress in the context of technological hazards

  19. [Determination of priority unfavorable environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikova, Z A; Burdukovskaya, A V; Belykh, A I

    In the Irkutsk region there are recorded high indices of rates of morbidity, disability, mortality rate of the working-age population and low levels of life expectancy of the population, that is confirmed by ranking position levels among the all subjects of the Russian Federation. According to all mentioned indices of health the region is inside the top ten unfavorable regions of Russia. In relation to the problem in the state of health of the adult population the estimation of the causal relationships between environmental factors and certain health indices is actual. The list of studiedfactors included health indices that characterize the harmful working conditions of the working population and basic socioeconomic indices in the region. Estimation of causal-relationship relationships was performed with the use of methods of multivariate analysis - correlation and multiple linear regression. In the selection offactors for the construction of mathematical models of multiple regression there were used methods of the analysis of variables variability, pair correlation coefficients matrix and sequential switching covariates to eliminate the problems of multicollinearity, pre-standardization of indices for the elevation of the numerical stability of regression analysis algorithm. As a result of the execution of the analysis there were constructed statistical models for the dependence in the system variables “environment - public health”, which allowed to identify the most informative regression models for the adult population health according to indices of primary disability of the population, the mortality rate and life expectancy of the working age population. According to results of the analysis there were identified priority factors affecting on the health of the adult population of the Irkutsk region. To these factors there are referred the proportion of workplaces failing to meet sanitary standards for vibration and 8 socio-economic indices of living

  20. Determining Factors on Environmental Behaviour in Brasilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about the environment has been changing the people's behaviour, leading to questions about the origin of products and the damage they cause to the environment, resulting in a new type of consumer, known as "green consumer". The purpose is to identify the influence of socio-demographic and psychographic factors on the environmental behaviour of individuals in the city of Brasilia and to provide information for the planning of environmental marketing strategies. Data were collected through a questionnaire and by way of logistic regression as analytical tools.The results indicated that the environmentally conscious individuals are those with higher levels of education and, especially, those who perceive the effectiveness of their environmental actions, however small or isolated.

  1. Determining the Number of Factors in P-Technique Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lawrence L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Rovine, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Determining the number of factors is a critical first step in exploratory factor analysis. Although various criteria and methods for determining the number of factors have been evaluated in the usual between-subjects R-technique factor analysis, there is still question of how these methods perform in within-subjects P-technique factor analysis. A…

  2. Factors determining nestedness in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jonhson

    Full Text Available Understanding the causes and effects of network structural features is a key task in deciphering complex systems. In this context, the property of network nestedness has aroused a fair amount of interest as regards ecological networks. Indeed, Bastolla et al. introduced a simple measure of network nestedness which opened the door to analytical understanding, allowing them to conclude that biodiversity is strongly enhanced in highly nested mutualistic networks. Here, we suggest a slightly refined version of such a measure of nestedness and study how it is influenced by the most basic structural properties of networks, such as degree distribution and degree-degree correlations (i.e. assortativity. We find that most of the empirically found nestedness stems from heterogeneity in the degree distribution. Once such an influence has been discounted - as a second factor - we find that nestedness is strongly correlated with disassortativity and hence - as random networks have been recently found to be naturally disassortative - they also tend to be naturally nested just as the result of chance.

  3. Determination of IgE rheumatoid factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.; Schlenvoigt, G.; Jaeger, L.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been developed for the identification of IgE rheumatoid factor (IgE RF). For both, human IgG was used as antigen. Bound IgE RF was detected by means of commercially available rabbit anti-human IgE antiserum and 125 I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit IgG as well as monoclonal anti-human-ε-chain antibody and horse-radish peroxidase-labelled sheep anti-mouse IgG. The presence of IgM RF did not cause false positive results. Correlation in the results of both assays were significant, the reproducibility was very good. In 50.6% of 79 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis IgE RF has been detected with both or one of the methods. Only in 1 out of 12 seronegative rheumatoid arthritis sera IgE RF was identified. (author)

  4. Quantifying risk factors of coccidiosis in broilers using on-farm data based on a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graat, E A; van der Kooij, E; Frankena, K; Henken, A M; Smeets, J F; Hekerman, M T

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to find and quantify risk factors for coccidiosis. The study population consisted of 4774 broiler flocks kept on 177 farms. Flocks were considered a case when at least one bird in the flock showed microscopic presence of oocysts in intestinal scrapings in a grow-out cycle. Other flocks were defined as controls. This was done for three types of Eimeria: Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima. Logistic regression was used to assess variables that influence the occurrence of Eimeria species. There were 49 variables, based on animal, flock or farm level. There was an enhanced risk of coccidiosis due to environmental and management factors that increase the risk of introducing contamination or that are related to hygienic measures. These include lack of use of overalls by visitors, a farmyard which is difficult to clean, bad hygienic status, personnel who might also be working on other farms, presence of other animals on the farm, and feeding and drinking systems which are more difficult to clean. Also, the presence of other diseases on the farm and Eimeria species found in the previous flock increased the risk of coccidiosis.

  5. The determinant factors of open business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mejía-Trejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intro ducción : Desde principios del siglo XXI, varios autores afirman que los modelos de negocio abiertos (OBM permiten a una organización ser más eficaz en la creación y la ca p tura de valor siendo un requisito previo para el éxito de las asociaciones de co - des arrollo. Como resultado de las tendencias de: crecientes costos de desarrollo y ciclos de vida de los produ c tos/servicios más cortos, las empresas encuentran cada vez más difícil justificar las inversi o nes en innovación. El OBM resuelve ambas tendencias, s ubrayando los términos: " ecosistema de la industria " y/o " modelo de negocio colaborativo ". No sólo cambia el pr o ceso de innovación, sino que también modifica a las propias organizaciones mediante la r e configuración de sus cadenas de valor y redes. Para las empresas, crea una lógica heurística basada en el actual modelo de negocio y tecnología para extenderlas, con estrategia, al desa r rollo de la innov a ción para crear valor y aumentar los ingresos y beneficios. Enfatiza tanto las relaciones exte r nas así como la gobernabilidad, como valiosos recursos con varios roles que promueven la competitividad corporativa. Por lo tanto, para un sector especializado de alta tecnología como lo es el de las tecnologías de la información de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajar a (IT S MZG, exponemos el siguiente problema de investigación: ¿Cuáles son los factores determinantes de la OBM como modelo empírico que se aplc a do en el ITSMZG? Método: Como se ve, esta investigación tiene como objetivo plantear, los factores determ i nantes de la OBM como un modelo empírico que sea aplicado en el ITSMZG.Se trata de un estudio documental para seleccionar las principales v a riables entre los especialistas de las ITSMZG que practican el proceso OBM mediante el proceso de j e rarquía analítica (AHP y el Panel de Delphi a fin de contrastar los términos académicos con la experiencia de los e s pecialistas. Es un

  6. Determining factors for implant referral rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger P

    2002-01-01

    The research findings indicate that the field of implant dentistry will only grow at a moderately low level unless certain changes are made. Findings indicated that the effort by the implant companies has been nothing short of dramatic, and yet almost 60% of restorative doctors do not participate annually in any implant case. There was no clear indication that younger restorative doctors will significantly increase the number of implant referrals, as their overall implant education has not dramatically differed from those dentists who graduated in earlier years. Once the research was completed, it became obvious to Levin Group that the driving force behind implant referral growth will be implant surgeons, because of their one-to-one relationship with restorative doctors. The Levin Group Implant Management and Marketing Consulting Program is based on approaching restorative doctors in several different levels, starting with awareness all the way through to case facilitation and long-term tracking and communication. Finally, a continuing marketing/education effort needs to be consistently in place with effective materials, not only to create a high level of awareness, but also to motivate restorative doctors to refer cases and then work through the case with the implant surgeon to a satisfactory completion for the restorative doctor, implant surgeon, and patient. While the surgical insertion of implants may seem to carry a high-profit margin relative to the restoration of implants, the truth is that the restoration of implants usually provides a 40% higher profit margin for the restorative doctor than traditional dental services. One of the key issues is that referring doctors have not necessarily learned how to set fees and present cases with regard to implant dentistry. The key factor here is to ensure that the patient understands that implant services involve higher fees than traditional services, because of the necessarily higher levels of experience, education

  7. Quantifying Uncertainties in Mass-Dimensional Relationships Through a Comparison Between CloudSat and SPartICus Reflectivity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, J.; Mace, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    CloudSat and CALIPSO, two of the satellites in the A-Train constellation, use algorithms to calculate the scattering properties of small cloud particles, such as the T-matrix method. Ice clouds (i.e. cirrus) cause problems with these cloud property retrieval algorithms because of their variability in ice mass as a function of particle size. Assumptions regarding the microphysical properties, such as mass-dimensional (m-D) relationships, are often necessary in retrieval algorithms for simplification, but these assumptions create uncertainties of their own. Therefore, ice cloud property retrieval uncertainties can be substantial and are often not well known. To investigate these uncertainties, reflectivity factors measured by CloudSat are compared to those calculated from particle size distributions (PSDs) to which different m-D relationships are applied. These PSDs are from data collected in situ during three flights of the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) campaign. We find that no specific habit emerges as preferred and instead we conclude that the microphysical characteristics of ice crystal populations tend to be distributed over a continuum and, therefore, cannot be categorized easily. To quantify the uncertainties in the mass-dimensional relationships, an optimal estimation inversion was run to retrieve the m-D relationship per SPartICus flight, as well as to calculate uncertainties of the m-D power law.

  8. 25 CFR 153.4 - Factors determining competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factors determining competency. 153.4 Section 153.4...: CROW INDIANS § 153.4 Factors determining competency. Among the matters to be considered by the... friends and relatives, or will become such a charge, by reason of being classed as competent; and whether...

  9. Quantifying Components of Soil Respiration and Their Response to Abiotic Factors in Two Typical Subtropical Forest Stands, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Yujie; Wang, Yunqi; Sun, Suqi; Liu, Liziyuan

    2015-01-01

    Separating the components of soil respiration and understanding the roles of abiotic factors at a temporal scale among different forest types are critical issues in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. This study quantified the proportions of autotrophic (R A) and heterotrophic (R H) in total soil (R T) respiration using trenching and litter removal. Field studies were conducted in two typical subtropical forest stands (broadleaf and needle leaf mixed forest; bamboo forest) at Jinyun Mountain, near the Three Georges Reservoir in southwest China, during the growing season (Apr.–Sep.) from 2010 to 2012. The effects of air temperature (AT), soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) at 6cm depth, solar radiation (SR), pH on components of soil respiration were analyzed. Results show that: 1) SR, AT, and ST exhibited a similar temporal trend. The observed abiotic factors showed slight interannual variability for the two forest stands. 2) The contributions of R H and R A to R T for broadleaf and needle leaf mixed forest were 73.25% and 26.75%, respectively, while those for bamboo forest were 89.02% and 10.98%, respectively; soil respiration peaked from June to July. In both stands, CO2 released from the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), the strongest contributor to R T, accounted for over 63% of R H. 3) AT and ST were significantly positively correlated with R T and its components (psoil respiration. 4) Components of soil respiration were significantly different between two forest stands (psoil respiration and its components. PMID:25680112

  10. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang Hua; Ren Yin; Du Ke; Xu Weihua; Zheng Hua; Jiang Bo

    2012-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  11. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  12. Fatigue - determination of a more realistic usage factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.

    2001-01-01

    The ability to use a suitable counting method for determining the stress range spectrum in elastic and simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analyses is of crucial importance for enabling determination of a realistic usage factor. Determination of elastic-plastic strain range using the K e factor from fictitious elastically calculated loads is also important in the event of elastic behaviour being exceeded. This paper thus examines both points in detail. A fatigue module with additional options, which functions on this basis is presented. The much more realistic determination of usage factor presented here offers various economic benefits depending on the application

  13. 40 CFR 1065.845 - Response factor determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Response factor determination. 1065... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.845 Response factor... each FID analyzer's alcohol/carbonyl response factor (such as RF MeOH) after FID optimization to...

  14. Determination of epithermal flux correction factor (α) for irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to resonance that occur in the epithermal energy region of a reactor, the flux spectra in that region deviates strongly from the ideal I/E law to a I/E1+α with alpha as the correction factor. The factor has to be determined if zirconium as monitor pairs to determine the correction factor for inner irradiation channel 5 and outer ...

  15. Quantifying cell migration distance as a contributing factor to the development of rectal toxicity after prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munbodh, Reshma; Jackson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    patients, the distribution of distances for points receiving that dose can be different depending on the shape and contiguity of the region(s) containing those dose points. We also show that area of the rectum in the region receiving more than 75 Gy and at a distance of 16 to 22 mm from the 50 Gy isodose line was significantly correlated to the development of toxicity (p = 0.004, two sided t-test). This suggests that examining the distance distribution of points in specific dose regions could provide valuable additional information in predicting the risk of a patient developing radiation-induced rectal toxicity. Conclusions: We present a new method to quantify the spatial distribution of points in a given region relative to other regions on the rectum. The method provides a means to evaluate the hypothesis that distances between lower and higher dose regions on the rectum influence radiation damage repair due to the migration of normal cells into damaged areas, and may be a contributing factor to the development of radiation-induced toxicity in patients treated with radiation for prostate cancer

  16. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  17. Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

    2013-12-01

    -temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.

  18. Quantifying the Forcing Factors Responsible for the Tectono-Geomorphological Evolution of Neogene Rift Basins, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sobky, H. F.; Dorobek, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Gulf of California and its surrounding land areas provide a classic example of recently rifted continental lithosphere, where back-arc stretching of a continental volcanic arc has culminated in the ongoing seafloor spreading that characterizes the present-day axis of the gulf. The recent tectonic history of eastern Baja California, which includes most of the land area eastward of the main drainage divide that extends north-south along the length of the peninsula, has been dominated by oblique rifting that began at about 5 Ma. Thus, extensional tectonics, bedrock lithology, long-term climatic changes, and evolving surface processes have controlled the tectono-geomorphological evolution of the eastern part of the peninsula since 5 Ma. No previous studies, however, examined the effect of these combined factors on the current tectono-geomorphological characteristics of eastern Baja California. We assume that although long-term climate may have changed along the peninsula over the last several million years, precipitation amounts are likely to have changed in a similar way along the entire length of the peninsula, regardless of the long-term climatic trend. This suggests that climatic variation can be largely ruled out as an explanation for the geomorphologic variability between basins. In an attempt to quantify the factors that affected the geomorphologic development along the eastern side of Baja California, thirty-four drainage basins were extracted from a 15-m-resolution absolute digital elevation model (DEM). The stacked-vector method was applied to utilize the different terrain attributes (e.g., hillshaded relief, aspect, slope, etc.) for supervised classification of bedrock lithologies using object-oriented techniques. Stream-length gradient indices were then measured for the main stream in each of the basins. Bedrock lithologies and alluvium were plotted along the stream profiles to identify any relationship between lithology, structure, and stream gradient

  19. Automated potentiometric titrations in KCl/water-saturated octanol: method for quantifying factors influencing ion-pair partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Robert A; Donovan, Stephen F

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge base of factors influencing ion pair partitioning is very sparse, primarily because of the difficulty in determining accurate log P(I) values of desirable low molecular weight (MW) reference compounds. We have developed a potentiometric titration procedure in KCl/water-saturated octanol that provides a link to log P(I) through the thermodynamic cycle of ionization and partitioning. These titrations have the advantage of being independent of the magnitude of log P, while maintaining a reproducibility of a few hundredths of a log P in the calculated difference between log P neutral and log P ion pair (diff (log P(N - I))). Simple model compounds can be used. The titration procedure is described in detail, along with a program for calculating pK(a)'' values incorporating the ionization of water in octanol. Hydrogen bonding and steric factors have a greater influence on ion pairs than they do on neutral species, yet these factors are missing from current programs used to calculate log P(I) and log D. In contrast to the common assumption that diff (log P(N - I)) is the same for all amines, they can actually vary more than 3 log units, as in our examples. A major factor affecting log P(I) is the ability of water and the counterion to approach the charge center. Bulky substituents near the charge center have a negative influence on log P(I). On the other hand, hydrogen bonding groups near the charge center have the opposite effect by lowering the free energy of the ion pair. The use of this titration method to determine substituent ion pair stabilization values (IPS) should bring about more accurate log D calculations and encourage species-specific QSAR involving log D(N) and log D(I). This work also brings attention to the fascinating world of nature's highly stabilized ion pairs.

  20. Automated Potentiometric Titrations in KCl/Water-Saturated Octanol: Method for Quantifying Factors Influencing Ion-Pair Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge base of factors influencing ion pair partitioning is very sparse, primarily because of the difficulty in determining accurate log PI values of desirable low molecular weight (MW) reference compounds. We have developed a potentiometric titration procedure in KCl/water-saturated octanol that provides a link to log PI through the thermodynamic cycle of ionization and partitioning. These titrations have the advantage of being independent of the magnitude of log P, while maintaining a reproducibility of a few hundredths of a log P in the calculated difference between log P neutral and log P ion pair (diff (log PN − I)). Simple model compounds can be used. The titration procedure is described in detail, along with a program for calculating pKa′′ values incorporating the ionization of water in octanol. Hydrogen bonding and steric factors have a greater influence on ion pairs than they do on neutral species, yet these factors are missing from current programs used to calculate log PI and log D. In contrast to the common assumption that diff (log PN − I) is the same for all amines, they can actually vary more than 3 log units, as in our examples. A major factor affecting log PI is the ability of water and the counterion to approach the charge center. Bulky substituents near the charge center have a negative influence on log PI. On the other hand, hydrogen bonding groups near the charge center have the opposite effect by lowering the free energy of the ion pair. The use of this titration method to determine substituent ion pair stabilization values (IPS) should bring about more accurate log D calculations and encourage species-specific QSAR involving log DN and log DI. This work also brings attention to the fascinating world of nature’s highly stabilized ion pairs. PMID:19265385

  1. Determining critical success factor of it project management and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining critical success factor of it project management and its influence towards the ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... respondents who have background in IT management in both public and private sector to gain ...

  2. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from land-use restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare. PMID:24567397

  3. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  4. Gender determination from diagnostic factors on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the evaluation of the radiographic images of pelvic bones by assessing the mentioned factors can be useful for sex determination from skeletal remains. However, ethical considerations should also be taken into account while using these factors.

  5. Multimodel inference to quantify the relative importance of abiotic factors in the population dynamics of marine zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Gert; Deschutter, Yana; De Troch, Marleen; Janssen, Colin R.; De Schamphelaere, Karel

    2018-05-01

    The effect of multiple stressors on marine ecosystems remains poorly understood and most of the knowledge available is related to phytoplankton. To partly address this knowledge gap, we tested if combining multimodel inference with generalized additive modelling could quantify the relative contribution of environmental variables on the population dynamics of a zooplankton species in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Hence, we have quantified the relative contribution of oceanographic variables (e.g. water temperature, salinity, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations) and anthropogenic chemicals (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls) to the density of Acartia clausi. We found that models with water temperature and chlorophyll a concentration explained ca. 73% of the population density of the marine copepod. Multimodel inference in combination with regression-based models are a generic way to disentangle and quantify multiple stressor-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Future-oriented simulations of copepod densities suggested increased copepod densities under predicted environmental changes.

  6. Use of performance shaping factors and quantified expert judgment in the evaluation of human reliability: an initial appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1983-05-01

    The first part of the report considers the nature of human reliability assessment, and the techniques currently employed. It is concluded that most approaches are limited by the availability of data. Approaches to the subjective assessment of error are surveyed. A particular technique which has been developed, the Success Likelihood Index Methodology (SLIM), is described in detail, together with the practical steps for its implementation. The results from a trial application of a questionnaire designed to elicit judges' perceptions of the relative importance of performance shaping factors in determining human reliability are analyzed. A revised form of the questionnaire is presented for future use. A pilot experiment to investigate the relationship between subjectively derived indices of success for six tasks and their objective probability of success is described. The results indicate that the SLIM has potential value as a predictive technique. Some requirements for a program of research to produce a generally applicable methodology are set out

  7. Factors determining early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs: Theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Matiusinaite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study extends the scientific discussion of early internationalization of SMEs. The main purpose of this paper – to develop a theoretical framework to investigate factors determining early internationalization of international new ventures. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework is built on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature. Findings – This paper presents different factors, which determine early internationalization of international new ventures. These factors are divided to entrepreneurial, organizational and contextual factors. We argue that early internationalization of international new ventures is defined by entrepreneurial characteristics and previous experience of the entrepreneur, opportunities recognition and exploitation, risk tolerance, specific of the organization, involvement into networks and contextual factors. Study proved that only interaction between factors and categories has an effect for business development and successful implementation of early internationalization. Research limitations/implications – The research was conducted on the theoretical basis of scientific literature. The future studies could include a practical confirmation or denial of such allocation of factors. Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in the finding that factor itself has limited effect to early internationalization. Only the interoperability of categories and factors gives a positive impact on early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs.

  8. The Customers’ Determinant Factors of the Bank Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbas Krisnanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some previous researchers are still arguing about the factors that determine the selection of a bank. These factors depend on the intensity of marketing activities undertaken by the bank, reputation of the bank, credit availability, friendly staffs, appropriate interest rates, and location. Jakarta was selected for the research location since Jakarta is the biggest city in Indonesia that represents the advancement of the banking industry. Different statistics tools are applied to find the accurate opinion why respondent choose a bank. Based on the results, the research concludes factors that determine in selecting a bank tend to be based on the secondary factors such as recommendation from friends, and advice from family members.

  9. The Customers’ Determinant Factors of the Bank Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbas Krisnanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some previous researchers are still arguing about the factors that determine the selection of a bank. These factors depend on the intensity of marketing activities undertaken by the bank, reputation of the bank, credit availability, friendly staffs, appropriate interest rates, and location. Jakarta was selected for the research location since Jakarta is the biggest city in Indonesia that represents the advancement of the banking industry. Different statistics tools are applied to find the accurate opinion why respondent choose a bank. Based on the results, the research concludes factors that determine in selecting a bank tend to be based on the secondary factors such as recommendation from friends, and advice from family members..

  10. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdanur Dikmen; Dilek Kara Yilmaz; Handenur Basaran; Nasibe Yagmur Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the labor productivity of nurses. Material and Methods: The study which was planned as descriptive and analytical was carried out with 156 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study in a public hospital in the northwest of Turkey. Data was collected with the and ldquo;Participant Presentation Form and rdquo; and the questionnaire including the factors affecting labor productivity which was developed by Ozkoc (2005). ...

  11. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  12. Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qibin; Zhang, Liqing; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank . In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.

  13. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  14. Determinant factors influencing efficiency of Fadama Arable crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farm income, output, productivity and farm size and determined factors influencing Fadama farmer's efficiency. The multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection of120 Fadama farmers and their location. One hundred and twenty non-Fadama farmers were drawn using the same technique for comparison.

  15. Hurdles for sport consumption? Determining factors of household sports expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Thibaut; Steven Vos; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the determining factors of household expenditures on sports participation. Due to a relatively large amount of zero-expenditures, simple regression methods are not suited. Because of methodological reasons, the two-step Heckman approach is used over the

  16. Numerical Determination of Crack Opening and Closure Stress Intensity Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows the numerical determination of fatigue crack opening and closure stress intensity factors of a C(T) specimen under variable amplitude loading using a finite element method. A half compact tension C(T) specimen, assuming plane stress constraint was used by finite element...

  17. Factors determining the choice of a place of delivery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85 (60.7%) chose to deliver in the hospital, while 55 (39.3%) opted for home delivery in the index pregnancy. Determinants of choice of delivery place include cost of hospital bill ... thus achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Keywords: Factors, delivery, birth attendants, pregnant women, MDGs ...

  18. Determination of seismic performance factors for CLT shear wall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Omar Amini; John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Shiling Pei; Philip Line; Marjan Popovski

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents selected results of connector testing and wall testing which were part of a Forest Products Lab-funded project undertaken at Colorado State University in an effort to determine seismic performance factors for cross laminated timber (CLT) shear walls in the United States. Archetype development, which is required as part of the process, is also...

  19. The Five-Factor Model and Self-Determination Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Schnieber, Anette

    This study investigates conceptual overlap vs. distinction between individual differences in personality traits, i.e. the Five-Factor Model; and Self-determination Theory, i.e. general causality orientations. Twelve-hundred-and-eighty-seven freshmen (mean age 21.71; 64% women) completed electronic...

  20. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining neural tube defects: The possible role of autoantibodies. Keat Wei Loo, Siew Hua Gan. Abstract. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe but common congenital malformations. Neonates who suffer from NTDs may experience long-term complications throughout ...

  1. Determination of risk factors and level of awareness of caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Oju, goats are the major livestock kept and there is a well established goat market held every five days. This study was aimed at determining the risk factors associated with caprine brucellosis and assessing level of awareness amongst goat owners in Oju Local Government Area (LGA) of Benue State using a structured ...

  2. Determining the Factors Affecting Labor Productivity of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-12-01

    Results: It was found that the 45.5% of nurses participated in the study were in the 23-53 age group, 79.5% were women, 76.9% married, 41.1% associate degree graduates. 42.3% of nurses' durations of professional experience were 0-5 years, 22.4% of nurses were clinical chief, 69.2% were working as shifts. Participants believe that the factors affecting the labor productivity were respectively organizational factors, ergonomic factors and personal factors. When organizational factors was examined; nurses stated that the lack of working personnel in the section, the low wages and unequal wages for the same work, the long working hours and the system which based on personal relations instead of merit were affecting productivity. The factors affecting labor productivity of nurses were not different according to age, gender, education level and marital status (p>0.05, but different according to mode of operation and years of experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to this study, it was found that there are many factors that affect the efficiency of the nurses. The most important factors affecting nurses' efficiency were determined as wage and working conditions. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 334-342

  3. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  4. Quantifying IT estimation risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed for quantifying the impact of factors that influence the quality of the estimation of costs for IT-enabled business projects. We call these factors risk drivers as they influence the risk of the misestimation of project costs. The method can effortlessly be

  5. Determinant Factors of Green Marketing Adoption in the Hospitality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu B. Vlad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to manage energy and water consumption and waste. The adoption of green marketing in hospitality industry is significantly facilitated by internal and external factors. The paper focuses on the analysis of determinant internal factors: first and foremost on the pro-environmental behavior of the hotel managers and employees, and also on the already implemented green practices in the daily hotel activity. The implementation of green marketing strategies further examined being taken into account the organizational change theory, discloses a third determinant factor, namely, to what extent the process of changing is prepared. This paper is advancing an integrated model of determinant internal factors of green marketing implementation in the hospitality sector. The proposed research model has been tested and validated after analyzing the data collected in a quantitative research conducted on 330 managers and employees from the hospitality industry in Romania. The results show that the three predictors - pro-environmental behavior, current green practices and the change readiness - are having a significant influence on the implementation of green marketing.

  6. Methodology to quantify the role of the factors controlling the variation of rivers' total dissolved solids in Jiu Catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adina Morosanu, Gabriela; Zaharia, Liliana; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela; Belleudy, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The total dissolved solids (TDS) is a river water quality parameter reflecting its concentration in solute ions. It is sensitive to many physical and anthropogenic features of the watershed. In this context, the objective of this work is to analyze the spatial variation of the TDS and to identify the role of the main controlling factors (e.g. geology, soils, land use) in Jiu River and some of its main tributaries, by using a methodology based on GIS and multivariate analysis. The Jiu watershed (10,000 kmp) is located in south-western Romania and it has a high diversity of physical and anthropogenic features influencing the water flow and its quality. The study is based on TDS measurements performed in August, 2016, during low flow conditions in the Jiu River and its tributaries. To measure in situ the TDS (ppm), an EC/TDS/Temperature Hand-held Tester was used in the 12 measuring points on Jiu River and in another 7 points on some of its tributaries. Across the hydrographic basin, the recorded TDS values ranged from 31 ppm to 607 ppm, while in the case of Jiu River, the TDS varied between 38 ppm at Lonea station (upper Jiu River) and 314 ppm at Išalniča (in the lower course). For each catchment corresponding to the sampling points, the influence of some contiguous features was defined on the basis of the lithology (marls, limestones, erodible bedrocks) and soils (clay textures), as well as the land cover/use influencing the solubility and solid content. This assessment was carried out in GIS through a set of spatial statistics analysis by calculating the percentages of the catchment coverage area for each determinant. In order to identify the contributions of different catchment features on the TDS variability, principal components analysis (PCA) was then applied. The results revealed the major role of the marls and clayey soils in the increase of TDS (on the Amaradia and Gilort rivers and some sections in the middle course of the Jiu River). In contrast

  7. A local factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ce, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy); Giusti, Leonardo [Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Schaefer, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2016-09-15

    We introduce a factorization of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD with Wilson-type fermions that leads to a bosonic action which is local in the block fields. The interaction among gauge fields on distant blocks is mediated by multiboson fields located on the boundaries of the blocks. The resultant multiboson domain-decomposed hybrid Monte Carlo passes extensive numerical tests carried out by measuring standard gluonic observables. The combination of the determinant factorization and of the one of the propagator, that we put forward recently, paves the way for multilevel Monte Carlo integration in the presence of fermions. We test this possibility by computing the disconnected correlator of two flavor-diagonal pseudoscalar densities, and we observe a significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio due to a two-level integration.

  8. Factors that determine development of the ability to draw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Dahik Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the necessary factors are determined to structure a drawing representing an object, a brief description of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, the theory of multiple bits of intelligence Gardner, capacities of representation and perception involved in the skill is reviewed and ability to draw. This work aims to be the beginning of a larger study, where they plan to measure the ability to draw in students, in order to experiment with alternative methodologies for teaching drawing.

  9. Determining Factors for Fast Corneal Sensitivity Recovery After Pterygium Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Morán, Gemma; Campos, Pamela; Pujol Vives, Pere; Munguia, Aitana; Mas Aixalà, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish determining factors for fast corneal sensitivity (CS) recovery after pterygium excision. Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 14 males and 18 females with primary nasal pterygium were recruited. Differences in CS (in the 4 quadrants and the center using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer), pterygium corneal area (PCA), tear osmolarity, tear break-up time, Schirmer test, and ocular symptoms were analyzed before and 1 month after lesion excision. The relationship between CS recovery...

  10. A gamma-spectrometer determining equilibrium factor in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiheng

    1992-01-01

    The author expounds main function, scientific value and practical significance of Model SY500 gamma-spectrometer, which can determine radioactive factor equilibrium (k p ) in-situ. Accuracy, steadiness and differential of the technology has been proved on the models of Radiometric Measurement Station of China Nuclear Industry Corporation. The author enumerates several examples such as k p survey at gold-bearing glebe, at uranium-bearing glebe, at the ground above ground water and 21 stations of Beijing subway

  11. Determining organizational information needs: the Critical Success Factors approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on a series of investigations in the UK and Finland, in both academic and business institutions. The Critical Success Factors approach is defined and explored as a means of determining the information needs of organizations, rather than of individuals. Concludes that such use is appropriate and productive, enabling the identification of types of information that may aid the organization in its strategic policy making to achieve competitive advantage.

  12. Practical criterion for the determination of translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, A.

    1984-01-01

    Following an idea of Rankin and Thorson, a method is proposed to determine translation factors in the molecular model of atomic collisions, and for low and intermediate nuclear velocities. The method is based on the minimization of a measure of all (electrostatic and dynamical) couplings between the states included in, and those left out from, the molecular expansion. The properties of this measure are discussed. In particular, its evaluation involves the calculation of a few new matrix elements, and this can be performed analytically when Gaussian-type orbitals are used to construct the wave functions. The method also provides a comparison between all approaches that employ translation factors, and a test of the conditions that are usually enforced on these factors

  13. Practical criterion for the determination of translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riera, A.

    1984-11-01

    Following an idea of Rankin and Thorson, a method is proposed to determine translation factors in the molecular model of atomic collisions, and for low and intermediate nuclear velocities. The method is based on the minimization of a measure of all (electrostatic and dynamical) couplings between the states included in, and those left out from, the molecular expansion. The properties of this measure are discussed. In particular, its evaluation involves the calculation of a few new matrix elements, and this can be performed analytically when Gaussian-type orbitals are used to construct the wave functions. The method also provides a comparison between all approaches that employ translation factors, and a test of the conditions that are usually enforced on these factors.

  14. Quantifying the Extent of Emphysema : Factors Associated with Radiologists' Estimations and Quantitative Indices of Emphysema Severity Using the ECLIPSE Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietema, Hester A.; Mueller, Nestor L.; Fauerbach, Paola V. Nasute; Sharma, Sanjay; Edwards, Lisa D.; Camp, Pat G.; Coxson, Harvey O.

    Rationale and Objectives: This study investigated what factors radiologists take into account when estimating emphysema severity and assessed quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of low attenuation areas. Materials and Methods: CT scans and spirometry were obtained on 1519 chronic

  15. Quantifying the Impacts of Environmental Factors on Vegetation Dynamics over Climatic and Management Gradients of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Dubovyk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a lack of quantitative information regarding the driving factors of vegetation dynamics in post-Soviet Central Asia. Insufficient knowledge also exists concerning vegetation variability across sub-humid to arid climatic gradients as well as vegetation response to different land uses, from natural rangelands to intensively irrigated croplands. In this study, we analyzed the environmental drivers of vegetation dynamics in five Central Asian countries by coupling key vegetation parameter “overall greenness” derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data, with its possible factors across various management and climatic gradients. We developed nine generalized least-squares random effect (GLS-RE models to analyze the relative impact of environmental factors on vegetation dynamics. The obtained results quantitatively indicated the extensive control of climatic factors on managed and unmanaged vegetation cover across Central Asia. The most diverse vegetation dynamics response to climatic variables was observed for “intensively managed irrigated croplands”. Almost no differences in response to these variables were detected for managed non-irrigated vegetation and unmanaged (natural vegetation across all countries. Natural vegetation and rainfed non-irrigated crop dynamics were principally associated with temperature and precipitation parameters. Variables related to temperature had the greatest relative effect on irrigated croplands and on vegetation cover within the mountainous zone. Further research should focus on incorporating the socio-economic factors discussed here in a similar analysis.

  16. EMPLOYMENT LEVEL ANALYSIS FROM THE DETERMINANT FACTORS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diana ŞERB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neglecting the human factor as part of the labor market causes losses for society as any activity that is initiated within it, has as a starting point, and also as a finishing point, the human intervention. The starting point of the article is represented by the projections made by the European    Commission in the Population Ageing Report in 2015 underlying assumptions and projections, and also by the projections of the United Nations report in 2015, and this resulted in many conclusions including the one that for the first time in Romania the average aging in 2015 exceeds the values measured by EU till present day, and this is reflected in the employment level (active aging population. The hypothesis behind the article is that the evolution of the population and migrants has repercussions on employment. Structured in three parts: knowledge status, the analysis of employment indicators and information about the intensity and direction of the link between a number of factors and employment level, this article aims to establish the determinant factors of employment through a research focused on the analysis of secondary sources, and also using the regression model. The most important lesson learned as a result of this research is that the labor market works with a variety of factors with a higher or lower influence, and in turn the labor market influences other factors.

  17. Quantifying behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a cross-sectional survey using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to explore any differences between respondents. A cross-sectional survey of patient-facing doctors, nurses and pharmacists within three major hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. An online questionnaire was developed based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF, a framework of behaviour change theories). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify components and internal reliability determined. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all hospital ethics committees. Two hundred and ninety-four responses were received. Questionnaire items clustered into six components of knowledge and skills, feedback and support, action and impact, motivation, effort and emotions. Respondents generally gave positive responses for knowledge and skills, feedback and support and action and impact components. Responses were more neutral for the motivation and effort components. In terms of emotions, the component with the most negative scores, there were significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive, p = 0.002) and age (older most positive, p Theoretical Domains Framework to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors. • Questionnaire items relating to emotions surrounding reporting generated the most negative responses with significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive) and age (older most positive) with no differences for gender and health profession. • Interventions based on behaviour change techniques mapped to emotions should be prioritised for development.

  18. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...

