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Sample records for quantify metabolic behavior

  1. Calculating radiation exposures during use of (14)C-labeled nutrients, food components, and biopharmaceuticals to quantify metabolic behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2010-04-28

    (14)C has long been used as a tracer for quantifying the in vivo human metabolism of food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Minute amounts (food components, biopharmaceuticals, or nutrients to be organized into models suitable for quantitative hypothesis testing and determination of metabolic parameters. In vivo models are important for specification of intake levels for food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Accurate estimation of the radiation exposure from ingested (14)C is an essential component of the experimental design. Therefore, this paper illustrates the calculation involved in determining the radiation exposure from a minute dose of orally administered (14)C-beta-carotene, (14)C-alpha-tocopherol, (14)C-lutein, and (14)C-folic acid from four prior experiments. The administered doses ranged from 36 to 100 nCi, and radiation exposure ranged from 0.12 to 5.2 microSv to whole body and from 0.2 to 3.4 microSv to liver with consideration of tissue weighting factor and fractional nutrient. In comparison, radiation exposure experienced during a 4 h airline flight across the United States at 37000 ft was 20 microSv.

  2. An index for quantifying flocking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera, Vicenç; Herrando, Salvador; Beltran, Francesc S; Salas, Laura; Miñano, Meritxell

    2007-12-01

    One of the classic research topics in adaptive behavior is the collective displacement of groups of organisms such as flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of mammals, and crowds of people. However, most agent-based simulations of group behavior do not provide a quantitative index for determining the point at which the flock emerges. An index was developed of the aggregation of moving individuals in a flock and an example was provided of how it can be used to quantify the degree to which a group of moving individuals actually forms a flock.

  3. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  4. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130?HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * famil...

  5. Quantifying complexity in metabolic engineering using the LASER database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Winkler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously introduced the LASER database (Learning Assisted Strain EngineeRing, https://bitbucket.org/jdwinkler/laser_release (Winkler et al. 2015 to serve as a platform for understanding past and present metabolic engineering practices. Over the past year, LASER has been expanded by 50% to include over 600 engineered strains from 450 papers, including their growth conditions, genetic modifications, and other information in an easily searchable format. Here, we present the results of our efforts to use LASER as a means for defining the complexity of a metabolic engineering “design”. We evaluate two complexity metrics based on the concepts of construction difficulty and novelty. No correlation is observed between expected product yield and complexity, allowing minimization of complexity without a performance trade-off. We envision the use of such complexity metrics to filter and prioritize designs prior to implementation of metabolic engineering efforts, thereby potentially reducing the time, labor, and expenses of large-scale projects. Possible future developments based on an expanding LASER database are then discussed. Keywords: Metabolic engineering, Synthetic biology, Standardization, Design tools

  6. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130-HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well.

  7. MO-DE-206-03: Quantifying Metabolism with Hyperpolarized MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankson, J. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In this symposium jointly sponsored by the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM, luminary speakers on imaging metabolism will discuss three impactful topics. The first presentation on Cellular Metabolism of FDG will be given by Guillem Pratx (Stanford). This presentation will detail new work on looking at how the most common molecular imaging agent, fluoro-deoxy-glucose is metabolized at a cellular level. This will be followed by a talk on an improved approach to whole-body PET imaging by Simon Cherry (UC Davis). Simon’s work on a new whole-body PET imaging system promises to have dramatic improvement in our ability to detect and characterize cancer using PET. Finally, Jim Bankson (MD Anderson) will discuss extremely sophisticated approaches to quantifying hyperpolarized-13-C pyruvate metabolism using MR imaging. This technology promises to compliment the exquisite sensitivity of PET with an ability to measure not just uptake, but tumor metabolism. Learning Objectives: Understand the metabolism of FDG at a cellular level. Appreciate the engineering related to a novel new high-sensitivity whole-body PET imaging system. Understand the process of hyperpolarization, how pyruvate relates to metabolism and how advanced modeling can be used to better quantify this data. G. Pratx, Funding: 5R01CA186275, 1R21CA193001, and Damon Runyon Cancer Foundation. S. Cherry, National Institutes of Health; University of California, Davis; Siemens Medical SolutionsJ. Bankson, GE Healthcare; NCI P30-CA016672; CPRIT PR140021-P5.

  8. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Ning [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Michael Z Q [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Su Riqi; Zhou Tao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: zht@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.hk, E-mail: zhutou@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  9. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Wang Ning; Chen, Michael Z Q; Su Riqi; Zhou Tao; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  10. Quantifying trading behavior in financial markets using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Crises in financial markets affect humans worldwide. Detailed market data on trading decisions reflect some of the complex human behavior that has led to these crises. We suggest that massive new data sources resulting from human interaction with the Internet may offer a new perspective on the behavior of market participants in periods of large market movements. By analyzing changes in Google query volumes for search terms related to finance, we find patterns that may be interpreted as "early warning signs" of stock market moves. Our results illustrate the potential that combining extensive behavioral data sets offers for a better understanding of collective human behavior.

  11. Memory in microbes: quantifying history-dependent behavior in a bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Memory is usually associated with higher organisms rather than bacteria. However, evidence is mounting that many regulatory networks within bacteria are capable of complex dynamics and multi-stable behaviors that have been linked to memory in other systems. Moreover, it is recognized that bacteria that have experienced different environmental histories may respond differently to current conditions. These "memory" effects may be more than incidental to the regulatory mechanisms controlling acclimation or to the status of the metabolic stores. Rather, they may be regulated by the cell and confer fitness to the organism in the evolutionary game it participates in. Here, we propose that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of memory, worth classifying and quantifying. To this end, we develop an information-theory based conceptual framework for measuring both the persistence of memory in microbes and the amount of information about the past encoded in history-dependent dynamics. This method produces a phenomenological measure of cellular memory without regard to the specific cellular mechanisms encoding it. We then apply this framework to a strain of Bacillus subtilis engineered to report on commitment to sporulation and degradative enzyme (AprE synthesis and estimate the capacity of these systems and growth dynamics to 'remember' 10 distinct cell histories prior to application of a common stressor. The analysis suggests that B. subtilis remembers, both in short and long term, aspects of its cell history, and that this memory is distributed differently among the observables. While this study does not examine the mechanistic bases for memory, it presents a framework for quantifying memory in cellular behaviors and is thus a starting point for studying new questions about cellular regulation and evolutionary strategy.

  12. Memory in microbes: quantifying history-Dependent behavior in a bacterium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Denise M.; Fontaine-Bodin, Lisa; Bischofs, Ilka; Price, Gavin; Keaslin, Jay; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-11-15

    Memory is usually associated with higher organisms rather than bacteria. However, evidence is mounting that many regulatory networks within bacteria are capable of complex dynamics and multi-stable behaviors that have been linked to memory in other systems. Moreover, it is recognized that bacteria that have experienced different environmental histories may respond differently to current conditions. These"memory" effects may be more than incidental to the regulatory mechanisms controlling acclimation or to the status of the metabolic stores. Rather, they may be regulated by the cell and confer fitness to the organism in the evolutionary game it participates in. Here, we propose that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of memory, worth classifying and quantifying. To this end, we develop an information-theory based conceptual framework for measuring both the persistence of memory in microbes and the amount of information about the past encoded in history-dependent dynamics. This method produces a phenomenological measure of cellular memory without regard to the specific cellular mechanisms encoding it. We then apply this framework to a strain of Bacillus subtilis engineered to report on commitment to sporulation and degradative enzyme (AprE) synthesis and estimate the capacity of these systems and growth dynamics to 'remember' 10 distinct cell histories prior to application of a common stressor. The analysis suggests that B. subtilis remembers, both in short and long term, aspects of its cell history, and that this memory is distributed differently among the observables. While this study does not examine the mechanistic bases for memory, it presents a framework for quantifying memory in cellular behaviors and is thus a starting point for studying new questions about cellular regulation and evolutionary strategy.

  13. Memory in Microbes: Quantifying History-Dependent Behavior in a Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Denise M.; Fontaine-Bodin, Lisa; Bischofs, Ilka; Price, Gavin; Keasling, Jay; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-11-15

    Memory is usually associated with higher organisms rather than bacteria. However, evidence is mounting that many regulatory networks within bacteria are capable of complex dynamics and multi-stable behaviors that have been linked to memory in other systems. Moreover, it is recognized that bacteria that have experienced different environmental histories may respond differently to current conditions. These"memory" effects may be more than incidental to the regulatory mechanisms controlling acclimation or to the status of the metabolic stores. Rather, they may be regulated by the cell and confer fitness to the organism in the evolutionary game it participates in. Here, we propose that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of memory, worth classifying and quantifying. To this end, we develop an information-theory based conceptual framework for measuring both the persistence of memory in microbes and the amount of information about the past encoded in history-dependent dynamics. This method produces a phenomenologicalmeasure of cellular memory without regard to the specific cellular mechanisms encoding it. We then apply this framework to a strain of Bacillus subtilis engineered to report on commitment to sporulation and degradative enzyme (AprE) synthesisand estimate the capacity of these systems and growth dynamics to"remember" 10 distinct cell histories prior to application of a common stressor. The analysis suggests that B. subtilis remembers, both in short and long term, aspects of its cellhistory, and that this memory is distributed differently among the observables. While this study does not examine the mechanistic bases for memory, it presents a framework for quantifying memory in cellular behaviors and is thus a starting point for studying new questions about cellular regulation and evolutionary strategy.

  14. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  15. Nanoscale mechanical stimulation method for quantifying C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kiso, Kaori; Sugi, Takuma; Okumura, Etsuko; Igarashi, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Here, we establish a novel economic system to quantify C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory by a controllable nanoscale mechanical stimulation. Using piezoelectric sheet speaker, we can flexibly change the vibration properties at a nanoscale displacement level and quantify behavioral responses and memory under the control of each vibration property. This system will facilitate understanding of physiological aspects of C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory.

  16. Quantifying cell behaviors in negative-pressure induced monolayer cell movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Er Chow

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: A quick membrane ruffling formation, an early cell–substratum separation, and an ensuing decrease in the cellular interaction occur in cells at NP. These specific monolayer cell behaviors at NP have been quantified and possibly accelerate wound healing.