  19. Quantifying the impact of environmental factors on arthropod communities in agricultural landscapes across organizational levels and spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, O.; Maelfait, J.P.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Hendrickx, F.; Billeter, R.; Speelmans, M.; Augenstein, I.; Aukema, B.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Diekötter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Frenzel, M.; Herzog, F.; Liira, J.; Roubalova, M.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. In landscapes influenced by anthropogenic activities, such as intensive agriculture, knowledge of the relative importance and interaction of environmental factors on the composition and function of local communities across a range of spatial scales is important for maintaining biodiversity. 2. We

  20. Significant Factors Determining E-government Adoption in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Idris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that low adoption rate among citizens has been hindering the optimization of e-Government services especially in developing countries. Hence, one of the critical measures that has to be undertaken is to identify and overcome possible barriers to further facilitate a higher rate of adoption. A multistage stratified sampling was used in this study to collect data from 1000 respondents, both user and non-user residing in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This state was chosen as to provide a better understanding of low adoption when issues of basic facilities have been successfully overcome. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent constructs and seven key factors were identified. A multiple regression model was subsequently used to analyze significant factors in determining the willingness to use e-Government services. The determinants are language barrier, educational level, secure, format, easy to use, enjoyable, reliable, visual appeal and infrastructure. The result shows significant variables that act as barriers to adoption are reliable, enjoyable, easy to use, secure, and language used. The constraints pointed out in the open ended questions mainly focus on the issue of accessibility, ease of use and awareness. Overcoming these obstacles is therefore crucial in order to enhance the usage of e-Government services which consequently will improve the quality of public administration in Malaysia.

  1. arXiv Local multiboson factorization of the quark determinant

    CERN Document Server

    Cè, Marco; Schaefer, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the recently proposed multiboson domain-decomposed factorization of the gauge-field dependence of the fermion determinant in lattice QCD. In particular, we focus on the case of a lattice divided in an arbitrary number of thick time slices. As a consequence, multiple space-time regions can be updated independently. This allows to address the exponential degradation of the signal-to-noise ration of correlation functions with multilevel Monte Carlo sampling. We show numerical evidence of the effectiveness of a two-level integration for pseudoscalar propagators with momentum and for vector propagators, in a two active regions setup. These results are relevant to lattice computation of the hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and to heavy meson decay form factors.

  2. Factors determining esthetic outcome after breast cancer conservative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria J; Cardoso, Jaime; Santos, Ana C

    2007-01-01

    with lower body mass index (BMI) and premenopausal status obtained better cosmetic results. In the group of tumor- and treatment-related factors, larger removed specimens, clearly visible scars, the use of chemotherapy and longer follow-up period were associated with less satisfactory results......The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that determine esthetic outcome after breast cancer conservative treatment, based on a consensual classification obtained with an international consensus panel. Photographs were taken from 120 women submitted to conservative unilateral breast cancer...... surgery (with or without axillary surgery) and radiotherapy. The images were sent to a panel of observers from 13 different countries and consensus on the classification of esthetic result (recorded as excellent, good, fair or poor) was obtained in 113 cases by means of a Delphi method. For each patient...

  3. Determination of the deuterium separation factor between ammonia and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoire, J.; Grandcollot, P.; Dirian, G.; Montel, J.

    1963-01-01

    The separation factors between hydrogen and gaseous ammonia (α g ) and between hydrogen and liquid ammonia (α l ) have been determined by experimental measurements and by calculations from spectrographic data, using existing data concerning the separation factor between liquid ammonia and gaseous ammonia (α v ). The values of α v , α g and α l are given in a table for a temperature range between - 70 deg C and + 40 deg C. The following equations have been established: log α g = 218 ± 1/T - 0.1841, from - 70 deg. C to + 40 deg. C. log α g = 216 ± 1/T + Q, valid at every temperature, Q being known as a function of temperature. log α l = 233 ± 1/T - 0.2283, from - 70 deg. C a -25 deg. C. (authors) [fr

  4. Determination of shielding factors for typical buildings in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Isabel Cristina Poquet

    2006-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the determination of the air kerma inside buildings due to contamination on the external surfaces and the shielding factors for the construction material to be used on emergency assessment systems for urban areas. The commonly used construction materials were simulated with the MCNP computer code. A special methodology to simulate the bricks with holes were developed, mixing all different regions into a single one, making the simulation easier and faster. The effective density and the attenuation coefficients for the 50-3000 keV energy range were determined. The effective protection for the bricks with no cement cover decreases by 40-50% for energies greater then 300 keV when compared to bricks covered on both sides. With the data made available it was possible to evaluate the influence of the construction materials densities and thickness on the exposure due to external surfaces contamination and to estimate the error on the dose when the shielding factor applied on the calculation differs from the more realistic ones. The shielding factors for three types of walls were determined for a five rooms house. Special protection procedures should be applied for houses built with bricks with no cement cover, because they are due to the double of the dose when compared to houses built with bricks two-sided cement covered. The influence of windows and doors were evaluated too. This work was developed at the IRD in order to provide information on the construction material commonly uses on building in Brazil. (author)

  5. Intrinsic factor in human amniotic fluid as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstedt, V.; Stenman, U.-H.; Ylinen, K.; Graesbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) concentration in 55 human amniotic fluid specimens was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The antiserum was produced by immunizing rabbits with the cobalamin-IF complex isolated from human gastric juice. The median concentration of IF was 0.17 nmol/l and the extreme values <0.07-2.51 nmol/l. Three specimens with a clearly elevated level (0.96, 1.11 and 2.51 nmol/l) were observed. The highest value was associated with a fetal malformation, viz. obstruction of the proximal gut. There was no evident correlation between the concentration of IF in amniotic fluid and gestational age. (author)

  6. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF BRAZILIAN TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Freitas Sant´Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify determinant factors of the capital structure of Brazilian technology companies. The research was characterized as descriptive, document and quantitative, consisting of 21 companies in the communications, telecommunications and digital industry, according to the Exame magazine ranking. The analysis was established from 2009 to 2013 using panel data regression. The results indicate that the growth rate of capital and control type have a positive relationship with the general and long-term debt. However, it was found that company size, profitability and type of capital point to a negative relationship with the capital structure.

  7. Quantifying uncertainties in radar forward models through a comparison between CloudSat and SPartICus reflectivity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, Jeana; Mace, Gerald G.

    2017-02-01

    Interpretations of remote sensing measurements collected in sample volumes containing ice-phase hydrometeors are very sensitive to assumptions regarding the distributions of mass with ice crystal dimension, otherwise known as mass-dimensional or m-D relationships. How these microphysical characteristics vary in nature is highly uncertain, resulting in significant uncertainty in algorithms that attempt to derive bulk microphysical properties from remote sensing measurements. This uncertainty extends to radar reflectivity factors forward calculated from model output because the statistics of the actual m-D in nature is not known. To investigate the variability in m-D relationships in cirrus clouds, reflectivity factors measured by CloudSat are combined with particle size distributions (PSDs) collected by coincident in situ aircraft by using an optimal estimation-based (OE) retrieval of the m-D power law. The PSDs were collected by 12 flights of the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet during the Small Particles in Cirrus campaign. We find that no specific habit emerges as preferred, and instead, we find that the microphysical characteristics of ice crystal populations tend to be distributed over a continuum-defying simple categorization. With the uncertainties derived from the OE algorithm, the uncertainties in forward-modeled backscatter cross section and, in turn, radar reflectivity is calculated by using a bootstrapping technique, allowing us to infer the uncertainties in forward-modeled radar reflectivity that would be appropriately applied to remote sensing simulator algorithms.

  8. Quantifying the accuracy of the tumor motion and area as a function of acceleration factor for the simulation of the dynamic keyhole magnetic resonance imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danny; Greer, Peter B; Pollock, Sean; Kim, Taeho; Keall, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The dynamic keyhole is a new MR image reconstruction method for thoracic and abdominal MR imaging. To date, this method has not been investigated with cancer patient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The goal of this study was to assess the dynamic keyhole method for the task of lung tumor localization using cine-MR images reconstructed in the presence of respiratory motion. The dynamic keyhole method utilizes a previously acquired a library of peripheral k-space datasets at similar displacement and phase (where phase is simply used to determine whether the breathing is inhale to exhale or exhale to inhale) respiratory bins in conjunction with central k-space datasets (keyhole) acquired. External respiratory signals drive the process of sorting, matching, and combining the two k-space streams for each respiratory bin, thereby achieving faster image acquisition without substantial motion artifacts. This study was the first that investigates the impact of k-space undersampling on lung tumor motion and area assessment across clinically available techniques (zero-filling and conventional keyhole). In this study, the dynamic keyhole, conventional keyhole and zero-filling methods were compared to full k-space dataset acquisition by quantifying (1) the keyhole size required for central k-space datasets for constant image quality across sixty four cine-MRI datasets from nine lung cancer patients, (2) the intensity difference between the original and reconstructed images in a constant keyhole size, and (3) the accuracy of tumor motion and area directly measured by tumor autocontouring. For constant image quality, the dynamic keyhole method, conventional keyhole, and zero-filling methods required 22%, 34%, and 49% of the keyhole size (P lung tumor monitoring applications. This study demonstrates that the dynamic keyhole method is a promising technique for clinical applications such as image-guided radiation therapy requiring the MR monitoring of thoracic tumors. Based

  9. Quantifying the accuracy of the tumor motion and area as a function of acceleration factor for the simulation of the dynamic keyhole magnetic resonance imaging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Danny; Pollock, Sean; Keall, Paul, E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia); Kim, Taeho [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23219 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The dynamic keyhole is a new MR image reconstruction method for thoracic and abdominal MR imaging. To date, this method has not been investigated with cancer patient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The goal of this study was to assess the dynamic keyhole method for the task of lung tumor localization using cine-MR images reconstructed in the presence of respiratory motion. Methods: The dynamic keyhole method utilizes a previously acquired a library of peripheral k-space datasets at similar displacement and phase (where phase is simply used to determine whether the breathing is inhale to exhale or exhale to inhale) respiratory bins in conjunction with central k-space datasets (keyhole) acquired. External respiratory signals drive the process of sorting, matching, and combining the two k-space streams for each respiratory bin, thereby achieving faster image acquisition without substantial motion artifacts. This study was the first that investigates the impact of k-space undersampling on lung tumor motion and area assessment across clinically available techniques (zero-filling and conventional keyhole). In this study, the dynamic keyhole, conventional keyhole and zero-filling methods were compared to full k-space dataset acquisition by quantifying (1) the keyhole size required for central k-space datasets for constant image quality across sixty four cine-MRI datasets from nine lung cancer patients, (2) the intensity difference between the original and reconstructed images in a constant keyhole size, and (3) the accuracy of tumor motion and area directly measured by tumor autocontouring. Results: For constant image quality, the dynamic keyhole method, conventional keyhole, and zero-filling methods required 22%, 34%, and 49% of the keyhole size (P < 0.0001), respectively, compared to the full k-space image acquisition method. Compared to the conventional keyhole and zero-filling reconstructed images with the keyhole size utilized in the dynamic keyhole

  10. Comparison between dot-immunoblotting assay and clinical sign determination method for quantifying avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine by titration in embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Youn, Ha-Na; Heo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive and specific method for measuring the vaccine titer of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is important to commercial manufacturers for improving vaccine quality. Typically, IBV is titrated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the infectivity of the virus dilutions is determined by assessing clinical signs in the embryos as evidence of viral propagation. In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo: egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vaccine strain. The results of this study indicate that the DIA is a rapid, sensitive, reliable method for determining IBV vaccine titer in embryonated eggs at a relatively low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinant Factors for Managing Innovation in the Malaysian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Rahman Zety Norhaiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the government has started the forces to encourage public sector to innovate in order to strengthen the capability and solve problems at workplace for the benefit of organization and its people. The focuses of this forces is to create value creation, encourage cost reduction, and provide services that meet aspirations and people's expectations through high impact ideas. However, to achieve these focuses, public sector faces few challenges that affect the management of innovation; which includes lack of leadership skills and poor innovative culture to stimulate innovation. Although there are various initiatives conducted to enhance the management innovation, the innovative performance is still less satisfactory. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the determinant factors that affect managing innovation in the selected public sectors which consist of two categories; patron and executor agencies. Thematic approach was used to analyse the interview data. Findings from the interview suggested that in the organization, an employee especially a leader should show his full commitment towards innovative culture, he needs to be committed and supportive and communicate well with the employees and he also should provide attractive rewards to encourage the innovative culture for an effective management innovation. These determinant factors need to be considered as high significant for the public sector to develop new strategies or approaches in managing innovation towards sustaining their competitive advantages in a long term for the benefit of public.

  12. Determination of mixing factors for VVER-440 fuel assembly head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, S., E-mail: toth@reak.bme.hu [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Aszódi, A. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-11-15

    CFD models have been developed for the heads of the old, the present and the new type VVER-440 fuel assemblies using the experience of a former validation process. With these models temperature distributions are investigated in the heads of some typical assemblies and the in-core thermocouple signals are calculated. The analyses show that the coolant mixing is intensive but not-perfect in the assembly heads. The difference between the thermocouple signal and the cross-sectional average temperature at the measurement level depends on the assembly type. Using the results of these CFD calculations the weight factors of the rod bundle regions for the in-core thermocouple have been determined. With these factors the thermocouple signals are estimated and the results are statistically tested using the registered data of the Hungarian nuclear power plant. This test shows that the deviations between the measured and the calculated temperatures can be significantly decreased and consequently monitoring uncertainties can be reduced with using the weight factors.

  13. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to prove empirically the determining factors that influence the quality of financialreporting and the economic consequences, and there were influence differences of quality attributes of financialreporting to the economic consequences. The research samples were taken by purposive sampling so it obtained141 listed manufacturing businesses from 2001 to 2006. The research used four data analysis technique:auxiliary regression R2, confirmatory factor analysis, simple regression, and multiple regressions. The resultsshowed seven attributes, there were five attributes that gave contribution for financial reporting quality namelyaccrual quality, predictability, smoothness, relevance value, and conservatism while the persistence and timelinessgave small contribution. The five attributes were also different each other. From the thirteen determiningfactors, it showed nine factors that produced significant influences namely operation cycle, sales volatility,firm size, firm age, loss proportion, leverage, environmental risk, institutional ownership, market concentration,and auditor quality, while the other three, they were liquidity, managerial ownership, and investmentgrowth that were not significant. Testing results of economic consequences of quality of financial reportingshowed that the quality of factorial financial reporting influenced negatively and significantly toward informationasymmetry.

  14. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  15. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  16. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1988-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continuous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determining the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commissioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization. (author)

  17. A multivariable assessment quantifying effects of cohort-level factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk in cohorts of U.S. commercial feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, A H; Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Dubnicka, S R; Thomson, D U; Ives, S E; Scott, H M; Milliken, G A; Renter, D G

    2013-01-01

    Economic losses due to cattle mortality and culling have a substantial impact on the feedlot industry. Since criteria for culling may vary and may affect measures of cumulative mortality within cattle cohorts, it is important to assess both mortality and culling when evaluating cattle losses over time and among feedlots. To date, there are no published multivariable assessments of factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk. Our objective was to evaluate combined mortality and culling losses in feedlot cattle cohorts and quantify effects of commonly measured cohort-level risk factors (weight at feedlot arrival, gender, and month of feedlot arrival) using data routinely collected by commercial feedlots. We used retrospective data representing 8,904,965 animals in 54,416 cohorts from 16 U.S. feedlots from 2000 to 2007. The sum of mortality and culling counts for each cohort (given the number of cattle at risk) was used to generate the outcome of interest, the cumulative incidence of combined mortality and culling. Associations between this outcome variable and cohort-level risk factors were evaluated using a mixed effects multivariable negative binomial regression model with random effects for feedlot, year, month and week of arrival. Mean arrival weight of the cohort, gender, and arrival month and a three-way interaction (and corresponding two-way interactions) among arrival weight, gender and month were significantly (Prisk decreased, but effects of arrival weight were modified both by the gender of the cohort and the month of feedlot arrival. There was a seasonal pattern in combined mortality and culling risk for light and middle-weight male and female cohorts, with a significantly (Prisk for cattle arriving at the feedlot in spring and summer (March-September) than in cattle arriving during fall, and winter months (November-February). Our results quantified effects of covariate patterns that have been heretofore difficult to fully evaluate in

  18. Quantifying the passive gamma signal from spent nuclear fuel in support of determining the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel with nondestructive assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The objective of safeguarding nuclear material is to deter diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials by timely monitoring and detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel (SF), by means of nondestructive assay (NDA), in order to meet this goal. These motivations include the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguard nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from SF; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium in SF. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of 13 NDA techniques for characterizing Pu mass in spent fuel. This paper focuses on the development of a passive gamma measurement system in support the spent fuel assay system. Gamma ray detection for fresh nuclear fuel focuses on gamma ray emissions that directly coincide with the actinides of interest to the assay. For example, the 186-keV gamma ray is generally used for {sup 235}U assay and the 384-keV complex is generally used for assaying plutonium. In spent nuclear fuel, these signatures cannot be detected as the Compton continuum created from the fission products dominates the signal in this energy range. For SF, the measured gamma signatures from key fission products ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu) are used to ascertain burnup, cooling time, and fissile content information. In this paper the Monte Carlo modeling set-up for a passive gamma spent fuel assay system will be described. The set-up of the system includes a germanium detector and an ion chamber and will be used to gain passive gamma information that will be integrated into a system for determining Pu in SF. The passive gamma signal will be determined from a library of {approx} 100 assemblies that have been

  19. Permeability to macromolecular contrast media quantified by dynamic MRI correlates with tumor tissue assays of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyran, Clemens C.; Sennino, Barbara; Fu, Yanjun; Rogut, Victor; Shames, David M.; Chaopathomkul, Bundit; Wendland, Michael F.; McDonald, Donald M.; Brasch, Robert C.; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate dynamic MRI assays of macromolecular endothelial permeability with microscopic area–density measurements of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumors. Methods and material: This study compared tumor xenografts from two different human cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 tumors (n = 5), and MDA-MB-435 (n = 8), reported to express respectively higher and lower levels of VEGF. Dynamic MRI was enhanced by a prototype macromolecular contrast medium (MMCM), albumin-(Gd-DTPA)35. Quantitative estimates of tumor microvascular permeability (K PS ; μl/min × 100 cm 3 ), obtained using a two-compartment kinetic model, were correlated with immunohistochemical measurements of VEGF in each tumor. Results: Mean K PS was 2.4 times greater in MDA-MB-231 tumors (K PS = 58 ± 30.9 μl/min × 100 cm 3 ) than in MDA-MB-435 tumors (K PS = 24 ± 8.4 μl/min × 100 cm 3 ) (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, the area–density of VEGF in MDA-MB-231 tumors was 2.6 times greater (27.3 ± 2.2%, p < 0.05) than in MDA-MB-435 cancers (10.5 ± 0.5%, p < 0.05). Considering all tumors without regard to cell type, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.67, p < 0.05) was observed between MRI-estimated endothelial permeability and VEGF immunoreactivity. Conclusion: Correlation of MRI assays of endothelial permeability to a MMCM and VEGF immunoreactivity of tumors support the hypothesis that VEGF is a major contributor to increased macromolecular permeability in cancers. When applied clinically, the MMCM-enhanced MRI approach could help to optimize the appropriate application of VEGF-inhibiting therapy on an individual patient basis.

  20. Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Teutonico, Annalisa; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Lomonte, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important pathogenetic factors involved in the onset of intradialysis arrhytmias is the alteration in electrolyte concentration, particularly potassium (K(+)). Two studies were performed: Study A was designed to investigate above all the isolated effect of the factor time t on intradialysis K(+) mass balance (K(+)MB): 11 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one standard (∼4 h) and one long-hour (∼8 h) bicarbonate haemodialysis (HD) session. The latter were pair-matched as far as the dialysate and blood volume processed (90 L) and volume of ultrafiltration are concerned. Study B was designed to identify and rank the other factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: 63 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one 4-h standard bicarbonate HD session. Dialysate K(+) concentration was 2.0 mmol/L in both studies. Blood samples were obtained from the inlet blood tubing immediately before the onset of dialysis and at t60, t120, t180 min and at end of the 4- and 8-h sessions for the measurement of plasma K(+), blood bicarbonates and blood pH. Additional blood samples were obtained at t360 min for the 8 h sessions. Direct dialysate quantification was utilized for K(+)MBs. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for K(+) measurements. Study A: mean K(+)MBs were significantly higher in the 8-h sessions (4 h: -88.4 ± 23.2 SD mmol versus 8 h: -101.9 ± 32.2 mmol; P = 0.02). Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), area under the curve (AUC) of the hourly inlet dialyser diffusion concentration gradient of K(+) (hcgAUCK(+)) and AUC of blood bicarbonates and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB in both 4- and 8-h sessions. A multiple linear regression output with K(+)MB as dependent variable showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and duration of HD sessions per se remained statistically significant. Study B: mean K(+)MBs were -86.7 ± 22.6 mmol

  1. Some factors determining the PCr recovery overshoot in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed recently that the phosphocreatine (PCr) overshoot (increase above the resting level) during muscle recovery after exercise is caused by a slow decay during this recovery of the direct activation of oxidative phosphorylation taking place during muscle work. In the present article the factors determining the appearance and size of the PCr overshoot are studied using the computer model of oxidative phosphorylation in intact skeletal muscle developed previously. It is demonstrated that the appearance and duration of this overshoot is positively correlated with the value of the characteristic decay time of the direct activation of oxidative phosphorylation. It is also shown that the size of PCr overshoot is increased by low resting PCr/Cr ratio (what is confirmed by our unpublished experimental data), by high intensity of the direct activation of oxidative phosphorylation, by high muscle work intensity and by low rate of the return of cytosolic pH to the resting value during muscle recovery.

  2. Factors determining conversion of laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapash Kumar Maitra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC has virtually replaced conventional open cholecystectomy (OC as the standard procedure of treatment for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. However, OC sometimes becomes a necessity considering the feasibility and safety of the surgical procedure. But the factors that demand conversion from LC to OC differ widely. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of conversion from LC to OC and to assess the causes of conversion and risk factors related to conversion. Methods: The study was conducted in a referral hospital – ‘Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder (BIRDEM’ from September 2014 to September 2016. Cases of cholelithiasis with or without cholecystitis, and other gall bladder pathology were included in the study. A team of experienced surgeon performed LC of all selected cases. The causes of conversion to OC were systematically recorded by the surgical team and the risk factors (age, sex, obesity, history of previous abdominal surgery, gallbladder thickness related to conversion from LC to OC was investigated. Results: A total of 261 (M / F = 87 /174 patients were considered eligible for the study. The mean age of all patients was 43 (±1.75 years. For the male and female groups the mean ages were 44±1.9 and 42±1.6 years respectively. Of the total 261 cases, 210 (80.5% patients had cholelithiasis with chronic cholecystitis, 47 (18.0% had gallbladder stone plus acute cholecystitis and 4 (1.5% had gallbladder polyp. Open conversion was required in case of 19 patients. Thus, overall conversion rate was 7.3%. The common causes of conversion were a difficulty in defining Calot’s triangle (42.1%, b injury to cystic artery (21.1% and c injury to bile duct (15.8%. Both male and female had equal risk for conversion. The investigated risk factors like history of previous abdominal surgery, preoperative ERCP, acute

  3. Determinant Factors of Corporate Social Disclosures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of the big developing countries has been responding rapidly to the issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD. This can be seen from the CSD section in the listed companies’ annual reports which keep increasing throughout the years. However, there are still inconclusive findings in factors that determine the extent of CSD. Based on a comprehensive research, therefore, this paper examines some selected factors in their relations to the extent of CSD, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Corporate annual reports for the year 2003 to 2006 were examined to verify the CSD practices by applying a content analysis method and multiple regression analysis. Then, firm’s characteristics (category, size, financial performances, age, and group influential (creditors, auditors, owners were analysed to seek their significant relationships to the extent of CSD. The findings show that (1 there was no significant influence of ‘company type’ to the extent of CSD; but ‘company status’ was significantl y influence CSD (2 ‘company size’, ‘financial performances’, ‘age’, and ‘auditors’ influences’ were found to have significant positi ve influences to the extent of CSD; (3 ‘Owners’ influence’ correlated positivel y rather than negati vely to CSD; and (4 Mixed results were provided by the ‘creditors’ influence’ throughout the years. The overall correlations between predictor and criterion variables are considered to be low to moderate, varied from 0.463 to 0.607 for correlation coefficients (R and 0.215 to 0.368 for determinant coefficients (R2 in the regression model.

  4. Biogastronomy: Factors that determine the biological response to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Azpiroz, F

    2018-02-02

    The biological response to a meal includes physiological changes, primarily related to the digestive process, and a sensory experience, involving sensations related to the homeostatic control of food consumption, eg, satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension, ie associated with changes in digestive well-being and mood. The responses to a meal include a series of events before, during and after ingestion. While much attention has been paid to the events before and during ingestion, relatively little is known about the postprandial sensations, which are key to the gastronomical experience. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview and to define the framework to investigate the factors that determine the postprandial experience. Based on a series of proof-of-concept studies and related information, we propose that the biological responses to a meal depend on the characteristics of the meal, primarily its palatability and composition, and the responsiveness of the guest, which may be influenced by multiple previous and concurrent conditioning factors. This information provides the scientific backbone to the development of personalized gastronomy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Confounding factors in determining causal soil moisture-precipitation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Samuel E.; Salvucci, Guido D.

    2017-07-01

    Identification of causal links in the land-atmosphere system is important for construction and testing of land surface and general circulation models. However, the land and atmosphere are highly coupled and linked by a vast number of complex, interdependent processes. Statistical methods, such as Granger causality, can help to identify feedbacks from observational data, independent of the different parameterizations of physical processes and spatiotemporal resolution effects that influence feedbacks in models. However, statistical causal identification methods can easily be misapplied, leading to erroneous conclusions about feedback strength and sign. Here, we discuss three factors that must be accounted for in determination of causal soil moisture-precipitation feedback in observations and model output: seasonal and interannual variability, precipitation persistence, and endogeneity. The effect of neglecting these factors is demonstrated in simulated and observational data. The results show that long-timescale variability and precipitation persistence can have a substantial effect on detected soil moisture-precipitation feedback strength, while endogeneity has a smaller effect that is often masked by measurement error and thus is more likely to be an issue when analyzing model data or highly accurate observational data.

  6. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation

  7. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  8. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  9. EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTION AS A DETERMINING FACTOR IN SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vlasyuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new paradigm for economic development of higher educational institutions of Ukraine requires appropriate institutional support. The reality of domestic transients is the imperfection of institutions, which corresponds to the mixed economy of market type and adequately represents the norms and stereotypes of behavior in the spheres of income distribution regulation, employment, social security, health, education. The purpose of the paper is to study the role of educational production as a determining factor in economic development of society. Methodology. In the researching process general scientific and special methods of the studying processes and facts were used in their correlation and development. Among them: monographic – in the forming of the research subject and object; induction and deduction – in the determining of the means, objects of the labour and factor of educational production; the method of the systematic studying the business processes – in the determining of the interaction of the main components of the educational production. Results. The cause of any production is needs availability. To meet his needs the person should enter into business relations with other people that is the basis of market relations. A key resource of the economy, the main engine of development perform is the knowledge which is also an important criterion for successful adaptation of a man in society. Accordingly, in society, the role of education as a sphere of production, exchange, consumption of knowledge is increasing. The received knowledge, skills and other competences by the individual is the end result of educational process. Knowledge is one of the main elements of intellectual property and intellectual capital, and it contributes to the development of the macroenvironment, namely, labor and scientific potential of the state. Each high school, its scientific and innovative activity, its financial bases of development, depends on the

  10. Regional Disparities in Online Map User Access Volume and Determining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Yang, N.; Li, R.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The regional disparities of online map user access volume (use `user access volume' in this paper to indicate briefly) is a topic of growing interest with the increment of popularity in public users, which helps to target the construction of geographic information services for different areas. At first place we statistically analysed the online map user access logs and quantified these regional access disparities on different scales. The results show that the volume of user access is decreasing from east to the west in China as a whole, while East China produces the most access volume; these cities are also the crucial economic and transport centres. Then Principal Component Regression (PCR) is applied to explore the regional disparities of user access volume. A determining model for Online Map access volume is proposed afterwards, which indicates that area scale is the primary determining factor for regional disparities, followed by public transport development level and public service development level. Other factors like user quality index and financial index have very limited influence on the user access volume. According to the study of regional disparities in user access volume, map providers can reasonably dispatch and allocate the data resources and service resources in each area and improve the operational efficiency of the Online Map server cluster.

  11. Determining RUSLE P-factors for stonebunds and trenches in rangeland and cropland, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Van Wesemael, Bas; Tesfay, Samuel; Teka, Daniel; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the Ethiopian highlands is a top priority to reduce soil erosion rates and to enhance the sustainability of agroecosystem. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of many of these measures for different hillslope and land use conditions remains currently poorly understood. As a result, the overall effects of these measures at regional or catchment scale remain hard to quantify. This study addresses this knowledge gap by determining the cover-management (C) and support practice (P) factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), for commonly used SWC measures in semi-arid environments (i.e. stone bunds, trenches and a combination of both). Calculations were based on soil loss data collected with runoff plots in Tigray, northern Ethiopia (i.e. 21 runoff plots of 600 to 1000 m2, monitored during 2010, 2011 and 2012). The runoff plots were installed in rangeland and cropland sites corresponding to a gentle (5%), medium (12%) and steep (16%) slope gradients. The C and P factors of the RUSLE were calculated following the recommended standard procedures. Results show that the C-factor for rangeland ranges from 0.31 to 0.98 and from 0.06 to 0.39 for cropland. For rangeland, this large variability is due to variations in vegetation cover caused by grazing. In cropland, C-factors vary with tillage practices and crop types. The calculated P-factors ranged from 0.32 to 0.74 for stone bunds, from 0.07 to 0.65 for trenches and from 0.03 to 0.22 for a combination of both stone bunds and trenches. This variability is partly due to variations in the density of the implemented measures in relation to land use (cropland vs rangeland) and slope angles. However, also annual variations in P factor values are highly significant. Especially trenches showed a very significant decline of effectiveness over time, which is attributable to their reduced static storage capacity as a result of sediment deposition (e.g. for

  12. The geographical factor in the determination of audit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luis Duréndez Gómez-Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the role of the spatial factor in the determination of audit quality. Concretely, we hypothesize that audit quality is influenced by location and by the existence of spill-over effects generated by two factors: (1 the specialization and reputation of auditing firms and (2 the economic and institutional development of the audit firm’s location. We developed an empirical research to test the existence of such spatial effects (location and spill-over on a representative sample of the Spanish audit market. The study includes spatial econometric techniques taking into account the auditee specific characteristics, as well as other external factors. The findings highlight the relevance of including the spatial dimension when the audit quality is being studied. The results confirm the existence of a location effect according to the highest quality values are found in the most developed Spanish areas. Furthermore, we find a spatial spill-over effect among regions, affecting audit quality values. This effect confirms that audit quality within a location spreads to its surroundings. The results support the promotion of governmental policies leading to improve audit quality considering the spill-over effect.KEYWORDS: RESUMENEl objetivo de este artículo es analizar la influencia del factor geográfico en la determinación de la calidad de la auditoría. En concreto, la hipótesis que se plantea sostiene que la calidad de la auditoría se ve afectada por la ubicación y por la existencia de efectos indirectos generados por dos factores: (1 la especialización y la reputación de las firmas de auditoría y (2 el desarrollo económico e institucional de la provincia donde se localiza la firma de auditoría. Con este objetivo hemos desarrollado un estudio empírico para probar la existencia de tales efectos espaciales (ubicación y desbordamiento en una muestra representativa del mercado de auditoría español. El

  13. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    contributes to each measurement interval (30 min), which varies with wind direction and stability. A detailed geographic information system of the urban surface combined with traffic counts and building energy models makes it possible to statistically relate fluxes to vehicle density (km driven) and buildings (gas heated volume) - and ultimately quantify the contribution of space heating, transport sector and fugitive emissions to the total emitted CH4 from an urban environment. The measured fluxes of CH4 over the selected urban environment averaged to 22.8 mg CH4 m-2 day-1 during the study period. Compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 emissions, the contribution of CH4, however, accounts for only about 3% of the total LLGHG emissions from this particular urban surface. Traffic contributed 8.8 mg CH4 m-2 day-1, equivalent to 39% of the total CH4 flux. The determined emission factor for the typical fleet composition is 0.062 g CH4 per km driven which is higher than upscaled fleet emission factors (EPA) by a factor of two. This discrepancy can be partially explained through the slower city traffic with frequent idling (traffic congestion), fleet composition and cold starts. Emissions of CH4 by domestic space heating (55% of the total CH4 flux or 12.7 mg CH4 m-2 day-1) are also higher than estimated from upscaled emission factors. There is no evidence of substantial unknown sources such as soil processes, combustion of wood, and leakages from gas distribution pipes (residual: 6% or 1.3 mg CH4 m-2 day-1). The presented study is among the first direct measurements of CH4 emissions over an urban surface and demonstrates that flux measurements of greenhouse gases can be used to determine sources and emission factors in complex urban situations.

  14. Factors determining Gekkotan (Reptilia, Sauria distribution in Tunisia (North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wided Tlili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian geckos count nine species (1 is insular relict, 1 is endemic, 2 are ubiquitous and 5 are enfeoffed. We aim to determine factors influencing their distributions. Surveys were founded on environmental divisions. Presence/absence data for 113 grids were analyzed using multivariate tools. 18 environmental variables were revealed and clustered into five factors to model species distributions. Established models were further projected on non-explored areas within Tunisian territory. The distribution of continental geckos follows an indirect bidirectional gradient; the South-northward one is physiologically stressful and the North-southward one is biologically stressful. Five biogeographic regions were established showing concordance with climatic and vegetation regionalization. The distribution of non-anthropophilic species is positively correlated to thermal amplitudes gradient. The distribution of anthropophilic taxa is positively correlated to agricultural land-use. Oasis, sebkhas and chotts are particular landscapes that disturb both distributions. Predicted areas follow the yielded distribution patterns despite some discrepancy for S. sthenodactylus. The niche characterizing shows that land use and altitude increase the probability of occurrence of H. turcicus and T. mauritanica. Alternatively, they decrease the probability of the presence of T. deserti, T. neglecta, T. tripolitanus and S. petrii. Models could also show that the absence of S. sthenodactylus in northern regions is attributed to high altitudes and cereal land-use. As to T. fascicularis, the displacement of the northern limits of its range is mostly attributed to an improvement of field investigations. Established model of its distribution shows a restricted area of probable occurrence in central Tunisia confirming its endemism.

  15. Dose rate determining factors of PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Takumi; Kuge, Toshiharu; Nakano, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between dose rate trends and water chemistry has been studied to clarify the determining factors on the dose rates. Therefore dose rate trends and water chemistry of 11 PWR plants of KEPCO (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.) were summarized. It is indicated that the chemical composition of the oxide film, behaviour of corrosion products and Co-58/Co-60 ratio in the primary system have effected dose rate trends based on plant operation experiences for over 40 years. According to plant operation experiences, the amount of Co-58 has been decreasing with the increasing duration of SG (Steam Generator) usage. It is indicated that the stable oxide film formation on the inner surface of SG tubing, is a major beneficial factor for radiation sources reduction. On the other hand, the reduction of the amount of Co-60 for the long term has been not clearly observed especially in particular high dose plants. The primary water parameters imply that considering release and purification balance on Co-59 is important to prevent accumulation of source term in primary water. In addition, the effect of zinc injection, which relates to the chemical composition of oxide film, was also assessed. As the results, the amount of radioactive Co has been clearly decreased. The decreasing trend seems to correlate to the half-life of Co-60, because it is considered that the injected zinc prevents the uptake of radioactive Co into the oxide film on the inner surface of the components and piping. In this paper, the influence of water chemistry and the replacement experiences of materials on the dose rates were discussed. (author)

  16. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  17. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Vall-Llosera, Laura; Saez, Marc

    2012-07-20

    In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users' sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70

  18. Fit by Bits: An Explorative Study of Sports Physiotherapists' Perception of Quantified Self Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouch, Somaya Ben; van Velsen, Lex

    2018-01-01

    Our aim was to determine sport physiotherapists' attitudes towards Quantified Self technology usage and adoption and to analyze factors that may influence this attitude. A survey was used to study a sample in the Netherlands. Assessment was made of attitudes of towards Quantified Self technology usage by clients of therapists, by therapists themselves and intention to adopt Quantified Self technology. Results show that the uptake of Quantified Self technology by sports physiotherapists is rather low but that the intention to adopt Quantified Self technology by sports physiotherapists is quite high. These results can provide a foundation to provide an infrastructure for sports physiotherapists to fulfill their wishes with regard to Quantified Self technology.

  19. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  20. Determining chance coincidence, survival factor and decay factor in 220Rn delayed coincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Derong; Yan Yongjun; Zhou Jianliang; Qiu Shoukang

    2013-01-01

    The method and calculation formulas to determine the chance coincidence in the 220 Rn coincidence measurement are introduced in this paper. The poisson distribution is introduced to correct the chance coincidence. The relative deviation of the true coincidence between the method and the Giffin's is within 5% after the correction of the cohance coincidence. The measurement of 220 Rn is done by comparative measurement with RAD7. The results shows that 220 Rn can be measured by the method with a relative deviation of 14%. Mean while, for the 220 Rn flow regime is difficult to meet the condition of calculation formulas, a solution to solve the survival factor and decay factor is proposed and the error come from the useage of theoretical calculation formula is avoided. (authors)

  1. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  2. The determination of Exserohilum turcicum virulence factors in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lević Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of Exserohilum turcicum virulence factors and resistance responses of three sets of maize inbred lines (four differential, eight isogenic and 22 commercial inbreeds to three isolates of this pathogen under greenhouse conditions were studied. The maize inbreeds were selected according to previous testing of resistance based on lesion types in 194 inbreeds under field conditions of plant inoculation with the E. turcicum race 0 (designated as the isolate MRI-Et. The standard procedure was applied to obtained isolates MRIZP-1747 and MRIZP-1416 from resistant and susceptible lesion types, respectively. These lesions were developed on the same leaf of a plant of the experimental hybrid no. 163/99 grown in a nursery at Zemun Polje during 1999. The third isolate (MRIZP-1435 was isolated from a leaf sample originating from the location of Srbobran in which the occurrence of northern corn leaf blight (NCLB, caused by Exserohilum turcicum, was intensive. Based upon virulence/avirulence of three isolates of E. turcicum on differential maize inbred lines, it was found out that the isolate MRIZP-1747 could be classified as race 0, whereas isolates MRIZP-1416 and MRIZP-1435 could be classified as race 1. These are the first results that confirm the presence of race 1 of E. turcicum in Serbia. Not including differential lines, 22 and six lines were resistant to race 0 and race 1, respectively, while eight and five lines were resistant and susceptible to both races, respectively. All isogenic lines not containing the Ht gene were susceptible to both races 0 and 1.

  3. Determinants of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. J. W. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of growth factors and affects the survival and plasticity of neurons in the adult central nervous system. The high correlation between cortical and serum BDNF levels has led to many human studies on BDNF levels

  4. A study to determine influential factors on data security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been increasing interest in making online transaction. As people become more interested in using internet for their daily business activities such as regular communications, financial transactions, etc., there will be more concerns on security of available data. In fact, data security is the primary concern in today’s online activities. This paper performs an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing data security in Municipality is city of Tehran, Iran. The survey uses factor analysis to find important factors using a questionnaire consist of 29 variables, which were reduced to 22 questions after considering skewness statistics. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.86, which validates the questionnaire. The survey detects six factors influencing feasibility study, organizational learning, management strategy, enterprise resource management, process approach and the acceptance.

  5. Environmental Factors that Determine Visual Skill Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... development and environmental risk factors influencing it provides useful guide for early ..... sporting activities, video games, and play with large mobile toys .... in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science. 2005 ...

  6. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly de...

  7. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics?

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Timothy; Bell, John F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, whilst accounting for prior attai...

  8. Summarizing description of the stereological equations to determine the stereometry factors of material microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondracek, G.

    1975-01-01

    The microstructure of a material can be determined quantitatively with the help of stereometric methods and described by stereometric factors. These are phase concentraction factor, form factor and orientation factor for the multiphase material. The determination of these parameters from stereometric measurements is discussed. (GSCH/LH) [de

  9. Burden and determinant factors of anemia among elementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anemia is an indicator of both poor nutrition and health. ... Intestinal parasitosis infections and hemoglobin level were determined by formula ... water, availability of latrine, maternal education, family size and hookworm infection.

  10. Reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors determines individual movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodie; van Moorter, Bram; Revilla, Eloy; Blanchard, Pierrick; Dray, Stéphane; Quenette, Pierre-Yves; Allainé, Dominique; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-03-01

    Movement is fundamental to individual and population dynamics, as it allows individuals to meet their basic requirements. Although movement patterns reflect interactions between internal and external factors, only few studies have examined the effects of these factors on movement simultaneously, and they generally focused on particular biological contexts (e.g. dispersal, foraging). However, the relative importance of these factors in driving individual routine movements might reflect a species' potential flexibility to cope with landscape changes and therefore buffer their potential impact on fitness. We used data from GPS collars on Scandinavian brown bears to investigate the relative role of these factors, as well as an additional factor (period of the year) on routine movements at two spatial scales (hourly and daily relocations). As expected, internal factors played a major role in driving movement, compared to external factors at both scales, but its relative importance was greater at a finer scale. In particular, the interaction between reproductive status and period of the year was one of the most influential variables, females being constrained by the movement capacity of their cubs in the first periods of the year. The effect of human disturbance on movement was also greater for females with cubs than for lone females. This study showed how reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors is shaping space use of brown bears. We stress that these factors should be studied simultaneously to avoid the risk of obtaining context-dependent inferences. Moreover, the study of their relative contribution is also highly relevant in the context of multiple-use landscapes, as human activities generally affect the landscape more than they affect the internal states of an individual. Species or individuals with important internal constraints should be less responsive to changes in their environment as they have less freedom from internal constraints and should

  11. Safety and accessibility in use: risk factors and their determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurìa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents that occur in built spaces represent the result of the interaction of several factors. Some of these factors are attributable to the characteristics of the environment, others depend on the user and the ways in which the environment is used. The multifactorial nature of accidents explains why sectorial approaches represent a significant obstacle to the implementation of effective policies and intervention strategies for creating safer and more usable environments. The subject of this essay, that pays special attention to residential scenarios, is the description and classification of risk factors, that is, those environmental circumstances as well as individual and behavioural conditions that increase the frequency and / or magnitude of an accident. The article highlights the need for a comprehensive view of accidents as a cultural condition for an inclusive and safe design (technical prevention and effective information campaigns aimed at users (prevention in use.

  12. Towards a dispersive determination of the pion transition form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, Stefan; Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian; Niecknig, Franz; Schneider, Sebastian P.

    2018-01-01

    We start with a brief motivation why the pion transition form factor is interesting and, in particular, how it is related to the high-precision standard-model calculation of the gyromagnetic ratio of the muon. Then we report on the current status of our ongoing project to calculate the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. Finally we present and discuss a wish list of experimental data that would help to improve the input for our calculations and/or to cross-check our results.

  13. Towards a dispersive determination of the pion transition form factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leupold Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We start with a brief motivation why the pion transition form factor is interesting and, in particular, how it is related to the high-precision standard-model calculation of the gyromagnetic ratio of the muon. Then we report on the current status of our ongoing project to calculate the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. Finally we present and discuss a wish list of experimental data that would help to improve the input for our calculations and/or to cross-check our results.

  14. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  15. Quantifying links between stroke and risk factors: a study on individual health risk appraisal of stroke in a community of Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yamin; Yi, Dong

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors of stroke in a community in Chongqing by setting quantitative criteria for determining the risk factors of stroke. Thus, high-risk individuals can be identified and laid a foundation for predicting individual risk of stroke. 1,034 cases with 1:2 matched controls (2,068) were chosen from five communities in Chongqing including Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Tianxingqiao, Yubei Road and Ciqikou. Participants were interviewed with a uniform questionnaire. The risk factors of stroke and the odds ratios of risk factors were analyzed with a logistic regression model, and risk exposure factors of different levels were converted into risk scores using statistical models. For men, ten risk factors including hypertension (5.728), family history of stroke (4.599), and coronary heart disease (5.404), among others, were entered into the main effect model. For women, 11 risk factors included hypertension (5.270), family history of stroke (4.866), hyperlipidemia (4.346), among others. The related risk scores were added to obtain a combined risk score to predict the individual's risk of stoke in the future. An individual health risk appraisal model of stroke, which was applicable to individuals of different gender, age, health behavior, disease and family history, was established. In conclusion, personal diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc., were very important to the prevalence of stoke. The prevalence of stroke can be effectively reduced by changing unhealthy lifestyles and curing the positive individual disease. The study lays a foundation for health education to persuade people to change their unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors, and could be used in community health services.

  16. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van Loon (Janine ); M.A.H. Sonneveld (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the

  17. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-03-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced Level (A-level) in a particular year. Each factor of interest was entered into a separate model, while accounting for prior attainment and gender (both well-known predictors of A-level uptake). We found that factors associated with greater probability of uptake included better attainment in physics (or combined science) and maths qualifications at age 16 in comparison to other subjects, and (for girls only) attending an independent or grammar school. While it is difficult to address these factors directly, the results imply that more needs to be done to improve relative performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education, perhaps by increasing the supply of specialist physics teachers at this level and to overcome the perception (especially among girls) that physics is a particularly difficult subject.

  18. Determinants of factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Using the random sampling technique, well-structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from 120 cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. The mean technical ...

  19. Determinant Factors of Attitude towards Quantitative Subjects: Differences between Sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all curricula in the social sciences contain at least one course in statistics, given the importance of this discipline as an analytical tool. This work identifies the latent factors relating to students' motivation and attitude towards statistics, tests their covariance structure for samples of both sexes, and identifies the…

  20. What determines the exchange rate: economic factors or market sentiment?

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory P. Hopper

    1997-01-01

    Do economic factors influence exchange rates? Or does market sentiment play a bigger role? Are short-run exchange rates predictable? Greg Hopper reviews exchange-rate economics, focusing on what is predictable and what isn't. He also examines the practical implications of exchange-rate theories for currency option pricing, risk management, and portfolio selection.

  1. What Factors Determine the Uptake of A-Level Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tim; Bell, John F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been much concern recently in the UK about the decline in the number of students studying physics beyond age 16. To investigate why this might be we used data from a national database of student qualifications and a multilevel modelling technique to investigate which factors had the greatest impact on the uptake of physics at Advanced…

  2. Factors Determining the Incidence of Suicide within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Maurice L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper addresses itself to the reasons why suicide tends to repeat in some families. Factors include entire family exposure to stresses, grief, and guilt induced by suicide, the provision of a model by the original suicide, suicidogenic interpersonal styles in families, suicidogenic child-rearing practice, and innate predispositions to…

  3. Financial reporting reliability concept and impact factors in its determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygivska I.М.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article sets the goal to assess the reliability of financial reporting essence and summarize the factors that affect it. The article grounds the reliability of financial reporting urgency and characterizes its dual nature (on one hand, it is accounting containing reliable, reasonable data, characterized by the absence of errors and can be correctly perceived by users, on the other hand, reliable financial statements are considered to be formed according to the rules regulated by normative documents. It is proved that making decisions by interested users based on financial statements is closely related to information risk that arises because of the restrictions affect the flow of information on which management decisions are taken (accounting information that is difficult to understand by unskilled users, the impact of human factor, the level of information importance. The author establishes that the reliability of financial reporting is affected by many factors whose influence can be seen both outside, and within an enterprise. The main factors include: informational, political, legal, human, organizational and financial and they should be taken into account while making management decisions.

  4. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  5. Short Communications Sand moisture as a factor determining depth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-11-05

    Nov 5, 1993 ... The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly. determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into totally dry sand. Animals alter their position in the sand in response to changes in moisture content so as to ensure exposure to suitable conditions.

  6. Determinant Factors of Physical Fitness in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vyncke, Krishna; Moreno, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the determinants of physical fitness in European children aged 6–11 years, cross-sectionally and longitudinally.Methods: There were sufficient data on 4903 children (50.6 % girls) on measured physical fitness (cardio-respiratory, muscular strength, f...

  7. Biophysical Mechanistic Modelling Quantifies the Effects of Plant Traits on Fire Severity: Species, Not Surface Fuel Loads, Determine Flame Dimensions in Eucalypt Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross A; Bedward, Michael; Penman, Trent D; Doherty, Michael D; Weber, Rodney O; Gill, A Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2016-01-01

    The influence of plant traits on forest fire behaviour has evolutionary, ecological and management implications, but is poorly understood and frequently discounted. We use a process model to quantify that influence and provide validation in a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under varying conditions. Measured height of consumption was compared to heights predicted using a surface fuel fire behaviour model, then key aspects of our model were sequentially added to this with and without species-specific information. Our fully specified model had a mean absolute error 3.8 times smaller than the otherwise identical surface fuel model (p fire severity are the species of plants present rather than the surface fuel load, and demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the model for quantifying this.

  8. Factors that Determine Child Behavior during Dental Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Elmedin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we wanted to summarize all the aspects which could affect the behavior of the child patients in the dental office. At the beginning, the factors that are related to the child patients are mentioned. Various segments of child psychological, cognitive, physiological and other kinds of development are discussed. Also, the reasons for dental fear and anxiety (DFA and dental behavior problems (DBP were analyzed, and how the child dental patients could cope with them. Finally, types of patients according to their behavior in the dental office were discussed. Furthermore, the influences of child patients’ parents were studied, including parenting styles, as well as factors related to dentist, dental team and the dental office. Finally, critical evaluation of administration of assets to measure the presence of DFA and DBP is provided. Every part of the text was corroborated by the results from our own and other authors’ recent bibliography data.

  9. NEW DETERMINANT FACTORS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia ALECU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The factors that we took into account the following important elements: for goods and capital (brand promotion, reliable predictions against risk factors, knowledge capital, intangible values for hotels, for health and safety (the easily with which diseases can cross oceans and borders and multiplying rows of old and new infections, some impossible to treat, strict control of food and non-food products entering in the hotel, for new management (planning education and training process in hospitality industry, demographic problem, New trends in the workplace. One of the most dramatic changes in this industry is the way to sold products and services for public hotels. New technology, development of hospitality industry and social problems are very important, also in this process of change management to hotels.

  10. Determining factors of women's careers in management: A typology proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cachón

    2018-04-01

    Originality/value: This paper highlights the identification of the typologies that are necessary for the development of theories and research in the social sciences. It is important to categorize and describe factor classifications in order to understand them better, so as to be able to extrapolate a common theory for other research and to propose solutions in the business environment that allow breaking with the glass ceiling in senior management positions.

  11. Determination of constants of factorized pairing force from conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronkov, Yu.P.; Mikhajlov, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    The constants of a factorized interaction in the particle-particle channel are evaluated on the basis of average field parameters and Cooper pairing. The relations between the constants of multipole particle-particle forces are derived for the spherical nuclei. The constants of the quadrupole pairing are obtained for deformed nuclei from the angular momentum conservation law. The calculated constants are compared with empiricalones

  12. Factors determining pochard nest predation along a wetland gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Hořák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Weidinger, K.; Klvaňa, P.; Michot, T. C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 784-791 ISSN 0022-541X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common pochard * artificial nests * edge effect Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.538, year: 2006 http://www.wildlifejournals.org/archive/0022-541X/70/3/pdf/i0022-541X-70-3-784.pdf

  13. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  14. Analysis of transfer reactions: determination of spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); The Andrzej So an Institute for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Nuclear Reactions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    An overview of the most popular models used for the analysis of direct reaction data is given, concentrating on practical aspects. The 4 following models (in order of increasing sophistication): the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA), the adiabatic model, the coupled channels born approximation, and the coupled reaction channels are briefly described. As a concrete example, the C{sup 12}(d,p)C{sup 13} reaction at an incident deuteron energy of 30 MeV is analysed with progressively more physically sophisticated models. The effect of the choice of the reaction model on the spectroscopic information extracted from the data is investigated and other sources of uncertainty in the derived spectroscopic factors are discussed. We have showed that the choice of the reaction model can significantly influence the nuclear structure information, particularly the spectroscopic factors or amplitudes but occasionally also the spin-parity, that we wish to extract from direct reaction data. We have also demonstrated that the DWBA can fail to give a satisfactory description of transfer data but when the tenets of the theory are fulfilled DWBA can work very well and will yield the same results as most sophisticated models. The use of global rather than fitted optical potentials can also lead to important differences in the extracted spectroscopic factors.

  15. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect injury severity as classified by the MAIS score. In this study, the MAIS score was derived from the International Classification of Diseases. The European Union adopted an MAIS score equal to or greater than 3 as the definition for a serious traffic crash injury. Gains are expected from using both police and hospital data because the injury severities of the victims are detailed by medical staff and the characteristics of the crash and the site of its occurrence are also provided. The data were obtained by linking police and hospital data sets from the Porto metropolitan area of Portugal over a 6-year period (2006-2011). A mixed logit model was used to understand the factors that contribute to the injury severity of traffic victims and to explore the impact of these factors on injury severity. A random parameter approach offers methodological flexibility to capture individual-specific heterogeneity. Additionally, to understand the importance of using a reliable injury severity scale, we compared MAIS with length of hospital stay (LHS), a classification used by several countries, including Portugal, to officially report injury severity. To do so, the same statistical technique was applied using the same variables to analyze their impact on the injury severity classified according to LHS

  16. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  17. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  18. FACTORS DETERMINING THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Avtsinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.In the article we can see relevance of the research aimed at creating a favorable investment climate in the country and its regions, as a necessary condition for solving the problems of modernization of industrial production, the introduction of scientific and technological progress in all spheres of public life, the implementation of large-scale social and productive programs. In the study we justify the theoretical principles and reveal the essence of the relationship concepts: investment climate, investment attractiveness and investment activity. It is proved that the investment attractiveness should be considered as a sign of factorial and important component of the investment climate in the region, and investment activity as a sign score. In the study we can see a wide range of factors shaping favorable conditions for investment activities. The author focuses on the importance of non-traditional factors shaping the investment attractiveness of such as reducing the time to connect to power grid, information communication, improvement of tax reporting procedures, clarity of customs work, the introduction of regulations for obtaining permits for construction of facilities and reducing the number of required documents. This article analyzes of the indices and the key factors of investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region, which attract investment, exceeding the national average. The main ones are the development of new industrial parks with good transport, engineering, business infrastructure. Investors in the region have favorable conditions to carry on business on the prepared sites with painted communications, junctions, allowing them to reduce production costs, while correspondingly increasing the investment attractiveness of the area. Success of the attracting investment in the Voronezh region is largely due to the introduction standard of the executive bodies of state power, including 15 documents designed to make the

  19. DETERMINANT EROSION FACTORS FOR PENSION ROMANIAN SYSTEM - A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Gabriela BABUCEA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The demographical evolutions of the last 20 years, the changes in the Romanian economy and society influenced one special category which is the retired people. As inactive population, retired people represents an important category, their numbers being rather big in comparison with the employed population, practical the contributors at the pensions fund. In 2010, the stat has serious problems with paying pensions. The evolution of this category of people is the subject of this paper. We try to identify the factors that had negative influence upon the pension Romanian system. The reference years that we considered are 1990-2009.

  20. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  1. Social Factors Determine the Emergency Medical Admission Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Cournane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We related social factors with the annual rate of emergency medical admissions using census small area statistics. All emergency medical admissions (70,543 episodes in 33,343 patients within the catchment area of St. James’s Hospital, Dublin, were examined between 2002 and 2016. Deprivation Index, Single-Parent status, Educational level and Unemployment rates were regressed against admission rates. High deprivation areas had an approximately fourfold (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR 4.0 (3.96, 4.12 increase in annual admission rate incidence/1000 population from Quintile 1(Q1, from 9.2/1000 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 9.0, 9.4 to Q5 37.3 (37.0, 37.5. Single-Parent families comprised 40.6% of households (95% CI: 32.4, 49.7; small areas with more Single Parents had a higher admission rate-IRR (Q1 vs. for Q5 of 2.92 (95% CI: 2.83, 3.01. The admission incidence rate was higher for Single-Parent status (IRR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.46, 1.52 where the educational completion level was limited to primary level (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.45 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.47. Small areas with higher educational quintiles predicted lower Admission Rates (IRR 0.85 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.86. Social factors strongly predict the annual incidence rate of emergency medical admissions.

  2. Factors that determine the evolution of high-growth businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Amat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study herein discusses research aimed at elucidating the factors that contribute to a business’ ability to maintain high growth. Design/Methodology/Perspective: The database from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System (SABI, from its initials in Spanish was used to identify 250 industrial Catalonian businesses with high growth during 2004-2007. These companies participated in a survey on strategies and management practices; in 2013, they were re-analyzed to investigate the factors that contributed to continued growth for certain companies. Contributions: Through diverse statistical techniques, business policies related to quality, innovation, internationalization and finance were shown to influence business growth and sustainability over time. Limitations of the Research: This study focuses on industrial businesses at least ten years old in Catalonia; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations and economic sectors, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical Implications: Because growth is a measure of business success, identifying variables that contribute to high growth and its sustainability is helpful for businesses that seek to adopt effective policies. Social Implications: Generating employment is one of the primary contributions by high-growth businesses. For years with high unemployment, authorities may be interested in corporate policies that strengthen high-growth businesses. Originality/Added Value: High-growth businesses have been studied throughout the world, but this is the first study to investigate the evolution of businesses after a high-growth phase.

  3. Determining Factors of Deposit Level of Islamic Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Baehaqie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One Way to maintain the stability of banking industry is by applying the deposit insurance scheme. The application of the deposit insurance scheme has an impact by increasing the level of bank deposits. The objectives of the research are to identify the factors affecting the level of deposits of Islamic banks in Indonesia and managerial implications regarding to the functions of Indonesia Deposit Insurance Corporation (LPS. The technique used is the panel data regression with fixed effect model using the data from the 11 Islamic banks for the period of 2011 -2015. The results show that the factors affecting the level of deposits of the Islamic banks in Indonesia significantly and positively include the size of banks and their non-performing financing (NPF; however, they influence the capital negatively. Based on these results, LPS is required to build or sharpen the surveillance systems as part of its early detection by doing the mapping based on the size and to monitor the bank capital structure and bank finance portfolio structure.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i2.5156

  4. Three-factor models versus time series models: quantifying time-dependencies of interactions between stimuli in cell biology and psychobiology for short longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Till D; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Cheong, Alex; Kholodenko, Boris N

    2017-06-01

    Signal integration determines cell fate on the cellular level, affects cognitive processes and affective responses on the behavioural level, and is likely to be involved in psychoneurobiological processes underlying mood disorders. Interactions between stimuli may subjected to time effects. Time-dependencies of interactions between stimuli typically lead to complex cell responses and complex responses on the behavioural level. We show that both three-factor models and time series models can be used to uncover such time-dependencies. However, we argue that for short longitudinal data the three factor modelling approach is more suitable. In order to illustrate both approaches, we re-analysed previously published short longitudinal data sets. We found that in human embryonic kidney 293 cells cells the interaction effect in the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 signalling activation by insulin and epidermal growth factor is subjected to a time effect and dramatically decays at peak values of ERK activation. In contrast, we found that the interaction effect induced by hypoxia and tumour necrosis factor-alpha for the transcriptional activity of the human cyclo-oxygenase-2 promoter in HEK293 cells is time invariant at least in the first 12-h time window after stimulation. Furthermore, we applied the three-factor model to previously reported animal studies. In these studies, memory storage was found to be subjected to an interaction effect of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol and certain antagonists acting on the alpha-1-adrenoceptor / glucocorticoid-receptor system. Our model-based analysis suggests that only if the antagonist drug is administer in a critical time window, then the interaction effect is relevant. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  5. 19 CFR 103.23 - Factors in determining whether to disclose information pursuant to a demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factors in determining whether to disclose... Disclosure in Federal, State, Local, and Foreign Proceedings § 103.23 Factors in determining whether to... those demands with respect to which any of the following factors exist: (1) Disclosure would violate a...

  6. The animal model determines the results of Aeromonas virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analysed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1∆vapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1∆rmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the AH-1∆wahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella. They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study

  7. A biological radioimmunological microassay to determine hypophysiotropic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.

    1980-01-01

    The thesis presented there describes a combined biological-radioimmunological assay for hypophysiotropic substances. The secretion reaction of adenohypophysial rat cells cultured by a long-term monolayer technique is used as a measure of hypophysiotropic activity. For hypophysial hormones released into the culture medium are then determined directly with the aid of specific radio immunoassay. This method can also be used for substances not yet characterized chemically or for tissue extracts, as shown here using hypothalamus stalk median eminance extract as example. The method is technically quite simple and economical. At the same time the technique is exact and reliable and offers, for TRH and LHRH determination, a degree of sensitivity in the pg range similar to that obtained by radioimmunological methods. The sensitivity towards CRH activity exceeds that obtained by other methods to date. From a morphological viewpoint and from comparisons of spontaneous secretion behaviour (or stimulation reactions following TRH, LHRH, dopamine and vasopressin application) with in-vivo findings it was shown that the long-term cell cultures were intact and that, overall, the culture model used closely approximates in its functional behaviour the physiological situation. (orig./MG) [de

  8. The Factors that Determine the Minimum Speed of an Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.

  9. Determining and predictive factors for the tumor radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Favaudon, V.

    2008-01-01

    Many predictive factors of tumor radiosensitivity have been described. Number of clonogenic cells, proliferation rate, hypoxia and intrinsic radiosensitivity are usually considered as the main parameters of tumor control. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is correlated in a first approach to the ability of the cell to detect and repair DNA damages, and so integrity of the different pathways involved in this function: P.A.R.P.-1, X.R.C.C.1, A.T.M., p 53, M.R.N. complex or B.R.C.A.1. Genetic polymorphisms of some of these genes, found in normal lymphocytes, have been correlated to late toxicity of normal tissues. But, in tumors, because of the difficulty to obtain samplings and heterogeneity, accurate molecular analysis is not possible in many cases, and no valuable test of radiosensitivity exist at this moment. For example, T.P. 53 gene has been evaluated in many studies and results regarding its potential as a predictive factor of tumor sensitivity are conflicting. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (S.F.2) allowed a global evaluation of sensitivity, but the obtention of this parameter often takes a long time and failed in 20 to 40%. Evaluation of double-strand break repair capacity by immuno chemistry quantification of phosphorylated forms of A.T.M., H.2 A.X. or M.R.E.11 is an interesting topic. However, discovery of tumor stem cells in a number of epithelial tumors could revolutionize the understanding of radiosensitivity. Combination of genomic and functional techniques are probably essential to better predict this parameter. (authors)

  10. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually increase that exposure to significant levels, from the point of view of radiological protection. The presence of natural radionuclides in building materials may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling of their rooms. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, known the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in the walls of an hypothetical standard room. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Assessment of doses was performed through the application of photon transport model, taking in account self-absorption and radiation buildup. As the external dose due to a particular radionuclide is proportional to its activity concentration, results are presented as dose factors, defined as a ratio of absorbed dose (nGy.h -1 ) to the activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ), for each radionuclide. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, taking in account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains. Sensitivity of the model was estimated by varying four of its input parameters within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving all other parameters at fixed selected values. The parameters studied and respective ranges of variation were: for thickness, 5 to 60 cm; for density, 0.5 to 4 g.cm -3 ; for the room length, 1.5 to 10 m

  11. [Volunteering in psychiatry: determining factors of attitude and actual commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, C; Nordt, C; Falcato, L; Rössler, W

    2000-10-01

    To assess public attitude, actual working commitment and the respective influence of demographic, psychological and sociological variables on voluntary help in psychiatry. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the results of a representative population survey in Switzerland. Public attitude is mostly positive, but the respective working commitment is small. Attitude depends on gender, psychological factors (social distance, stereotypes), and on attitude to community psychiatry. For the working commitment, clearly distinct predictors are found: age, emotions, participation, and perceived discrimination to the mentally ill. For both attitude and commitment, having a social profession and interest in mass media are predictors. Internationally compared, Switzerland has a positive attitude and a big commitment in lay helping in psychiatry. But attitude is different from actual commitment. Lay helpers' work must be limited to realizable tasks and they need professional recruitment, instruction, and supervision otherwise they tend to be over-burden. The unused potential of voluntary helpers has to be opened specifically, e.g. by involving mass media and opinion-makers.

  12. Determinant factors of industrial symbiosis: greening Pasir Gudang industrial park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, B T; Ho, C S; Chau, L W; Matsuoka, Y; Gomi, K

    2014-01-01

    Green industry has been identified as an important element in attaining greater sustainability. It calls for harmonizing robust economic growth with environment protection. Industries, particularly in developing and transitional nations such as Malaysia, are in need of a reform. Many experts and international organizations suggest the concept of industrial symbiosis. Mainly, there are successful cases of industrial symbiosis practices around the world. However, there are numerous cases of failure too. As industrial symbiosis is an emerging new approach, with a short history of two decades, a lot of researches are generally focused on narrow context and technical details. There is a lack of concerted efforts to look into the drivers and barriers of industrial symbiosis across different cases. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing the development of industrial symbiosis from various countries to supports such networks to evolve in Pasir Gudang. The findings show institution, law and regulation, finance, awareness and capacity building, technology, research and development, information, collaboration, market, geography proximity, environmental issues and industry structure affect the formation of industrial symbiosis

  13. Determinant factors of industrial symbiosis: greening Pasir Gudang industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, B. T.; Ho, C. S.; Matsuoka, Y.; Chau, L. W.; Gomi, K.

    2014-02-01

    Green industry has been identified as an important element in attaining greater sustainability. It calls for harmonizing robust economic growth with environment protection. Industries, particularly in developing and transitional nations such as Malaysia, are in need of a reform. Many experts and international organizations suggest the concept of industrial symbiosis. Mainly, there are successful cases of industrial symbiosis practices around the world. However, there are numerous cases of failure too. As industrial symbiosis is an emerging new approach, with a short history of two decades, a lot of researches are generally focused on narrow context and technical details. There is a lack of concerted efforts to look into the drivers and barriers of industrial symbiosis across different cases. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing the development of industrial symbiosis from various countries to supports such networks to evolve in Pasir Gudang. The findings show institution, law and regulation, finance, awareness and capacity building, technology, research and development, information, collaboration, market, geography proximity, environmental issues and industry structure affect the formation of industrial symbiosis.

  14. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  15. Some factors affecting the accuracy of uranium content determined by DNC measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Quanxun

    1988-01-01

    Some factors affecting the accuracy of uranium contents determined by delayed neutron counting and methods solving these problems are described. One of the factors is deterioration of the BF 3 proportional counters. This problem is discussed in more detail

  16. Factors that Determine Depth Perception of Trapezoids, Windsurfers, Runways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei eTseng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here a windsurfer1 illusion, a naturally occurring trapezoidal illusion in which the small endof the sail viewed at a distance appears to be pointed away from the observer even when it is closer.This naturally occurring illusion is so compelling that observers are unaware of their gross perceptualmisinterpretation of the scene. Four laboratory experiment of this kind of trapezoidal illusion investigatedthe joint effects of retinal orientation, head position, relative motion, and the relative direction ofgravity on automatic depth perception. Observers viewed two adjacent white trapezoids outlined on ablack background rotating back and forth +/- 20 deg on a vertical axis much like the sails of two adjacentwindsurfers. Observers reported which side of the trapezoids (long or short appeared to becloser to them (i.e., in front. The longer edge of the trapezoid was reported in front 76+/-2% of trials(windsurfer effect whether it was on the left or on the right. When the display was rotated 90 deg toproduce a runway configuration, there was a striking asymmetry: the long edge was perceived to bein front 97% when it was on the bottom but only 43% when it was on top (runway effect. The runwayeffect persisted when the head was tilted 90 deg or when displays on the ceiling were viewedfrom the floor. 95% of the variance of the variance in the strikingly different 3D perceptions producedby the same 2D trapezoid image was quantitatively explained by a model that assumes there are justthree additive bias factors that account for perceiving an edge as closer: Implicit linear perspective,lower position on the retina (based on an automatic assumption of viewing from above, and beinglower in world coordinates.

  17. The Determining Factors of Entrepreneurial Activity in Broiler Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia still requires approximately 4 million entrepreneurs to become a developed country. This research aimed at identifying and analyzing the factors forming the broiler farm entrepreneurial activities that contribute on generating new entrepreneurs in Indonesia. Primary data were collected through questionnaire and analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Independent latent variables were innovations (IN, productions (DP, competitiveness (DS, risks (PR, labors (TK, and policies (KP, and then entrepreneurial activities (AK as dependent latent variable. The results showed that the model was built (MODEL1 as measurement model and MODEL2 as structural model had goodness fit and good reliability measurement variables (CR≥0.70, VE≥0.50. Innovation was reflected by the level of willingness to innovate (λ=0.63 and level of technology (λ=0.62. Production was reflected by production efficiency (λ=0.62 and cost control (λ=0.43. Competitiveness was reflected by the internet (λ=0.56, the cost of starting (λ=0.55, and new business formation (λ=0.58. Labor was reflected by the training and development (λ=0.57, and motivation (λ=0.42. Policies was reflected by access to land (λ=0.56, technical assistance (λ=0.60, research and technology (λ=0.66, and copyright protection (λ=0.64. The entrepreneurial activity of broiler farms were formed by innovation (γ=0.91, competitiveness (γ=0.94, and policies (γ=0.98. Broiler farms contributed positively to generate new entrepreneurs. Production and information technology development program, facilitation of the creation of new ventures program, business expansion program, and a program of strengthening intellectual property rights on broiler farms should be a priority of the Indonesian government programs in the future.

  18. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam

  19. The Youth Life Style in Tehran and its Determining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Zare

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is on the one hand to identify various life styles of the youth living in Tehran and, on the other hand, to study several social, economic and cultural factors affecting the youth life styles. Based on Cookran formula, sample size amounts to 400, and cluster sampling was used as sampling method. Studying existing theories and reviewing empirical studies relevant to the research subject matter, various life styles such as aesthetical-hedonistic, functionalistic, sub-cultural, and passive ones were identified. According to the mean rates of various life styles, the hedonistic one enjoyed the highest rate, amounting to 53% of the sample population, the functionalistic one showed a moderate rate of 46.8 of the sample population, and the lowest rate belonged to the passive life style. Based on the person correlation coefficient, it could be said that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between social capital and various types of life styles. Also, a meaningful relationship of 0.01 existed between cultural capital and various types of life style. Moreover, person correlation coefficient confirms the meaningful and positive relationship between economic capital and functionalistic, hedonistic and passive life styles. Using step by step method in the multi-variable regression shows the economic variables contribution in explaining the life styles variable as to be as 0.31, the social ones as to 0.17, and cultural capital impact as to 0.16. In sum, taking into consideration R2 coefficient, the three mentioned variables explain 19% of the variance of the life style variable.

  20. QUALITY OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH: FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj I. Komkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: TThe theme of this article is very relevant in the light of changes in the global geo-economic structure and changing the role and place ofRussiain world economic and geopolitical relations. The article deals with the basic aspects of national economic growth, which slowed down in the last three years. The main reason for slowing national economic growth is associated with the depletion of the reserves of the traditional export-oriented development of the Russian economy, as well as problems with sluggish innovative transformation. In this paper, based on a systematic analysis of economic processes and the interpretation of analytical data, addresses the general theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development, as well as practical guidelines and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints.The purpose / objectives: The aim of the article is to analyze the theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development of the Russian economy, which happened in the face of economic sanctions. Objectives of the article: justify practical directions and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints, determine the prospects for the economy of theRussian Federationin the conditions of the introduction of sectoral sanctions by Western countries. Methodology:Methodological basis of this article are the comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.The Results: The study revealed that the harsh environment (sanctions, depreciation of the ruble, and others. Require surgical intervention and adjustments not only the current socio-economic plans, but also to take urgent measures to ensure the development prospects. The most important decision is the degree of support advanced scientific and technical programs and the creation of new domestic

  1. DETERMINANT FACTORS EFFECTING POVERTY AMONG NEW CONVERTS IN SELANGOR, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuadah Johari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The justice in Islam had attracted and opens the hearts of non-muslins to accept Islam. The justice and truthfulness of Islamic teaching attract the human to be part of its through conversion or reconciliation of hearts (Muallaf al-Qulub and it is one of the zakat recipients mentioned in Al-Qur’an. In Selangor, zakat assistance to the new converts begins from the first day they become Muslims. The new Muslim would be immediately helped with MYR 500.00 monthly allowance for five years until they manage to act in accordance with Allah’s orders and to perform worshipping (Mukallaf. This paper identifies the factors of new converts’ poverty in Selangor, Malaysia using a logistic regression method. A set of survey questionnaires has been used in this research and 80 respondents were randomly selected from Selangor Zakat Centre (SZC zakat recipient’s list from the New Converts category for nine districts of Selangor in 2013. We estimate the probability of households with specified characteristics to fall below Malaysia’s official poverty line. Results show that education, size, region, income and amount of zakat received significantly reduces the chance of being poor while gender, age, status were not a significant predictor. Thus, these statistical measures have proven the positive role of zakat in reducing poverty among the new converts. The findings have important policy implications for zakat institution and Malaysian government which has pledged to reduce overall poverty rate to 2.8 percent and eradicates hardcore poverty by 2010 under the Ninth Malaysian Plan. =========================================== Keadilan dalam Islam telah menarik perhatian dan membuka hati non-muslim untuk menerima Islam. Keadilan dan kejujuran dalam ajaran Islam menarik banyak untuk masuk dalam Islam (Muallaf al-Qulub dan mereka menjadi salah satu penerima zakat seperti disebutkan dalam Al Qur'an. Di Selangor, bantuan zakat kepada para muallaf dimulai pada

  2. 78 FR 59949 - Annual Factors for Determining Public Housing Agency Administrative Fees for the Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5724-N-02] Annual Factors for... Web site of the annual factors for determining the on-going administrative fee for housing agencies... Relay Service during business hours at 1-800-877-8337. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The annual factors for...