  17. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation Method for Quantifying C. elegans Mechanosensory Behavior and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Takuma; Okumura, Etsuko; Kiso, Kaori; Igarashi, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Withdrawal escape response of C. elegans to nonlocalized vibration is a useful behavioral paradigm to examine mechanisms underlying mechanosensory behavior and its memory-dependent change. However, there are very few methods for investigating the degree of vibration frequency, amplitude and duration needed to induce behavior and memory. Here, we establish a new system to quantify C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory using a piezoelectric sheet speaker. In the system, we can flexibly change the vibration properties at a nanoscale displacement level and quantify behavioral responses under each vibration property. This system is an economic setup and easily replicated in other laboratories. By using the system, we clearly detected withdrawal escape responses and confirmed habituation memory. This system will facilitate the understanding of physiological aspects of C. elegans mechanosensory behavior in the future.

  18. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  19. Quantifying ruminal nitrogen metabolism using the omasal sampling technique in cattle--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A; Huhtanen, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Reynal, S M; Shingfield, K J

    2010-07-01

    Mixed model analysis of data from 32 studies (122 diets) was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the omasal sampling technique for quantifying ruminal-N metabolism and to assess the relationships between nonammonia-N flow at the omasal canal and milk protein yield. Data were derived from experiments in cattle fed North American diets (n=36) based on alfalfa silage, corn silage, and corn grain and Northern European diets (n=86) composed of grass silage and barley-based concentrates. In all studies, digesta flow was quantified using a triple-marker approach. Linear regressions were used to predict microbial-N flow to the omasum from intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), or total digestible nutrients. Efficiency of microbial-N synthesis increased with DM intake and there were trends for increased efficiency with elevated dietary concentrations of crude protein (CP) and rumen-degraded protein (RDP) but these effects were small. Regression of omasal rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) flow on CP intake indicated that an average 32% of dietary CP escaped and 68% was degraded in the rumen. The slope from regression of observed omasal flows of RUP on flows predicted by the National Research Council (2001) model indicated that NRC predicted greater RUP supply. Measured microbial-N flow was, on average, 26% greater than that predicted by the NRC model. Zero ruminal N-balance (omasal CP flow=CP intake) was obtained at dietary CP and RDP concentrations of 147 and 106 g/kg of DM, corresponding to ruminal ammonia-N and milk urea N concentrations of 7.1 and 8.3mg/100mL, respectively. Milk protein yield was positively related to the efficiency of microbial-N synthesis and measured RUP concentration. Improved efficiency of microbial-N synthesis and reduced ruminal CP degradability were positively associated with efficiency of capture of dietary N as milk N. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the omasal sampling technique yields valuable estimates

  20. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n=82. Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6 and light (MET 1.6 < 3, moderate (MET 3 < 6, and vigorous (MET 6 < 9 physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p=0.14 and 0.003% for liver fat (p=0.96. Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r=0.294, p=0.007, but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat.

  1. Using Eddy Covariance Sensors to Quantify Carbon Metabolism of Peatlands: A Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ertekin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem exchange (NEE of carbon dioxide (CO2 was measured in a cool temperate peatland in northwestern Turkey on a continuous basis using eddy covariance (EC sensors and multiple (non-linear regression-M(NLR-models. Our results showed that hourly NEE varied between −1.26 and 1.06 mg CO2 m−2 s−1, with a mean value of 0.11 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Nighttime ecosystem respiration (RE was on average measured as 0.23 ± 0.09 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Two best-fit M(NLR models estimated daytime RE as 0.64 ± 0.31 and 0.24 ± 0.05 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Total RE as the sum of nighttime and daytime RE ranged from 0.47 to 0.87 mg CO2 m−2 s−1, thus yielding estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP at −0.35 ± 0.18 and −0.74 ± 0.43 mg CO2 m−2 s−1. Use of EC sensors and M(NLR models is one of the most direct ways to quantify turbulent CO2 exchanges among the soil, vegetation and atmosphere within the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as source and sink behaviors of ecosystems.

  2. Quantifying the impact of Wellington Zoo's persuasive communication campaign on post-visit behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Zoos potential to facilitate visitor conservation behavior is commonly articulated. Few studies, however, have quantified whether zoos' conservation messages result in visitors implementing the behavior. To test if zoo conservation messages are adopted at home, I implemented a persuasive communication campaign which advocated keeping cats indoor at night, a behavior that is a potential solution to cats depredating native wildlife. Furthermore, I tested if a public commitment (signing a pledge card) strengthened the relationship between on-site intention to engage in the behavior and actual implementation of the behavior at home. The conservation behavior was included in the twice-daily animal presentations in the amphitheater. A sample of 691 visitors completed a survey as they exited the amphitheater that measured their recall of the conservation behavior and intention to engage in the behavior at home. The last 311 visitors to complete the survey were asked to sign a pledge card which was publicly displayed in the amphitheater. Six weeks after their zoo trip, visitors were contacted and asked if they had implemented the behavior. Recall of the conservation behavior was high (91% for control, 100% for pledge group) and the entire pledge group had implemented the behavior whereas just half (51%) of the control group did. Furthermore, signing the pledge card strengthened the relationship between onsite intention and at home behavior (r = 1.0 of for the pledge group and r = 0.21 for the control group). Overall, the zoo's conservation message was recalled and behavior implemented at home. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean People with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seongmi

    2017-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors - An application on Toulouse urban area (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houet, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.houet@univ-tlse2.fr [GEODE UMR 5602 CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 5 allee Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse Cedex (France); Pigeon, Gregoire [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, 42 avenue Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone-UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. - Highlights: > We proposed a method to map Urban Climate Zones and quantify their climate behaviors. > UCZ is an expert-based classification and is integrated in the WMO guidelines. > We classified 26 sample areas and quantified climate behaviors in winter/summer. > Results enhance urban heat islands and outskirts are surprisingly hottest in summer. > Influence of scale and climate data on UCZ mapping and climate evaluation is discussed. - This paper presents an automated approach to classify sample areas in a UCZ using landscape descriptors and demonstrate that climate behaviors of UCZ differ.

  5. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portell, Mariona; Anguera, M Teresa; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2015-01-01

    Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings) and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process). We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. PMID:26089708

  6. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  7. Behavioral and Metabolic Phenotype Indicate Personality in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingzhe; Chen, Yan; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Consistency of individual differences of animal behavior and personality in reactions to various environmental stresses among their life stages could reflect basic divergences in coping style which may affect survival, social rank, and reproductive success in the wild. However, the physiological mechanisms determining personality remain poorly understood. In order to study whether behavior, metabolism and physiological stress responses relate to the personality, we employed post-stress recovery assays to separate zebrafish into two behavioral types (proactive and reactive). The results demonstrated consistent difference among personality, behavior and metabolism in which proactive individuals were more aggressive, had higher standard metabolic rates and showed lower shuttled frequencies between dark and light compartments than the reactive ones. The behavioral variations were also linked to divergent acute salinity stress responses: proactive individuals adopted a swift locomotion behavior in response to acute salinity challenge while reactive individuals remain unchanged. Our results provide useful insight into how personality acts on correlated traits and the importance of a holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences. PMID:29899710

  8. Quantifying the metabolic capabilities of engineered Zymomonas mobilis using linear programming analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsantili Ivi C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for discovery of alternative, renewable, environmentally friendly energy sources and the development of cost-efficient, "clean" methods for their conversion into higher fuels becomes imperative. Ethanol, whose significance as fuel has dramatically increased in the last decade, can be produced from hexoses and pentoses through microbial fermentation. Importantly, plant biomass, if appropriately and effectively decomposed, is a potential inexpensive and highly renewable source of the hexose and pentose mixture. Recently, the engineered (to also catabolize pentoses anaerobic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been widely discussed among the most promising microorganisms for the microbial production of ethanol fuel. However, Z. mobilis genome having been fully sequenced in 2005, there is still a small number of published studies of its in vivo physiology and limited use of the metabolic engineering experimental and computational toolboxes to understand its metabolic pathway interconnectivity and regulation towards the optimization of its hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol. Results In this paper, we reconstructed the metabolic network of the engineered Z. mobilis to a level that it could be modelled using the metabolic engineering methodologies. We then used linear programming (LP analysis and identified the Z. mobilis metabolic boundaries with respect to various biological objectives, these boundaries being determined only by Z. mobilis network's stoichiometric connectivity. This study revealed the essential for bacterial growth reactions and elucidated the association between the metabolic pathways, especially regarding main product and byproduct formation. More specifically, the study indicated that ethanol and biomass production depend directly on anaerobic respiration stoichiometry and activity. Thus, enhanced understanding and improved means for analyzing anaerobic respiration and redox potential in vivo are

  9. A high-throughput method for quantifying metabolically active yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Rosenkjær, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    By redesigning the established methylene blue reduction test for bacteria and yeast, we present a cheap and efficient methodology for quantitative physiology of eukaryotic cells applicable for high-throughput systems. Validation of themethod in fermenters and highthroughput systems proved....... The drop in metabolic activity associated with the diauxic shift in yeast proved more pronounced for the MBRT-derived curve compared with OD curves, consistent with a dramatic shift in the ratio between live and dead cells at this metabolic event. This method provides a tool with numerous applications, e.......g. characterizing the death phase of stationary phase cultures, or in drug screens with pathogenic yeasts....

  10. Inferring Characteristics of Sensorimotor Behavior by Quantifying Dynamics of Animal Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, KaWai

    Locomotion is one of the most well-studied topics in animal behavioral studies. Many fundamental and clinical research make use of the locomotion of an animal model to explore various aspects in sensorimotor behavior. In the past, most of these studies focused on population average of a specific trait due to limitation of data collection and processing power. With recent advance in computer vision and statistical modeling techniques, it is now possible to track and analyze large amounts of behavioral data. In this thesis, I present two projects that aim to infer the characteristics of sensorimotor behavior by quantifying the dynamics of locomotion of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, shedding light on statistical dependence between sensing and behavior. In the first project, I investigate the possibility of inferring noxious sensory information from the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans. I develop a statistical model to infer the heat stimulus level perceived by individual animals from their stereotyped escape responses after stimulation by an IR laser. The model allows quantification of analgesic-like effects of chemical agents or genetic mutations in the worm. At the same time, the method is able to differentiate perturbations of locomotion behavior that are beyond affecting the sensory system. With this model I propose experimental designs that allows statistically significant identification of analgesic-like effects. In the second project, I investigate the relationship of energy budget and stability of locomotion in determining the walking speed distribution of Drosophila melanogaster during aging. The locomotion stability at different age groups is estimated from video recordings using Floquet theory. I calculate the power consumption of different locomotion speed using a biomechanics model. In conclusion, the power consumption, not stability, predicts the locomotion speed distribution at different ages.

  11. Quantifying Diet-Induced Metabolic Changes of the Human Gut Microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoaie, Saeed; Ghaffari, Pouyan; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiome is known to be associated with various human disorders, but a major challenge is to go beyond association studies and elucidate causalities. Mathematical modeling of the human gut microbiome at a genome scale is a useful tool to decipher microbe-microbe, diet...... of single bacteria and whole communities in vitro. Focusing on metabolic interactions between the diet, gut microbiota, and host metabolism, we demonstrated the predictive power of the toolbox in a diet-intervention study of 45 obese and overweight individuals and validated our predictions by fecal...... and blood metabolomics data. Thus, modeling could quantitatively describe altered fecal and serum amino acid levels in response to diet intervention....

  12. Quantifying the contributions of behavioral and biological risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease incidence: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Droomers, Mariël; Robinson, Whitney R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of different modifiable behavioral and biological risk factors on socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) may help inform targeted, population-specific strategies to reduce the unequal distribution of the disease. Previous studies have used analytic

  13. Quantifying cognition and behavior in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.

  14. Quantifying Physiological, Behavioral and Ecological Consequences of Hypoxic Events in Kelp Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, S. Y.; Beers, J. M.; Woodson, C. B.; Leary, P.; Fringer, O. B.; Goldbogen, J. A.; Micheli, F.; Monismith, S. G.; Somero, G. N.

    2016-02-01

    Rocky reef kelp forests that extend along the coast of central California, like many habitats in upwelling systems, often experience inundations of low dissolved oxygen (DO) or hypoxic waters. These events have the potential to influence the structure and function of coastal ecosystems. The ecological consequences of hypoxia for these systems will be mediated by physiological thresholds and behavioral responses of resident organisms in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of DO, and other potential stressors. Our research focuses on Sebastes (i.e. rockfish) because of their commercial, recreational and ecological importance, high abundance across near shore habitats and the potentially severe impacts of physiological stress due to hypoxia. In the lab, to investigate how hypoxic events physiologically effect rockfish, we exposed young of the year (YOY) of 5 species and two life stages of blue rockfish, S. mystinus (YOY and 1+), to DO concentrations representative of upwelling conditions and measured a suite of whole organisms and tissue level responses including metabolic rate, ventilation, tissue-level metabolism, and blood biochemistry. Results demonstrate species and life stage specific differences in physiological stress under upwelling driven hypoxic conditions and suggest YOY rockfishes may currently be living near their physiological limits. In the laboratory we further explored if physiological impacts result in behavioral consequences by examining the startle response of YOY rockfish, a relative measure of predator avoidance ability, under a range of DO concentrations and exposure durations. To further explore behavioral responses of rockfish to low in DO within the kelp forest we are using two approaches, monitoring the vertical distribution of fish communities across the water column using an acoustic imaging camera (ARIS 3000, Soundmetrics Inc.) and acoustic tagging, with 3-D positioning ability (VPS, VEMCO Inc.), of larger blue rockfish

  15. Disruption of behavior and brain metabolism in artificially reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; Porras, Mercedes G; Parra, Leticia; González-Ríos, Jacquelina; Garduño-Torres, Dafne F; Albores-García, Damaris; Avendaño, Arturo; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Melo, Angel I; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Mendoza-Garrido, Ma Eugenia; Toriz, César; Diaz, Daniel; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Early adverse life stress has been associated to behavioral disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial rearing on the open field and burial behavioral tests and on GFAP, c-Fos immunoreactivity, and glucose metabolism measured in anxiety-related brain areas. Artificial rearing of male rats was performed by supplying artificial milk through a cheek cannula and tactile stimulation, mimicking the mother's licking to rat pups from the fourth postnatal day until weaning. Tactile stimulation was applied twice a day, at morning and at night, by means of a camel brush on the rat anogenital area. As compared to mother reared rats, greater aggressiveness, and boldness, stereotyped behavior (burial conduct) was observed in artificially reared rats which occurred in parallel to a reduction of GFAP immunoreactivity in somatosensory cortex, c-Fos immunoreactivity at the amygdala and primary somatosensory cortex, and lower metabolism in amygdala (as measured by 2-deoxi-2-[ 18 fluoro]-d-glucose uptake, assessed by microPET imaging). These results could suggest that tactile and/or chemical stimuli from the mother and littermates carry relevant information for the proper development of the central nervous system, particularly in brain areas involved with emotions and social relationships of the rat. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1413-1429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  17. An experimental method to quantify the impact fatigue behavior of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bangbiao; Xia, Kaiwen; Kanopoulos, Patrick; Luo, Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue failure is an important failure mode of engineering materials. The fatigue behavior of both ductile and brittle materials has been under investigation for many years. While the fatigue failure of ductile materials is well established, only a few studies have been carried out on brittle materials. In addition, most fatigue studies on rocks are conducted under quasi-static loading conditions. To address engineering applications involving repeated blasting, this paper proposes a method to quantify the impact fatigue properties of rocks. In this method, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system is adopted to exert impact load on the sample, which is placed in a specially designed steel sleeve to limit the displacement of the sample and thus to enable the recovery of the rock after each impact. The method is then applied to Laurentian granite, which is fine-grained and isotropic material. The results demonstrate that this is a practicable means to conduct impact fatigue tests on rocks and other brittle solids. (paper)

  18. An experimental method to quantify the impact fatigue behavior of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bangbiao; Kanopoulos, Patrick; Luo, Xuedong; Xia, Kaiwen

    2014-07-01

    Fatigue failure is an important failure mode of engineering materials. The fatigue behavior of both ductile and brittle materials has been under investigation for many years. While the fatigue failure of ductile materials is well established, only a few studies have been carried out on brittle materials. In addition, most fatigue studies on rocks are conducted under quasi-static loading conditions. To address engineering applications involving repeated blasting, this paper proposes a method to quantify the impact fatigue properties of rocks. In this method, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system is adopted to exert impact load on the sample, which is placed in a specially designed steel sleeve to limit the displacement of the sample and thus to enable the recovery of the rock after each impact. The method is then applied to Laurentian granite, which is fine-grained and isotropic material. The results demonstrate that this is a practicable means to conduct impact fatigue tests on rocks and other brittle solids.

  19. Quantifying human behavior uncertainties in a coupled agent-based model for water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, J. Y.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling human behaviors and decisions in water resources management is a challenging issue due to its complexity and uncertain characteristics that affected by both internal (such as stakeholder's beliefs on any external information) and external factors (such as future policies and weather/climate forecast). Stakeholders' decision regarding how much water they need is usually not entirely rational in the real-world cases, so it is not quite suitable to model their decisions with a centralized (top-down) approach that assume everyone in a watershed follow the same order or pursue the same objective. Agent-based modeling (ABM) uses a decentralized approach (bottom-up) that allow each stakeholder to make his/her own decision based on his/her own objective and the belief of information acquired. In this study, we develop an ABM which incorporates the psychological human decision process by the theory of risk perception. The theory of risk perception quantifies human behaviors and decisions uncertainties using two sequential methodologies: the Bayesian Inference and the Cost-Loss Problem. The developed ABM is coupled with a regulation-based water system model: Riverware (RW) to evaluate different human decision uncertainties in water resources management. The San Juan River Basin in New Mexico (Figure 1) is chosen as a case study area, while we define 19 major irrigation districts as water use agents and their primary decision is to decide the irrigated area on an annual basis. This decision will be affected by three external factors: 1) upstream precipitation forecast (potential amount of water availability), 2) violation of the downstream minimum flow (required to support ecosystems), and 3) enforcement of a shortage sharing plan (a policy that is currently undertaken in the region for drought years). Three beliefs (as internal factors) that correspond to these three external factors will also be considered in the modeling framework. The objective of this study is

  20. Impact of prebiotics on metabolic and behavioral alterations in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cossío, Lourdes Fernández; Fourrier, Célia; Sauvant, Julie; Everard, Amandine; Capuron, Lucile; Cani, Patrice D; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2017-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates. We assessed the impact of chronic administration (8weeks) of prebiotics (oligofructose) on both metabolic (body weight, food intake, glucose homeostasis) and behavioral (increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired spatial memory) alterations characterizing db/db mice, as well as related neurobiological correlates, with particular attention to neuroinflammatory processes. Prebiotic administration improved excessive food intake and glycemic dysregulations (glucose tolerance and insulin resistance) in db/db mice. This was accompanied by an increase of plasma anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels and hypothalamic mRNA expression of the anorexigenic cytokine IL-1β, whereas unbalanced mRNA expression of hypothalamic orexigenic (NPY) and anorexigenic (CART, POMC) peptides was unchanged. We also detected signs of improved blood-brain-barrier integrity in the hypothalamus of oligofructose-treated db/db mice (normalized expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin). On the contrary, prebiotic administration did not improve behavioral alterations and associated reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis displayed by db/db mice, despite normalization of increased hippocampal IL-6 mRNA expression. Of note

  1. Eating beyond metabolic need: how environmental cues influence feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2013-02-01

    Animals use current, past, and projected future states of the organism and the world in a finely tuned system to control ingestion. They must not only deal effectively with current nutrient deficiencies, but also manage energy resources to meet future needs, all within the constraints of the mechanisms of metabolism. Many recent approaches to understanding the control of ingestive behavior distinguish between homeostatic mechanisms concerned with energy balance, and hedonic and incentive processes based on palatability and reward characteristics of food. In this review, I consider how learning about environmental cues influences homeostatic and hedonic brain signals, which may lead to increases in the affective taste properties of food and desire to over consume. Understanding these mechanisms may be critical for elucidating the etiology of the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4 were semi-quantified by Western Blot in epididymal adipocytes. RAC periods associated with chronic stress increased the GLUT-4 protein expression in adipose tissue in a time-dependent manner (P=0.01, i.e., the longer the RAC addition period, the higher the GLUT-4 concentration in chronically stressed animals (0=1.42; 7=1.19; 14=2.03; 21=1.59; 28=2.35. The stress periods combined with RAC increased the time spent in the opened arms of the maze (Chronic stress: 0=10.6; 7=8.7; 14=5.9; 21=12.3; 28=4.0; Acute stress 0=3.1; 7= 4.7; 14=7.5; 21=0.0; 28=2.8 (P=0.04. Chronic (entries on the closed arms [ECA]=3.60 and acute (ECA=3.80 stress reduced locomotive activity in the maze (P=0.03. The results suggested that stress could negatively affect the possible benefits offered by the RAC, mainly impairing the adipose tissue metabolism and behavior in the animals.