  3. 46 CFR 401.400 - Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weighting factor. 401.400 Section 401.400 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF... § 401.400 Calculation of pilotage units and determination of weighting factor. The equivalent pilotage... meters) Pilot Unit=(Length×Breadth×Depth)/10,000 (measured in feet) (b) Weighting factor table: Range of...

  4. Service Quality: A Main Determinant Factor for Health Information System Success in Low-resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing implementation of different health information systems in developing countries, there is a growing need to measure the main determinants of their success. The results of this evaluation study on the determinants of HIS success in five low resource setting hospitals show that service quality is the main determinant factor for information system success in those kind of settings.

  5. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  6. Determining Motivators and Hygiene Factors among Excellent Teachers in Malaysia: An Experience of Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Ismail Hussein; Don, Yahya; Fauzee, Sofian Omar; Hussin, Fauzi; Raman, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In a world in which successful learning is believed to rest on the methods of teaching and the performance of students is determined by teacher quality, it is clear that teachers are the backbone of student learning attainments. In such a scenario, teacher development, welfare, motivation, and satisfaction are crucial for better teaching…

  7. Determining the factors affecting the distribution of Muscari latifolium, an endemic plant of Turkey, and a mapping species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hatice; Yilmaz, Osman Yalçın; Akyüz, Yaşar Feyza

    2017-02-01

    Species distribution modeling was used to determine factors among the large predictor candidate data set that affect the distribution of Muscari latifolium , an endemic bulbous plant species of Turkey, to quantify the relative importance of each factor and make a potential spatial distribution map of M. latifolium . Models were built using the Boosted Regression Trees method based on 35 presence and 70 absence records obtained through field sampling in the Gönen Dam watershed area of the Kazdağı Mountains in West Anatolia. Large candidate variables of monthly and seasonal climate, fine-scale land surface, and geologic and biotic variables were simplified using a BRT simplifying procedure. Analyses performed on these resources, direct and indirect variables showed that there were 14 main factors that influence the species' distribution. Five of the 14 most important variables influencing the distribution of the species are bedrock type, Quercus cerris density, precipitation during the wettest month, Pinus nigra density, and northness. These variables account for approximately 60% of the relative importance for determining the distribution of the species. Prediction performance was assessed by 10 random subsample data sets and gave a maximum the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.93 and an average AUC value of 0.8. This study provides a significant contribution to the knowledge of the habitat requirements and ecological characteristics of this species. The distribution of this species is explained by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. Hence, using biotic interaction and fine-scale land surface variables in species distribution models improved the accuracy and precision of the model. The knowledge of the relationships between distribution patterns and environmental factors and biotic interaction of M. latifolium can help develop a management and conservation strategy for this species.

  8. Development of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor expression in equine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Hughes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor system (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and six insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and insulin are essential to muscle metabolism and most aspects of male and female reproduction. Insulin-like growth factor and insulin play important roles in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and the maintenance of cell differentiation in mammals. In order to better understand the local factors that regulate equine physiology, such as muscle metabolism and reproduction (e.g., germ cell development and fertilisation, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for quantification of equine insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were developed. The assays were sensitive: 192 copies/µLand 891 copies/µL for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, messenger ribonucleic acid and insulin receptor respectively (95%limit of detection, and efficient: 1.01 for the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor assay and 0.95 for the insulin receptor assay. The assays had a broad linear range of detection (seven logs for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and six logs for insulin receptor. This allowed for analysis of very small amounts of messenger ribonucleic acid. Low concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were detected in endometrium, lung and spleen samples, whilst high concentrations were detected in heart, muscle and kidney samples, this was most likely due to the high level of glucose metabolism and glucose utilisation by these tissues. The assays developed for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression have been shown to work on equine tissue and will contribute to the understanding of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1

  9. Enhancing China’s Energy Security: Determining Influential Factors and Effective Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the most influential factors affecting China’s energy security. It also identifies the most effective strategic measures for enhancing it. Fuzzy AHP has been used to determine weights for ranking the importance of Chinese energy security factors, and it has also been used...... to determine the priorities of the strategic measures with respect to enhancing those same factors. The study argues that a low proportion of renewable energy penetration is the most severe factor threatening China’s energy security, and that conducting research and development on energy technologies...

  10. What factors determine patients' preference for tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajri, Dessy W; Brand, Caroline A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Martin, Belinda J; Buchanan, Russell R C; Schachna, Lionel

    2009-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy, either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SQ), demonstrates similar efficacy in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The objective of this study was to examine factors influencing patient preference of TNFi. Fifty-nine (79.7%) participants were male with mean age 43.9 years and disease duration of 22.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (79.7%) agreed with the statement 'My doctor gave me a choice and I made a decision based on my personal preference'. Patients commenced first on IV TNFi most commonly cited reduced frequency of injections (96.6%), administration by a trained professional (89.7%) and use of infusion time for leisure activities (86.2%). Patients commenced on SQ TNFi cited flexibility with timing of treatment (80%), shortened administration time (73.3%) and the convenience of home therapy (73.3%). Shared clinical decision-making between clinicians and patients may be desirable for AS patients commencing TNFi therapy.

  11. Ecological Factors Determining Abundance of Parasitic Mites on Aedes spp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Eko Firmansyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ability to infestation and abundance of parasitic mites in Aedes spp. larvae cannot be separated from the influence of various factors. Ecological factors have been suggested to play a role determine the presence of parasitic mites that under certain conditions become a key factor in determining the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae. The aim of this study to determine the ecological factors affect the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae in Bogor Regency. Capturing of Aedes spp. larvae was performed directly on the habitats found in indoor and outdoor. Capturing mites in the body of Aedes spp. larvae was performed using insect forceps. Ecological factors measured were dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, temperature, and total dissolved solid (TDS. The influence of ecological factors was analyzed using regression and correlation analysis. The result of mite identification has been obtained three species of mites that are Halacarus sp., Histiostoma sp., and Hydrozetes sp. The result indicated that total dissolved solid (TDS and temperature was the factors that determined the abundance of mites. The factors of pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO did not determine the abundance of parasitic mites of Aedes spp. larvae. The research result can be further developed as a new alternative to Dengue Hemorraghic Fever control and provide information on parasitic mites that infest Aedes spp. larvae. In addition, this results become an early step in controlling of Aedes spp. strategy platform by the parasitic mites.

  12. Role of management strategies and environmental factors in determining the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds from urban greenspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Ge, Ying; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Tani, Akira; Chang, Jie

    2014-06-03

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from urban greenspace have recently become a global concern. To identify key factors affecting the dynamics of urban BVOC emissions, we built an estimation model and utilized the city of Hangzhou in southeastern China as an example. A series of single-factor scenarios were first developed, and then nine multifactor scenarios using a combination of different single-factor scenarios were built to quantify the effects of environmental changes and urban management strategies on urban BVOC emissions. Results of our model simulations showed that (1) annual total BVOC emissions from the metropolitan area of Hangzhou were 4.7×10(8) g of C in 2010 and were predicted to be 1.2-3.2 Gg of C (1 Gg=10(9) g) in our various scenarios in 2050, (2) urban management played a more important role in determining future urban BVOC emissions than environmental changes, and (3) a high ecosystem service value (e.g., lowest BVOC/leaf mass ratio) could be achieved through positive coping in confronting environmental changes and adopting proactive urban management strategies on a local scale, that is, to moderately increase tree density while restricting excessive greenspace expansion and optimizing the species composition of existing and newly planted trees.

  13. Determination of engineering safety factor -routine in Hungary (a methodology for the normal operation local power engineering safety factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsenyi, Z.; Korpas, L.; Bona, G.; Kereszturi, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineties Paks Nuclear Power Plant-in collaboration with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI)- is developing a system for determining the normal operation local power engineering safety factors. The system is based on a Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertain model input parameters. Additionally, the comparison of the calculation to the in-core measurements plays essential role for determining some important input parameters. By using new fuel types and the corresponding more recent detailed technological data, the applied method is being improved from time to time. Presently, the actually used and authorized engineering safety factors at Paks NPP are determined by using this method. In the paper, the system.s main properties are described (not going beyond the possible extent). The main points are as follows:-Mathematical definition of the engineering safety factor;-Sources of the uncertainties;-Input error propagation method constituting the basis of the system;-Flow-chart of the subsequent steps of the determination Finally, in the paper the engineering safety factors values of some selected parameters are presented as examples for demonstration of the capability of the method. (Authors)

  14. Area Factor Determinations for an Industrial Worker Exposed to a Concrete Slab End-State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G. Timothy; Lee, Patricia L.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Roach, Jesse L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m 2 . During deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with 1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM, 2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance, and 3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual. The purpose of this site-specific assessment is to determine if any of the recommended area factors provided in the guidance documents could be utilized at SRS for field applications of the industrial worker DCGLs. Results show the area factors that were determined for an SRS industrial worker exposed to concrete slab end-states for the common radionuclides provided in the referenced guidance documents. In addition to the SRS site-specific area factors, the following area factors are provided for comparison: - Illustrative examples of outdoor area dose factors (MARSSIM); - Area correction factors as a function of source area (Soil Screening Guidance). Note: the area correction factors were inverted to correspond to a DCGL area factor. - Recommended area correction factors as a function of source area (Soil Screening Guidance); - Ranges for hot spot multiplication factors (RESRAD). As it can be seen

  15. Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.

  16. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: Target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester eKnol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts’ task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant’s response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3×3×3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally ten percent of the target size. The small (or absent illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  17. Factors that determine the effectiveness of screening for congenital heart malformations at child health centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); J. Hess (Jakob); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The actual yield from current screening for clinically significant congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health care is far from optimal. In this study factors that determine the effectiveness of this screening are identified and

  18. The fractioning factor and the number of theorical plates in isotopic enrichment columns determined simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducatti, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Using an analytical approach and an analytical graphical method, it was determined simultaneously the fractioning factor and the number of theoretical plates in isotopic enrichment columns during the conditions of dinamical isotopic equilibrium. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Determination of OB/OD/SF Emission Factors Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation to the Demilitarization Symposium. This proposal will present the methods of tethered aerostat and unmanned aerial system for collection of plume samples and determination of emission factors form open burning, open detonation, and static firing for weapon demilita...

  20. Determinants of the acetate recovery factor: implications for estimation of 13C substrate oxidation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Schrauwen; E.E. Blaak; A.J.M. Wagenmakers; dr. Lars B. Borghouts; D.P.C. van Aggel-Leijssen

    2000-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that the acetate recovery factor, used in stable isotope research, needs to be deteremined in every subject, under similar conditions as used for the tracer-derived determination of substrate oxidation.

  1. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    OpenAIRE

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  2. Determination of vibration amplitudes and neutron-mechanical scale factors in the PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.; Heidemann, P.; Runkel, J.

    1997-01-01

    Displacements of vibrating reactor components which can not be measured by other means during normal reactor operation can be determined through the scale factors from the neutron spectra of signals measured by the standard in-core neutron instrumentation. Neutron-mechanical scale factors are determined for the vibrations of fuel assemblies and reactor pressure vessel/core barrel system using the signals of in-core neutron detectors and accelerometers. (author)

  3. 45 CFR 150.317 - Factors CMS uses to determine the amount of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factors CMS uses to determine the amount of... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal Governmental Plans-Civil Money Penalties § 150.317 Factors CMS...

  4. Regional determinants of FDI in China: a factor-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn A. Boermans; Zhang Yi; Hein Roelfsema

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the factors that drive the uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) across Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2006. We first perform a factor analysis to summarize information embodied in around 40 variables and derive four FDI determinants:

  5. 41 CFR 101-25.202 - Factors to be used to determine assignment of purchase responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experience of agency purchasing and contracting officials and their operating units with due regard to... determine assignment of purchase responsibility. 101-25.202 Section 101-25.202 Public Contracts and Property... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.2-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.202 Factors to be used to determine...

  6. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air.

  7. Biocompatibility of degradable biomaterials : a study on the factors determining the inflammatory response against degradable polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, King Hong

    1992-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis was undertaken to obtain more insight in the role of various factors determining the outcome of the interaction between biodegradable polymers and the host in which they are implanted. In the end, the outcome of this interaction determines the success or failure of

  8. 24 CFR 30.80 - Factors in determining amount of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... civil money penalty. 30.80 Section 30.80 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES: CERTAIN PROHIBITED CONDUCT Procedures § 30.80 Factors in determining amount of civil money penalty. After determining that a respondent has...

  9. Efficiency and attenuation correction factors determination in gamma spectrometric assay of bulk samples using self radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.

    2009-02-01

    Gamma spectrometry forms the most important and capable tool for measuring radioactive materials. Determination of the efficiency and attenuation correction factors is the most tedious problem in the gamma spectrometric assay of bulk samples. A new experimental and easy method for these correction factors determination using self radiation was proposed in this work. An experimental study of the correlation between self attenuation correction factor and sample thickness and its practical application was also introduced. The work was performed on NORM and uranyl nitrate bulk sample. The results of proposed methods agreed with those of traditional ones.(author)

  10. A hybrid of fuzzy FMEA-AHP to determine factors affecting alternator failure causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kiani Aslani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to determine factors influencing alternator failure causes. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA is one of the first systematic techniques for failure analysis based on three factors including Probability (P, Severity (S and Detection (D. Traditional FMEA method considers equal weights for all three factors, however, in read-world cases; one may wish to consider various weights. The proposed study develops a mathematical model to determine optimal weights based on analytical hierarchy process technique. The implementation of the proposed study has been demonstrated for a read-world case study of alternator failure causes.

  11. Quantifying the Strength of General Factors in Psychopathology: A Comparison of CFA with Maximum Likelihood Estimation, BSEM, and ESEM/EFA Bifactor Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; Eisner, Manuel; Obsuth, Ingrid; Ribeaud, Denis

    2018-05-22

    Whether or not importance should be placed on an all-encompassing general factor of psychopathology (or p factor) in classifying, researching, diagnosing, and treating psychiatric disorders depends (among other issues) on the extent to which comorbidity is symptom-general rather than staying largely within the confines of narrower transdiagnostic factors such as internalizing and externalizing. In this study, we compared three methods of estimating p factor strength. We compared omega hierarchical and explained common variance calculated from confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) bifactor models with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation, from exploratory structural equation modeling/exploratory factor analysis models with a bifactor rotation, and from Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) bifactor models. Our simulation results suggested that BSEM with small variance priors on secondary loadings might be the preferred option. However, CFA with ML also performed well provided secondary loadings were modeled. We provide two empirical examples of applying the three methodologies using a normative sample of youth (z-proso, n = 1,286) and a university counseling sample (n = 359).

  12. Determination of factors through Monte Carlo method for Fricke dosimetry from 192Ir sources for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Mariano Gazineu; Salata, Camila; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas develops a methodology for the determination of the absorbed dose to water by Fricke chemical dosimetry method for brachytherapy sources of 192 Ir high dose rate and have compared their results with the laboratory of the National Research Council Canada. This paper describes the determination of the correction factors by Monte Carlo method, with the Penelope code. Values for all factors are presented, with a maximum difference of 0.22% for their determination by an alternative way. (author)

  13. Anthropometric Factors and Physical Condition Dominant Determinants Batting Skills in Softball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Eka Saraya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available batting skills in softball requires several anthropometric factors and physical condition to play to improve skills. Anthropometric factors and physical condition, among others, height, arm length, arm muscle strength, hand-eye coordination, balance, and reaction time. This study aims to determine the anthropometric factors and the physical condition of the dominant determinant of batting skills in softball. This research approach uses a quantitative to design of confirmatory factor analysis. This study population is training student achievement softball in sports education university of riau. A sample of 100 people was obtained through a simple random sampling technique. The data used are taken through a series of tests of the independent and dependent variables. This research method through testing confirmatory factor KMO and Bartlett’s Test analysis using SPSS. Results from this research is: factor of anthropometri dominant physical condition and determinants batting skill in game of softball is arm length with value 0,788, arm muscle power with value 0,851 and time reaction of with value 0,737. The conclusion of this research is: factor of anthropometri dominant physical condition and determinants batting skill in game of softball is arm length, arm muscle power and time reaction

  14. A New Metric for Quantifying the Relative Impact of Risk Factors on Loss of Working Life Illustrated in a Population of Working Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    In a resource-limited world, organisations attempting to reduce the impact of health or behaviour issues need to choose carefully how to allocate resources for the highest overall impact. However, such choices may not always be obvious. Which has the biggest impact? A large change to a small number of individuals, or a small change to a large number of individuals? The challenge is identifying the issues that have the greatest impact on the population so potential interventions can be prioritised. We addressed this by developing a score to quantify the impact of health conditions and behaviour problems in a population of working guide dogs using data from Guide Dogs, UK. The cumulative incidence of different issues was combined with information about their impact, in terms of reduction in working life, to create a work score. The work score was created at population-level to illustrate issues with the greatest impact on the population and to understand contributions of breeds or crossbreeds to the workforce. An individual work deficit score was also created and means of this score used to illustrate the impact on working life within a subgroup of the population such as a breed, or crossbreed generation. The work deficit scores showed that those removed for behavioural issues had a greater impact on the overall workforce than those removed for health reasons. Additionally trends over time illustrated the positive influence of interventions Guide Dogs have made to improve their workforce. Information highlighted by these scores is pertinent to the effort of Guide Dogs to ensure partnerships are lasting. Recognising that the scores developed here could be transferable to a wide variety of contexts and species, most notably human work force decisions; we discuss possible uses and adaptations such as reduction in lifespan, quality of life and yield in production animals.

  15. A New Metric for Quantifying the Relative Impact of Risk Factors on Loss of Working Life Illustrated in a Population of Working Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Caron-Lormier

    Full Text Available In a resource-limited world, organisations attempting to reduce the impact of health or behaviour issues need to choose carefully how to allocate resources for the highest overall impact. However, such choices may not always be obvious. Which has the biggest impact? A large change to a small number of individuals, or a small change to a large number of individuals? The challenge is identifying the issues that have the greatest impact on the population so potential interventions can be prioritised. We addressed this by developing a score to quantify the impact of health conditions and behaviour problems in a population of working guide dogs using data from Guide Dogs, UK. The cumulative incidence of different issues was combined with information about their impact, in terms of reduction in working life, to create a work score. The work score was created at population-level to illustrate issues with the greatest impact on the population and to understand contributions of breeds or crossbreeds to the workforce. An individual work deficit score was also created and means of this score used to illustrate the impact on working life within a subgroup of the population such as a breed, or crossbreed generation. The work deficit scores showed that those removed for behavioural issues had a greater impact on the overall workforce than those removed for health reasons. Additionally trends over time illustrated the positive influence of interventions Guide Dogs have made to improve their workforce. Information highlighted by these scores is pertinent to the effort of Guide Dogs to ensure partnerships are lasting. Recognising that the scores developed here could be transferable to a wide variety of contexts and species, most notably human work force decisions; we discuss possible uses and adaptations such as reduction in lifespan, quality of life and yield in production animals.

  16. Comparison of Five Modeling Approaches to Quantify and Estimate the Effect of Clouds on the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF) for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A generally accepted value for the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF), with respect to the erythemal action spectrum for sunburn of human skin, is −1.1, indicating that a 1.0% increase in stratospheric ozone leads to a 1.1% decrease in the biologically damaging UV radiation in ...

  17. A new method to quantify the health risks from sources of perfluoroalkyl substances, combined with positive matrix factorization and risk assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Shi, Guo-Liang; Guo, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Ting; Tian, Ying-Ze; Huangfu, Yan-Qi; Zhang, Yuan; Feng, Yin-Chang; Xu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid model based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and the health risk assessment model for assessing risks associated with sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water was established and applied at Dianchi Lake to test its applicability. The new method contains 2 stages: 1) the sources of PFASs were apportioned by the PMF model and 2) the contribution of health risks from each source was calculated by the new hybrid model. Two factors were extracted by PMF, with factor 1 identified as aqueous fire-fighting foams source and factor 2 as fluoropolymer manufacturing and processing and perfluorooctanoic acid production source. The health risk of PFASs in the water assessed by the health risk assessment model was 9.54 × 10 -7  a -1 on average, showing no obvious adverse effects to human health. The 2 sources' risks estimated by the new hybrid model ranged from 2.95 × 10 -10 to 6.60 × 10 -6  a -1 and from 1.64 × 10 -7 to 1.62 × 10 -6  a -1 , respectively. The new hybrid model can provide useful information on the health risks of PFAS sources, which is helpful for pollution control and environmental management. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:107-115. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Determination of digitised radiograph magnification factors for pre-operative templating in hip prosthesis surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, Stephane [Hopital Gabriel Montpied, CHU de Clermont Ferrand, BP 69, Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Clermont Ferrand Cedex 01 (France); Livesey, Christine; Learmonth, Ian Douglas [Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol Implant Research Centre, Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    With digital radiography development, information technology (IT) companies have developed specific software for templating procedures, requiring individual magnification assessments for each patient. The aim of this study was to determine the mean magnification factor of digital radiographs and to evaluate the possibility of using the mean magnification factor or clinical information in templating. We retrospectively evaluated 100 primary total hip arthroplasty digital radiographs using the femoral head prosthesis as a calliper to determinate the mean magnification factor. Working on the assumption that altitude of the hip during radiograph is decisive in modification of magnification factors, we also looked for a correlation between weight, body mass index (BMI), altitude and magnification factor. The magnification factor was 126% (121-130%). A relationship was found between magnification factor (Mf) and weight (Mf = 7.10{sup -4} x weight (kg) + 1.21), but not BMI. In 98% of cases, if the weight-correlated formula is used, the sizing is correct or the error is {+-} 1 mm. With the mean method the sizing is correct or within 1 mm in only 78.2% of cases. Levels of accuracy for the mean magnification factor and the weight-correlated formula are not as high as individual assessments using a calliper; however, they could be used in everyday practice where individual magnification factors have not been calculated. (orig.)

  19. Characteristic Determination Of Self Shielding Factor And Cadmium Ratio Of Cylindrical Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Amir; Budi R, Ita; Pinem, Suriam

    1996-01-01

    Determination of thermal, epithermal and total self shielding factor and cadmium ratio of cylindrical probe has been done by measurement and calculation. Self shielding factor can be determined by dividing probe activity to Al-alloy probe activity. Due to the lack of cylindrical probe made of Al-alloy, self shielding factor can be determined by parabolic extrapolation of measured activities to 0 cm radius to divide those activities. Theoretically, self shielding factor can be determined by making numerical solution of two dimensional integral equations using Romberg method. To simplify, the calculation is based on single collision theory with the assumption of monoenergetic neutron and isotropic distribution. For gold cylindrical probe, the calculation results are quite close to the measurement one with the relative discrepancy for activities, cadmium ratio and self shielding factor of bare probe are less then 11.5%, 3,5% and 1.5% respectively. The program can be used for the calculation of other kinds of cylindrical probes. Due to dependency to radius, cylindrical probe made of copper has the best characteristic of self shielding factor and cadmium ratio

  20. Determination of Important Topographic Factors for Landslide Mapping Analysis Using MLP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.

  1. Multiscale Spatial Assessment of Determinant Factors of Land Use Change: Study at Urban Area of Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2017-12-01

    Studies of land use change have been undertaken by different researchers using various methods. Among those methods, modelling is widely utilized. Modelling land use change required several components remarked as model variables. Those represent any conditions or factors which considered relevant or have some degree of correlation to the changes of land use. Variables which have significant correlation to land use change are referred as determinant factors or driving forces. Those factors as well as changes of land use are distributed across space and therefore referred as spatial determinant factors. The main objective of the research was to examine land use change and its determinant factors. Area and location of land use change were analysed based on three different years of land use maps, which are 1993, 2000 and 2007. Spatial and temporal analysis were performed which emphasize to the influence of scale to both of analysis’s. Urban area of Yogyakarta was selected as study area. Study area covered three different districts (kabupaten), involving 20 sub districts and totally consists of 74 villages. Result of this study shows that during 14 years periods (1993 to 2007), there were about 1,460 hectares of land use change had been taken place. Dominant type of land use change is agricultural to residential. The uses of different spatial and temporal scale in analysis were able to reveal different factors related to land use change. In general, factors influencing the quantities of land use change in the study area were population growth and the availability of land. The use of data with different spatial resolution can reveal the presence of various factors associated with the location of the change. Locations of land use change were influenced or determined by accessibility factors.

  2. Quantifying forecast quality of IT business value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, J.L.; van der Pas, M.; Verhoef, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how to quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value. We address a common economic indicator often used to determine the business value of project proposals, the Net Present Value (NPV). To quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value, we develop a generalized

  3. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency...

  4. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor; Thalasso, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microrespirometry was used to characterize aerobic granules. • Kinetic parameters for 4-chorophenol degradation were determined. • Intrinsic and apparent kinetic parameters were quantified and contrasted. • Aerobic granules presented lower μ_m_a_x and higher K_S than disaggregated granules. • Microrespirometry can be useful in model development and calibration. - Abstract: In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9 kg COD m"−"3 d"−"1, and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems.

  5. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. IPN 2508, 07360 México DF, México (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Process for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76320, México (Mexico); Thalasso, Frederic, E-mail: thalasso@cinvestav.mx [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. IPN 2508, 07360 México DF, México (Mexico)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Microrespirometry was used to characterize aerobic granules. • Kinetic parameters for 4-chorophenol degradation were determined. • Intrinsic and apparent kinetic parameters were quantified and contrasted. • Aerobic granules presented lower μ{sub max} and higher K{sub S} than disaggregated granules. • Microrespirometry can be useful in model development and calibration. - Abstract: In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9 kg COD m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems.

  6. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents the results of measurements of dosimetric properties of simple extremity phantoms suitable for use in extremity dosimeter performance testing. Two sizes of phantoms were used in this study. One size represented the forearm or lower leg and the other size represented the finger or toe. For both phantom sizes, measurements were performed on solid plastic phantoms and on phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the bone on the surface dose. Exposure-to-dose conversion factors (C/sub x/ factors) were determined for photon energies ranging from 16 to 1250 keV (average for 60 Co). The effect of the presence of a phantom was also measured for a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source. Significant differences in the measured C/sub x/ factors were found among the phantoms investigated. The factors for the finger-sized phantoms were uniformly less than for the arm-sized phantoms

  7. Factors affecting the determination of the isotopically exchangeable phosphorus in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.E.M.

    1981-06-01

    In order to evaluate the factors that affect the determination of the isotopically exchangeable phosphorus in soils (L value), various greenhouse experiments were carried out. The following factors were considered: carrier level; plant species; harvest time; nitrogen doses; nitrogen sources; culture conditions and soil type. A radioactive solution with an activity level of approximately 10 μCi 32 p/3 kg soil with different carrier levels was located in layers or mixed completely with the soil depending upon the experiment. (author)

  8. Determination of overall decontamination factors for common impurity elements in PHWR spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, D.K.; Bhalerao, B.A.; Gupta, K.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Gurba, P.B.; Janardan, P.; Changrani, R.D.; Dey, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine overall decontamination factors for elemental impurities normally encountered in the U 3 O 8 product obtained by reprocessing of PHWR spent fuel. The solution obtained by dissolution of spent fuel and corresponding U 3 O 8 product were analyzed for 24 elemental impurities by ICP-AES for this purpose. Decontamination factors achieved for major neutron poisons are in the range of 200-400. (author)

  9. Supplier selection or collaboration? Determining factors of performance improvement when outsourcing manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dabhilkar, Mandar; Bengtsson, Lars; Haartman, Robin von; Åhlström, Pär

    2009-01-01

    An empirical study was designed to determine factors of performance improvement when outsourcing manufacturing. Findings from a survey of 136 manufacturing plants in Sweden show that most of them achieve their outsourcing motives, but not without trade-offs. Factors of performance improvements such as economies of scale or operations in low-cost countries can improve one performance dimension, such as product cost, yet negatively impact volume flexibility, speed or product innovation. The res...

  10. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, LM; Temneanu, OR

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers? pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and ge...

  11. The basics of experimental determination of the Fano factor in intrinsic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samedov, Victor-V.

    2013-06-01

    Intrinsic semiconductors such as High Purity Germanium Detectors are exceptional X-ray and gamma-ray detectors because of their large sizes and small band gap. They are used for fundamental scientific researches, nuclear material safeguards and security, environmental protection, and human health and safety. The fundamental limit of the energy resolution of a semiconductor detector is determined by variance in the number of electron-hole pairs produced by X-rays in detector volume. The principal characteristic of material for using as semiconductor detector is the Fano factor that determines the fluctuation in the number of electron-hole pairs. Now, all existing methods of experimental determination of the Fano factor in semiconductors are based on the subtraction of electronic noise from the signal variance. In this work, I propose the method of experimental determination of the Fano factor in a planar semiconductor detector based on dependences of the mean amplitude and the energy resolution on the electric field. It was shown that inverse electric field expansion of these dependences allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, and relative variance of electron lifetime due to inhomogeneous charge transport in semiconductor material. The important advantage of the proposed method is independence on detector electronic noise. (authors)

  12. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Worku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson’s chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83% were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance.

  13. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  14. Study on direct determination of uranium and efficient equilibrium factor by gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunkui

    1990-01-01

    The test principle, test set and surveying methods for conducting gamma-ray spectrometry on conveyer are presented. The conversion coefficient of the spectrometer has been found by using duallinear regression analysis of uranium and radon and their higher and lower bands of gamma-ray spectra. The efficient equilibrium factor can be quickly determined, and the direct determination of uranium in the non-equilibrium condition of uranium and radium can be made

  15. Determinant factors in the integration of information and communication technologies in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Bordios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Binary Logistic Regression and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were employed to determine factors that can influence teachers’ decision whether or not to integrate Information and communication technology (ICT in teaching and also to uncover ABC (Attitudes, Beliefs, Confidence as the factors to be considered which subsequently came out as predictors of the study along with age and grade level taught. Results implied that along with the efforts of the government to provide physical resources to implement the Department of Education Computerization Program, teachers as the main drivers of this initiative must be engaged in conceptual change regarding their ABC toward ICTintegration.

  16. Determination of the Main Influencing Factors on Road Fatalities Using an Integrated Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Masoud Rahimi

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposed an integrated algorithm of neuro-fuzzy techniques to examine the complex impact of socio-technical influencing factors on road fatalities. The proposed algorithm could handle complexity, non-linearity and fuzziness in the modeling environment due to its mechanism. The Neuro-fuzzy algorithm for determination of the potential influencing factors on road fatalities consisted of two phases. In the first phase, intelligent techniques are compared for their improved accuracy in predicting fatality rate with respect to some socio-technical influencing factors. Then in the second phase, sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate the pure effect on fatality rate of the potential influencing factors. The applicability and usefulness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using the data in Iran provincial road transportation systems in the time period 2012-2014. Results show that road design improvement, number of trips, and number of passengers are the most influencing factors on provincial road fatality rate.

  17. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  18. Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-12-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  19. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Janine E; Sonneveld, Michelle A H; Praet, Stephan F E; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G

    2014-01-01

    Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise. 105 healthy individuals (18-35 years) were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB) levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599), Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987) and VWF (promoter, rs7965413) were determined. The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (pexercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both pexercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001), which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase. VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  20. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...

  1. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...

  2. Factors of Attrition in Cohort Doctoral Education: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Linda Ann

    2013-01-01

    Attrition rates, completion rates, and time to degree are the key areas researchers have sought to examine influencing factors and patterns of behavior that describe the departure process of students in doctoral study. Through the lens of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was…

  3. Determinants of Business Student Satisfaction and Retention in Higher Education: Applying Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShields, Oscar W., Jr.; Kara, Ali; Kaynak, Erdener

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper focuses on the determinants of student satisfaction and retention in a college or university that are assumed to impact students' college experience. Design/methodology/approach: Using empirical data and Herzberg's two-factor theory, a modified version of the questionnaire developed by Keaveney and Young was administered to…

  4. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  5. Determination of tin equilibrium isotope fractionation factors from synchrotron radiation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polyakov, VB; Mineev, SD; Clayton, RN; Hu, G; Mineev, KS

    2005-01-01

    A method of determination of the reduced isotopic partition function ratio (beta-factor) from the partial density of state (PDOS) obtained by inelastic nuclear resonant X-ray scattering (INRXS) in synchrotron radiation experiments has been established. The method has been demonstrated by the example

  6. 42 CFR 3.408 - Factors considered in determining the amount of a civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... civil money penalty. 3.408 Section 3.408 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.408 Factors considered in determining the amount of a civil money penalty. In...

  7. What factors determine restoration success of a salt marsh ten years after de-embankment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Esther R.; Veeneklaas, R.M.; Bakker, Jan P.; Daniels, Petra; Esselink, Peter

    Questions How successful was the restoration of a salt marsh at a former summer polder on the mainland coast of the Dutch Wadden Sea 10 yr after de-embankment? What were the most important factors determining the level of restoration success? Location Noard-Fryslân Bûtendyks, northwest Netherlands.

  8. Determination of free insulin-like growth factor-I in human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frystyk, J.; Skjærbæk, C.; Ivarsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    Two fundamentally different methods are currently used for the determination of free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I): ultrafiltration by centrifugation (UF) and direct immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). The aim was to evaluate a commercial IRMA (DSL, Webster, TX, USA) and to compare it with UF....

  9. Prehospital factors determining regional variation in thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, Maarten M.H.; Vroomen, P.C.A.J.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; van der Zee, Durk-Jouke; de Vos, Ronald; Buskens, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment rates with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator vary by region, which can be partially explained by organizational models of stroke care. A recent study demonstrated that prehospital factors determine a higher thrombolysis rate in a centralized vs. decentralized model in the

  10. Factors Determining the Career Success of Doctorate Holders: Evidence from the Spanish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Domínguez, J. F.; Wall, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the determining factors of PhDs' career success. Earnings have been used as an objective measure, and a subjective measure of success was constructed based on the individuals' assessments of broader aspects of their job position. When analysing the data by field of knowledge and gender, it was found that males and PhD holders…

  11. Method for determining correction factors induced by irradiation of ionization chamber cables in large radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method was developed to be suggested to hospital physicists in order to be followed during large radiation field dosimetry, to evaluate the effects of cables, connectors and extension cables irradiation and to determine correction factors for each system or geometry. All quality control tests were performed according to the International Electrotechnical Commission for three clinical dosimeters. Photon and electron irradiation effects for cables, connectors and extention cables were investigated under different experimental conditions by means of measurements of chamber sensitivity to a standard radiation source of 90 Sr. The radiation induced leakage current was also measured for cables, connectors and extension cables irradiated by photons and electrons. All measurements were performed at standard dosimetry conditions. Finally, measurements were performed in large fields. Cable factors and leakage factors were determined by the relation between chamber responses for irradiated and unirradiated cables. (author) [pt

  12. The determination of a continuous radon daughter equilibrium factor in an operating uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radon daughter exposures to workers at the Olympic Dam Operations copper and uranium mine are calculated from a series of grab samples obtained from various work locations around the mine. Currently under consideration is the introduction of personal passive radon dosimeters to determine the workers' radon daughter exposures. The study reported in this paper involved the determination of long-term equilibrium factors using real-time monitoring of radon and radon daughters. Consequently, variation in equilibrium factor for different tasks can be identified. In practice, the equilibrium factor varies with location and task; however, a conservative over-estimate of 0.28 can be confidently applied to all tasks. The error due to over-estimation remains minimal for all workers. This real-time monitoring method will reduce potential errors in dose assessment compared with the grab sampling technique. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Factors determining access to oral health services among children aged less than 12 years in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azañedo, Diego; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Casas-Bendezú, Mixsi; Gutiérrez, César; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cortés, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding problems of access to oral health services requires knowledge of factors that determine access. This study aimed to evaluate factors that determine access to oral health services among children aged Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar - ENDES). Children's access to oral health services within the previous 6 months was used as the dependent variable (i.e. Yes/No), and the Andersen and col model was used to select independent variables. Predisposing (e.g., language spoken by  tutor or guardian, wealth level, caregivers' educational level, area of residence, natural region of residence, age, and sex) and enabling factors (e.g. type of health insurance) were considered. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariate analysis was performed using generalized linear models (Poisson family). Results: Of all the children, 51% were males, 56% were aged oral health services among children aged oral health services.