  3. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Camhi

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO. Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women.Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2. Time (mins/day in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time. Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data or logistic regression (categorical data after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate.Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9, MHO (n = 37; 80% spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02, more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02, and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03. MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day compared to MUO.Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed

  4. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  5. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  6. Timing of transients: quantifying reaching times and transient behavior in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Tim; Heitzig, Jobst; Webster, Kevin; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    In dynamical systems, one may ask how long it takes for a trajectory to reach the attractor, i.e. how long it spends in the transient phase. Although for a single trajectory the mathematically precise answer may be infinity, it still makes sense to compare different trajectories and quantify which of them approaches the attractor earlier. In this article, we categorize several problems of quantifying such transient times. To treat them, we propose two metrics, area under distance curve and regularized reaching time, that capture two complementary aspects of transient dynamics. The first, area under distance curve, is the distance of the trajectory to the attractor integrated over time. It measures which trajectories are ‘reluctant’, i.e. stay distant from the attractor for long, or ‘eager’ to approach it right away. Regularized reaching time, on the other hand, quantifies the additional time (positive or negative) that a trajectory starting at a chosen initial condition needs to approach the attractor as compared to some reference trajectory. A positive or negative value means that it approaches the attractor by this much ‘earlier’ or ‘later’ than the reference, respectively. We demonstrated their substantial potential for application with multiple paradigmatic examples uncovering new features.

  7. Modifiable Lifestyle Behaviors Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in a Taiwanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuei-Man; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Shu-Hua; Tan, Jung-Ying; Huang, Chien-Ning; Liao, Wen-Chun

    2015-11-01

    To explore associations between metabolic syndrome and modifiable lifestyle behaviors among the adult population in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample that participated in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The sample (2,337 participants older than 19 years) provided data on demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemistry panel. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 25.2%, and this prevalence increased with age. In univariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with age, living with family members, educational level, and modifiable lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing, and physical activity). Individuals with a smoking history and currently chewing betel quid had the highest risk for metabolic syndrome. The risk for metabolic syndrome might be reduced by public health campaigns to encourage people to quit smoking cigarettes and chewing betel quid. Implementing more modifiable lifestyle behaviors in daily life will decrease metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Considering that betel quid chewing and tobacco smoking interact to adversely affect metabolic syndrome risk, public health campaigns against both behaviors seem to be a cost-effective and efficient health promotion strategy to reduce the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Identifying and Quantifying Emergent Behavior Through System of Systems Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the similarities and differences between Agent Based Modeling ( ABM ) and Equation Based Modeling (EBM). Both modeling approaches “simulate a system by...entities. For the latter difference, EBM focuses on the system level observables, while ABM defines behaviors at the individual agent level and observes...EMERGENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS MODELING AND SIMULATION by Mary Ann Cummings September 2015 Dissertation Supervisor: Man-Tak Shing

  9. Metabolic tumor burden quantified on [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT improves TNM staging of lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Paula; Isidoro, Jorge; Costa, Gracinda [Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveiros, Barbara [University of Coimbra, Laboratory of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); University of Coimbra, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Marques, Margarida [University of Coimbra, Laboratory of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra, Technology and Information Systems Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Caseiro Alves, Filipe [Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra, Radiology Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Nascimento Costa, J.M. [University of Coimbra, University Oncology Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Lima, Joao Pedroso de [Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Coimbra (Portugal); University of Coimbra, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health-ICNAS, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of our study was to test a new staging algorithm, combining clinical TNM staging (cTNM) with whole-body metabolic active tumor volume (MATV-WB), with the goal of improving prognostic ability and stratification power. Initial staging [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT of 278 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, performed between January/2011 and April/2016, 74(26.6%) women, 204(73.4%) men; aged 34-88 years (mean ± SD:66 ± 10), was retrospectively evaluated, and MATV-WB was quantified. Each patient's follow-up time was recorded: 0.7-83.6 months (mean ± SD:25.1 ± 20.3). MATV-WB was an independent and statistically-significant predictor of overall survival (p < 0.001). The overall survival predictive ability of MATV-WB (C index: mean ± SD = 0.7071 ± 0.0009) was not worse than cTNM (C index: mean ± SD = 0.7031 ± 0.007) (Z = -0.143, p = 0.773). Estimated mean survival times of 56.3 ± 3.0 (95%CI:50.40-62.23) and 21.7 ± 2.2 months (95%CI:17.34-25.98) (Log-Rank = 77.48, p < 0.001), one-year survival rate of 86.8% and of 52.8%, and five-year survival rate of 53.6% and no survivors, were determined, respectively, for patients with MATV-WB < 49.5 and MATV-WB ≥ 49.5. Patients with MATV-WB ≥ 49.5 had a mortality risk 2.9-5.8 times higher than those with MATV-WB < 49.5 (HR = 4.12, p < 0.001). MATV-WB cutoff points were also determined for each cTNM stage: 23.7(I), 49.5(II), 52(III), 48.8(IV) (p = 0.029, p = 0.227, p = 0.025 and p = 0.001, respectively). At stages I, III and IV there was a statistically-significant difference in the estimated mean overall survival time between groups of patients defined by the cutoff points (p = 0.007, p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). At stage II (p = 0.365), there was a clinically-significant difference of about 12 months between the groups. In all cTNM stages, patients with MATV-WB ≥ cutoff points had lower survival rates. Combined clinical TNM-PET staging (cTNM-P) was then tested: Stage I < 23.7; Stage I

  10. Quantifying Spiral Ganglion Neurite and Schwann Behavior on Micropatterned Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elise L; Leigh, Braden; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2016-01-01

    The first successful in vitro experiments on the cochlea were conducted in 1928 by Honor Fell (Fell, Arch Exp Zellforsch 7(1):69-81, 1928). Since then, techniques for culture of this tissue have been refined, and dissociated primary culture of the spiral ganglion has become a widely accepted in vitro model for studying nerve damage and regeneration in the cochlea. Additionally, patterned substrates have been developed that facilitate and direct neural outgrowth. A number of automated and semi-automated methods for quantifying this neurite outgrowth have been utilized in recent years (Zhang et al., J Neurosci Methods 160(1):149-162, 2007; Tapias et al., Neurobiol Dis 54:158-168, 2013). Here, we describe a method to study the effect of topographical cues on spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell alignment. We discuss our microfabrication process, characterization of pattern features, cell culture techniques for both spiral ganglion neurons and spiral ganglion Schwann cells. In addition, we describe protocols for reducing fibroblast count, immunocytochemistry, and methods for quantifying neurite and Schwann cell alignment.

  11. Quantifying metabolic heterogeneity in head and neck tumors in real time: 2-DG uptake is highest in hypoxic tumor regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C Nakajima

    Full Text Available Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor.Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n = 16 in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG uptake in clinical PET scans.IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p = 0.0001. IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5β confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous (18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors.Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. (18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis.

  12. A Brief Report: Quantifying and Correlating Social Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ashley L.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated social behaviors, including initiating joint attention (IJA), responding to joint attention (RJA), social orienting, and imitation in 14 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to 12 typically developing children (TD). Results indicated that IJA and RJA were positively correlated with social…

  13. Quantifying voids effecting delamination in carbon/epoxy composites: static and fatigue fracture behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, I.; May, D.; Abo Ras, M.; Meyendorf, N.; Donaldson, S.

    2016-04-01

    On the present work, samples of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with different void levels were fabricated using hand layup vacuum bagging process by varying the pressure. Thermal nondestructive methods: thermal conductivity measurement, pulse thermography, pulse phase thermography and lock-in-thermography, and mechanical testing: modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness were conducted. Comparing the parameters resulted from the thermal nondestructive testing revealed that voids lead to reductions in thermal properties in all directions of composites. The results of mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness showed that voids lead to reductions in interlaminar fracture toughness. The parameters resulted from thermal nondestructive testing were correlated to the results of mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and voids were quantified.

  14. Odontocete Cetaceans: Quantifying Behavioral Ecology and Response to Predators Using a Multi-Species Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Behaviour 144(11): 1315–1332. http://doi.org/10.1163/156853907782418213 Madsen, P.T., M. Wahlberg, J. Tougaard, and K. Lucke. 2006. Wind turbine ...individual in small 14 group (Stanford 2002). Increased vigilance and diluted predation risk is often cited as a factor promoting sociality in birds ...also be used to recruit conspecifics to engage in mobbing behavior in both mammals and birds (Curio et al. 1978; Tamura 1989). Actual predation

  15. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  16. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone‑UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automatic MRI Quantifying Methods in Behavioral-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Cajanus

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We assessed the value of automated MRI quantification methods in the differential diagnosis of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD from Alzheimer disease (AD, Lewy body dementia (LBD, and subjective memory complaints (SMC. We also examined the role of the C9ORF72-related genetic status in the differentiation sensitivity. Methods: The MRI scans of 50 patients with bvFTD (17 C9ORF72 expansion carriers were analyzed using 6 quantification methods as follows: voxel-based morphometry (VBM, tensor-based morphometry, volumetry (VOL, manifold learning, grading, and white-matter hyperintensities. Each patient was then individually compared to an independent reference group in order to attain diagnostic suggestions. Results: Only VBM and VOL showed utility in correctly identifying bvFTD from our set of data. The overall classification sensitivity of bvFTD with VOL + VBM achieved a total sensitivity of 60%. Using VOL + VBM, 32% were misclassified as having LBD. There was a trend of higher values for classification sensitivity of the C9ORF72 expansion carriers than noncarriers. Conclusion: VOL, VBM, and their combination are effective in differential diagnostics between bvFTD and AD or SMC. However, MRI atrophy profiles for bvFTD and LBD are too similar for a reliable differentiation with the quantification methods tested in this study.