  14. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  15. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  16. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  17. The quantified relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaher, J.; Nyholm, S.R.; Earp, B.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of self-tracking and personal surveillance has given rise to the Quantified Self movement. Members of this movement seek to enhance their personal well-being, productivity, and self-actualization through the tracking and gamification of personal data. The technologies that make this

  18. Using Gas Chromatography/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Fractionation Factor for H2 Production by Hydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui; Ghandi, H.; Shi, Liang; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2, and they are key enzymes in the biological cycling of H2. H isotopes should be a very useful tool in quantifying proton trafficking in biological H2 production processes, but there are several obstacles that have thus far limited the use of this tool. In this manuscript, we describe a new method that overcomes some of these barriers and is specifically designed to measure isotopic fractionation during enzyme-catalyzed H2 evolution. A key feature of this technique is that purified hydrogenases are employed, allowing precise control over the reaction conditions and therefore a high level of precision. A custom-designed high-throughput gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometer is employed to measure the isotope ratio of the H2. Using this method, we determined that the fractionation factor of H2 production by the (NiFe)-hydrogenase from Desulfivibrio fructosovran is 0.27. This result indicates that, as expected, protons are highly favored over deuterons during H2 evolution. Potential applications of this new method are discussed.

  19. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  20. TU-F-BRE-05: Experimental Determination of K Factor in Small Field Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, I; Akino, Y; Francescon, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Small-field dosimetry is challenging due to charged-particle disequilibrium, source occlusion and more importantly finite size of detectors. IAEA/AAPM has published approach to convert detector readings to dose by k factor. Manufacturers have been trying to provide various types of micro-detectors that could be used in small fields. However k factors depends on detector perturbations and are derived using Monte Carlo simulation. PTW has introduced a microDiamond for small-field dosimetry. An experimental approach is presented to derive the k factor for this detector. Methods: PTW microDiamond is a small volume detector with 1.1 mm radius and 1.0 micron thick synthetic diamond. Output factors were measured from 1×1cm2 to 12×12 cm2 on a Varian machine at various depths using various micro-detectors with published k factors. Dose is calculated as reading * K. Assuming k factor is accurate, output factor should be identical with every micro-detectors. Hence published k values (Francescon et al Med Phys 35, 504-513,2008) were used to covert readings and then output factors were computed. Based on the converged curve from other detectors, k factor for microDiamond was computed versus field size. Results: Traditional output factors as ratio of readings normalized to 10×10 cm2 differ significantly for micro-detectors for fields smaller than 3×3 cm2 which are now being used extensively. When readings are converted to dose, the output factor is independent of detector. Based on this method, k factor for microDiamond was estimated to be nearly constant 0.993±0.007 over varied field sizes. Conclusion: Our method provides a unique opportunity to determine the k factor for any unknown detector. It is shown that even though k factor depends on machine type due to focal spot, however for fields ≥1×1 cm2 this method provides accurate evaluation of k factor. Additionally microDiamond could be used with assumption that k factor is nearly unity

  1. Determination of the influence factors of the radiopharmaceutical vials dimensions used for activimeter calibration at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, E.W.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the establishment of a quality control program and correction factors for the geometry of the vials used for distribution of radiopharmaceutical and activimeters calibration. The radiopharmaceutical produced by IPEN 67 Ga, 131 I, 201 Tl and 99m Tc had been tested using two different vials. Results show a maximum variation of 22% for 201 Tl, and the minimum variation was 2.98% for 131 I. The correction factors must be incorporated in the routine calibration of the activimeters. - Highlights: ► Establishement of quality control program for reference activimeters. ► Determination of correction factors for the geometry of vials. ► Radiopharmaceuticals tested for different vials were 67 Ga, 131 I, 201 Tl and 99m Tc. ► The maximum variation was 22% for 201 Tl and the minimum variation was 2.98% for 131 I. ► Correction factors must be incorporated in the calibration of the activimeters.

  2. Potency determination of factor VIII and factor IX for new product labelling and postinfusion testing: challenges for caregivers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, J; Hubbard, A R; Wicks, S J; Gray, E; Neugebauer, B; Charton, E; Silvester, G

    2015-07-01

    A workshop organized by the European Medicines Agency and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare was held in London, UK on November 28-29, 2013, to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the characterization of new factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates with respect to potency assays and testing of postinfusion material. The objective was to set the basis for regulatory authorities' discussion on the most appropriate potency assay for the individual products, and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) discussion on whether to propose revision of the Ph. Eur. monographs with respect to potency assays in the light of information on new FVIII and FIX concentrates. The workshop showed that for all products valid assays vs. the international concentrate standards were obtained and potency could be expressed in International Units. The Ph. Eur. chromogenic potency assay gave valid assay results which correlate with in vivo functionality of rFVIII products. For some modified rFVIII products and all modified rFIX products, one-stage clotting assay methods result in different potencies depending on the activated partial thromboplastin time reagent. As a consequence, monitoring of patients' postinfusion levels is challenging but it was pointed out that manufacturers are responsible for providing the users with appropriate information for use and laboratory testing of their product. Strategies to avoid misleading determination of patents' plasma levels, e.g. information on suitable assays, laboratory standards or correction factors were discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E van Loon

    Full Text Available Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise.105 healthy individuals (18-35 years were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599, Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987 and VWF (promoter, rs7965413 were determined.The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p<0.0001. VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p<0.0001. The strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p<0.0001. We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001, which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase.VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  4. Determining e-learning success factor in higher education based on user perspective using Fuzzy AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggrainingsih Rini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently almost all universities in the world have implemented E-learning to support their academic system. Previous studies have been conducted to determine CSF using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. However, AHP method cannot handle the uncertainty and vagueness of the human’s opinion, so then it causes less appropriate decision. Some researcher has proposed to use fuzzy sets theory with AHP to increase the ability of AHP to deal problem regarding the uncertainty/fuzziness. This study aims to determine ranks of priorities of the multiple factors which influence the E-learning success using FAHP method. The respondents consist of ten e-learning’s experts, 305 lecturers, and 4195 students at Sebelas Maret University. The result describes similar success factors ranking between both experienced and non-experienced user (lecturer and student. Then, the result shows that there are five most influencial success factors of e-learning at Sebelas Maret University based on the lectures perspective Financial Policy, Regulatory Policy, Course quality, Relevant Content and Technical Support. On the other hand, according to the student's point of view five most e-learning, critical success factors are Quality of Course, Relevant of Content, Completeness of Content, Attitudes toward Student, and Flexibility in taking Course. Therefore, this finding can be used by E-learning management of Sebelas Maret University to deteremine a strategy to to achieve successful implementation of e-learning at Sebelas Maret University with consider these factors.

  5. LOSS FACTOR AND DYNAMIC YOUNG MODULUS DETERMINATION FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS REINFORCED WITH STEEL FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin-Mihai MIRIŢOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have build some composite sandwich bars. For these bars I have determined the dynamic response by recording their free vibrations. These bars have the core made of polypropylene honeycomb with upper and lower layers reinforced with steel wire mesh. For these bars I have determined the the eigenfrequency of the first eigenmode in this way: the bar was embedded at one end and free at the other where there was placed an accelerometer at 10 mm distance from the edge and I applied an initial force at the free end. I have determined the eigenfrequency because I will use its values for the loss factor and dynamic Young modulus determination.

  6. Determination of conversion factors and efficiency for GM detectors used in measurements of surface pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala G, J.; Alvarez R, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Radiation protection, is to observe with the National and as International standardization referring to the ICRP dose limitation system (ICRP 26, ICRP 60). In this work it was treated the problem corresponding about how to determine the conversion factor of cpm/mR/h and the absolute efficiency ε, for a Geiger-Muller equipment with thin window. This equipment is used for the beta particle detection. Thus the correct use of calibration factors and the procedures to convert cpm in Bq is expedited and also to apply the ISO procedure for to evaluate contaminated surfaces. (Author)

  7. Determination of the usage factor of components after cyclic loading using high-resolution microstructural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, A.; Scheibe, A.; Assmann, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    The usage factor can be derived from the quantification of the structure changes and the allocation of the microstructural state to the fatigue curves of the component materials. Using the example of the low alloy fine grain structural steel 20 Mn Mo Ni 5 5 (annealed structure), the relationship between micro-structure and the number of load cycles is shown in the form of a calibration curve. By high resolution structural investigation, the usage factor can be determined to n = N/N B ≅ 0.5 under given vibration stress. Only a small volume sample is required for the electron microscope examination. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Fluorophotometric determination of uranium: an automated sintering furnace and factors affecting precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    The fusion furnace consists of four individually controlled, slotted-tube furnaces that automatically dry, sinter and anneal the fluoride or carbonate pellet used in the fluorometric determination of uranium. The furnace operates in air and prepares approximately 90 pellets per hour for fluorometric measurement. The factors that were thought to affect the precision of the method were investigated. The two factors that seem to be the most influential are (1) the manner in which the sample is loaded onto the pellet; and (2) the surface characteristics of the platinum dish in which the pellet is sintered and measured fluorometrically

  9. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  10. The determination of beam quality correction factors: Monte Carlo simulations and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castaño, D M; Hartmann, G H; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Gómez, F; Kapsch, R-P; Pena, J; Capote, R

    2009-08-07

    Modern dosimetry protocols are based on the use of ionization chambers provided with a calibration factor in terms of absorbed dose to water. The basic formula to determine the absorbed dose at a user's beam contains the well-known beam quality correction factor that is required whenever the quality of radiation used at calibration differs from that of the user's radiation. The dosimetry protocols describe the whole ionization chamber calibration procedure and include tabulated beam quality correction factors which refer to 60Co gamma radiation used as calibration quality. They have been calculated for a series of ionization chambers and radiation qualities based on formulae, which are also described in the protocols. In the case of high-energy photon beams, the relative standard uncertainty of the beam quality correction factor is estimated to amount to 1%. In the present work, two alternative methods to determine beam quality correction factors are prescribed-Monte Carlo simulation using the EGSnrc system and an experimental method based on a comparison with a reference chamber. Both Monte Carlo calculations and ratio measurements were carried out for nine chambers at several radiation beams. Four chamber types are not included in the current dosimetry protocols. Beam quality corrections for the reference chamber at two beam qualities were also measured using a calorimeter at a PTB Primary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory. Good agreement between the Monte Carlo calculated (1% uncertainty) and measured (0.5% uncertainty) beam quality correction factors was obtained. Based on these results we propose that beam quality correction factors can be generated both by measurements and by the Monte Carlo simulations with an uncertainty at least comparable to that given in current dosimetry protocols.

  11. Behavioral determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: A qualitative directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors.

  12. Wastewater Management Efficiency and Determinant Factors in the Chinese Industrial Sector from 2004 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes industrial wastewater management efficiency using a Chinese provincial dataset from 2004 to 2014. The weighted Russell directional distance model is used to evaluate the efficiency of management practices. Determinants analysis was conducted based on governmental policy, pollution abatement, and market factors to identify the main drivers of industrial wastewater management efficiency in China. The results indicate that the wastewater management efficiency improved in the eastern and central regions. However, there is a significant efficiency gap between provinces in the western region. Moreover, the main determinants of wastewater management efficiency differ among regions and pollutants.

  13. [Sociocultural factors determinants of eating habits of kindergarten schoolchildren in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Rocío; León-Larios, Fátima; Lomas-Campos, Mercedes; Albar, María-Jesús

    2016-01-01

    To examine the sociocultural factors that determine the eating habits of children aged less than 5 years who attend kindergarten school in Chachapoyas in Peru, we carried out a qualitative study by means of semi-structured interviews of 18 fathers and mothers. The key factors related to eating habits were as follows: availability and easiness to prepare foods, schedule and work done by parents, intake of coffee in children as a common practice, lack of resources and economic uncertainty for food planning, and the lack of nutritional knowledge. Similarly, beliefs that might explain some eating habits, such as the beneficial effects of eating food as a family, maternal breastfeeding, and others, or the role of nutrition for the appropriate intellectual and physical development of children were identified. Our results provide evidence about the ways parents tackle and understand their children's nutrition while, in turn, determining its quality.

  14. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current veg...... was also assessed, and found to be of some importance for most vegetation types. We conclude that, in addition to including environmental variables in predicting vegetation distribution, it is essential that human impact be considered, also in future climate change scenarios....... vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topography. Annual precipitation was the best predictor of the distribution of all vegetation types...

  15. Experimental model for neutron scattering in disordered systems: static structure factor determination of mode-softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, E.

    1982-01-01

    The generalized-disorder collective-boson mode-softening universality-principle (GDCBMSUP) for collective-boson mode dispersion in disordered systems (liquids, quantum liquids, glasses, powders, disordered magnets, plasmas...), a unified qualitative and semi-qualitative and semi-quantitative descriptive prescription for treating the properties of very differently disordered systems, is directly dependent upon a measurement (or calculation) of the static structure factor S(k) determined from a frequency average of the dynamic structure factor S(k,w), a multiple of the inelastic differential neutron scattering cross section d 2 sigma/dwdOMEGA. The prescription for this principle is given and, because of its universal applicability to disordered systems of any type with any type and/or degree of disorder, the neutron scattering determination of S(k) takes on renewed importance

  16. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  17. Factors determining English test score of high school students in rural Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    NEUPANE, Pramila; THAPA, Rajesh Bahadur; SAPKOTA, Jeet Bahadur

    2017-01-01

    Due to globalization and internationalization of education, the importance of English language has been growing consistently. Like many other countries around the globe, English is taught as a compulsory subject from the primary level in Nepal. Despite continuous public and private efforts, achievement in English education is not satisfactory, especially in rural areas, due to numerous socio-cultural and other factors. Thus, this article explores some important determinants of English achieve...

  18. Suicidal Ideation, Attempt, and Determining Factors among HIV/AIDS Patients, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bitew, Huluagresh; Andargie, Gashaw; Tadesse, Agitu; Belete, Amsalu; Fekadu, Wubalem; Mekonen, Tesfa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is more frequent in peoples living with HIV/AIDS than in general population. Objective. To assess the proportion and determining factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among peoples living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 by selecting 393 participants using systematic random sampling technique. Su...

  19. INNOVATION POTENTIAL AS A DETERMINING FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES BUILDING PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    T. U. Levitsky; A. M. Esetova

    2014-01-01

    It is stipulated that the construction company, chosen the strategy of economic growth, should have some competitive advantages, determining opportunities for sustainable development and effective improving, and operational efficiency increase. One of the factors of the competitiveness increase of construction products is the innovative potential of construction industry. Methodical approaches to the evaluation of innovative capacity and its effect on the growth of competitive advantages have...

  20. INNOVATION POTENTIAL AS A DETERMINING FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES BUILDING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Levitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is stipulated that the construction company, chosen the strategy of economic growth, should have some competitive advantages, determining opportunities for sustainable development and effective improving, and operational efficiency increase. One of the factors of the competitiveness increase of construction products is the innovative potential of construction industry. Methodical approaches to the evaluation of innovative capacity and its effect on the growth of competitive advantages have been proposed. 

  1. Determining Factors for Delisting of Companies Listed on BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the capital market has attracted the interest of scholars and researchers, motivated to understand the process of going public and trading securities of companies on a stock exchange. In this research context, an aspect had been neglected, something which indi cates a gap in the body of knowledge about the capital market and corporate governance: delisting of companies. We aim to identify the determining factors for delisting companies from the Commodity & Futures Exchange BOVESPA (BM&FBOVESPA. Methodologically, this research has related a set of variables collected from secondary data available on the database of the Securities Commission of Brazil (CVM, BM&FBOVESPA, and Economatica. By analyzing 227 listing cancellations, between 2001 and 2012, the results indicate that de listing of companies from BM&FBOVESPA is determined by the following factors: (i greater concentration of ownership and control; (ii lower free float; (iii lower liquidity of shares; (iv greater availability of cash; and (v larger size. The fact that the controlling shareholder is a public or private company determines significant differences in the decision to delist. While in the first case cash availability is the most important factor, in the second liquidity is the main determining factor for delisting. From the academic viewpoint, this research extends the studies on delisting, still incipient in the Brazilian capital market context. For the capital market, identifying the characteristics of companies prone to cancel listing may prevent investors concerned about inherent risks at the time of acquiring shares by the controlling group interested in delisting.

  2. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction fac...

  3. DETERMINATION OF MOST SIGNIFICANT FACTORS FOR ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Solodkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic circulation on highways is a random process. Therefore automotive damage rate and, respectively, roads on which they are moving is subjected to regularities of random processes. Dynamic processes of vehicle-road interaction are determined to various extents by a host of factors that include road pavement evenness and characteristics of moving vehicles. For this reason the following task has been set: to reveal the most significant factors and mathematically correlate values of vehicle dynamic loads with a quality of road pavement and vehicle speed. Such task statement has not been solved adequately and this situation determines importance and novelty of the investigations in the given direction. While solving the mentioned task the investigations which have been carried out under real-life conditions and with the help of real-life objects are considered as the most reliable ones. However, preparation and execution of such experiments as needed significantly complicates their implementation. In this regard it looks rather expediential to combine a factorial experiment with the tests of a checked model while using ECM with stage-by-stage parameter fixation of working processes passing in “vehicle-road” system, comprehensive assessment pertaining to influence of the selected factors and selection of their optimum combination. Mathematical dependence has been obtained to evaluate influence of several external factors on optimization of vehicle dynamic load on the road. This component makes it possible to attain a simplified and adequate description of element interaction in “vehicle – road” system. While investigating influence of pavement irregularities on maximum dynamic loads on the road influence rate of the selected factors is determined in the following sequence: vehicle weight, pavement evenness and speed of transport facility.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of the USLE Soil Erodibility Factor to Its Determining Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Milena; Rousseva, Svetla

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the most serious soil threats worldwide. Soil erosion prediction is the first step in soil conservation planning. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is one of the most widely used models for soil erosion predictions. One of the five USLE predictors is the soil erodibility factor (K-factor), which evaluates the impact of soil characteristics on soil erosion rates. Soil erodibility nomograph defines K-factor depending on soil characteristics, such as: particle size distribution (fractions finer that 0.002 mm and from 0.1 to 0.002 mm), organic matter content, soil structure and soil profile water permeability. Identifying the soil characteristics, which mostly influence the K-factor would give an opportunity to control the soil loss through erosion by controlling the parameters, which reduce the K-factor value. The aim of the report is to present the results of analysis of the relative weight of these soil characteristics in the K-factor values. The relative impact of the soil characteristics on K-factor was studied through a series of statistical analyses of data from the geographic database for soil erosion risk assessments in Bulgaria. Degree of correlation between K-factor values and the parameters that determine it was studied by correlation analysis. The sensitivity of the K-factor was determined by studying the variance of each parameter within the range between minimum and maximum possible values considering average value of the other factors. Normalizing transformation of data sets was applied because of the different dimensions and the orders of variation of the values of the various parameters. The results show that the content of particles finer than 0.002 mm has the most significant relative impact on the soil erodibility, followed by the content of particles with size from 0.1 mm to 0.002 mm, the class of the water permeability of the soil profile, the content of organic matter and the aggregation class. The

  5. Identification determinant factors on willingness to pay for health services in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan-Noughabi, Javad; Kavosi, Zahra; Faramarzi, Ahmad; Khammarnia, Mohammad

    2017-11-21

    A common method used to examine the relationship between internal preferences and caring externalities is willingness to pay (WTP) approach. We aimed to estimate WTP for health status with different severity level and identify determinant factors on WTP. For determining main factors in WTP, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz in the southeast of Iran, in March to April 2015. The open-ended method was used to estimate monthly WTP in private and altruistic section. Multivariate regression analyses using ordinary least squares were applied to examine the effect of Scio-demographic factors on WTP using SPSS software 21. Participants were willing to pay an average amount of $ 295 in health status 1 and an average amount of $ 596 in health status 6 (worst status) for internal preferences. Altruistic WTP for health status 1 was $ 294 and participants were willing to pay an average amount of $ 416 in health status 6. Multiple regression analysis identified monthly income as the key determinant of WTP for internal preferences and caring externalities (P < 0.01). With an increase of 1% in income, private WTP increase 1.38% in health status 1. The finding indicates that the mean of WTP increases at severe health status; therefore, health policy maker should allocate resources toward severe health status.

  6. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2014-01-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm 2 ) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m 3 , by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm 2 per Bq / m 3 day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility

  7. Determination of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet relative output factor using a variety of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques

  8. Determination of the shape factor of 90Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Kossert, K.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of 90 Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of 90 Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition

  9. Experimental determination of the dynamic shape factor of primary sodium peroxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, M.

    1985-09-01

    A hypothetical accident in a fast breeeder reactor could cause aerosols to be generated in a sodium fire. The computer codes relative to the modeling of such accidents make it necessary to use various input parameters among which the dynamic shape factor kappa of the aerosols produced. This study concerns the shape factor of sodium peroxide; the discrepancies between the values of this parameter given in the literature justifies the usefulness of our work. We have tried to use the simplest method. The dynamic shape factor is proportional to the ratio of the equivalent volume diameter to the aerodynamic diameter for a given particle. Therefore, these two quantities must be determined. The particles are classified by means of a centrifuge as a function of their aerodynamic diameter; the equivalent volume diameter of the particles thus selected can then be determined by assessing the mass (neutron activation) and the number (electron microscope) on the same sample of particles. Our results show that the dynamic shape factor of sodium peroxide submicronic particles generated by a fire is nearly 1 and the values of this parameter increase with the particles size [fr

  10. Determining factors influencing survival of breast cancer by fuzzy logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Roya; Bahrampour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Fuzzy logistic regression model can be used for determining influential factors of disease. This study explores the important factors of actual predictive survival factors of breast cancer's patients. We used breast cancer data which collected by cancer registry of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during the period of 2000-2007. The variables such as morphology, grade, age, and treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) were applied in the fuzzy logistic regression model. Performance of model was determined in terms of mean degree of membership (MDM). The study results showed that almost 41% of patients were in neoplasm and malignant group and more than two-third of them were still alive after 5-year follow-up. Based on the fuzzy logistic model, the most important factors influencing survival were chemotherapy, morphology, and radiotherapy, respectively. Furthermore, the MDM criteria show that the fuzzy logistic regression have a good fit on the data (MDM = 0.86). Fuzzy logistic regression model showed that chemotherapy is more important than radiotherapy in survival of patients with breast cancer. In addition, another ability of this model is calculating possibilistic odds of survival in cancer patients. The results of this study can be applied in clinical research. Furthermore, there are few studies which applied the fuzzy logistic models. Furthermore, we recommend using this model in various research areas.

  11. Trust as a factor in determining how to attract, motivate and retain talentT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Martins

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire that can be used to determine how employees select the best company to work for. The second focus was to determine the role of trust in a relationship where employers must attract, motivate and retain employees. The confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 10 dimensions that supported most of the theoretically constructed dimensions. A second-order factor analysis was done and it became clear that there are two second-order factors underlying factor 1, namely leadership and trust. A strong correlation was found between trust and the dimensions of job satisfaction, relationships and leadership. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om ‘n vraelys te valideer wat gebruik kon word om te bepaal hoe werknemers die beste organisasie om voor te werk kies. Die tweede fokus was om die rol van vertroue te bepaal in ‘n vertrouensverhouding waar werkgewers werknemers moet lok, motiveer en behou. ‘n Bevestigende faktorontleding het tien faktore tot gevolg gehad wat die meeste van die teoreties opgestelde dimensies ondersteun. ‘n Tweede-orde-faktorontleding van faktor een het aangetoon dat die faktor uit twee tweede-orde-faktore, leierskap en vertroue bestaan. ‘n Sterk korrelasie het voorgekom tussen vertroue en die dimensies van postevredenheid, verhoudinge en leierskap.

  12. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, L M; Temneanu, O R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers' pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children originate in intrauterine life. The current obesity epidemic is probably the result of our evolutive inheritance associated with the consumption of highly processed food with an increased calorific value. The determination of risk factors involved in child obesity are: genetic predisposition, diet, sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic position, ethnic origin, microbiota, iatrogenic, endocrine diseases, congenital and acquired hypothalamic defects, usage of medications affecting appetite. However, the vast majority of patients will not have any of these identifiable conditions. Regardless of the aetiology, all the patients should be considered for modifiable lifestyle risk factors and screened for the complications of obesity.

  13. Determination of the Factors Influencing Store Preference in Erzurum by a Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine factors influencing store preference of the store costumers in Erzurum in terms of some characteristics of the store and its product and costumers’ demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, level of education and their income level. In order to carry out this objective, Pearson chi-square test is applied to determine whether there is a relationship between the store preference and customer, stores, and some characteristics of products and a multinominal logit model is fitted by stepwise regression method to the cross-section data compiled from a questionnaire applied to 384 store costumers in the center of Erzurum province. According to the model estimation and test results, the variables of marital status (married, education (primary and cheapness (unimportant for Migros; education (middle for Özmar and marital status (married for the other stores are determined as statistically significant at the level of 5 percent

  14. Determining Student Internet Addiction Levels in Secondary Education and the Factors that Affect It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile Ozdamli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of students in secondary education in North Cyprus and the factors that affect it. In this research, a survey method which provides a general universal judgment was used to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of such students. It has been found that 59.9% of the students are at low of becoming internet addicts, 20.7% of them are in the high risk category, 13.5% face no risk of addiction, while 5.9% are internet addicts. It was determined that as students’ internet usage hours increase, the risk of addiction increases.

  15. Determination Of Output Factor For Photon Beam Of The Mitsubishi EXL-14 Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurman R; Sri-Inang S; Dani

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of output factor for 6 MV photon beam of The Mitsubishi EXL-14 linear accelerator teletherapy unit. Determination of percentage depth dose curve has been done using Wallhofer dosemeter at source to surface distance, SSD of 100 cm and field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Measurement of output has been carried out using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber inside a water phantom at depth of 5 cm with source to surface distance, SSD of 100 cm for square fields ranging in size 4 cm x 4 cm up to 10 cm x 10 cm. Output for rectangular fields which equal to the equivalent square fields were also determined. The results obtained shows that the deviations of the output for 12 cm x 3 cm and 19 cm x 7 cm were higher than ±2% to the output of the equivalent square fields. (author)

  16. The Determinant Factors of Creative Economy Craftsmen Sustainability in South Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helda Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative economy craftsmen have big contribution to regional income and able to sustain in crisis. It can be seen on the average of Gross Domestic Product has employed 5.4 million in average for 2002-2009 with participation level of 5.8%. Therefore, a strategic sustainability is needed especially for the determinant factors of sustainability related to creative economy craftsmen. This research aims to observe the determinant factors of sustainability of creative economy craftsmen in Wajo and Bulukumba Regencies in South Sulawesi Province. Sample for the research was 215 creative economy craftsmen. Data collection is conducted on January to April 2012 consists of primary and secondary data. Research method was using prospective analysis to determine important factors to the sustainability of creative economy craftsmen that predict future alternatives. Result from Rap-UEK simulation for the composite of five dimensions showed a less sustainable status of 48.97%. Research results showed that there are six dominant or main factors in determining business sustainability of creative economy craftsmen, one place sale, coordination with the government and private sectors, capital source, increase in the product of creative economy business, business field and product development Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman

  17. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  18. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  19. Environmental determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: a qualitative directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers' experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including "availability and accessibility of health resources", "new skills", and "law and policies" which are located in enabling category and social environment including "social support", "motivation to comply" and "consequences of behavior" which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients' education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status.

  20. Factors determining the success of public private partnership projects in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afeez Olalekan Sanni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of public private partnership (PPP procurement method is expected to help governments in the development of infrastructures and provides an opportunity for the reduction in the governments’ debt profiles. This method has been adopted in Nigeria for more than a decade and with these years of implementation, few infrastructural projects have been developed using this method while some have been unsuccessful. This study aims to examine the PPP projects implementation in Nigeria and identify the most critical factors that could determine the success of such projects. A total of 184 questionnaires were received from public and private sectors’ participants in the implementation of PPP projects. An exploratory factor analysis identified seven critical success factors as projects feedback, leadership focus, risk allocation and economic policy, good governance and political support, short construction period, favourable socio-economic factors, and delivering publicly needed service. This study shows that more developmental projects could be delivered through PPP if the government could focus on these main factors in the implementation process. The result will influence policy development towards PPP and guide the partners in the development of PPP projects.

  1. Use of Bioclimatic Factors to Determine Potential Niche of Vaccinia Virus, an Emerging and Zoonotic Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiner, C. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging and understudied pathogens often lack information that most commonly used analytical tools require, such as negative controls or baseline data making public health control of emerging pathogens challenging. In lieu of opportunities to collect more data from larger outbreaks or formal epidemiological studies, new analytical strategies, merging case data with publically available datasets, can be used to understand transmission patterns and drivers of disease emergence. Zoonotic infections with Vaccinia virus (VACV) were first reported in Brazil in 1999, VACV is an emerging zoonotic Orthopoxvirus, which primarily infects dairy cattle and farmers in close contact with infected cows. Prospective studies of emerging pathogens could provide critical data that would inform public health planning and response to outbreaks. By using the location of 87-recorded outbreaks and publicly available bioclimatic data we demonstrate one such approach. Using an Ecological Niche Model (ENM), we identify the environmental conditions under which VACV outbreaks have occurred, and determine additional locations in two affected South American countries that may be susceptible to transmission. Further, we show how suitability for the virus responds to different levels of various environmental factors and highlight the most important climatic factors in determining its transmission. The final ENM predicted all areas where Brazilian outbreaks occurred, two out of five Colombian outbreaks and identified new regions within Brazil that are suitable for transmission based on bioclimatic factors. Further, the most important factors in determining transmission suitability are precipitation of the wettest quarter, annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and mean diurnal range. The analyses here provide a means by which to study patterns of an emerging infectious disease, and regions that are potentially at risk for it, in spite of the paucity of critical data. Policy

  2. Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Indriyotomo, D.; Aminjoyo, S.

    1996-01-01

    Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

  3. Determinants of use of maternal health services in Nigeria - looking beyond individual and household factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatusi Adesegun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilization of maternal health services is associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Considering global and national interests in the Millennium Development Goal and Nigeria's high level of maternal mortality, understanding the factors affecting maternal health use is crucial. Studies on the use of maternal care services have largely overlooked community and other contextual factors. This study examined the determinants of maternal services utilization in Nigeria, with a focus on individual, household, community and state-level factors. Methods Data from the 2005 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey - an interviewer-administered nationally representative survey - were analyzed to identify individual, household and community factors that were significantly associated with utilization of maternal care services among 2148 women who had a baby during the five years preceding the survey. In view of the nested nature of the data, we used multilevel analytic methods and assessed state-level random effects. Results Approximately three-fifths (60.3% of the mothers used antenatal services at least once during their most recent pregnancy, while 43.5% had skilled attendants at delivery and 41.2% received postnatal care. There are commonalities and differences in the predictors of the three indicators of maternal health service utilization. Education is the only individual-level variable that is consistently a significant predictor of service utilization, while socio-economic level is a consistent significant predictor at the household level. At the community level, urban residence and community media saturation are consistently strong predictors. In contrast, some factors are significant in predicting one or more of the indicators of use but not for all. These inconsistent predictors include some individual level variables (the woman's age at the birth of the last child, ethnicity, the notion of ideal

  4. The Determinant Factors Of Sectoral Stock Return In Bullish And Bearish Condition At Indonesian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defrizal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract this study aims to explain determinant factors of sectoral stock return in bullish and bearish condition at Indonesian capital market. This study used a multi-factor asset pricing model with sectoral stock return as the dependent variable and stock market return interest rates and exchange rate as independent variables. The Identification of stock market condition by using a Markov Switching Models which are also used as the basis for segmenting the data into bullish and bearish conditions. Estimates of the model used the robust least square method. This study used data from Indonesian Stock Exchange to the observation period from January 1996 to December 2013. The results of this study were 1 simultaneously stock market return interest rates and exchange rate affected the sectoral stock return in bullish and bearish condition. 2 Partially the stock market return positively effect and is as a main factor in determining the sectoral stock return in all industries in either bullish condition or bearish condition while the effect of the interest rates and exchange rate do not consistently affect the sectoral stock return in different industries and market conditions.

  5. Determination of true coincidence correction factors using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chionis Dionysios A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work is the numerical calculation of the true coincidence correction factors by means of Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo computer code PENELOPE was used and the main program PENMAIN was properly modified in order to include the effect of the true coincidence phenomenon. The modified main program that takes into consideration the true coincidence phenomenon was used for the full energy peak efficiency determination of an XtRa Ge detector with relative efficiency 104% and the results obtained for the 1173 keV and 1332 keV photons of 60Co were found consistent with respective experimental ones. The true coincidence correction factors were calculated as the ratio of the full energy peak efficiencies was determined from the original main program PENMAIN and the modified main program PENMAIN. The developed technique was applied for 57Co, 88Y, and 134Cs and for two source-to-detector geometries. The results obtained were compared with true coincidence correction factors calculated from the "TrueCoinc" program and the relative bias was found to be less than 2%, 4%, and 8% for 57Co, 88Y, and 134Cs, respectively.

  6. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.

  8. [Gender-determinant factors in contraception: design and validation of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago Simón, Teresa; Tomás Aznar, Concepción

    2013-10-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire for young women on gender-determinant factors in contraception. A questionnaire was developed from conversations with young women attending contraception clinic in the Health Promotion Municpal Centre, Zaragoza. A total of 200 young women between the ages of 13 and 24 self-completed the questionnaire, with only one no response. Several items were analysed: reliability, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and construct validity by analysis of the main components with eigenvalues above 1, and Quartimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation. The questionnaire contained 36 items and took 10minutes to self-complete. There was good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha 0,853. Twelve factors were established with an explanation of 61.42% variance, and three descriptive lines: relationship dimension («submissive attitude», «blind attitude», «let go due to affection», «dominant partner»), gender identity («maternity as identity», «non-idealised maternity», «traditional role», «insecurity», «shame») and caring. This questionnaire enabled gender determinant-factors that take part in contraception to be identified, and will be useful to find out how the different ways of relating between the sexes influence the problems of sexual and reproductive health in young women in our environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconsolidation or extinction: transcription factor switch in the determination of memory course after retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Verónica; Freudenthal, Ramiro; Romano, Arturo

    2011-04-13

    In fear conditioning, aversive stimuli are readily associated with contextual features. A brief reexposure to the training context causes fear memory reconsolidation, whereas a prolonged reexposure induces memory extinction. The regulation of hippocampal gene expression plays a key role in contextual memory consolidation and reconsolidation. However, the mechanisms that determine whether memory will reconsolidate or extinguish are not known. Here, we demonstrate opposing roles for two evolutionarily related transcription factors in the mouse hippocampus. We found that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is required for fear memory reconsolidation. Conversely, calcineurin phosphatase inhibited NF-κB and induced nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) nuclear translocation in the transition between reconsolidation and extinction. Accordingly, the hippocampal inhibition of both calcineurin and NFAT independently impaired memory extinction, whereas inhibition of NF-κB enhanced memory extinction. These findings represent the first insight into the molecular mechanisms that determine memory reprocessing after retrieval, supporting a transcriptional switch that directs memory toward reconsolidation or extinction. The precise molecular characterization of postretrieval processes has potential importance to the development of therapeutic strategies for fear memory disorders.