  18. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Fukai

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study.A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808. The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385 created by random allocation.Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population. The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time.Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases.

  19. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  20. Using Data From the Microsoft Kinect 2 to Quantify Upper Limb Behavior: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbandi, Behdad; Barachant, Alexandre; Harary, David; Long, John Davis; Tsagaris, K Zoe; Bumanlag, Silverio Joseph; He, Victor; Putrino, David

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the novel application of a machine learning approach to data collected from the Microsoft Kinect 2 (MK2) could be used to classify differing levels of upper limb impairment. Twenty-four healthy subjects completed items of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), which is a clinically validated metric of upper limb function for stroke survivors. Subjects completed the WMFT three times: 1) as a healthy individual; 2) emulating mild impairment; and 3) emulating moderate impairment. A MK2 was positioned in front of participants, and collected kinematic data as they completed the WMFT. A classification framework, based on Riemannian geometry and the use of covariance matrices as feature representation of the MK2 data, was developed for these data, and its ability to successfully classify subjects as either "healthy," "mildly impaired," or "moderately impaired" was assessed. Mean accuracy for our classifier was 91.7%, with a specific accuracy breakdown of 100%, 83.3%, and 91.7% for the "healthy," "mildly impaired," and "moderately impaired" conditions, respectively. We conclude that data from the MK2 is of sufficient quality to perform objective motor behavior classification in individuals with upper limb impairment. The data collection and analysis framework that we have developed has the potential to disrupt the field of clinical assessment. Future studies will focus on validating this protocol on large populations of individuals with actual upper limb impairments in order to create a toolkit that is clinically validated and available to the clinical community.

  1. Tracing Mantle Plumes: Quantifying their Morphology and Behavior from Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, K. A.; Eakin, C. M.; Jones, T. D.; Garcia, E.; Robson, A.; Mittal, T.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Jackson, M. G.; Lekic, V.; Rudolph, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Hotspot volcanism provides a direct link between the deep mantle and the surface, but the location, depth and source of the mantle plumes that feed hotspots are highly controversial. In order to address this issue it is important to understand the journey along which plumes have travelled through the mantle. The general behavior of plumes in the mantle also has the potential to tell us about the vigor of mantle convection, net rotation of the mantle, the role of thermal versus chemical anomalies, and important bulk physical properties of the mantle such as the viscosity profile. To address these questions we developed an algorithm to trace plume-like features in shear-wave (Vs) seismic tomographic models based on picking local minima in velocity and searching for continuous features with depth. We apply this method to several of the latest tomographic models and can recover 30 or more continuous plume conduits that are >750 km long. Around half of these can be associated with a known hotspot at the surface. We study the morphology of these plume chains and find that the largest lateral deflections occur near the base of the lower mantle and in the upper mantle. We analyze the preferred orientation of the plume deflections and their gradient to infer large scale mantle flow patterns and the depth of viscosity contrasts in the mantle respectively. We also retrieve Vs profiles for our traced plumes and compare with velocity profiles predicted for different mantle adiabat temperatures. We use this to constrain the thermal anomaly associated with these plumes. This thermal anomaly is then converted to a density anomaly and an upwelling velocity is derived. We compare this to buoyancy fluxes calculated at the surface and use this in conjunction with our measured plume tilts/deflections to estimate the strength of the "mantle wind".

  2. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  3. When things don't add up: quantifying impacts of multiple stressors from individual metabolism to ecosystem processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Sullivan, Lauren L; Grimm, Volker; Forbes, Valery E

    2018-04-01

    Ecosystems are exposed to multiple stressors which can compromise functioning and service delivery. These stressors often co-occur and interact in different ways which are not yet fully understood. Here, we applied a population model representing a freshwater amphipod feeding on leaf litter in forested streams. We simulated impacts of hypothetical stressors, individually and in pairwise combinations that target the individuals' feeding, maintenance, growth and reproduction. Impacts were quantified by examining responses at three levels of biological organisation: individual-level body sizes and cumulative reproduction, population-level abundance and biomass and ecosystem-level leaf litter decomposition. Interactive effects of multiple stressors at the individual level were mostly antagonistic, that is, less negative than expected. Most population- and ecosystem-level responses to multiple stressors were stronger than expected from an additive model, that is, synergistic. Our results suggest that across levels of biological organisation responses to multiple stressors are rarely only additive. We suggest methods for efficiently quantifying impacts of multiple stressors at different levels of biological organisation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Seasonal changes in mood and behavior are linked to metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Rintamäki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor to the cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that disruptions of the circadian clockwork are associated with and may predispose to metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 8028 individuals attended a nationwide health examination survey in Finland. Data were collected with a face-to-face interview at home and during an individual health status examination. The waist circumference, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and samples were taken for laboratory tests. Participants were assessed using the ATP-III criteria for metabolic syndrome and with the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for their seasonal changes in mood and behavior. Seasonal changes in weight in particular were a risk factor of metabolic syndrome, after controlling for a number of known risk and potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolic syndrome is associated with high global scores on the seasonal changes in mood and behavior, and with those in weight in particular. Assessment of these changes may serve as a useful indicator of metabolic syndrome, because of easy assessment. Abnormalities in the circadian clockwork which links seasonal fluctuations to metabolic cycles may predispose to seasonal changes in weight and to metabolic syndrome.

  5. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  6. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  7. Abdominal aortic calcification quantified by the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    . Three hundred and eight healthy women aged 48 to 76 years, were followed for 8.3 ± 0.3 years. AAC was quantified using lumbar radiographs. Baseline data included age, weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose levels. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test for relationships....... At baseline and across all patients, MACD correlated with blood glucose (r2 = 0.1, Pcorrelations between baseline biological parameters and the follow-up calcification assessment...... index was not correlated with blood parameters. Patterns of calcification identified by the MACD, but not the AC24 index, appear to contain useful biological information perhaps explaining part of the improved identification of risk of cardiovascular death of the MACD index. Correlations of MACD...

  8. A new nano-enhanced technology proposed to quantify intracellular detection of radiation-induced metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Henryk; Richmond, Robert; Dicello, J F

    2011-02-01

    A new approach to intracellular detection and imaging of metabolic processes and pathways is presented that uses surface plasmon resonance to enhance interactions between photon-absorbing metabolites and metal nanoparticles in contact with cells in vitro or in vivo. Photon absorption in the nanoparticles creates plasmon fields, enhancing intrinsic metabolite fluorescence, thereby increasing absorption and emission rates, creating new spectral emission bands, shortening fluorescence lifetimes, becoming more photo-stable and increasing fluorescent resonance energy transfer efficiency. Because the cells remain viable, it is proposed that the method may be used to interrogate cells prior to and after irradiation, with the potential for automated analyses of intracellular interactive pathways associated with radiation exposures at lower doses than existing technologies. The design and concepts of the instrument are presented along with data for unexposed cells.

  9. Neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism is increased in the dorsal hippocampus and drives distinct depressive behaviors during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, J M; Redus, L; Santana-Coelho, D; Morales, J; Gao, X; O'Connor, J C

    2016-10-18

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has an important role in mediating the behavioral effects of inflammation, which has implications in understanding neuropsychiatric comorbidity and for the development of novel therapies. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prevents the development of many of these inflammation-induced preclinical behaviors. However, dysregulation in the balance of downstream metabolism, where neuroactive kynurenines are generated, is hypothesized to be a functionally important pathogenic feature of inflammation-induced depression. Here we utilized two novel transgenic mouse strains to directly test the hypothesis that neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism causes depressive-like behavior following peripheral immune activation. Wild-type (WT) or kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO)-deficient (KMO -/- ) mice were administered either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 mg kg -1 ) or saline intraperitoneally. Depressive-like behavior was measured across multiple domains 24 h after immune challenge. LPS precipitated a robust depressive-like phenotype, but KMO -/- mice were specifically protected from LPS-induced immobility in the tail suspension test (TST) and reduced spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze. Direct administration of 3-hydroxykynurenine, the metabolic product of KMO, caused a dose-dependent increase in depressive-like behaviors. Mice with targeted deletion of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase (HAAO), the enzyme that generates quinolinic acid, were similarly challenged with LPS. Similar to KMO -/- mice, LPS failed to increase immobility during the TST. Whereas kynurenine metabolism was generally increased in behaviorally salient brain regions, a distinct shift toward KMO-dependent kynurenine metabolism occurred in the dorsal hippocampus in response to LPS. Together, these results demonstrate that KMO is a pivotal mediator of hippocampal-dependent depressive-like behaviors induced by peripheral

  10. Digestibility and behavior of dogs housed in kennels or metabolic cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabyta Tamara Sabchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the apparent digestibility coefficients of a commercial dog food, fecal consistency and behavior of dogs housed in kennels and metabolic cages. Six adult Beagle dogs were distributed in cross-over experimental design, with six replicates per treatment. Dogs were housed in two environments: metabolic cages and in masonry kennels with solarium. Dogs were fed for a five-day adaptation period, and the five following days were used for total feces collection. Dogs behavior was recorded during a 48-h period, with 10-min intervals. Apparent digestibility coefficients were not different between treatments. However, dogs housed in metabolic cages produced lower weight and more consistent feces as compared with dogs housed in kennels. Dogs spent most of the time sleeping in both housing systems; however, dogs housed in the metabolic cages slept more than those in kennels. Stress-related behaviors (barking, whimpering, stereotypies, etc were observed for no longer than 15 minutes per day, and were not different between dogs in kennels or in cages. There is no difference in food digestibility evaluated in dogs housed in metabolic cages or kennels; however, dogs kept in metabolic cages eliminate drier feces and spend more time inactive than those kept in kennels.