  10. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  11. Environmental factors determining ammonia-oxidizing organism distribution and diversity in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Eveillard, Damien; Chien, Diana; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2012-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in bridging the input of fixed nitrogen, through N-fixation and remineralization, to its loss by denitrification and anammox. Yet the major environmental factors determining AOB and AOA population dynamics are little understood, despite both groups having a wide environmental distribution. This study examined the relative abundance of both groups of ammonia-oxidizing organisms (AOO) and the diversity of AOA across large-scale gradients in temperature, salinity and substrate concentration and dissolved oxygen. The relative abundance of AOB and AOA varied across environments, with AOB dominating in the freshwater region of the Chesapeake Bay and AOA more abundant in the water column of the coastal and open ocean. The highest abundance of the AOA amoA gene was recorded in the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) and the Arabian Sea (AS). The ratio of AOA : AOB varied from 0.7 in the Chesapeake Bay to 1600 in the Sargasso Sea. Relative abundance of both groups strongly correlated with ammonium concentrations. AOA diversity, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of clone library sequences and archetype analysis from a functional gene DNA microarray, detected broad phylogenetic differences across the study sites. However, phylogenetic diversity within physicochemically congruent stations was more similar than would be expected by chance. This suggests that the prevailing geochemistry, rather than localized dispersal, is the major driving factor determining OTU distribution. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Factors that determine the fees for audit NGOs financial statements in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtijar Berisha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify, analyze and evaluate the potential factors that influence the determinants of the fee/price of the NGOs financial statements audit in Kosovo based and tested, generally, traditional determinants and known in economic literature on this issue. In our study, we have chosen the NGO sector in Kosovo to investigate the factors that determine the fee/price of their financial statements, because the non-governmental organizations are among the first organizations that have gone through the audit process after war disintegration of former Yugoslavia, and to our knowledge no similar research was undertaken. The study is generally based on data collected through a questionnaire, sector financial audit of NGOs in Kosovo’s reality, focusing on the group of respondents who are professional in this field as statutory auditors, certified auditors and certified accountants. By the results of this analysis related to the importance variables of the model, it was found that the size, complexity, audit risk, NGO audit market, competition, international character and the number of donors who fund NGOs and the number of projects they develop, have a significant impact on the fee/price of the financial audit of NGOs Kosovo.

  13. Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo I Perez Perez

    Full Text Available We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

  14. Various Determinant Factors of Production Technology Adoption in Creative Souvenir Micro Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumasari Dumasari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the existence of several factors that determine the power of the adoption of production technology on micro souvenirs creative enterprise. The location of the research was determined purposely in Purbalingga Wetan Subdistrict, Purbalingga District, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Research respondents numbered 28 people. The results showed that the various determinants of the adoption of production technology have economic, social and environmental motives. The power of influence of each factor is also distinct. The adoption of different craftsmen resulted in the quality of souvenir products from coconut waste being unequal. Some have a motif design according to market trend. Product price level is feasible. However, some products are only produced semi-finished. The price of this product is relatively lower. The economic feasibility of craftsmen is closely related to the rate of adoption of production technology. There are small number (<25 percent of craftsmen use mechanical technology. The rest is still aided on the traditional manual techniques in processing waste coconut into souvenirs or creative handicraft.

  15. Determining The Factors Affecting Fruit Hardness of Different Peach Types with Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factor effective in determining the hardness of Caterina, Suidring, Royal Glory and Tirrenia peach types using meta analysis. In the study, the impact force (Fi and the contact time (tc were detected and the impulse values (I that are expressed as independent variable in the area under the curve were calculated in the measurements performed using the technique of a low-mass lateral impactor multiplicated with peach. Using the theory of elasticity, the independent variables were determined as Fmax (maximum impact force, contact time (tmax, Fmax/tmax, 1/tmax, 1/tmax2,5, Fmax/tmax 1.25 and Fmax2.5 parameters. The correlation coefficient values showing the relationship between these parameters and the dependent variable Magness-Taylor force (MT were calculated and were combined with meta-analysis by using the Hunter-Schmid and Fisher’s Z methods. The Cohen’s classification criterion was used in evaluating the resulting mean effect size (combined correlation value and in determining its direction. As a result of the meta-analysis, the mean effect size according to Hunter-Schmid method was found 0.436 (0.371-0.497 positively directed in 95% confidence interval, while it was found 0.468 (0.390-0.545 according to Fisher’s Z method. The effect sizes in both methods were determined “mid-level” according to the Cohen’s classification. When the significance level of the studies was analyzed with the Z test, all of the ones that taken into the meta analysis has been found statistically significant. As a result of the meta analysis in this study evaluating the relationship of peach types with the fruit hardness, the mean effect size has been found to reach “strong level”. Consequently, “maximum shock acceleration” was found to be a more effective factor comparing to the other factors in determining the the fruit hardness according to the results of meta analysis applied in both methods.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  17. Social and human capital as determining factors of entrepreneurship in the Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Neira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship, innovation and creativity are considered key factors of the economic growth because they usually bring on behaviors aligned with the market development, productivity and social cohesion. This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the entrepreneurial role, and provide a better understanding of this behavior from a dynamic perspective, in order to support policies for encouraging entrepreneurship. To do this we used the data presented in the report of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, in its 2011 edition, which is based on an empirical analysis of a sample of 27,000 Spanish citizens.The results confirm that the perception of market opportunities, and having the skills and knowledge required to create new companies are explanatory factors of the entrepreneurial activity. However, it is also possible to assert that the increase of the entrepreneurial activity rate motivated by the need of self-employment of the entrepreneur influences the increase of fear of failure, and this could generate a dynamic harmful to the business creation in the medium term.Our model aims to support the decisions of public institutions about the incentive measures for entrepreneurs. This work contributes to the study of entrepreneurship and business creation from a multidisciplinary perspective, incorporating psychological, sociological and economic approaches from a dynamic perspective. It also allows an in-depth analysis of factors undetected with other methodologies.We examined the determining factors of entrepreneurship by estimating a logit model based on entrepreneur’s social capital (networking and the geographical location (region of the business activity. This analysis has shown significant differences of these factors according to the stage of the entrepreneurial process. These results have let discuss the implications for the entrepreneurial dynamic, in order to support new policies in favor of entrepreneurship.

  18. Use of multiple methods to determine factors affecting quality of care of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunti, K

    1999-10-01

    The process of care of patients with diabetes is complex; however, GPs are playing a greater role in its management. Despite the research evidence, the quality of care of patients with diabetes is variable. In order to improve care, information is required on the obstacles faced by practices in improving care. Qualitative and quantitative methods can be used for formation of hypotheses and the development of survey procedures. However, to date few examples exist in general practice research on the use of multiple methods using both quantitative and qualitative techniques for hypothesis generation. We aimed to determine information on all factors that may be associated with delivery of care to patients with diabetes. Factors for consideration on delivery of diabetes care were generated by multiple qualitative methods including brainstorming with health professionals and patients, a focus group and interviews with key informants which included GPs and practice nurses. Audit data showing variations in care of patients with diabetes were used to stimulate the brainstorming session. A systematic literature search focusing on quality of care of patients with diabetes in primary care was also conducted. Fifty-four potential factors were identified by multiple methods. Twenty (37.0%) were practice-related factors, 14 (25.9%) were patient-related factors and 20 (37.0%) were organizational factors. A combination of brainstorming and the literature review identified 51 (94.4%) factors. Patients did not identify factors in addition to those identified by other methods. The complexity of delivery of care to patients with diabetes is reflected in the large number of potential factors identified in this study. This study shows the feasibility of using multiple methods for hypothesis generation. Each evaluation method provided unique data which could not otherwise be easily obtained. This study highlights a way of combining various traditional methods in an attempt to overcome the

  19. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  20. Factors that determine self-reported immunosuppressant adherence in kidney transplant recipients: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Chueh; Yang, Ya-Chen; Huang, Hsiu-Li; Chiang, Yang-Jen; Tsai, Yu-Hsia

    2017-01-01

    To determine the factors related to immunosuppressant therapy adherence in kidney transplant recipients in Taiwan. Adherence to immunosuppressant treatment is critical after kidney transplantation. Thus, the factors associated with self-reported medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients warrant investigation. The study used a cross-sectional and correlation design. A convenience sample of 145 kidney transplant recipients was included. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data during 2012-2013. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the factors related to immunosuppressant therapy adherence. Over half of the participants were female (54·5%), mean age was 45·5 years, and mean year after transplant was 7·4. The mean score for medication adherence was 29·73 (possible score range 7-35). The results of the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that gender (male), low income with a high school or college education, years after transplantation and concerns about medication taking were negatively associated with adherence. Medication self-efficacy was positively associated with adherence. Therapy-related factors, partnerships with healthcare professionals and having private healthcare insurance did not significantly relate to immunosuppressant therapy adherence. Kidney transplant recipients demonstrated a high level of adherence. Strategies to enhance patients' self-efficacy and alleviate concerns about medication may promote medication adherence. Male patients, those with a lower income and those with a higher education level, should be a focus of efforts to maintain adherence to the medication regimen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Determination of the influence factors of the radiopharmaceutical vials dimensions used for activimeter calibration at IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, E.W. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents the establishment of a quality control program and correction factors for the geometry of the vials used for distribution of radiopharmaceutical and activimeters calibration. The radiopharmaceutical produced by IPEN {sup 67}Ga, {sup 131}I, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc had been tested using two different vials. Results show a maximum variation of 22% for {sup 201}Tl, and the minimum variation was 2.98% for {sup 131}I. The correction factors must be incorporated in the routine calibration of the activimeters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishement of quality control program for reference activimeters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of correction factors for the geometry of vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiopharmaceuticals tested for different vials were {sup 67}Ga, {sup 131}I, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum variation was 22% for {sup 201}Tl and the minimum variation was 2.98% for {sup 131}I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correction factors must be incorporated in the calibration of the activimeters.

  2. Determination of corrective factors for an ultrasonic flow measuring method in pipes accounting for perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etter, S.

    1982-01-01

    By current ultrasonic flow measuring equipment (UFME) the mean velocity is measured for one or two measuring paths. This mean velocity is not equal to the velocity averaged over the flow cross-section, by means of which the flow rate is calculated. This difference will be found already for axially symmetrical, fully developed velocity profiles and, to a larger extent, for disturbed profiles varying in flow direction and for nonsteady flow. Corrective factors are defined for steady and nonsteady flows. These factors can be derived from the flow profiles within the UFME. By mathematical simulation of the entrainment effect the influence of cross and swirl flows on various ultrasonic measuring methods is studied. The applied UFME with crossed measuring paths is shown to be largely independent of cross and swirl flows. For evaluation in a computer of velocity network measurements in circular cross-sections the equations for interpolation and integration are derived. Results of the mathematical method are the isotach profile, the flow rate and, for fully developed flow, directly the corrective factor. In the experimental part corrective factors are determined in nonsteady flow in a measuring plane before and in form measuring planes behind a perturbation. (orig./RW) [de

  3. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  4. The migratory factor as a determinant of health: A transcultural occupational health nursing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Escaño, Juan; de Diego-Cordero, Rocío; Badanta-Romero, Bárbara; Barrientos-Trigo, Sergio

    We present a clinical case in occupational health nursing where the worker was showing symptoms of stress caused by a change of residence and related factors at work. A nursing assessment was made following Leininger's theory of Care Diversity and Universality and Sunrise Model, considered suitable for the case. After the assessment, it was determined that the factors associated with the migratory event triggered the reported symptoms, and a care plan was drawn up with monthly telephone contact follow-up and reassessment at 3months. A holistic approach containing social and cultural elements, together with the use of standardised nurse language are very useful in cases such as the one presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  6. Determination of the self-attenuation correction factor for environmental samples analysis in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete; Knupp, Eliana A.N.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2015-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry technique has been used in order to obtain the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples of different origins, compositions and densities. These samples characteristics may influence the calibration condition by the self-attenuation effect. The sample density has been considered the most important factor. For reliable results, it is necessary to determine self-attenuation correction factor which has been subject of great interest due to its effect on activity concentration. In this context, the aim of this work is to show the calibration process considering the correction by self-attenuation in the evaluation of the concentration of each radionuclide to a gamma HPGEe detector spectrometry system. (author)

  7. DETERMINING THE FACTORS AFFECTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem BAHADIR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the factors affecting an individual’s ‘entrepreneurial intention’, which is a significant indicator of whether the individual will start a new enterprise, are examined within the Planned Behavior Theory. The main purpose of the research is to state what the determinants of entrepreneurial intention are. The study aims to contribute to answering the question, ‘Who can be the potential entrepreneurs in Turkey’ by presenting the factors having an impact on entrepreneurial intention on a regional basis through Zonguldak example. The roles of the research's independent variables (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, entrepreneurial self efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions were tested on 229 trainees participating voluntarily in Applied Entrepreneurship Trainings organized by KOSGEB in Zonguldak and its towns. The results of the research show that attitudes towards entrepreneurial behaviour, perceived entrepreneurial control, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and subjective norms are influential on the entrepreneurial intention of the individual.

  8. Biophysical and biological factors determining the ability to achieve long-term cryobiological preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1997-12-01

    The BESTCapsule will maintain appropriate biological specimens for decades or centuries at cryogenic temperatures in the living state. Maintenance at temperatures below {approximately} {minus}140 C is not a problem. No ordinary chemical reactions in aqueous solutions can occur. The only source of damage will be the slow accumulation of physical damage to DNA from background ionizing radiation. But this source of damage should not become serious in less than a millennium. Rather, the main problem in cryopreservation is to devise procedures for cooling the biological specimens to {minus}196 C and returning them to normal temperatures without inflicting lethal injury. Regardless of the cell type, there are certain encompassing biophysical factors and constraints that determine whether they will survive or die during freezing and thawing. Superimposed on these may be special biological factors that apply to specific cell types. This paper will emphasize the former and give illustrative examples of the latter.

  9. Relevance of genetically determined host factors to the prognosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, P; Muñiz-Diaz, E; Baraldès, M A; Arilla, M; Barquet, N; Pericas, R; Juárez, C; Madoz, P; Vázquez, G

    2004-08-01

    To assess the relevance of genetically determined host factors for the prognosis of meningococcal disease, Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA), the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter region, and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms were studied in 145 patients with meningococcal disease and in 290 healthy controls matched by sex. Distribution of FcgammaRIIA, TNF-alpha, and PAI-1 alleles was not significantly different between patients and controls. Patients with the FcgammaRIIA-R/R 131 allotype scored > or =1 point in the Barcelona prognostic system more frequently than patients with other allotypes (odds ratio, 18.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-49.0, PFc gamma receptor IIA polymorphism was associated with markers of disease severity, but TNF-alpha and PAI-1 polymorphisms were not.

  10. The Determinants Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption in Cattle Farming: Evidences from Pati, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatmiko Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though biogas technology has been introduced in Indonesia since 1990’s and having the potential, the rate of biogas adoption in Indonesia runs slowly. It is important to understand factors encouraging or discouraging potential adopters to build biogas plant. The development of livestock sector especially cattle farming in Indonesia can be seen as the opportunity to increase the rate of biogas adoption. This study investigated the factors affecting households of cattle farmer to adopt or not to adopt biogas technology. A cross-sectional research survey was carried out by using structured questionnaires as the primary tool to collect data from both biogas adopters and non biogas adopters in Pati regency, Indonesia. Socioeconomic characteristic of potential biogas adopters plays an important role to ensure the adoption of biogas technology sustainable. Socioeconomic characteristic regarding having high social status determines individual to adopt biogas relatively earlier than other members of a social system. Having high income and education enables traditional farmers to finance biogas plant by their own money or access aid from the government or other agencies. Among other attributes of innovation, relative advantage of installing biogas plant is the most determinant attribute to speed the rate of biogas adoption. Having biogas plant was perceived as better option and generated more benefits compared to previous technology or method. Article History: Received May 17th 2017; Received in revised form August 5th  2017; Accepted Sept 6th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Wahyudi, J. (2017 The Determinant Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption in Cattle Farming: Evidences from Pati, Indonesia, 6(3, 235-240. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.235-240

  11. Determining Disturbing Factors of Sleep Quality among Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Kashan Hospitals, Iran 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kafaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep is an effective factor in the recovery processes. Many variables affect on the sleep quality of hospitalized elderly people. This study was conducted to determine the factors disturbing sleep quality among hospitalized older adult patients in Kashan hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 390 elderly hospitalized patients in Kashan hospitals. The study data was gathered via Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI Questionnaire. A global total score of 5 or greater indicated a “poor" quality of sleep. The data were analyzed using Chi square, t- test and binary logistic regression at multivariate model. Results: The total quality of sleep was poor in hospitalized elderly patients (7/2±4/8. Sex, marital status, level of education, type of ward, previous hospitalization experience, use of hypnotics at home and hospital, and previous sleep disorders were statistically associated with quality of sleep; however, there was not significant relationship between quality of sleep and age, length of hospitalization, and daytime napping. In the final regression model, marital status (OR=4.6, level of education (OR=1.9, length of hospitalization (OR=1.1, Previous hospitalization experience (OR=0.4, use of hypnotics in hospital (OR=0.27 and previous sleep disorder (OR=0.01 were the most important determinants of sleep quality. Conclusion: Quality of sleep was poor in hospitalized elderly due to a wide range of sleep disturbing factors. The most important factors involved marital status, level of education, previous hospitalization experience, previous sleep disorder and use of hypnotics in hospital.

  12. Combustion characteristics and optimal factors determination with Taguchi method for diesel engines port-injecting hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Horng-Wen; Wu, Zhan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the L 9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method to find out the best hydrogen injection timing, hydrogen-energy-share ratio, and the percentage of exhaust gas circulation (EGR) in a single DI diesel engine. The injection timing is controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) and the quantity of hydrogen is controlled by hydrogen flow controller. For various engine loads, the authors determine the optimal operating factors for low BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption), NO X , and smoke. Moreover, net heat-release rate involving variable specific heat ratio is computed from the experimental in-cylinder pressure. In-cylinder pressure, net heat-release rate, A/F ratios, COV (coefficient of variations) of IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure), NO X , and smoke using the optimum condition factors are compared with those by original baseline diesel engine. The predictions made using Taguchi's parameter design technique agreed with the confirmation results on 95% confidence interval. At 45% and 60% loads the optimum factor combination compared with the original baseline diesel engine reduces 14.52% for BSFC, 60.5% for NO X and for 42.28% smoke and improves combustion performance such as peak in-cylinder pressure and net heat-release rate. Adding hydrogen and EGR would not generate unstable combustion due to lower COV of IMEP. -- Highlights: ► We use hydrogen injector controlled by ECU and cooled EGR system in a diesel engine. ► Optimal factors by Taguchi method are determined for low BSFC, NO X and smoke. ► The COV of IMEP is lower than 10% so it will not cause the unstable combustion. ► We improve A/F ratio, in-cylinder pressure, and heat-release at optimized engine. ► Decrease is 14.5% for BSFC, 60.5% for NO X , and 42.28% for smoke at optimized engine.

  13. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  14. Study of factors affecting a combustion method for determining carbon in lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barringer, R.E.; Thornton, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    An investigation has been made of the factors affecting a combustion method for the determination of low levels (300 to 15,000 micrograms/gram) of carbon in highly reactive lithium hydride. Optimization of the procedure with available equipment yielded recoveries of 90 percent, with a limit of error (0.95) of +-39 percent relative for aliquants containing 35 to 55 micrograms of carbon (500 to 800 micrograms of carbon per gram of lithium hydride sample). Sample preparation, thermal decomposition of the hydride, final ignition of the carbon, and carbon-measurement steps were studied, and a detailed procedure was developed. (auth)

  15. DetOx: a program for determining anomalous scattering factors of mixed-oxidation-state species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Karim J; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Nowell, Harriott; Thompson, Amber L; Allan, David R; Cooper, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Overlapping absorption edges will occur when an element is present in multiple oxidation states within a material. DetOx is a program for partitioning overlapping X-ray absorption spectra into contributions from individual atomic species and computing the dependence of the anomalous scattering factors on X-ray energy. It is demonstrated how these results can be used in combination with X-ray diffraction data to determine the oxidation state of ions at specific sites in a mixed-valance material, GaCl(2).

  16. An empirical study to determine the critical success factors of export industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Babakhani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exporting goods and services play an important role on economy of developing countries. There are many countries in the world whose economy is solely based on exporting raw materials such as oil and gas. Many believe that countries cannot develop their economy as long as they rely on exporting one single group of raw materials. Therefore, there is a need to help other sectors of industries build good infrastructure for exporting diversified products. In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis to determine the critical success factors on exporting different goods. The results are analyzed using some statistical non-parametric methods and some useful guidelines are also suggested.

  17. Immunochemical determination of cellular content of translation release factor RF4 in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1999-01-01

    of the stop codons, and RF3 is known to accelerate the overall termination process. Release factor RF4 is a protein involved in the release of the mRNA and tRNA from the ribosomal complex. Furthermore, RF4 is involved in the proofreading in the elongation step of protein biosynthesis. The cellular contents...... of RF1, RF2, and RF3 were determined earlier. Here we report the cellular content of RF4 in Escherichia coli to be approximately 16,500 molecules per cell. The cells were grown in a rich medium and harvested in the beginning of the exponential growth phase. The quantifications were performed by using...

  18. Determination of accelerated factors in gradient descent iterations based on Taylor's series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the efficiency of accelerated gradient descent methods regarding the way of determination of accelerated factor is considered. Due to the previous researches we assert that the use of Taylor's series of posed gradient descent iteration in calculation of accelerated parameter gives better final results than some other choices. We give a comparative analysis of efficiency of several methods with different approaches in obtaining accelerated parameter. According to the achieved results of numerical experiments we make a conclusion about the one of the most optimal way in defining accelerated parameter in accelerated gradient descent schemes.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE PREVALENCE AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS OF CONSANGUINOUS MARRIAGES AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the prevalence and the affecting factors of consanguinous marriage which is common especially in around of our country and leads to very important health problems, a questionnaire was applied to all 402 married soldiers among 4300 soldiers of Etimesgut Armor School and Training Division Command. At the end of the study, it has been found that the overall prevalence of consanguinous marriage was 18.7%. Contrary to general expectations, ?love and marriage by loving? other than ?economical concerns? was determined as the basic reason of the consanguinous marriage. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(3.000: 120-128

  20. Determination of transmission factors for beta radiation at different experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-06-01

    During the transmission factors determination of beta radiation in air, using an ionization chamber with variable volume (extrapolation chamber), connected to a digital electrometer, and the secondary standard system constituted by the 90 Sr + 90 Y, 204 Tl and 147 Pm sources, the positioning of absorber materials equivalent to tissue, in relation to the detector and to the radiation sources is fundamental. In this work the absorbers were positioned in front of the sources, as well in front of the chamber, in different experiments, and the data were compared. (author) [pt

  1. Analytic of elements for the determination of soil->plant transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liese, T.

    1985-02-01

    This article describes a part of the conventional analytical work, which was done to determine soil to plant transfer factors. The analytical methods, the experiments to find out the best way of sample digestion and the resulting analytical procedures are described. Analytical methods are graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In case of ICP-AES the necessity of right background correction and correction of the spectral interferences is shown. The reliability of the analytical procedure is demonstrated by measuring different kinds of standard reference materials and by comparison of AAS and AES. (orig./HP) [de

  2. The Determinants Factors of the Capital Cost � Evidence from 5 EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Sterea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the importance and complexity of the company�s capital and its components and the extent to which its cost is influenced by several factors. In order to achieve this goal we have made a study on a sample of 15 companies from Romania and other 4 EU countries: Italy, Spain, France and Finland. All are SME�s and micro-enterprises that acting in the sector of "Growing of spices, aromatic, drug and pharmaceutical crops". For the study of capital cost determinants were selected five variables: return on equity, return on assets, general indebtedness, taxation and firm�s size in order to determine their influence on the cost of capital.

  3. Determination of K-factors for arbitrarily shaped flaws at pressure vessel nozzle corners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelastic and finite element studies are being conducted to determine Mode I stress intensity factor distributions along arbitrarily shaped flaw fronts at pressure vessel nozzle corners. Comparisons of results from NOZ-FLAW, BIGIF, and the photoelastic studies showed that (1) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW and the photoelastically determined K 1 's for the deep flaw in an ITV model, (2) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW BIGIF for shallow and moderately deep flaws in a BWR model, and (3) less satisfactory agreement was obtained between NOZ- FLAW and the photoelastic results for the BWR models, particularly for moderately deep to deep flaws. Attempts are presently being made at understanding and explaining the discrepancies between the two

  4. [Analysis of population survey for determining the factors associated with the control diabetes mellitus in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romieu, Alfonso Claudio; Elnecavé-Olaiz, Alejandro; Huerta-Uribe, Nidia; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Determine the influence of nutritional counseling, exercise, access to social healthcare and drugs, and the quality of medical care on the control of diabetics. The information and blood samples were obtained in 2005. Glycemic control was defined as good if HbA1c was ≤7.0%, poor from 7.01%-9.50% and very poor if HbA1c >9.5%. Binary logistic regression models were used to determine the association of these factors with HbA1c>9.5%. Thirty percent of the patients with a medical diagnosis of diabetes had adequate metabolic control. Nutritional guidance was associated with an increase in the degree of control. A majority of diabetics have poor or very poor glycemic control. Strengthening the quality of and access to medical care for these patients is urgently needed.

  5. Determinants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in umbilical cord and maternal serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöck, A; Weber, S K; Ferrari, N; Fietz, C; Graf, C; Fimmers, R; Gembruch, U; Merz, W M

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in brain development; additionally, it is involved in various aspects of cerebral function, including neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Involvement of BDNF in parturition has not been investigated. The aim of our study was to analyze determinants of umbilical cord BDNF (UC-BDNF) concentrations of healthy, term newborns and their respective mothers. This cross-sectional prospective study was performed at a tertiary referral center. Maternal venous blood samples were taken on admission to labor ward; newborn venous blood samples were drawn from the umbilical cord (UC), before delivery of the placenta. Analysis was performed with a commercially available immunoassay. Univariate analyses and stepwise multivariate regression models were applied. 120 patients were recruited. UC-BDNF levels were lower than maternal serum concentrations (median 641 ng/mL, IQR 506 vs. median 780 ng/mL, IQR 602). Correlation between UC- and maternal BDNF was low (R=0.251, p=0.01). In univariate analysis, mode of delivery (MoD), gestational age (GA), body mass index at delivery, and gestational diabetes were determinants of UC-BDNF (MoD and smoking for maternal BDNF, respectively). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed a model with MoD and GA as determinants for UC-BDNF (MoD for maternal BDNF). MoD and GA at delivery are determinants of circulating BDNF in the mother and newborn. We hypothesize that BDNF, like other neuroendocrine factors, is involved in the neuroendocrine cascade of delivery. Timing and mode of delivery may exert BDNF-induced effects on the cerebral function of newborns and their mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  7. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS

  8. Rapid fold and structure determination of the archaeal translation elongation factor 1β from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Ekiel, Irena; Beglova, Natalia; Yee, Adelinda; Dharamsi, Akil; Engel, Asaph; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Nong, Andrew; Gehring, Kalle

    2000-01-01

    The tertiary fold of the elongation factor, aEF-1β, from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was determined in a high-throughput fashion using a minimal set of NMR experiments. NMR secondary structure prediction, deuterium exchange experiments and the analysis of chemical shift perturbations were combined to identify the protein fold as an alpha-beta sandwich typical of many RNA binding proteins including EF-G. Following resolution of the tertiary fold, a high resolution structure of aEF-1β was determined using heteronuclear and homonuclear NMR experiments and a semi-automated NOESY assignment strategy. Analysis of the aEF-1β structure revealed close similarity to its human analogue, eEF-1β. In agreement with studies on EF-Ts and human EF-1β, a functional mechanism for nucleotide exchange is proposed wherein Phe46 on an exposed loop acts as a lever to eject GDP from the associated elongation factor G-protein, aEF-1α. aEF-1β was also found to bind calcium in the groove between helix α2 and strand β4. This novel feature was not observed previously and may serve a structural function related to protein stability or may play a functional role in archaeal protein translation

  9. Rapid fold and structure determination of the archaeal translation elongation factor 1{beta} from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, Guennadi [McGill University, Department of Biochemistry (Canada); Ekiel, Irena [National Research Council of Canada, Biomolecular NMR Group, Sector of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research Institute (Canada); Beglova, Natalia [McGill University, Department of Biochemistry (Canada); Yee, Adelinda; Dharamsi, Akil; Engel, Asaph [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Siddiqui, Nadeem; Nong, Andrew; Gehring, Kalle [McGill University, Department of Biochemistry (Canada)

    2000-07-15

    The tertiary fold of the elongation factor, aEF-1{beta}, from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was determined in a high-throughput fashion using a minimal set of NMR experiments. NMR secondary structure prediction, deuterium exchange experiments and the analysis of chemical shift perturbations were combined to identify the protein fold as an alpha-beta sandwich typical of many RNA binding proteins including EF-G. Following resolution of the tertiary fold, a high resolution structure of aEF-1{beta} was determined using heteronuclear and homonuclear NMR experiments and a semi-automated NOESY assignment strategy. Analysis of the aEF-1{beta} structure revealed close similarity to its human analogue, eEF-1{beta}. In agreement with studies on EF-Ts and human EF-1{beta}, a functional mechanism for nucleotide exchange is proposed wherein Phe46 on an exposed loop acts as a lever to eject GDP from the associated elongation factor G-protein, aEF-1{alpha}. aEF-1{beta} was also found to bind calcium in the groove between helix {alpha}2 and strand {beta}4. This novel feature was not observed previously and may serve a structural function related to protein stability or may play a functional role in archaeal protein translation.

  10. Determining Exposure Factors of Anti-Fogging, Dye, Disinfectant, Repellent, and Preservative Products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Taksoo; Yoon, Hyojung; Jo, Areum; Lee, Byeongwoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Pilje; Seo, Jungkwan

    2018-01-30

    Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1-24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.

  11. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION AS FACTORS DETERMINING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRITOURISM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Roman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the concept of entrepreneurship and innovation as factors determining the competitiveness of agritourism enterprises. The paper quoted information from the literature review. Innovation has an important infl uence on the development of the tourism sector. Innovation in the fi eld of tourism has become, in recent years, the subject of increasing interest, of both researchers and practitioners in the tourism economy. This is due to a constant search of new trends in tourism, both by companies specializing in tourism and society. The introduction of innovation in tourism, however, is a complex and multi-faceted process, because it is not only the modifi cation of the product, but also new types of tourism activities, or adaptation to the conditions for sustainable development. It may be noticed that currently discoveries in the fi eld of innovation in tourism are made. Very rarely this is because innovation is the result of systematic, often very expensive research, which requires a combination of the entire team representing the tourism industry professionals. The main aim of innovation in tourism businesses is striving to achieve a competitive advantage in the market. Mutual co-operation determines improvement of the competitiveness of tourism. It is said that the co-operation enables the development of individual entities. It establishes the result of access to specialized producing factors.

  12. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required

  13. Code conforming determination of cumulative usage factors for general elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Goetz, Andreas; Hilpert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of fatigue analyses of several relevant nuclear and conventional design codes (ASME, KTA, EN, AD) for power plant components differentiate between an elastic, simplified elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic fatigue check. As a rule, operational load levels will exclude the purely elastic fatigue check. The application of the code procedure of the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue check is common practice. Nevertheless, resulting cumulative usage factors may be overly conservative mainly due to high code based plastification penalty factors Ke. As a consequence, the more complex and still code conforming general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis methodology based on non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) is applied for fatigue design as an alternative. The requirements of the FEA and the material law to be applied have to be clarified in a first step. Current design codes only give rough guidelines on these relevant items. While the procedure for the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analysis and the associated code passages are based on stress related cycle counting and the determination of pseudo elastic equivalent stress ranges, an adaptation to elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges is required for the elastic-plastic fatigue check. The associated requirements are explained in detail in the paper. If the established and implemented evaluation mechanism (cycle counting according to the peak and valley respectively the rainflow method, calculation of stress ranges from arbitrary load-time histories and determination of cumulative usage factors based on all load events) is to be retained, a conversion of elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges into pseudo elastic stress ranges is required. The algorithm to be applied is described in the paper. It has to be implemented in the sense of an extended post processing operation of FEA e.g. by APDL scripts in ANSYS registered . Variations of principal stress (strain) directions during the loading

  14. Factors determining the average body size of geographically separated Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-03-01

    Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, a significant negative correlation between female body size and the altitude of habitats was found by comparing body size in populations from different regions. Individuals from environments with highly varying abiotic parameters, e.g. temporary reservoirs, had a larger body size than individuals from permanent water bodies. The changes in average body mass in populations were at 11.4 times, whereas, those in individual metabolic activities were at 6.2 times. Moreover, two size groups of A. salinus in the Crimean and the Siberian lakes were observed. The ratio of female length to male length fluctuated between 1.02 and 1.30. The average size of A. salinus in populations and its variations were determined by both genetic and environmental factors. However, the parities of these factors were unequal in either spatial or temporal scales.

  15. Peak power factor determination of the RA-6 Argentinean Research Reactor using measurement-calculations correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F. A.; Blaumann, H.; Lopasso, E.; Longhino, J

    2009-01-01

    The maximum power of a reactor is limited by the power peaking factor. During the design stage it is calculated with neutronic calculation codes. This is not enough for ensuring its value due to modelling approximations. For the RA-6s low enrichment new core a calculus-measurement correlation method have been applied. Position and magnitude of the maximum power density estimated by calculus are used by this method. For this work 249 cooper-gold alloy (1.55% Au) wires have been distributed along the core using 19 aluminium blades. Their positions have been selected using information given by a 5 groups PUMA reactor model. Wire s activity have been measured with a HPGe detector. Gold activity have been used only for verifying the calculated core spectrum. The measured power peaking factor was 2.48±0.3 (3σ), 15% above the calculated value. About 97% of measured points had less than 20% calculation-measurement difference and about 80% had less than 10%. The power peaking factor determined by this method consolidates also the calculations models. [es

  16. Determination of risk factors for child fall based on the Calgary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Barbosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine risk factors for falls in children based on the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM. Method: A qualitative approach, in which we interviewed six relatives of children who were admitted to an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceara due to fall in the period from August to September, 2005. According to the CFAM we did the genogram and eco-map of two families (1 and (2. Results: By the genogram and eco-map of the families, we observed that (1 is a single parent family with six children, Roman Catholic, earns one minimum wage and attends both school and Family Health Basic Unit (UBSF. (2 is a nuclear family, with two children, Roman Catholic, earns three or more minimum wages and attends school, work and UBSF. Conclusion: The Calgary Family Assessment Model enabled to know the family structures of the children who had suffered falls and helped in defining the risk factors that exist within families and social environments in which these children attend. Family income, number of children, the presence or absence of fathers, schooling and lack of spaces for education support represent risk factors for these accidents.

  17. Experimental determination of pcav factors for cylindrical ionisation chambers in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Aa.; Mattsson, O.

    2000-01-01

    The electron beam method recommended for calibrating plane parallel ionisation chambers involves cavity correction factors for cylindrical chambers. The cavity correction factors in the IAEA TRS-381 Code of Practice are based on measurements at R 100 in a PMMA phantom using PMMA cylindrical chambers having different cavity radii. In the present work the recommended data were confirmed for electron beams delivered by modern medical accelerators by using the very same phantom and ionisation chambers that were used in the original work. From another series of measurements, using four specially designed wall-less chambers in a graphite phantom, the linear relation between p cav and the chamber radius that is the basis for the experimental method, was verified. The method was also used to determine the cavity correction factors for a set of Farmer-like graphite chambers placed in water. Compared to the TRS-381 Code of Practice a smaller correction was found for the cavity perturbation for the graphite chambers used in water. (author)

  18. Simplified probabilistic approach to determine safety factors in deterministic flaw acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Ardillon, E.

    1997-01-01

    The flaw acceptance rules in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the safe operating of plants. The interest of having a reliable method of evaluating the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch a study to link safety factors with requested reliability. A simplified analytical probabilistic approach is developed to analyse the failure risk in Fracture Mechanics. Assuming lognormal distributions of the main random variables, it is possible considering a simple Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics model, to determine the failure probability as a function of mean values and logarithmic standard deviations. The 'design' failure point can be analytically calculated. Partial safety factors on the main variables (stress, crack size, material toughness) are obtained in relation with reliability target values. The approach is generalized to elastic plastic Fracture Mechanics (piping) by fitting J as a power law function of stress, crack size and yield strength. The simplified approach is validated by detailed probabilistic computations with PROBAN computer program. Assuming reasonable coefficients of variations (logarithmic standard deviations), the method helps to calibrate safety factors for different components taking into account reliability target values in normal, emergency and faulted conditions. Statistical data for the mechanical properties of the main basic materials complement the study. The work involves laboratory results and manufacture data. The results of this study are discussed within a working group of the French in service inspection code RSE-M. (authors)

  19. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction factors of the sensor-measured air velocity to the average air velocity at cross sections are still lacking. A comprehensive airflow measurement was made at the Safety Research Coal Mine, Bruceton, PA, using three measuring methods including single-point reading, moving traverse, and fixed-point traverse. The air velocity distribution at each measuring station was analyzed using an air velocity contour map generated with Surfer ® . The correction factors at each measuring station for both the centerline and the sensor location were calculated and are discussed.