  11. Application of the transtheoretical model: exercise behavior in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although regular exercise has been recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people with metabolic syndrome, little information is available about psychobehavioral strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the stages, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy of exercise behavior and to determine the significant predictors explaining regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey design enrolled a convenience sample of 210 people with metabolic syndrome at a university hospital in South Korea. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and transtheoretical model-related variables. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of regular exercise stages. Action and maintenance stages comprised 51.9% of regular exercise stages, whereas 48.1% of non-regular exercise stages were precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Adults with regular exercise stages displayed increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, were more likely to use consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation strategies, and were less likely to evaluate the merits/disadvantages of exercise, compared with those in non-regular exercise stages. In this study of regular exercise behavior and transtheoretical model-related variables, consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation were associated with a positive effect on regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. Our findings could be used to develop strategies and interventions to maintain regular exercise behavior directed at Korean adults with metabolic syndrome to reduce CVD risk. Further prospective intervention studies are needed to investigate the effect of regular exercise program on the prevention and/or reduction of CVD risk among this

  12. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Methods Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. Results The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Conclusion Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  13. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-06-18

    Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB) with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years) with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  14. Altered behavior, physiology, and metabolism in fish exposed to polystyrene nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Karin; Ekvall, Mikael T; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2015-01-01

    that enter natural ecosystems, such as oceans and lakes, is increasing, and degradation of the disposed plastics produces smaller particles toward the nano scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gain knowledge about how plastic nanoparticles enter and affect living organisms. Here we have...... administered 24 and 27 nm polystyrene nanoparticles to fish through an aquatic food chain, from algae through Daphnia, and studied the effects on behavior and metabolism. We found severe effects on feeding and shoaling behavior as well as metabolism of the fish; hence, we conclude that polystyrene...

  15. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  16. The game-theoretic national interstate economic model : an integrated framework to quantify the economic impacts of cyber-terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests an integrated framework to quantify cyber attack impacts on the U.S. airport security system. A cyber attack by terrorists on the U.S. involves complex : strategic behavior by the terrorists because they could plan to invade an ai...

  17. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  18. Metabolic activation of amygdala, lateral septum and accumbens circuits during food anticipatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Diana; Caba, Mario; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Corona-Morales, Aleph A

    2017-01-01

    When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects. Therefore, we used New Zealand white rabbit pups entrained to circadian feeding to investigate the hypothesis that structures related to reward expectation and conditioned emotional responses would show a metabolic rhythm anticipatory of the nursing event, different from that shown by structures related to reward delivery. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure regional brain metabolic activity at eight different times during the day. We found that neural metabolism peaked before nursing, during food anticipatory behavior, in nuclei of the extended amygdala (basolateral, medial and central nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), lateral septum and accumbens core. After pups were fed, however, maximal metabolic activity was expressed in the accumbens shell, caudate, putamen and cortical amygdala. Neural and behavioral activation persisted when animals were fasted by two cycles, at the time of expected nursing. These findings suggest that metabolic activation of amygdala-septal-accumbens circuits involved in temporal conditioning may contribute to food anticipatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  20. Litter environment affects behavior and brain metabolic activity of adult knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crews

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s, the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual’s behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for Sex ratio and Genotype ratio (wild type pups vs. pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α. In both males and females the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks.

  1. Behavioral and metabolic effects of the atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Gubert

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics are associated with metabolic syndrome, primarily associated with weight gain. The effects of Ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, on metabolic syndrome has yet to be evaluated. Here in, we evaluated lipid accumulation and behavioral changes in a new experimental model, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Behavioral parameters in the worms were evaluated 24 h after Ziprasidone treatment. Subsequently, lipid accumulation was examined using Nile red, LipidTox green and BODIPY labeling. Ziprasidone at 40 µM for 24 h effectively decreased the fluorescence labeling of all markers in intestinal cells of C. elegans compared to control (0.16% dimethyl sulfoxide. Ziprasidone did not alter behaviors related to energetic balance, such as pharynx pumping, defecation cycles and movement. There was, however, a reduction in egg-production, egg-laying and body-length in nematodes exposed to Ziprasidone without any changes in the progression of larval stages. The serotoninergic pathway did not appear to modulate Ziprasidone's effects on Nile red fluorescence. Additionally, Ziprasidone did not alter lipid accumulation in daf-16 or crh-1 deletion mutants (orthologous of the transcription factors DAF-16 and CREB, respectively. These results suggest that Ziprasidone alters reproductive behavior, morphology and lipid reserves in the intestinal cells of C. elegans. Our results highlight that the DAF-16 and CREB transcription factors are essential for Ziprasidone-induced fat store reduction.

  2. Concurrent and robust regulation of feeding behaviors and metabolism by orexin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutsuka, Ayumu; Inui, Azusa; Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Lazarus, Michael; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2014-10-01

    Orexin neurons in the hypothalamus regulate energy homeostasis by coordinating various physiological responses. Past studies have shown the role of the orexin peptide itself; however, orexin neurons contain not only orexin but also other neurotransmitters such as glutamate and dynorphin. In this study, we examined the physiological role of orexin neurons in feeding behavior and metabolism by pharmacogenetic activation and chronic ablation. We generated novel orexin-Cre mice and utilized Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus vectors to express Gq-coupled modified GPCR, hM3Dq or diphtheria toxin fragment A in orexin neurons. By intraperitoneal injection of clozapine-N oxide in orexin-Cre mice expressing hM3Dq in orexin neurons, we could selectively manipulate the activity of orexin neurons. Pharmacogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons simultaneously increased locomotive activity, food intake, water intake and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Elevation of blood glucose levels and RER persisted even after locomotion and feeding behaviors returned to basal levels. Accordantly, 83% ablation of orexin neurons resulted in decreased food and water intake, while 70% ablation had almost no effect on these parameters. Our results indicate that orexin neurons play an integral role in regulation of both feeding behavior and metabolism. This regulation is so robust that greater than 80% of orexin neurons were ablated before significant changes in feeding behavior emerged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  4. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Verduci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI, blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50, triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25 mmol/L and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21, and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11 mmol/L. Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Metabolic syndrome associated with habitual indulgence and dietary behavior in middle‐aged health‐care professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chu‐Jen; Lin, Li‐Yun; Yu, Tung‐Hsi; Sheu, Wayne H‐H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Few studies, especially in Asia, have examined the relevance between metabolic syndrome (MetS), habitual indulgence and dietary behaviors in health‐care professionals. The present study evaluates metabolic syndrome rate and its association with habitual indulgence (coffee, tea, alcohol and cigarette smoking) and diet behavior in health‐care professionals. Materials and Methods:  Information was collected from 514 health‐care professionals (147 men, 367 women) who ...

  6. Investigating host-pathogen behavior and their interaction using genome-scale metabolic network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Priyanka P; Raghunathan, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Genome Scale Metabolic Modeling methods represent one way to compute whole cell function starting from the genome sequence of an organism and contribute towards understanding and predicting the genotype-phenotype relationship. About 80 models spanning all the kingdoms of life from archaea to eukaryotes have been built till date and used to interrogate cell phenotype under varying conditions. These models have been used to not only understand the flux distribution in evolutionary conserved pathways like glycolysis and the Krebs cycle but also in applications ranging from value added product formation in Escherichia coli to predicting inborn errors of Homo sapiens metabolism. This chapter describes a protocol that delineates the process of genome scale metabolic modeling for analysing host-pathogen behavior and interaction using flux balance analysis (FBA). The steps discussed in the process include (1) reconstruction of a metabolic network from the genome sequence, (2) its representation in a precise mathematical framework, (3) its translation to a model, and (4) the analysis using linear algebra and optimization. The methods for biological interpretations of computed cell phenotypes in the context of individual host and pathogen models and their integration are also discussed.

  7. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  8. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P family characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P < .05). The results indicated that certain socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  9. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camhi, Sarah M; Crouter, Scott E; Hayman, Laura L; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed to replicate findings with larger samples that include men and women of diverse race/ethnic groups.

  10. The Metabolic Syndrome and Behavioral Correlates in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and explored behavioral eating- and weight-related correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-three treatment-seeking obese BED patients (22 men and 71 women) with and without the MetSyn were compared on demographic features and a number of current and historical eating and weight variables. Sixty percent of the obese patients with BED met criteria for the MetSyn, with men and whites having signifi...

  11. CYP2A6 metabolism in the development of smoking behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Emily; Bloom, Joseph; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Breslau, Naomi; Brooks, Andrew; Culverhouse, Robert; Chan, Grace; Chen, Li-Shiun; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle M; Edenberg, Howard J; Hartz, Sarah; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Johnson, Eric O; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Saccone, Nancy L; Schuckit, Marc A; Stitzel, Jerry; Tischfield, Jay A; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura J

    2018-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) encodes the enzyme responsible for the majority of nicotine metabolism. Previous studies support that slow metabolizers smoke fewer cigarettes once nicotine dependent but provide conflicting results on the role of CYP2A6 in the development of dependence. By focusing on the critical period of young adulthood, this study examines the relationship of CYP2A6 variation and smoking milestones. A total of 1209 European American young adults enrolled in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism were genotyped for CYP2A6 variants to calculate a previously well-validated metric that estimates nicotine metabolism. This metric was not associated with the transition from never smoking to smoking initiation nor with the transition from initiation to daily smoking (P > 0.4). But among young adults who had become daily smokers (n = 506), decreased metabolism was associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence (P = 0.03) (defined as Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥4). This finding was replicated in the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence with 335 young adult daily smokers (P = 0.02). Secondary meta-analysis indicated that slow metabolizers had a 53 percent increased odds (OR = 1.53, 95 percent CI 1.11-2.11, P = 0.009) of developing nicotine dependence compared with normal metabolizers. Furthermore, secondary analyses examining four-level response of time to first cigarette after waking (>60, 31-60, 6-30, ≤5 minutes) demonstrated a robust effect of the metabolism metric in Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (P = 0.03) and Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (P = 0.004), illustrating the important role of this measure of dependence. These findings highlight the complex role of CYP2A6 variation across different developmental stages of smoking behaviors. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Offspring neuroimmune consequences of maternal malnutrition: Potential mechanism for behavioral impairments that underlie metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B L; Reyes, T M

    2017-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward. Neuroimmune pathways and microglial interactions in these specific brain circuits, either in early development or later in adulthood, could directly contribute to the maternal malnutrition-induced behavioral phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms will help advance treatment strategies for metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially noninvasive dietary supplementation interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gut microbiome remodeling induces depressive-like behaviors through a pathway mediated by the host's metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P; Zeng, B; Zhou, C; Liu, M; Fang, Z; Xu, X; Zeng, L; Chen, J; Fan, S; Du, X; Zhang, X; Yang, D; Yang, Y; Meng, H; Li, W; Melgiri, N D; Licinio, J; Wei, H; Xie, P

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. According to the World Health Organization, MDD is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and it is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the definitive environmental mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MDD remain elusive. The gut microbiome is an increasingly recognized environmental factor that can shape the brain through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. We show here that the absence of gut microbiota in germ-free (GF) mice resulted in decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test relative to conventionally raised healthy control mice. Moreover, from clinical sampling, the gut microbiotic compositions of MDD patients and healthy controls were significantly different with MDD patients characterized by significant changes in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Fecal microbiota transplantation of GF mice with 'depression microbiota' derived from MDD patients resulted in depression-like behaviors compared with colonization with 'healthy microbiota' derived from healthy control individuals. Mice harboring 'depression microbiota' primarily exhibited disturbances of microbial genes and host metabolites involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may have a causal role in the development of depressive-like behaviors, in a pathway that is mediated through the host's metabolism.