  20. An Empirical Investigation of Factors Determining the Consumers’ Choice of Mobile Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of government policies on globalization and liberalization, the consumers have become more critical about the selection of service providers. Consumers are now very much aware of the alternatives available in relation to services and the provider organizations. Expectations of consumers are rising and the provider organizations should be aware of these expectations. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors responsible for helping the consumers to choose mobile telecommunication service provider among the competitors in the market. The primary statistical techniques used in the study are Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling. The data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire consisting of different questions related to demographics, service quality, product quality and availability, promotion and price in order to study perceptions of consumers. In order to examine these above mentioned variables and to derive meaningful conclusions, use of structural equation modelling was imperative. AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure version 16.0 was employed in the research to test the underlying hypotheses of the study. Results showed that the paths are significantly related to the casual processes. Price was found to be the most important factor followed by product quality and availability, service quality, and promotion in determining perceptions of customers towards mobile telecommunication services. It is expected that the findings of the study may provide meaningful insights to the service providers and contribute in improving their strategies and marketing operations.

  1. Factors determining when to start levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone treatment in Spanish patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, P; Hernández, B; Ricart, J

    2014-04-01

    Several therapeutic options are available for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).There is no reliable information about which factors are involved in the choice of treatment. To identify factors contributing to the decision to start treatment with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE) in patients with PD. We completed a descriptive cross-sectional retrospective multicentre study of patients with idiopathic PD receiving LCE. Clinical data were collected with special attention to factors that could potentially determine when to initiate treatment with LCE in normal clinical practice. We studied 1050 patients with a mean age of 71.3±8.7 years (58.2% men). Average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.8±12.9 months, with a latency time of 74.5±53.6 months before starting LCE treatment. The most common initial symptoms were tremor (70.6%), reduced dexterity (43.2%) and slowness of movement (41.5%). At the start of LCE treatment, most patients were in Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 (57.5%), with an average rating of 73.4% on the Schwab & England scale. Eight hundred twenty two patients (78.3%) received treatment with other drugs before starting LCE (mean time between starting any PD treatment and starting LCE was 40.5±47.2 months). Clinical factors with a moderate, marked, or crucial effect on the decision to start LCE treatment were bradykinesia (84.7%), daytime rigidity (72.2%), general decline (72.2%), difficulty walking (66.4%), tremor (62.7%), nocturnal rigidity (56.1%), and postural instability (53%). Difficulty performing activities of daily living was the only psychosocial factor identified as having an influence on the decision (84.3%). The decision to start patients with idiopathic PD on LCE treatment is mainly determined by motor deficits and disabilities associated with disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING THE DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLDOVAN Nicoleta-Claudia

    2013-07-01

    This study is focused on the concept of company competitiveness, on the relevant factors in order to analyze and explain the advantage of competitiveness for a company in regard to another, as well as the dimension and intensity which it uses the sponsors’ capital, the organizational capital, the human capital, the innovational capital and the capital represented by the customers portfolio. Secondly, using the questionnaire method as a research method, the objective of this paper is to provide some empirical evidences designed to assess the factors determining the Romanian company competitiveness on the competitive market. By using an initial dataset of 300 companies, which are part of the 14 fields of activity provided in the activity classification of the national economy, Reviewed NACE 2, we have made their classification on size classes, taking into account as classification criteria the number of employees, the annual net turnover and the value of the total assets held, then testing the opinions of the managers from the selected sample concerning the factors determining the competitiveness of the companies they manage. According to the results, the analysis of the sample structure reflects the control of microenterprises followed by the small and medium sized enterprises. The manner of administration and organization and the quality of the employed human factor are influenced by the company dimension and position held on the market. We consider that the managers of the small size companies, as well as the ones from the provided sample, rely on a preponderant intuitive management, they deal the administered businesses based on the spur of the moment inspiration, make decisions subjectively not starting from objective economic criteria, being concerned only with the management of the current problems. Since they aren’t the beneficiaries of a managerial education, they don’t possess the necessary competences to focus on the elaboration of certain strategies

  3. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  4. Analysis of the Determinant Factors Development of Maintenance Culture in Malaysian Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani S.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.

  5. Determination of the PO2 temperature blood factor from oxygen dissociation curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérigault, R A; Soulard, C D; Teisseire, B P; Laurent, D N

    1983-01-01

    The variation with saturation of the temperature coefficient of PO2 in human blood (delta log PO2/delta T) was determined by continuous recording of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, on the same blood samples. PCO2 and pH were held constant through an ODC run, and PCO2 was reduced at 25 degrees C to the value measured by anaerobic cooling of the same sample. delta log PO2/delta T was calculated from isosaturation points on the 37 and 25 degrees C curves. The temperature coefficient was also computed as an independent check on this method by determination of the effects of temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degrees C) on hemoglobin ligand interaction: fixed acid Bohr effect (delta log PO2/delta pH), carbamino-formation (delta log PO2/delta log PCO2) and hemoglobin oxygen affinity. The values of delta log PO2/delta T ratio obtained from the two different approaches were found to be in good agreement. The coefficient decreased when [H+] concentration was increased. A linear relationship between the Bohr factor and the temperature was found: delta log PO2/delta pH = 0.00267 T-0.520 (r = 0.85; n = 40) At 25 degrees C, the carbamino-formation was one order of magnitude lower than at 37 degrees C. Acid-base state and saturation value appeared to be major determinant factors for the temperature correction coefficient to be applied to blood PO2 values measured at standard (37 degrees C) temperature.

  6. Determination of the Debye-Waller Factor of hydrogen in Palladium and Palladium Silver alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodabakhsh, R.

    1986-01-01

    The mean square amplitude of the vibrating hydrogen in metals can be determined by using coherent elastic neutron scattering experiments, inelastic one-phonon scattering measurements. To determine the D.W.F. Debye-Waller Factor from the coherent elastic scattering measurements, information about the positions of atoms within the unit is required, and vice versa. The main difficulty concerning the determination of the D.W.F. from the inelastic experiment is in elimination of multi-phonon contribution from the measured spectrum. However, the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium has been usually determined by the intensity of the quasi-elastic line. An integration of the measured scattering law S(Q,W) at constant Q, over a certain energy window ΔE, results in the quasi-elastic intensity. To obtain an accurate result, this window has to be chosen large enough to comprise most of the quasi-elastic line, but sufficiently small so that the phonon contributions are small. The MARX spectrometer is ideally constructed for this type of measurement where the window is about +-1 Mev for incident neutron wavelength, =4.115 A. Thus, the quasi-elastic scattering method was considered the best method of determining the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium using the MARX spectrometer. However, if the acoustic part overlaps with the quasi-elastic part, one has to obtain the D.W.F. by fitting the data to a quasi-elastic model. The work to be reported here is the investigation of variations of the D.W.F. of hydrogen in Pd and PdAgsub(0.085) with temperature and extension of the available data to as high a temperature as possible. Therefore the integrated intensity of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering by proton in polycrystallin Pd/H and PdAgsub(0.085)/H was investigated as a function of the scattering vector Q. A quasi-harmonic D.W.F. behaviour was observed at elevated temperatures. The observed Debye-Waller Factor depends strongly on the form of the amplitude weighted frequency

  7. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  8. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  9. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  10. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions—The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jansch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern, typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface. The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  11. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions-The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Cornelia M; Jansch, Mirko; Müller, Rainer H

    2012-12-21

    Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern), typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface). The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  12. Key factors determining success of primary eye care through vision centres in rural India: Patients′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas Kovai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This paper intends to discuss the patients′ perspective on the determinants of primary eye care services from vision centers (VC in rural India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study design and interview method was used on 127 randomly selected patients who accessed the 4 VCs in 2007. Factor analyses and linear regression models were used to predict the associations with patient satisfaction. Results : The three factors derived from factor analyses were: (1-vision technician (VT, (2-location of VC, and (3-access to VC; explaining 60% of the variance in total patients′ satisfaction with VC. The first model (R2 : 0.61; F 1,124=144.36, P <0.001, indicated that respondents who had ′difficulty to travel to the place of VC′ and those who can afford to pay had less satisfaction with VT services. The second model (R2 =0.18; F 1,124=29.5, P <0.001 explained that respondents′ difficulty to identify the building of VC had decreased patients′ satisfaction and the third model (R2 =0.36; F 1,124=45.6, P <0.001 indicated that those who had to travel<5 km to the VC and had 0.38 units of increased satisfaction level with the services of VC. Conclusion : A good VT can enhance patient satisfaction. However, patient expectations are not only confined to the provider but also other factors such as ability to pay and convenient transportation that helps patients reach the location of the VC with ease.

  13. The Evaluation of Anxiety Levels and Determinant Factors in Preoperative Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with negative effects on perioperative period but is usually ignored. The objectives of this study are to identify the preoperative anxiety levels of surgical patients and to evaluate the associated factors affecting this level. Methods: One hundred volunteer patients scheduled for elective surgery were included the study. Data were collected by using “Personal Information Form “and “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I”. Evaluations were based on a significance level of p<0.05. Results: The percentage of female to male patients was 48% and 52%. The mean anxiety levels of both gender were 42.46 ± 8.95 and 42.10 ± 9.49 respectively (p=0.85. There was no difference between females and males in terms of anxiety. Age, occupational condition, marital status, and education level was not found as determinant factors on preoperative anxiety levels. Male individuals of large families were more anxious than the others, but this difference was not significant (p=0.11. Previous surgical experience was not a predictive factor for preoperative anxiety. The anxiety level was significantly high in men using cigarette and alcohol (p<0.01. Fear, apprehension, and stress was highly related with high level of anxiety, but insecurity and inexperience were not a predicting factor. The anxiety levels of cool patients were significantly lower than the others (p<0.01. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a multifactorial issue and must be good handled. The aim must be based on reduction strategies. It must be considered that preoperative information is the best way to decrease preoperative anxiety.

  14. SU-E-T-469: A Practical Approach for the Determination of Small Field Output Factors Using Published Monte Carlo Derived Correction Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, E; Siergiej, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Output factor determination for small fields (less than 20 mm) presents significant challenges due to ion chamber volume averaging and diode over-response. Measured output factor values between detectors are known to have large deviations as field sizes are decreased. No set standard to resolve this difference in measurement exists. We observed differences between measured output factors of up to 14% using two different detectors. Published Monte Carlo derived correction factors were used to address this challenge and decrease the output factor deviation between detectors. Methods: Output factors for Elekta's linac-based stereotactic cone system were measured using the EDGE detector (Sun Nuclear) and the A16 ion chamber (Standard Imaging). Measurements conditions were 100 cm SSD (source to surface distance) and 1.5 cm depth. Output factors were first normalized to a 10.4 cm × 10.4 cm field size using a daisy-chaining technique to minimize the dependence of field size on detector response. An equation expressing the relation between published Monte Carlo correction factors as a function of field size for each detector was derived. The measured output factors were then multiplied by the calculated correction factors. EBT3 gafchromic film dosimetry was used to independently validate the corrected output factors. Results: Without correction, the deviation in output factors between the EDGE and A16 detectors ranged from 1.3 to 14.8%, depending on cone size. After applying the calculated correction factors, this deviation fell to 0 to 3.4%. Output factors determined with film agree within 3.5% of the corrected output factors. Conclusion: We present a practical approach to applying published Monte Carlo derived correction factors to measured small field output factors for the EDGE and A16 detectors. Using this method, we were able to decrease the percent deviation between both detectors from 14.8% to 3.4% agreement

  15. PROPOSAL FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CONSIDERED CONDUCTUALES FACTORS LIKE DETERMINANTS IN THE LABOR BEHAVIOR OF THE PEOPLE IN THE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The labor behavior and the performance of the people within the organizations they have an impact in the results waited for within any organization.This proposal settles down in defining a series of conductuales factors that pronounce as indicating of the conduct of the person and these are related to the defined competitions to occupy a position within the organizations. The intention of this work he is the one to define a set of conductuales factors and as they are related to the competitions, considering the model of self-knowledge proposed by the author (1, in where the challenge is to educate (to form the character.

  16. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  17. Determinant Factors of Physical Performance and Specific Throwing in Handball Players of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Becerra, Manuel; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2018-06-01

    Ortega-Becerra, M, Pareja-Blanco, F, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V, and González-Badillo, JJ. Determinant factors of physical performance and specific throwing in handball players of different ages. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1778-1786, 2018-This study aimed to analyze various fitness qualities in handball players of different ages and to determine the relationships between these parameters and throwing velocity. A total of 44 handball players participated, pooled by age groups: professional (ELITE, n = 13); under-18 (U18, n = 16); under-16 (U16, n = 15). The following tests were completed: 20-m running sprints; countermovement jumps (CMJs); jump squat to determine the load that elicited ∼20 cm jump height (JSLOAD-20 cm); a progressive loading test in full squat and bench press to determine the load that elicited ∼1 m·s (SQ-V1-LOAD and BP-V1-LOAD); and handball throwing (jump throw and 3-step throw). ELITE showed greater performance in almost all sprint distances, CMJ, JSLOAD-20 cm, and bench press strength than U18 and U16. The differences between U18 and U16 were unclear for these variables. ELITE also showed greater (p handball throwing velocity is strongly associated with lower-limb strength, although upper-limb strength, jumping and sprint capacities also play a relevant role in throwing performance, suggesting the need for coaches to include proper strength programs to improve handball players' throwing velocity.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535 Section 404.1535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability...

  19. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.935 Section 416.935 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability...

  20. Quantifying Productivity Gains from Foreign Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fons-Rosen (Christian); S. Kalemli-Ozcan (Sebnem); B.E. Sorensen (Bent); C. Villegas-Sanchez (Carolina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe quantify the causal effect of foreign investment on total factor productivity (TFP) using a new global firm-level database. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the difference in the amount of foreign investment by financial and industrial investors and simultaneously

  1. DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN RATING: FACTOR BASED ORDERED PROBIT MODELS FOR PANEL DATA ANALYSIS MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Teker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compose a new rating methodology and provide credit notches to 23 countries which of 13 are developed and 10 are emerging. There are various literature that explains the determinants of credit ratings. Following the literature, we select 11 variables for our model which of 5 are eliminated by the factor analysis. We use specific dummies to investigate the structural breaks in time and cross section such as pre crises, post crises, BRIC membership, EU membership, OPEC membership, shipbuilder country and platinum reserved country. Then we run an ordered probit model and give credit notches to the countries. We use FITCH ratings as benchmark. Thus, at the end we compare the notches of FITCH with the ones we derive out of our estimated model.

  2. Comparative determination of the rheumatic factor by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L.; Storz, H.; Hein, G.; Schlenvoigt, G. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin)

    1982-01-01

    The rheumatic factor (RF) was determined by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence (IF) test and radioimmunoassay (RIPEGA) in random groups of 56 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 patients with seronegative RA and 39 patients with psoriasis arthropathica. All three methods are of equal value with regard to the number of positive results. Further classification of seronegative patients, i.e. patients with a negative agglutination reaction and the clinical symptoms of RA is possible with the IF method and, above all, by means of RIPEGA. But because of the comprehensive test devices the two methods are only an alternative. Titer differences are attributed to the different indication principles and the immunological heterogeneity of RF. An improvement of the diagnosis of activity was not possible.

  3. Factors that determine the emission of gaseous and particle pollutants for the combustion of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobadilla Edgar; Gomez Elias; Ramirez Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The effect of physical-chemical, kinetic, estequiometric factors and of the mixture conditions on the emissions of five main classes of pollutants produced by the combustion equipments is analyzed. The emissions of monoxide of carbon (CO) are ruled by temperature and the proportion air - fuel. The production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is determined by operation conditions (mainly temperature) and the composition of the fuel. The oxides of sulfur (SOx) are highly influenced by the temperature; in general, the formation of SO2 is faster than the oxidation of SO3. The temperature and the degree of homogenization of the mixture are decisive in the formation of organic volatile compounds. The emission of soot and fine ashes depends basically on the temperature, ratio air - fuel and conditions of homogenization of the mixture

  4. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  5. Comparative determination of the rheumatic factor by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Storz, H.; Hein, G.; Schlenvoigt, G.

    1982-01-01

    The rheumatic factor (RF) was determined by means of agglutination, immunofluorescence (IF) test and radioimmunoassay (RIPEGA) in random groups of 56 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 patients with seronegative RA and 39 patients with psoriasis arthropathica. All three methods are of equal value with regard to the number of positive results. Further classification of seronegative patients, i.e. patients with a negative agglutination reaction and the clinical symptoms of RA is possible with the IF method and, above all, by means of RIPEGA. But because of the comprehensive test devices the two methods are only an alternative. Titer differences are attributed to the different indication principles and the immunological heterogeneity of RF. An improvement of the diagnosis of activity was not possible. (author)

  6. Determinant factors in adopting socio-environmental certifications in coffee farms¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Certified coffee production is an opportunity for the grower to differ his product. However, the number of certified producers is still relatively small. In order to contribute to the dissemination of accreditation among farmers, the objective of this study is to identify the factors that determine its adoption, based on a sample of certified and non-certified growers from the south of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Quantitative data were analyzed through logistic regression. Results showed that five variables were significant in explaining the certification adoption: grower's age; role of coffee in family income; attending courses and events; computer use in the farm and crop yield. These results expand the existing knowledge about coffee certifications and can guide actions to increase the number of certified producers.

  7. Determination of r Factor of Kalbach-Mann Systematics for Energy Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2008-01-01

    Kalbach-Mann systematics is a very useful formula to discrete the double-differential cross sections of emitted particles. However, the energy balance by using this systematics is still a task to be studied. In the form of Legendre polynomial expansion the energy balance has been proved analytically. In terms of this approach, the formula to determine the pre-equilibrium fraction r factor of Kalbach-Mann systematics has been obtained for keeping energy balance strictly. This formula could be straightforwardly applied for describing the double-differential cross sections of all projectile types in the continuum spectrum emissions. It indicates that Legendre expansion coefficient with l = 1 is the key term in the energy balance

  8. Errors in determination of irregularity factor for distributed parameters in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.A.; Zajtsev, M.P.; Il'ina, L.I.; Postnikov, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Two types errors (measurement error and error of regulation of reactor core distributed parameters), offen met during high-power density reactor operation, are analyzed. Consideration is given to errors in determination of irregularity factor for radial power distribution for a hot channel under conditions of its minimization and for the conditions when the regulation of relative power distribution is absent. The first regime is investigated by the method of statistic experiment using the program of neutron-physical calculation optimization taking as an example a large channel water cooled graphite moderated reactor. It is concluded that it is necessary, to take into account the complex interaction of measurement error with the error of parameter profiling over the core both for conditions of continuous manual or automatic parameter regulation (optimization) and for the conditions without regulation namely at a priore equalized distribution. When evaluating the error of distributed parameter control

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine usage and its determinant factors among Iranian infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahlagha; Mokhtarabadi, Sima; Heidari, Fatemeh Ghaedi

    2018-04-04

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the status of utilizing some complementary and alternative medicine techniques in infertile couples. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 250 infertile couples referred to a hospital in Kerman using convenience sampling. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to study the prevalence and user satisfaction of complementary and alternative medicines. Results Results indicated that 49.6% of the infertile couples used at least one of the complementary and alternative medicines during the past year. Most individuals used spiritual techniques (71.8% used praying and 70.2% used Nazr) and medicinal plants (54.8%). Safety is the most important factor affecting the satisfaction of infertile couples with complementary treatments (couples think that such treatments are safe (54.8%)). Discussion Concerning high prevalence of complementary and alternative treatments in infertile couples, incorporating such treatments into the healthcare education and promoting the awareness of infertile individuals seem crucial.

  10. Determination of serum insulinlike growth factor II levels in coronary heart disease patient and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Zhao Junfei; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Li Jiangao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF II) levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods: The serum IGF II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 68 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 30 controls with only mild non-cardiac diseases. Results: Compared with the controls, the serum IGF II level in CHD patients were increased significantly (0.66 ± 0.13 μg/L vs 0.51 ± 0.11 μg/L; t = 5.506, p 0.05). Level in patients dies in hospital (n = 9) were much higher than those in patients recovered (n = 59) (t = 2.402, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF II levels seems to be related to the seriousness of CHD; the actual mechanism remains to be defined

  11. Determining Factors for Economic Efficiency in the Organic Olive Oil Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal Jurado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spain looms large worldwide in organic olive oil production. However, this productive potential contrasts with the low internal consumption of the product. This situation makes Spain a world leader in its export. Companies in this sector have clear deficiencies, which must be corrected to ensure their survival over time. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse the level of efficiency, in economic terms, of organic olive oil producers and to identify the factors explaining the best organizational practices. To do so, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA have been used. The results reveal low levels of economic efficiency and the variables determining said efficiency.

  12. STRATEGIC FACTORS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AS DETERMINANTS OF COMPANY’S FINANCIAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Mierzwa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering  the complexity of problems connected with modern  management of organizations, , the authors attempted  to prove that the  environment of the organization  does significantly determine its development, functioning and financial security.  The study was conducted with the use of  scenario analysis , as well as trend extrapolation. The applied methods enabled investigation of macro – environmental factors of the organization in terms of their strategic effect on its functioning. The examined scenario analyses of the environmental status definitely proved that  in the majority of analyses  the key role is played by the international, economic and political and competitive areas.

  13. The determinants of aggregate energy use in Western Germany: factor substitution, technological change, and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.; Ochsen, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of production-related energy use in West Germany over the period 1976-1994. The approach is to estimate a system of share equations for energy, capital, low-skilled labor, high-skilled labor, and materials in the West German production sector, taking account of biased technological change and increasing trade orientation. While technological change is found to be energy saving, increased openness is energy using, i.e., tends to increase the energy share. Factor substitution, biased technological change, and trade contribute to the year-to-year volatility of energy intensity in the proportion 66:30:4. The results are robust across several specifications examined. (author)

  14. Dynamic capabilities for cooperation in Brazilian multinational and factors determining its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of emerging companies’ growth, current challenges depend on the local generation of product and process innovations, as well as dynamic capability to generate innovative solutions cooperatively and new globe business models. The objective of this study is to analyse the determining managerial factors for the dynamic capability of cooperation in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. A survey was conducted with a sample of 60 BMNs, and a structured questionnaire and statistical tests with factorial analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used. The aggregate analysis of the results indicates that BMNs are going through a transitional process between the operational capability of cooperation and the capability for dynamic cooperation, which are relevant to the continuous adaptation of already-established cooperative management routines and the evaluation and incorporation of the relational capability of management practices that consider systemic flows, open innovation and integrate strategic intentionality into cooperative processes.

  15. Relationship between determinant factors of disclosure of information on environmental impacts of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the relationship between determinant factors of disclosure of information on environmental impacts of Brazilian companies. A descriptive, documental and quantitative research was conducted through a sample of 97 Brazilian companies. In the Sustainability Reports and in the Annual Reports information, five environmental aspects were collected: emissions, effluents, wastes, products and services; and transport, which were used to measure the degree of environmental disclosure. This concludes that there is a relationship between the variables investigated in all analyzed years. The size, audit and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI are associated with disclosure and the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI, Pollution Potential (POTEN, governance, stocks, Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE are not.

  16. Molecular determinants of epidermal growth factor binding: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Sanders

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family that plays a role in multiple cellular processes. Activation of EGFR requires binding of a ligand on the extracellular domain to promote conformational changes leading to dimerization and transphosphorylation of intracellular kinase domains. Seven ligands are known to bind EGFR with affinities ranging from sub-nanomolar to near micromolar dissociation constants. In the case of EGFR, distinct conformational states assumed upon binding a ligand is thought to be a determining factor in activation of a downstream signaling network. Previous biochemical studies suggest the existence of both low affinity and high affinity EGFR ligands. While these studies have identified functional effects of ligand binding, high-resolution structural data are lacking. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of EGFR binding affinities, we docked each EGFR ligand to the putative active state extracellular domain dimer and 25.0 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed. MM-PBSA/GBSA are efficient computational approaches to approximate free energies of protein-protein interactions and decompose the free energy at the amino acid level. We applied these methods to the last 6.0 ns of each ligand-receptor simulation. MM-PBSA calculations were able to successfully rank all seven of the EGFR ligands based on the two affinity classes: EGF>HB-EGF>TGF-α>BTC>EPR>EPG>AR. Results from energy decomposition identified several interactions that are common among binding ligands. These findings reveal that while several residues are conserved among the EGFR ligand family, no single set of residues determines the affinity class. Instead we found heterogeneous sets of interactions that were driven primarily by electrostatic and Van der Waals forces. These results not only illustrate the complexity of EGFR dynamics but also pave the way for structure-based design of

  17. Factors determining the oxygen consumption rate (VO2) on-kinetics in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2004-05-01

    Using a computer model of oxidative phosphorylation developed previously [Korzeniewski and Mazat (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 143-148; Korzeniewski and Zoladz (2001) Biophys. Chem. 92, 17-34], we analyse the effect of several factors on the oxygen-uptake kinetics, especially on the oxygen consumption rate (VO2) and half-transition time t(1/2), at the onset of exercise in skeletal muscles. Computer simulations demonstrate that an increase in the total creatine pool [PCr+/-Cr] (where Cr stands for creatine and PCr for phosphocreatine) and in glycolytic ATP supply lengthen the half-transition time, whereas increase in mitochondrial content, in parallel activation of ATP supply and ATP usage, in oxygen concentration, in proton leak, in resting energy demand, in resting cytosolic pH and in initial alkalization decrease this parameter. Theoretical studies show that a decrease in the activity of creatine kinase (CK) [displacement of this enzyme from equilibrium during on-transient (rest-to-work transition)] accelerates the first stage of the VO2 on-transient, but slows down the second stage of this transient. It is also demonstrated that a prior exercise terminated a few minutes before the principal exercise shortens the transition time. Finally, it is shown that at a given ATP demand, and under conditions where CK works near the thermodynamic equilibrium, the half-transition time of VO2 kinetics is determined by the amount of PCr that has to be transformed into Cr during rest-to-work transition; therefore any factor that diminishes the difference in [PCr] between rest and work at a given energy demand will accelerate the VO2 on-kinetics. Our conclusions agree with the general idea formulated originally by Easterby [(1981) Biochem. J. 199, 155-161] that changes in metabolite concentrations determine the transition times between different steady states in metabolic systems.

  18. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  19. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  20. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar eAyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  1. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  2. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  3. Determination of the axial-vector form factor in the radiative decay of the pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortendahl, D.A.

    1976-12-01

    The branching ratio for the decay π → eνγ was measured in a counter experiment in which the e + was detected in a magnetic spectrometer and the γ-ray in a lead glass hodoscope. The number of observed events is 226.2 +- 22.4. The branching ratio into the phase space with electron momentum above 56 MeV/c and the electron/photon opening angle greater than 132 0 is found to be (5.6 +- 0.7) x 10 -8 . From the measured branching ratio one determines γ, the ratio of the axial vector to vector form factor. The vector form factor is computed using CVC and the π 0 lifetime. For T/sub π/ 0 = 0.828 x 10 -16 sec, γ = 0.44 +- 0.12 or γ = --2.36 +- 0.12 is obtained. A comparison between the measured values of γ and various theories is made

  4. Factors determining immunological response to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Pontus; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Fryland, Linda; Matussek, Andreas; Haglund, Mats; Sjöwall, Johanna; Vene, Sirkka; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study including 533 individuals (median age 61) from the highly TBE endemic Åland Islands in the archipelago between Sweden and Finland. Blood samples, questionnaires and vaccination records were obtained from all study participants. The aim was to investigate if there was any association between TBEV antibody titer and 12 health-related factors. Measurement of TBEV IgG antibodies was performed using two commercial ELISA assays (Enzygnost and Immunozym), and a third in-house rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was used to measure TBEV neutralizing antibodies. The age of the individual and the number of vaccine doses were the two most important factors determining the immunological response to vaccination. The response to each vaccine dose declined linearly with increased age. A 35 year age difference corresponds to a vaccine dose increment from 3 to 4 to achieve the same immunological response. Participants previously vaccinated against other flaviviruses had lower odds of being seropositive for neutralizing TBEV antibodies on average, while participants with self-reported asthma had higher odds of being seropositive. By comparing the 3 serological assays we show that the Enzygnost and Immunozym assay differ due to choice of cutoffs, but not in overall accuracy.

  5. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  6. Radiographic prognostic factors determining spontaneous space closure after loss of the permanent first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sameer; Ashley, Paul; Noar, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Permanent first molars (PFM) with a poor prognosis are routinely extracted in children throughout the United Kingdom. National guidelines suggest that to achieve spontaneous closure for the mandibular arch, the PFM should be extracted at 8 to 10 years of age, during bifurcation formation of the second molar. The literature is of limited quality and has suggested alternative variables that may be associated with successful space closure. Our aim was to investigate the radiographic prognostic factors associated with space closure after extraction of PFM. Two objectives of the research are reported in this article: to determine factors that might predict space closure of the second molar after extraction of the PFM, and to develop a tool kit to aid clinical decision making. We assessed 148 maxillary and 153 mandibular PFM extracted from 81 participants retrospectively. Dental age, second molar developmental stage, second premolar and second molar angulations, and presence or absence of the third molar were assessed on the preextraction orthopantomograms. Outcome was assessed via visual examination, study models, or radiographs. Closure occurred in 89.9% of the maxillary and 49.0% of the mandibular quadrants. Dental age was statistically, but not clinically, significant in the maxillary arch (P space closure. The developed tool kit requires further validity testing. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  8. Factor value determination and applicability evaluation of universal soil loss equation in granite gneiss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hai Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six types of runoff plots were set up and an experimental study was carried out to examine natural rate of soil and water loss in the granite gneiss region of northern Jiangsu Province in China. Through correlation analysis of runoff and soil loss during 364 rainfall events, a simplified and convenient mathematical formula suitable for calculating the rainfall erosivity factor (R for the local region was established. Other factors of the universal soil loss equation (USLE model were also determined. Relative error analysis of the soil loss of various plots calculated by the USLE model on the basis of the observed values showed that the relative error ranged from -3.5% to 9.9% and the confidence level was more than 90%. In addition, the relative error was 5.64% for the terraced field and 12.36% for the sloping field in the practical application. Thus, the confidence level was above 87.64%. These results provide a scientific basis for forecasting and monitoring soil and water loss, for comprehensive management of small watersheds, and for soil and water conservation planning in the region.

  9. Disclosure Level of CPC 29 Biological Assets: Analysis of Determining Factors in Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research question guiding this research is "What are the Determining Factors of CPC 29 Disclosure in Brazilian Companies?". In this aspect, the research objective was to evaluate the main factors that affect the disclosure of information related to biological assets. For this, 5 variables highlighted in the literature were selected as evidence influencers. The sample was composed of Brazilian companies with biological assets in the Balance Sheet. From this list, financial statements, explanatory notes, corporate management level and independent auditing company for the 6 years (2010 to 2015 were collected. With the collected information, the dependent variable (Disclosure level of CPC 29 and the independent variables of each year were verified. At the end (after exclusions, 100 observations were analyzed. The results indicated that the variables Size, Representativeness of Biological Assets and Effectiveness of OCPC 07 positively impacted the level of Disclosure. The first two confirmed the predicted hypothesis and OCPC 07 presented a relation that was different from what was expected, showing an increase and not a reduction in the number of disclosures in the years 2014 and 2015.

  10. Exploring determining factors of web transparency in the world's top universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saraite-Sariene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the online transparency of the top 100 Universities in the world and determine which factors influence the degree of online transparency achieved by these institutions. To this end, a global transparency index was developed comprising of four dimensions (“E-Information”, “E-Services”, “E-Participation” and “Navigability, Design and Accessibility”. From the analysis of the various dimensions, it is worth noting that universities are aware of the importance of having a web page with adequate “Navigability, Design and Accessibility”. In contrast, “E-information” is the least valued dimension due to universities focusing their attention on the disclosure of general information rather than on more specific issues. In addition, a multivariate regression equation was used to test the relationship between the online information disclosed and a particular set of factors. As main findings, younger universities of greater size and which are privately funded are the ones most interested in utilizing web pages.

  11. Competition between intermolecular interaction and configuration entropy as the structure-determining factor for inclusion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, O.; Belosludov, V.; Adamova, T. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Nikolaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Belosludov, R.; Kawazoe, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Kudoh, J.I. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Center for Northeast Asia Studies

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed method to accurately predict the thermodynamic properties of clathrate hydrates, particularly their structural phase transitions under pressure. The method is based on the theory of Van-der-Waals and Platteeuw with some modifications that include the influence of guest molecules on the host lattice. The model was used to explain the exception from the established rule that small guest molecules form structure s1 and large molecules form structure s2 hydrates. In this study, the thermodynamic properties of argon (Ar) hydrate and methane hydrate, each in both cubic structure s1 and s2 were modelled. The model showed that two competing factors play a role in the formation of inclusions, notably the intermolecular interaction of guest molecules with water molecules, and the configuration entropy. Competition of these 2 factors determines the structure of hydrate formed at different pressures. The model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of gas hydrates and how they behave under pressure. For the argon hydrates, the structural phase transition from structure s2 to s1 at high pressure was predicted, while methane hydrates were predicted to be metastable in the s2 structure. The model can be used for other inclusion compounds with the same type of composition such as clathrate silicon, zeolites, and inclusion compounds of semiconductor elements. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Determining The Factors Causing Human Error Deficiencies At A Public Utility Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Badenhorst

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Neff (1977, as cited by Bergh (1995, the westernised culture considers work important for industrial mental health. Most individuals experience work positively, which creates a positive attitude. Should this positive attitude be inhibited, workers could lose concentration and become bored, potentially resulting in some form of human error. The aim of this research was to determine the factors responsible for human error events, which lead to power supply failures at Eskom power stations. Proposals were made for the reduction of these contributing factors towards improving plant performance. The target population was 700 panel operators in Eskom’s Power Generation Group. The results showed that factors leading to human error can be reduced or even eliminated. Opsomming Neff (1977 soos aangehaal deur Bergh (1995, skryf dat in die westerse kultuur werk belangrik vir bedryfsgeestesgesondheid is. Die meeste persone ervaar werk as positief, wat ’n positiewe gesindheid kweek. Indien hierdie positiewe gesindheid geïnhibeer word, kan dit lei tot ’n gebrek aan konsentrasie by die werkers. Werkers kan verveeld raak en dit kan weer lei tot menslike foute. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die faktore vas te stel wat tot menslike foute lei, en wat bydra tot onderbrekings in kragvoorsiening by Eskom kragstasies. Voorstelle is gemaak vir die vermindering van hierdie bydraende faktore ten einde die kragaanleg se prestasie te verbeter. Die teiken-populasie was 700 paneel-operateurs in die Kragopwekkingsgroep by Eskom. Die resultate dui daarop dat die faktore wat aanleiding gee tot menslike foute wel verminder, of geëlimineer kan word.

  13. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  14. Prehospital factors determining regional variation in thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Maarten M H; Vroomen, Patrick C A J; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; van der Zee, Durk-Jouke; de Vos, Ronald; Buskens, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Treatment rates with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator vary by region, which can be partially explained by organizational models of stroke care. A recent study demonstrated that prehospital factors determine a higher thrombolysis rate in a centralized vs. decentralized model in the north of the Netherlands. To investigate prehospital factors that may explain variation in thrombolytic therapy between a centralized and a decentralized model. A consecutive case observational study was conducted in the north of the Netherlands comparing patients arriving within 4·5 h in a centralized vs. decentralized stroke care model. Factors investigated were transportation mode, prehospital diagnostic accuracy, and preferential referral of thrombolysis candidates. Potential confounders were adjusted using logistic regression analysis. A total of 172 and 299 arriving within 4·5 h were enrolled in centralized and decentralized settings, respectively. The rate of transportation by emergency medical services was greater in the centralized model (adjusted odds ratio 3·11; 95% confidence interval, 1·59-6·06). Also, more misdiagnoses of stroke occurred in the central model (P = 0·05). In postal code areas with and without potential preferential referral of thrombolysis candidates due to overlapping catchment areas, the odds of hospital arrival within 4·5 h in the central vs. decentral model were 2·15 (95% confidence interval, 1·39-3·32) and 1·44 (95% confidence interval, 1·04-2·00), respectively. These results suggest that the larger proportion of patients arriving within 4·5 h in the centralized model might be related to a lower threshold to use emergency services to transport stroke patients and partly to preferential referral of thrombolysis candidates. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  16. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  17. Calculation of climate factors as an additional criteria to determine agriculturally less favoured areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša POGAČAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate factors that are proposed to determine agriculturally less favoured areas (LFA in Slovenia were analyzed for the period 1981–2010. Following the instructions of European Commission prepared by Joint Research Centre (JRC 30-years averages of low air temperatures criteria (the vegetation period duration and sums of effective air temperatures and aridity criteria (aridity index AI have to be calculated. Calculations were additionally done using Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO method, which is slightly different when determining temperature thresholds. Only hilly areas are below the LFA low air temperatures threshold with the lowest located meteorological station in Rateče. According to aridity criteria no area in Slovenia is below the threshold, so meteorological water balance was also examined. Average water balance in the period 1981–2010 was in most of locations lower than in the period 1971–2000. Climate change impacts are already expressed as trend presence in time series of studied variables, so it is recommended to calculate trends and take them into account or to perform regular iterations of calculations.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Usage and Its Determinant Factors Among Outpatients in Southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Fateme; Dehghan, Mahlagha; Salari, Masoumeh; Sheikhrabori, Akbar

    2015-12-13

    Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines is increasing specially in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, based on the high prevalence of chronic disorders, the present study aimed to determine complementary and alternative medicine usage frequency and its determinant factors. This was a cross-sectional study. Five hundred clients participated in the study by using convenience sampling. A 2-part questionnaire (including demographic form and researcher-created questionnaire) was used for studying the prevalence of using complementary and alternative medicine methods, and users' satisfaction. Findings showed that 75.4% of people used at least one complementary and alternative medicine method. Most of users consumed medicinal plants (69.4%). The most common reason of using a complementary and alternative medicine method was common cold (32.9%). The highest satisfaction belonged to massage (2.94 ± 0.74). The usage of complementary and alternative medicine was 3.22 times higher in people with academic educations when compared with illiterate people. Concerning the high usage of complementary and alternative medicine, it is necessary to train specialists in this field in order to offer such treatments in a safe manner. Also, outcomes of application of complementary and alternative medicine methods should be studied. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Chemistry of the aqueous medium - Determining factor of corrosion in carbon steel components of secondary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M.; Pirvan, I.; Dinu, A.; Velciu, L.

    2003-01-01

    The interplay of chemistry of aqueous medium and corrosion processes followed by deposition and/or release of corrosion products determines both formation and growth of superficial films as well as the kinetics of ion release from materials into the aqueous medium. Material corrosion in the secondary circuit of a NPP can be minimized by choosing the materials of the components and by a rigorous inspection of the chemistry of aqueous agent. The chemical inspection helps in minimizing: - the corrosion of the components immersed in feedwater and vapor and of Steam Generator components; - 'dirtying' of the systems particularly of the surfaces implied in heat transfer; - the amount of insoluble chemical species resulting in corrosion process and carried along the circuit; - the corrosion of secondary circuit components during revisions or outages. An important role among the chemical parameters of the fluids circulated in NPP tubing appears to be the pH. In CANDU reactors it must be kept within the range of 8.7 to 9.4 by treating the medium with volatile amines (morpholine and cyclohexylamine). A plot is presented giving the corrosion rate of carbon steels as a function of the pH of the medium. Besides, the oxygen concentration dissolved in the aqueous medium must be maintained under 5 μg per water kg. Other factors determining the corrosion rates are also discussed. The paper gives the results of the experiments done with various materials, solutions and analysis methods

  20. More Thoughts on AG-SG Comparisons and SG Scale Factor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Calvo, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Hinderer, Jacques

    2018-03-01

    We revisit a number of details that arise when doing joint AG-SG (absolute gravimeter-superconducting gravimeter) calibrations, focusing on the scale factor determination and the AG mean value that derives from the offset. When fitting SG data to AG data, the choice of which time span to use for the SG data can make a difference, as well as the inclusion of a trend that might be present in the fitting. The SG time delay has only a small effect. We review a number of options discussed recently in the literature on whether drops or sets provide the most accurate scale factor, and how to reject drops and sets to get the most consistent result. Two effects are clearly indicated by our tests, one being to smooth the raw SG 1 s (or similar sampling interval) data for times that coincide with AG drops, the other being a second pass in processing to reject residual outliers after the initial fit. Although drops can usefully provide smaller SG calibration errors compared to using set data, set values are more robust to data problems but one has to use the standard error to avoid large uncertainties. When combining scale factor determinations for the same SG at the same station, the expected gradual reduction of the error with each new experiment is consistent with the method of conflation. This is valid even when the SG data acquisition system is changed, or different AG's are used. We also find a relationship between the AG mean values obtained from SG to AG fits with the traditional short-term AG (`site') measurements usually done with shorter datasets. This involves different zero levels and corrections in the AG versus SG processing. Without using the Micro-g FG5 software it is possible to use the SG-derived corrections for tides, barometric pressure, and polar motion to convert an AG-SG calibration experiment into a site measurement (and vice versa). Finally, we provide a simple method for AG users who do not have the FG5-software to find an internal FG5 parameter that

  1. More Thoughts on AG-SG Comparisons and SG Scale Factor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Calvo, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Hinderer, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    We revisit a number of details that arise when doing joint AG-SG (absolute gravimeter-superconducting gravimeter) calibrations, focusing on the scale factor determination and the AG mean value that derives from the offset. When fitting SG data to AG data, the choice of which time span to use for the SG data can make a difference, as well as the inclusion of a trend that might be present in the fitting. The SG time delay has only a small effect. We review a number of options discussed recently in the literature on whether drops or sets provide the most accurate scale factor, and how to reject drops and sets to get the most consistent result. Two effects are clearly indicated by our tests, one being to smooth the raw SG 1 s (or similar sampling interval) data for times that coincide with AG drops, the other being a second pass in processing to reject residual outliers after the initial fit. Although drops can usefully provide smaller SG calibration errors compared to using set data, set values are more robust to data problems but one has to use the standard error to avoid large uncertainties. When combining scale factor determinations for the same SG at the same station, the expected gradual reduction of the error with each new experiment is consistent with the method of conflation. This is valid even when the SG data acquisition system is changed, or different AG's are used. We also find a relationship between the AG mean values obtained from SG to AG fits with the traditional short-term AG (`site') measurements usually done with shorter datasets. This involves different zero levels and corrections in the AG versus SG processing. Without using the Micro-g FG5 software it is possible to use the SG-derived corrections for tides, barometric pressure, and polar motion to convert an AG-SG calibration experiment into a site measurement (and vice versa). Finally, we provide a simple method for AG users who do not have the FG5-software to find an internal FG5 parameter that

  2. Factors Affecting the Structural Features of Dairy Farming Organizations in Yalova: Determining the Breeding Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip BAKIR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been performed to determine dairy farms’ breeders’ social conditions, presence of animals, care, milk production, happiness with animal farming, problems and situation of being organized in Yalova. The data that obtained from 324 randomly chosen dairy farms around the city by the means of the survey comprised the material of research. The obtained data has been analyzed in SPSS package program by taking animal numbers, age and educational background of breeders as factors affecting the structural condition of farm. In the analysis of race distribution it was determined that breeders having primary education preferred to use crossbred animals, whereas breeders having secondary, high school and higher education tended to use culture breeds. For determining the heat in animals, breeders who have primary school education take bellowing and mounting of animals into consideration. All breeders at any education level considered the 15-18 months of age as age at fist insemination for heifers. As the age of breeders increased, contrary to education level, the ratio for 15-18 month age criterion decreased. In the farms producing less than 10 kg milk the ratio of farmers having primary school education is 68.9%. This ratio is 8.5% for high school and higher graduates. 61.2% of breeders who have middle school education level obtain 11-20 kg milk yield in their farms. While 48.6% of breeders who have less than 5 animals obtain 10 kg milk yield, as the number of animals rises, this rate declined to 23.1%. In the farms having less than 5 animals the proportion of obtaining 10-21 kg milk yield is 48.4%. As the animals numbers increased this proportion increased up to 63.5%.

  3. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility.

  4. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors are major determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with the lupus anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Florian; Gebhart, Johanna; Rand, Jacob H; Koder, Silvia; Quehenberger, Peter; Pengo, Vittorio; Ay, Cihan; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2017-03-10

    Patients with the lupus anticoagulant (LA) are at an increased risk of thrombotic events, which in turn increase the risk of death. Understanding the determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with LA may pave the way towards targeted thromboprophylaxis. In the Vienna Lupus Anticoagulant and Thrombosis Study (LATS), we systematically evaluate risk factors for thrombotic events in patients with LA. We followed 150 patients (mean age: 41.3 years, female gender: n = 122 (81.3%), history of thrombosis or pregnancy complications: n = 111 (74.0%)), who tested repeatedly positive for LA until development of thrombosis, death, or censoring. The primary endpoint was a composite of arterial or venous thrombotic events (TEs). During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range: 12 days-13.6 years) and 1076 person-years, 32 TEs occurred (arterial: n = 16, venous: n = 16; cumulative 10-year TE incidence: 24.3%). A prolonged lupus-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.07--5.02), diabetes (adjusted SHR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.42-13.57), and active smoking (adjusted SHR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.14-5.02) emerged as independent risk factors of both arterial and venous thrombotic risk. A risk model that includes a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, smoking, and diabetes enabled stratification of LA patients into subgroups with a low, intermediate, and high risk of thrombosis (5-year TE risk of 9.7% (n = 77), 30.9% (n = 51), and 56.8% (n = 22). Long-term thrombotic risk in patients with LA is clustered within subjects harboring typical cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, whereas patients with none of these risk factors represent a large subgroup with a low risk of thrombosis.

  6. The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2012 18 The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk David E. Frick, Ph.D. Frick is a 35-year veteran of the Department of...a key to risk analysis was “choosing the right technique” of quantifying risk . The weakness in this argument stems not from the assertion that one...of information about the enemy), yet achiev- ing great outcomes. Attempts at quantifying risk are not, in and of themselves, objectionable. Prudence

  7. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  8. Ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes determined by the measurement of photovoltaic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Geun-Hwan; Yang, Won-Bo; Ryu, Han-Youl [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We present a method for determining the ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by using the measured photovoltaic characteristics. The relation between the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage is obtained as the incident power of a laser diode emitting at 405 nm is varied, which is used to determine the ideality factor of the LED. From the photovoltaic measurements, the ideality factors of a blue and a green LED are determined to be 1.16 and 1.78, respectively. The ideality factors obtained by using the photovoltaic measurement are found to be much smaller than those obtained by using the I - V curve without illumination, which is believed to result from the different carrier generation and transport mechanisms. Investigating the photovoltaic characteristics of GaN-based LEDs is expected to provide insight into the origin of the high diode ideality factor in GaN-based devices.

  9. Ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes determined by the measurement of photovoltaic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Geun-Hwan; Yang, Won-Bo; Ryu, Han-Youl

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for determining the ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by using the measured photovoltaic characteristics. The relation between the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage is obtained as the incident power of a laser diode emitting at 405 nm is varied, which is used to determine the ideality factor of the LED. From the photovoltaic measurements, the ideality factors of a blue and a green LED are determined to be 1.16 and 1.78, respectively. The ideality factors obtained by using the photovoltaic measurement are found to be much smaller than those obtained by using the I - V curve without illumination, which is believed to result from the different carrier generation and transport mechanisms. Investigating the photovoltaic characteristics of GaN-based LEDs is expected to provide insight into the origin of the high diode ideality factor in GaN-based devices.

  10. Identification of Decisive Factors Determining the Continued Use of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Agriculture Irrigation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of operating a rainwater harvesting system (RWH depends on both technological and non-technological factors. The importance of non-technological factors in attaining sustainable RWH operation is rarely emphasized. This study aims to assess the contribution of non-technological factors through determining decisive factors involved in the use of RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing. The RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing are not operating as well as expected. If the decisive factors are identified to be non-technological, the significance of non-technological factors will be highlighted. Firstly, 10 impact factors comprising non-technological and technological factors are selected according to both a literature review and interviews with RWH managers. Following this, through an artificial data mining method, rough set analysis, the decisive factors are identified. Results show that two non-technological factors, “doubts about rainwater quality” and “the availability of groundwater” determine whether these systems will continue or cease RWH operation in Beijing. It is, thus, considered necessary to improve public confidence in and motivation on using rainwater for agriculture irrigation, as this is the main obstacle in the sustainable and successful operation of RWHs. Through a case study of RWHs in Beijing, the study verifies the importance of acknowledging non-technological factors to achieve sustainable water management and considers that such factors should receive more attention by decision makers and researchers.

  11. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women and to Determination of Related Risk Factors (Preliminary Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sibel Özbudak Demir; Sumru Özel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and to determine the associated factors with fibromyalgia. Materials and Methods: Hundred thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis admitted to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. A questionnaire that was including patients’age, marital status, education level, occupation, height, weight was completed. Risk factors of osteoporosis we...

  12. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, Tamas [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest (Hungary); Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L. [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Voros, Szilard [Global Genomics Group, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jermendy, Gyoergy [Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Hospital, Medical Department, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  13. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, J.; Mitchell, W.; Chirayath, V.; Jonsson, J.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2017-10-01

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize gases and particles in the plumes emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAV/sampler was tested at two field sites with test and sampling flights spanning over 16 h of flight time. The battery-operated UAV was remotely maneuvered into the plumes at distances from the pilot of over 600 m and at altitudes of up to 122 m above ground level. While the flight duration could be affected by sampler payload (3.2-4.6 kg) and meteorological conditions, the 57 sampling flights, ranging from 4 to 12 min, were typically terminated when the plume concentrations of CO2 were diluted to near ambient levels. Two sensor/sampler systems, termed ;Kolibri,; were variously configured to measure particulate matter, metals, chloride, perchlorate, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins/furans, and nitrogen-based organics for determination of emission factors. Gas sensors were selected based on their applicable concentration range, light weight, freedom from interferents, and response/recovery times. Samplers were designed, constructed, and operated based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods and quality control criteria. Results show agreement with published emission factors and good reproducibility (e.g., 26% relative standard deviation for PM2.5). The UAV/Kolibri represents a significant advance in multipollutant emission characterization capabilities for open area sources, safely and effectively making measurements heretofore deemed too hazardous for personnel or beyond the reach of land-based samplers.

  14. Determinants of Blood Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Blood Levels in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Ramoz, Nicolas; Girard, Murielle; Malauzat, Dominique; Gorwood, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of 6 months, for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs. The Beck Depression Inventory and information on current tobacco and alcohol use, suicidal ideation, body mass index, age, gender, and psychotropic treatments were also collected. Serum BDNF (ELISA) and 2 genetic polymorphisms of the BDNF gene (Val33Met and rs962369) were analyzed. The presence of the Met allele, 2 markers of the history of alcohol dependence (gamma glutamyl transferase and the number of past treatments in detoxification programs), and the presence of a depressive episode (but not depressive score) were significantly associated with the 2 blood levels of BDNF at baseline and after 6 months. After controlling for baseline BDNF levels, the presence of the Met allele and an ongoing depressive episode were the only variables associated with changes in BNDF levels after 6 months. Low serum BDNF levels are associated with characteristics related to alcohol consumption and mood disorders, and variants of the BDNF gene in alcohol use disorder patients. The factors that most strongly influenced changes in serum BDNF levels following treatment in an alcohol detoxification program were variants of the BDNF gene and ongoing depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Horvath, Tamas; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Voros, Szilard; Jermendy, Gyoergy

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  16. The Determinant Factors of Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT’s Performance: Evidence from Asian REITs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates the factors that can influence the Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT’s performance, paying particular attention to the listed REIT’s in Asian.  Samples of 45 Asian listed REITs are selected from five different countries namely Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore for 5 years basis from 2007 to 2011 with 225 observations. Study used Net Asset value (NAV and Return as the proxy for REITs performance while risk, dividend yield, net income and size to represent the determinants variable. Applying correlations and multiple regression analysis, the results provide evidence on the association between NAV and return with risk, dividend yield, net income and size of REITs. Results of this study are hoped to help the investors and portfolio managers to deepen their understanding of the dependence factors that might influence the performance of REITs in Asian. Keywords: Net asset value (NAV, Real Estate Investment Trust (REITs, Risk and Dividend Yield.

  17. DETERMINATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING LENGTH OF STAY WITH MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öğr. Gör. Rukiye NUMAN TEKİN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Length of stay (LOS has important implications in various aspects of health services, can vary according to a wide range of factors. It is noticed that LOS has been neglected mostly in both theoratical studies and practice of health care management in Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to identify factors related to LOS in Turkey. A retrospective analysis of 2.255.836 patients hospitalized to private, university, foundation university and other (municipality, association and foreigners/minority hospitals hospitals which have an agreement with Social Security Institution (SSI in Turkey, from January 1, 2010, until the December 31, 2010, was examined. Patient’s data were taken from MEDULA (National Electronic Invoice System and SPSS 18.0 was used to perform statistical analysis. In this study t-test, one way anova and multinomial logistic regression are used to determine variables that may affect to LOS. The average LOS of patients was 3,93 days (SD = 5,882. LOS showed a statistically significant difference according to all independent variables used in the study (age, gender, disease class, type of hospitalization, presence of comorbidity, type and number of surgery, season of hospitalization, hospital ownership/bed capacity/ geographical region/residential area/type of service. According to the results of the multinomial lojistic regression analysis, LOS was negatively affected in terms of gender, presence of comorbidity, geographical region of hospital and was positively affected in terms of age, season of hospitalization, hospital bed capacity/ ownership/type of service/residential area.

  18. Selected Factors Determining a Way of Coping with Stress in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beata Sobol-Pacyniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to examine factors which determine stress coping styles in type 2 diabetic (T2D patients, with regard to selected demographic variables, clinical diabetes-related variables and selected psychical variables (anxiety level and assessment of depressive disorders. Methods. 50 T2D patients, aged 59.9 ± 10.2 years were assessed by Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. In the statistical analysis simple and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results. Variables significantly increasing the selection risk of stress coping style different from preferred task-oriented strategy in a simple logistic regression model are: hypoglycemia within three months prior to the research: odds ratio (OR = 6.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.25–37.61, taking antidepressants or neuroleptics: OR =15.42 (95% CI 2.42–98.33, severe depression in Beck’s scale: OR = 84.00 (95% CI 6.51–1083.65, high state-anxiety level: OR = 9.60 (95% CI 1.08–85.16, and high trait-anxiety level: OR = 18.40 (95%CI 2.96–114.31, but in a multivariable model, diagnosed depression is the strongest factor: OR = 32.38 (95% CI 4.94–212.13. Conclusions. In T2D patients, the strategy to cope with stress appears to be mostly influenced by psychical predisposition.

  19. The use of fluoride varnish and its determining factors among children with disability in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chiang, Hsien-Hsiung; Chiu, Li-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The oral health of children with disability is often not as good as that of other children. In view of improving their oral health, this study aims to explore the utilization of fluoride varnish services among children with disability in Taiwan and its relevant influencing factors. With children under the age of 5 as subjects, this study is conducted based on the database of Ministry of the Interior, Executive Yuan, ROC in 2008, coupled with information gathered between 2006 and 2008 on preventive health care and health insurance from the Bureau of Health Promotion and the National Health Research Institute, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis, this study examined the factors determining the use of fluoride varnish with logistic regression analysis. Research revealed that fluoride varnish is used by up to 9.84% of children with disability; the use increases with age and decreases with increased level of disability, but is remarkably higher in those with catastrophic illness/injury. The probability of fluoride varnish use is lower among those living in areas of lower urbanization (levels 5-7) and higher among those whose parents have higher premium-based monthly salaries. Recommendations include (1) providing a differential pricing scheme for fluoride varnish based on the level of disability of the child, (2) promoting proactively among dentists to carry out regular fluoride varnish in rural areas and collaboration with pediatricians to provide convenient services and (3) targeting families in low socioeconomic brackets, improving knowledge of fluoride varnish. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-level influences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child's lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraeus, L; Lissner, L; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Al-Ansari, U; Sjöberg, A

    2012-07-01

    Swedish school children living in rural areas and in areas with low education are at excess risk of becoming overweight. This study examines influences of societal and individual characteristics (children and their parents) on prevalence of overweight and obesity, in a national sample of 7-9-year-old children. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected in a nationally representative sample of 3636 Swedish children. Overweight and obesity (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF)) data were analyzed in relation to lifestyle factors, parental weight, education and breast-feeding. The prevalence of overweight was 15.6% including 2.6% obese. Urbanization level and parental characteristics (weight status and education) were related to risk of overweight. Overall less favorable lifestyle characteristics were observed in rural areas and for children of low/medium educated mothers. Boys had greater risk of obesity in semi-urban and rural areas but this was not true for girls. For children's overweight, the living area effect was attenuated in multivariate analysis, while there was an association with origin of parents, high parental weight and medium maternal education. For obesity, the living area effect remained in boys while having two non-Nordic parents predicted obesity in girls. Parental weight status was associated with obesity in both girls and boys. Individual and societal factors influence children's weight status, and parental weight status is a strong determinant. Including overweight and obese parents in future health promoting interventions could be a strategy to prevent children from becoming overweight, but identifying those parents may prove difficult. To ensure reaching children with the greatest needs, targeting high risk areas might be a more effective approach.

  1. Factors determining the UK's back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Ainsworth, Z.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. The AGRs and the UK's only PWR, Sizewell B, are operated by British Energy Generation Ltd (BEGL) and British Energy Generation (UK) Ltd (BEG(UK)L), who are subsidiaries of British Energy plc (BE) which was privatised in July 1996. Ownership of the Magnox stations, which were excluded from this privatisation, has now been transferred to BNFL.Government policy on spent fuel management in the UK is that it is for the owners of the spent fuel to decide on the appropriate spent fuel management options, based on their own commercial judgement, subject to meeting the necessary regulatory requirements. The main factors which have predominantly determined UK utility decisions on spent fuel management, to date, have been based on the technical considerations of the spent fuel characteristics, economic attractiveness of the options and at reactor site spent fuel storage capacities. To date, reprocessing has been the dominant form of spent fuel treatment in the UK. Spent fuel storage facilities consist of a mixture of at-reactor stores and large, centralised ponds associated with the reprocessing activities which take place at the Sellafield site. BEGL and BEG(UK)L have contracts for the lifetime arisings of AGR fuel which allow for all AGR spent fuel to be sent to Sellafield for reprocessing or long-term storage. The prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue, and spent PWR fuel will continue to be stored at the reactor site in the short to medium term. It is likely that a combination of factors, which are discussed later in this paper, will continue to affect back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. (author)

  2. Social Determinants and Reproductive Factors of the Menopausal Symptoms among Women in Tabriz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Menopause is a natural event in which different degrees of psychosomatic changes occur. The social, demographic and behavioral factors in different nations have a significant effect on symptoms of menopause. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the personal, demographic, social and reproductive factors with symptoms of menopause and the frequency of the mental and physical symptoms of menopause among women in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinics and health centers of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan and Iran. A total of 300 women aged 40-60 years filled a questionnaire on the socio demographic variables, reproductive history and symptoms checklist.  Results: Among the symptoms, muscle and joint pain (68.7%, and increased facial hair (20.5% were the most and the least common ones respectively. According to participants, as age increases, the symptoms worsen (p=0.003.The frequency of the symptoms of the employed women was less than those of retired ones and housewives (p=0.001. The physical and mental symptoms had negative relation with educational status (p<0.05. An increase in the number of the children, the history of the oral contraceptive use and dysmenorrhea had positive relation with the frequency of the symptoms.  Conclusion: The quality of life of the women during menopause worsens with an increase in age and number of children, whereas it improves with higher educational levels and employment.

  3. Social Determinants and Reproductive Factors of the Menopausal Symptoms among Women in Tabriz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is a natural event in which different degrees of psychosomatic changes occur. The social, demographic and behavioral factors in different nations have a significant effect on symptoms of menopause. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the personal, demographic, social and reproductive factors with symptoms of menopause and the frequency of the mental and physical symptoms of menopause among women in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinics and health centers of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan and Iran. A total of 300 women aged 40-60 years filled a questionnaire on the socio demographic variables, reproductive history and symptoms checklist.  Results: Among the symptoms, muscle and joint pain (68.7%, and increased facial hair (20.5% were the most and the least common ones respectively. According to participants, as age increases, the symptoms worsen (p=0.003. The frequency of the symptoms of the employed women was less than those of retired ones and housewives (p=0.001. The physical and mental symptoms had negative relation with educational status (p<0.05. An increase in the number of the children, the history of the oral contraceptive use and dysmenorrhea had positive relation with the frequency of the symptoms.  Conclusion: The quality of life of the women during menopause worsens with an increase in age and number of children, whereas it improves with higher educational levels and employment.

  4. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  5. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006-2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36-12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001-0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48-40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01-11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53-20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38-50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37-22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from coworker relation and the standard of care they

  6. Predictive factors determining outcomes in pulseless limb in paediatric supracondylar fractures of humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Hemant; Khanna, Vikram; Bhargava, Rakesh; Vaishya, Raju

    2018-03-01

    Amongst all the complications associated with paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures, significant vascular injury is reported in only 1% cases, of which, less than 1% develop Volkmann's ischemic contracture. This study evaluates factors, like delay in presentation of the injury, limb perfusion and pulse, in determining functional outcome in a supracondylar humerus fractures with pulseless limb. Twenty-one paediatric patients with a pulseless supracondylar humerus fracture presenting from 2012 to 2014 were included. The patients were divided into 3 groups with Group A (pulse returned post-reduction, n = 13), Group B (pink pulseless hand, n = 7) and Group C (white pulseless hand, n = 1). 11 patients in group A and 4 patients in Group B presented within 6 h. of injury while the remaining patients presented after 6 h. The primary outcome was vascular status as indicated by radial pulse and perfusion, and secondary outcomes included functional parameters assessed with Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Flynn criteria. Mean peripheral SpO2 in Group A patients was higher than Group B and Group C had a non-recordable oxygen saturation. Mean capillary refill time was more in Group A than Group B whereas in Group C patient had blanching and no capillary refill was seen. Mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score of Group A patients was highest as compared to Group B and Group C. Patients presenting within 6 h. of injury had a higher mean Mayo Elbow Performance score as compared to the patients presenting after 6 h of injury. Functional outcome as measured by Flynn Criteria was excellent in 13 patients. 6 patients had a good, 2 had fair outcome. A moderate negative corrélation (R = -0.5798) was seen between the time elapsed from the injury and the Mayo Elbow Performance score. Duration to presentation since injury, limb perfusion and presence of peripheral pulses seem to be important predictive factors determining the outcomes in pulseless supracondylar fracture humerus.

  7. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyasu Tamru Bekru

    Full Text Available Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006-2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period.Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36-12.37], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001-0.45], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48-40.47], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01-11.97], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53-20.22], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38-50.10] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37-22.65]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from coworker relation and the standard of

  8. Factors determining the style of adaptation to the disease in patients treated oncologically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Smoleń

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cancer diseases still have the strongest impact on the human psyche, leading to the overwhelming life crisis. Each person, depending on personality traits and well-developed defense mechanisms, reacts individually to the diagnosis of the disease. Attitude towards the disease affects the quality of life and the outcome of treatment. Aim. Determination of factors determining the style of adaptation to cancer in patients during oncological treatment. Materials and methods. The research was conducted in a group of 229 randomly selected patients in Fr.. B. Markiewicz Specialist Hospital of the Podkarpacki Oncological Center. in Brzozów. The method used was a diagnostic survey and a survey technique. Research tools were the author's questionnaire, „The scale of mental adaptation to cancer” - Mini-MAC (Mental Adjustment to Cancer in the adaptation of Z. Juczyński and the numerical scale of pain assessment NRS (Numeric Rating Scale. In the statistical analysis, the following tests were used: Kruskal Wallis and the symmetric measure V Kramer based on the chi-square test. The statistical significance level p≤0.05 was assumed. Results. The level of adaptation to the disease in the studied group of oncological patients was on an average level, which indicates good adaptation to cancer. The dominant style of struggling with cancer was the construction style with the intensity of a fighting spirit and positive re-evaluation. The destructive style had a low intensity in the studied group, especially for a low level strategy of helplessness / hopelessness. Better adaptation has been demonstrated in individuals who do not experience pain and assess their health well. Conclusions. Factors not related to the style of coping with cancer were sociodemographic variables. Feeling of pain, self-esteem of health and applied methods of treatment influenced the style of coping with cancer in oncologically treated patients. The constructive style

  9. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006–2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Methodology Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36–12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001–0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48–40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01–11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53–20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38–50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37–22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from

  10. [Determining factors for the use of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Lapeira, Juan M; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; Gálvez-Alcaraz, Luis; Párraga-Martínez, Ignacio; Boix-Gras, Clotilde; García-Ruiz, Antonio

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported anxiety/hypnotics use in adults 65 years and older and identify potential factors that determine the use of these drugs. Cross-sectional study conducted on a study population of 1,161 non-institutionalised adults 65 years old and older with enough ability to conduct a personal interview. Participants were randomly selected from health care registers. The main outcomes of interest included consumption of anxiolytics, hypnotics and other drugs (filed by ATC classification system), mood (based on the Yesavage geriatric depression scale), cognitive status (Pfeiffer questionnaire), physical-functional assessment of basic activities of daily living (Katz index), health problems (ICPC-2 classification WONCA), and sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of self-reported anxiety/hypnotics consumption was 16.6% (95% CI: 14.5 - 18.7), of which 90.5% were benzodiazepines (BZD), mainly lorazepam (39.4% of BZD). Long half-life BZD accounted for 24.7% of BZD. Hypnotics accounted for 27.5% of anxiolytics/hypnotics. The use of sedatives/hypnotics was independently associated with other drugs (non-psychotropics) consumption (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 2.1-22.0), presence of established depression (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0 -5.9), presence of 4 or more comorbidities (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-2.9), being female (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and being dependent for basic activities of daily living (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9). The prevalence of sedatives/hypnotics use in the elderly from Albacete is high. Several factors were identified as potential determinants of sedatives/hypnotics use in our study population. It will be important to evaluate the misuse of these drugs in order to develop effective, efficient and safe prescription strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying hidden individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Ulrich; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    Aging is assumed to be driven by the accumulation of damage or some other aging factor which shapes demographic patterns, including the classical late age mortality plateaus. However to date, heterogeneity in these damage stages is not observed. Here, we estimate underlying stage distributions...... and stage dynamics, based on observed survival patterns of isoclonal bacteria. Our results reveal demographic dynamics being dominated by low damage stages and transmission of damage from mother to daughters is low. Still, our models are too simplistic and deterministic. Explaining the observed data...... requires more stochastic processes as our current models includes. We are only at the beginning of understanding the diverse mechanism behind aging and the shaping of senescence....

  12. Determination of Components of Investment Attractiveness of Enterprises and Industries as Factors of their Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchuk Ievgeniia V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the following factors of investment attractiveness of both enterprises and industry: the stage of the life cycle, absence of crisis, reputation. It is justified that the key industries for the Ukrainian economy in the context of improving economic security are mining and metallurgical industry and shipbuilding. The specificity of Zhiglyar cycles for the world steel industry and the actual periodicity of these cycles for the industry are revealed, as well as the interrelationship of their periodicity with that of the K-cycle phases. It is substantiated that for the mining and metallurgical complex there typical generally accepted time frames of Zhiglyar cycles of 6-13 years, which are associated with investing in fixed assets, building-up and loading production capacities. Smaller cycles are found at the level of local markets of individual countries. It is shown that the cycles of Kitchin characterize the volumes of consumption of crude steel in Ukraine. Diagnostics of the crisis of the enterprises under investigation is carried out. It is offered to evaluate the crisis on the basis of the ratio of the actual value of the indicator and its reference value. A scale for diagnosing the severity of the crisis is developed. It is shown that under crisis conditions a part of fixed assets remains unused. To resolve the issue of the need for measures on their elimination or sale, it is proposed to determine the rate of fixed assets utilization. It is estimated that its normative value should not be lower than 0.75. A methodical approach to evaluating the enterprise reputation is proposed. It is shown that internal and external reputations differ in the method of their evaluation. A scale for determining the severity of the reputational crisis is developed.

  13. Personal factors of burnout syndrome in teachers in the framework of self-determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers perform numerous professional roles that can serve as the source of prolonged stress and lead to the occurrence of burnout syndrome. This research was aimed at studying the personal factors of burnout, using self-determination theory as a starting point. We used a sample of 200 teachers to study the following: the level of satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work, the prominence of self-orientations and the presence of burnout syndrome. We also studied whether these variables were significant burnout predictors, as well as whether there was a difference in the pattern of personal burnout predictors in primary school and university teachers. The following instruments were used: the scale of satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work, the ego function questionnaire, the scale of burnout syndrome in teachers. The results point to a relatively moderate satisfaction of all psychological needs, a higher level of integrated self-regulation as well as the medium presence of ego-invested and impersonal orientations. On the whole, teachers showed low burnout. Significant burnout predictors include an integrated self and the need for autonomy (university teachers and an impersonal self (primary school teachers. This implies that teachers whose psychological needs are satisfied and who have an integrated self are less susceptible to burnout. The findings are discussed from the viewpoint of the self-determination theory, their educational implications and the possibility of preventing work burnout in education workers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002: Indikatori i modeli usklađivanja porodičnih i poslovnih uloga

  14. Beam-scanning system for determination of beam profiles and form factors in merged-beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, C.J.; Froelich, H.R.; Mitchell, J.B.A.; McGowan, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A beam-scanning system for a merged electron-ion beam experiment is described. This system is used to determine the horizontal and vertical beam profiles and the form factors at three different locations along the axis of the beams. Design details of the wedge-shaped scanners and the electronic circuit for obtaining beam profiles and form factors are described. The form factor derivation for merged beams is given and an expression in terms of measured quantities is derived. (author)

  15. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  16. Determination of self shielding factors and gamma attenuation effects for tree ring samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagistan Sahin; Kenan Uenlue

    2012-01-01

    Determination of tree ring chemistry using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is part of an ongoing research between Penn State University (PSU) and Cornell University, The Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology. Tree-ring chemistry yields valuable data for environmental event signatures. These signatures are a complex function of elemental concentration. To be certain about concentration of signature elements, it is necessary to perform the measurements and corrections with the lowest error and maximum accuracy possible. Accurate and precise values of energy dependent neutron flux at dry irradiation tubes and detector efficiency for tree ring sample are calculated for Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). For the calculation of energy dependent and self shielding corrected neutron flux, detailed model of the TRIGA Mark III reactor at PSU with updated fuel compositions was prepared using the MCNP utility for reactor evolution (MURE) libraries. Dry irradiation tube, sample holder and sample were also included in the model. The thermal flux self-shielding correction factors due to the sample holder and sample for were calculated and verified with previously published values. The Geant-4 model of the gamma spectroscopy system, developed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), was improved and absolute detector efficiency for tree-ring samples was calculated. (author)

  17. Personal characteristics and contextual factors that determine "helping," "joining in," and "doing nothing" when witnessing cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Pabian, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self-reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9-16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Cristina de Almeida Pinto-Sarmento

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS. Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%. The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23, in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43 and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23. Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00. The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  19. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK as a determinant of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peri-implantitis presents inflammatory process that affects soft and hard supporting tissues of osseointegrated implant based on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK concentrations in peri-implant crevicular fluid could be associated with clinical parameters that reflect inflammatory nature of peri-implantitis. Methods. The study included 67 patients, 22 with diagnosed peri-implantitis, 22 persons with healthy peri-implant tissues and 23 patients with periodontitis. Clinical parameters from each patient were recorded and samples of peri-implant/gingival crevicular fluid were collected for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Results. RANK concentration was significantly increased in samples from the patients with periimplantitis when compared to healthy implants (p < 0.0001, where the average levels were 9 times higher. At the same time RANK concentration was significantly higher in periimplantitis than in periodontitis sites (p < 0.0001. In implant patients pocket depths and bleeding on probing values were positively associated with high RANK concentrations (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. These results revealed association of increased RANK concentration in samples of periimplant/ gingival crevicular fluid with peri-implant inflammation and suggests that RANK could be a pathologic determinant of peri-implantitis, thereby a potential parameter in assessment of peri-implant tissue inflammation and a potential target in designing treatment strategies.

  20. Longitudinal intra- and inter-individual variability in young swimmers' performance and determinant competition factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Estrela Morais

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to follow-up the intra- and inter-individual variability of young swimmers' performance and determinant factors over two competitive seasons. Thirty young swimmers (14 boys: 12.33±0.65 years-old; 16 girls: 11.15±0.55 years-old were followed-up throughout two consecutive seasons (seven evaluation moments. Performance (100m freestyle, anthropometric, kinematic, hydrodynamic and efficiency features were evaluated. A gender and skill-level effect was observed. Boys improved in a higher amount (% comparing to girls. Overall, swimmers in skill-level 2 (both genders presented a higher intra-individual variability. Performance and anthropometrics showed a significant inter-individual variability in most moments, but hydrodynamics, kinematics and efficiency did not. Within each skill-level hydrodynamics, kinematics and efficiency were the variables that showed a high inter-individual variability. As a gender and skill-level effect was noticed in an age-group of young swimmers, coaches and practitioners should put the focus in specific and customized training plans for each skill-level of swimmers.