  15. Increased anxiety-like behavior is associated with the metabolic syndrome in non-stressed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Daniel; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Zambrano, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of signs that increases the risk to develop diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In the last years, a growing interest to study the relationship between MS and psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, has emerged obtaining conflicting results. Diet-induced MS rat models have only examined the effects of high-fat or mixed cafeteria diets to a limited extent. We explored whether an anxiety-like behavior was associated with MS in non-stressed rats chronically submitted to a high-sucrose diet (20% sucrose in drinking water) using three different anxiety paradigms: the shock-probe/burying test (SPBT), the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open-field test (OFT). Behaviorally, the high-sucrose diet group showed an increase in burying behavior in the SPBT. Also, these animals displayed both avoidance to explore the central part of the arena and a significant increase in freezing behavior in the OFT and lack of effects in the EPM. Also, high-sucrose diet group showed signs of an MS-like condition: significant increases in body weight and body mass index, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. Plasma leptin and resistin levels were also increased. No changes in plasma corticosterone levels were found. These results indicate that rats under a 24-weeks high-sucrose diet develop an MS associated with an anxiety-like behavior. Although the mechanisms underlying this behavioral outcome remain to be investigated, the role of leptin is emphasized. PMID:28463967

  16. Technical note: Quantifying and characterizing behavior in dairy calves using the IceTag automatic recording device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Decker, Erik Luc

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were 1) to validate the IceTag ( http://www.icerobotics.com/ ) automatic recording device for measuring lying, standing, and moving behavior in dairy calves, and 2) to improve the information yield from this device by applying a filtering procedure allowing...... for the detection of lying versus upright. The IceTag device provides measures of intensity (I) of lying, standing, and activity measured as percent lying, percent standing, and percent active, but does not directly measure lying, standing, and moving behavior because body movements occurring while lying (e...... (LPC) was established empirically, and IceTag data were filtered according to the LPC, providing information on the posture of the animal as lying versus being upright. Third, a new threshold of I was estimated for moving activity conditional on the animal being upright. IceTag recordings from 9 calves...

  17. DEPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AND METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN MICE ARE MUSICAL STYLE-DEPENDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world population has been affected by two serious psychological disorders, anxiety and depression, but there are few discoveries for new therapies to combat them. Studies have shown that music therapy has its beneficial behavioral effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study it was to investigate the possible effects of two music styles in some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters resulting from behavioral changes related to anxiety and depression. So, mice were used with 30 days of age, divided into 6 groups: G1: saline, G2: Diazepam (DZP, G3: Fluoxetine (FLX, G4: control (no treatment, G5: Rock, and G6: Mozart Sonata. The animals from groups G1, G2 and G3 received treatments by oral route (gavage for 15 days. The music therapy sessions (2x/day 4 hours/day occurred in the same period of time at a 65dB frequency for G5 and G6 groups. After being evaluated in spontaneous locomotion, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests, the animals were euthanized. The lactate, total cholesterol and plasma glucose levels were measured from the blood. No change was observed in spontaneous locomotion test and elevated plus maze. In the forced swimming test animals exposed to Rock showed an increase in immobility time. Furthermore, it was observed an increase in glucose and a reduction in cholesterol levels in the groups exposed to Rock and Mozart, while a decrease of lactate was observed only in group Rock. It was concluded that the auditory stimulus caused by music in mice was able to encourage depressive behavior and alter some lipids and carbohydrate metabolism parameters dependently of the musical style.

  18. Hierarchical Status Predicts Behavioral Vulnerability and Nucleus Accumbens Metabolic Profile Following Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-07-24

    Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from 1 H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying the Impacts of Timebased Rates, Enabling Technology, and Other Treatments in Consumer Behavior Studies: Protocols and Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Michael [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Neenan, Bernie [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Boisvert, Richard [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-27

    This report offers guidelines and protocols for measuring the effects of time-based rates, enabling technology, and various other treatments on customers’ levels and patterns of electricity usage. Although the focus is on evaluating consumer behavior studies (CBS) that involve field trials and pilots, the methods can be extended to assessing the large-scale programs that may follow. CBSs are undertaken to resolve uncertainties and ambiguities about how consumers respond to inducements to modify their electricity demand. Those inducements include price structures; feedback and information; and enabling technologies embedded in programs such as: critical peak, time-of use, real-time pricing; peak time rebate or critical peak rebate; home energy reports and in-home displays; and all manner of device controls for appliances and plug loads. Although the focus of this report is on consumer studies—where the subjects are households—the behavioral sciences principles discussed and many of the methods recommended apply equally to studying commercial and industrial customer electricity demand.

  20. Self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Pałkowska, Ewelina; Bartnikowska, Elżbieta; Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Biecek, Przemysław; Skrobowski, Andrzej; Gielerak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about factors affecting the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle especially in the population without coronary artery disease (CAD) symptoms and with one or several risk factors. The study was aimed at describing self-reported health-related behaviors and dietary habits in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Consecutive patients with an outpatient diagnosis of MetS admitted to our cardiology department underwent clinical examination and cardiovascular risk assessment based on the SCORE scale. Self-reported intensity of pro-healthy behaviors was described using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) developed by Juczynski. Diet quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method, diet history questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). A total of 113 patients were recruited (90 males, mean age 48 ± 9 years) including 85% of patients with at least moderate cardiovascular risk (SCORE ≥ 1%). Central obesity was confirmed in 100%, family history of CAD in 75%, LDL exceeding 115 mg/dL in 68% of the patients. A total of 66% of the patients had already been on antihypertensive and 30% on lipid-lowering treatment without previous counselling on lifestyle modification. Most patients reported high or medium level health-related behaviors (23% and 45%, respectively). However, 91% led sedentary lifestyle and none of the patients followed cardioprotective diet recommendations. According to the HEI, 73% required partial and 27% complete diet modification. There is a significant discrepancy between health perception and medical recommendations in patients with MetS. Effective patient education, taking into account a revision of the patient's knowledge on the principles of prophylaxis, may form the fundament for the changes in patient behavior, and cardiovascular risk reduction.

  1. A Small Potassium Current in AgRP/NPY Neurons Regulates Feeding Behavior and Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanlin; Shu, Gang; Yang, Yongjie; Xu, Pingwen; Xia, Yan; Wang, Chunmei; Saito, Kenji; Hinton, Antentor; Yan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Chen; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2016-11-08

    Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons. Genetic mutation of SK3 specifically in AgRP/NPY neurons leads to increased sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, associated with chronic hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Our results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals' feeding behavior and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility and performance of novel software to quantify metabolically active volumes and 3D partial volume corrected SUV and metabolic volumetric products of spinal bone marrow metastases on 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigian, Drew A; Lopez, Rosa Fernandez; Alapati, Sridevi; Bodapati, Geetha; Hofheinz, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg; Saboury, Babak; Alavi, Abass

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to assess feasibility and performance of novel semi-automated image analysis software called ROVER to quantify metabolically active volume (MAV), maximum standardized uptake value-maximum (SUV(max)), 3D partial volume corrected mean SUV (cSUV(mean)), and 3D partial volume corrected mean MVP (cMVP(mean)) of spinal bone marrow metastases on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT). We retrospectively studied 16 subjects with 31 spinal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and MRI. Manual and ROVER determinations of lesional MAV and SUV(max), and repeated ROVER measurements of MAV, SUV(max), cSUV(mean) and cMVP(mean) were made. Bland-Altman and correlation analyses were performed to assess reproducibility and agreement. Our results showed that analyses of repeated ROVER measurements revealed MAV mean difference (D)=-0.03±0.53cc (95% CI(-0.22, 0.16)), lower limit of agreement (LLOA)=-1.07cc, and upper limit of agreement (ULOA)=1.01cc; SUV(max) D=0.00±0.00 with LOAs=0.00; cSUV(mean) D=-0.01±0.39 (95% CI(-0.15, 0.13)), LLOA=-0.76, and ULOA=0.75; cMVP(mean) D=-0.52±4.78cc (95% CI(-2.23, 1.23)), LLOA=-9.89cc, and ULOA=8.86cc. Comparisons between ROVER and manual measurements revealed volume D= -0.39±1.37cc (95% CI (-0.89, 0.11)), LLOA=-3.08cc, and ULOA=2.30cc; SUV(max) D=0.00±0.00 with LOAs=0.00. Mean percent increase in lesional SUV(mean) and MVP(mean) following partial volume correction using ROVER was 84.25±36.00% and 84.45±35.94% , respectively. In conclusion, it is feasible to estimate MAV, SUV(max), cSUV(mean), and cMVP(mean) of spinal bone marrow metastases from (18)F-FDG-PET/CT quickly and easily with good reproducibility via ROVER software. Partial volume correction is imperative, as uncorrected SUV(mean) and MVP(mean) are significantly underestimated, even for large lesions. This novel approach has great potential for practical, accurate, and precise combined structural-functional PET

  3. Metabolic regulation and behavior: how hunger produces arousal - an insect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic state affects the level of general activity of an organism. Satiety is related to relaxation while hunger is coupled to elevated activity which supports the chance to balance the energy deficiency. The unrestricted food availability in modern industrial nations along with no required locomotor activity are risk factors to develop disorders such as obesity. One of the strategies to find new targets for future treatment of metabolic disorders in men is to gain detailed knowledge of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in less complex, i.e. invertebrate systems. This review reports recent molecular studies in insects about how hunger signals may be linked to global activation. Adipokinetic peptide hormones (AKHs) are the insect counterpart to the mammalian glucagon. They are released upon lack of energy and mobilize internal fuel reserves. In addition, AKHs stimulate the locomotor activity which involves their activity within the central nervous system. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana various neurons express the AKH receptor. Some of these, the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons belonging to a general arousal system, release the biogenic amine octopamine, the insect counterpart to mammalian adrenergic hormones. The two Periplaneta AKHs activate Gs proteins, and AKH I also potently activates Gq proteins. AKH I and - less effectively - AKH II accelerate spiking of DUM neurons via an increase of a pacemaking Ca2+ current. Systemically injected AKH I stimulates locomotion in contrast to AKH II. This behavioral difference corresponds to the different effectiveness of the AKHs on the level of G-proteins.

  4. Just Keep Swimming: Neuroendocrine, Metabolic, and Behavioral Changes After a Forced Swimming Test in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara; Idalencio, Renan; Marqueze, Alessandra; Fagundes, Michele; Rossini, Mainara; Variani, Cristiane; Balbinoti, Francine; Tietböhl, Tássia Michele Huff; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we show that an adaptation of the spinning test can be used as a model to study the exercise-exhaustion-recovery paradigm in fish. This forced swimming test promotes a wide range of changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning, intermediary metabolism, as well in fish behavior at both exercise and recovery periods. Our results pointed that this adapted spinning test can be considered a valuable tool for evaluating drugs and contaminant effects on exercised fish. This can be a suitable protocol both to environmental-to evaluate contaminants that act in fish energy mobilization and recovery after stressors-and translational perspectives-effects of drugs on exercised or stressed humans.

  5. Interactions of calcium homeostasis, acetylcholine metabolism, behavior and 3, 4-diaminopyridine during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G.E.; Peterson, C.

    1986-01-01

    Acetylcholine synthesis declines with aging in both whole brain and in various brain regions. Since neither enzyme activities nor acetylcholine concentrations, accurately reflect the dynamics of the cholinergic system, in vivo acetylcholine formation was measured. Incorporation of U-C 14-glucose of 2 H 4 choline into whole brain acetylcholine decreases from 100% (3 months) in two strains of mice. The diminished synthesis is apparently not due to a lack of precursor availability because U- C 14-glucose and 2 H 4 choline entry into the brain is similar at all ages. It is shown that altered brain calcium homeostasis during aging may underlie the deficits in acetylcholine metabolism, as well as those in behavior. Diminished calcium uptake during aging parallels the decline in the calcium dependent release of acetylcholine

  6. Health Behavior and Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Normal Weight Obesity in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To explore health behaviors and metabolic risk factors in normal weight obese (NWO adolescents compared with normal weight lean (NWL peers.A cross-sectional study of 18-year-old students (n = 182, 47% female in the capital area of Iceland, with body mass index within normal range (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max during treadmill test, dietary intake through 24-hour recall, questionnaires explained health behavior and fasting blood samples were taken. NWO was defined as normal BMI and body fat >17.6% in males and >31.6% in females.Among normal weight adolescents, 42% (n = 76 were defined as NWO, thereof 61% (n = 46 male participants. Fewer participants with NWO were physically active, ate breakfast on a regular basis, and consumed vegetables frequently compared with NWL. No difference was detected between the two groups in energy- and nutrient intake. The mean difference in aerobic fitness was 5.1 ml/kg/min between the groups in favor of the NWL group (p<0.001. NWO was positively associated with having one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.2, 3.9 when adjusted for sex. High waist circumference was more prevalent among NWO than NWL, but only among girls (13% vs 4%, p = 0.019.High prevalence of NWO was observed in the study group. Promoting healthy lifestyle with regard to nutrition and physical activity in early life should be emphasized regardless of BMI.

  7. Metabolic control, self-care behaviors, and parenting in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Maia Stoker; Mandleco, Barbara; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Marshall, Elaine S; Dyches, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore relationships among metabolic control, self-care behaviors, and parenting in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-nine adolescents (mean age, 14.1 years) and their parents participated. Metabolic control was determined by an average of 4 A1C values taken prior to study enrollment; self-care behaviors were measured with a 12-item self-report questionnaire; parenting style was evaluated using the Parenting Practices Report. The mean for A1C values was 8.5%; the mean for overall self-care behaviors was 4.93 (5 = usually). Participants rated themselves highest on the self-care behaviors of giving insulin shots when indicated and adjusting insulin when eating a lot. They ranked themselves lowest on eating a low-fat diet and testing urine for ketones. Parents tended to be more authoritative in their approaches to parenting than either authoritarian or permissive. A significant relationship was found between authoritative mothering and adolescent self-care behaviors and metabolic control. Regression analyses controlling for age and length of time with diabetes confirmed the significance of these relationships. Authoritative fathering positively correlated with the self-care behaviors of monitoring blood glucose, taking insulin, and not skipping meals. A relationship was also noted between permissive parenting by mothers/fathers and poorer metabolic outcomes. However, the permissive parenting correlations did not remain significant when controlling for age and length of time with diabetes. Clinicians may help prevent declining participation in self-care behaviors and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by working with parents, particularly mothers, and encouraging authoritative parenting.

  8. Kinetics, bioavailability, and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in humans supports lower requirement for vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic models enable nutrient needs and kinetic behaviors to be quantified and provide mechanistic insights into metabolism. Therefore, we modeled and quantified the kinetics, bioavailability and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in 12 healthy adults. Six men and six women, aged 27 ± 6 y, each i...

  9. Educational differences in postmenopausal breast cancer--quantifying indirect effects through health behaviors, body mass index and reproductive patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt

    Full Text Available Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth, body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use. The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125 extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69% could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%, parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%, and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%. Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level.

  10. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  11. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer – Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Diderichsen, Finn; Keiding, Niels; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50–70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22–125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%–69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%–257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%–45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%–18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast cancer. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that a substantial number of the excess postmenopausal breast cancer events among women with a high educational level compared to a low can be attributed to differences in alcohol consumption, use of hormone therapy, and reproductive patterns. Women of high educational level may be more vulnerable to physical inactivity compared to women of low educational level. PMID:24205296

  12. Using a computational model to quantify the potential impact of changing the placement of healthy beverages in stores as an intervention to "Nudge" adolescent behavior choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Nau, Claudia; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Vedovato, Gabriela Milhassi; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Gittelsohn, Joel; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-12-23

    Product placement influences consumer choices in retail stores. While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) manufacturers expend considerable effort and resources to determine how product placement may increase SSB purchases, the information is proprietary and not available to the public health and research community. This study aims to quantify the effect of non-SSB product placement in corner stores on adolescent beverage purchasing behavior. Corner stores are small privately owned retail stores that are important beverage providers in low-income neighborhoods--where adolescents have higher rates of obesity. Using data from a community-based survey in Baltimore and parameters from the marketing literature, we developed a decision-analytic model to simulate and quantify how placement of healthy beverage (placement in beverage cooler closest to entrance, distance from back of the store, and vertical placement within each cooler) affects the probability of adolescents purchasing non-SSBs. In our simulation, non-SSB purchases were 2.8 times higher when placed in the "optimal location"--on the second or third shelves of the front cooler--compared to the worst location on the bottom shelf of the cooler farthest from the entrance. Based on our model results and survey data, we project that moving non-SSBs from the worst to the optional location would result in approximately 5.2 million more non-SSBs purchased by Baltimore adolescents annually. Our study is the first to quantify the potential impact of changing placement of beverages in corner stores. Our findings suggest that this could be a low-cost, yet impactful strategy to nudge this population--highly susceptible to obesity--towards healthier beverage decisions.

  13. Effects of Metabolic Programming on Juvenile Play Behavior and Gene Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehar, Harleen; Ma, Irene; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2016-01-01

    Early developmental processes, such as metabolic programming, can provide cues to an organism, which allow it to make modifications that are predicted to be beneficial for survival. Similarly, social play has a multifaceted role in promoting survival and fitness of animals. Play is a complex behavior that is greatly influenced by motivational and reward circuits, as well as the energy reserves and metabolism of an organism. This study examined the association between metabolic programming and juvenile play behavior in an effort to further elucidate insight into the consequences that early adaptions have on developmental trajectories. The study also examined changes in expression of four genes (Drd2, IGF1, Opa1, and OxyR) in the prefrontal cortex known to play significant roles in reward, bioenergetics, and social-emotional functioning. Using four distinct variations in developmental programming (high-fat diet, caloric restriction, exercise, or high-fat diet combined with exercise), we found that dietary programming (high-fat diet vs. caloric restriction) had the greatest impact on play behavior and gene expression. However, exercise also induced changes in both measures. This study demonstrates that metabolic programming can alter neural circuits and bioenergetics involved in play behavior, thus providing new insights into mechanisms that allow programming to influence the evolutionary success of an organism. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Quantified student

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens van der Vorst

    2017-01-01

    Learning is all about feedback. Runners, for example, use apps like the RunKeeper. Research shows that apps like that enhance engagement and results. And people think it is fun. The essence being that the behavior of the runner is tracked and communicated back to the runner in a dashboard. We

  15. Designing and determining validity and reliability of a questionnaire to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Esmaeili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : A number of studies have shown a clear relationship between diet and component of metabolic syndrome. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA, attitude and subjective norm are factors affecting behavioral intention and subsequently behavior. The aim of the present study is to design a valid questionnaire identifying factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Via literature review, six focus group discussion and interview with nutrition specialists were performed to develop an instrument based on the theory of reasoned action. To determine validity of the instrument, content and face validity analyses with 15 expert panels conducted and also to determine reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient performed. Results: A draft of 100 items questionnaire was developed and after evaluation of validity and reliability, final questionnaire included 46 items: 17 items for attitude, 13 items for subjective norms and 16 items for behavioral intention. For the final questionnaire average of content validity index was 0/92 and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was 0/85. Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study the developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument and it can be used to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among people with metabolic syndrome based on the theory of reasoned action.

  16. Features of eating behavior, emotional state and metabolic parameters in obese patients with insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of insomnia on eating behavior, anxiety, depression, metabolic and hormonal parameters in obese patients. Materials and Methods. The study involved 104 patients with primary obesity from 20 to 55 years old: 47 men and 57 women, mean age 39 years, mean body weight 118 kg, BMI 39.6. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the first group consisted of patients with complaints of insomnia (n=45, the second (control group (n=59 were patients without sleep disorders. Results. Mean levels of anxiety and depression were significantly higher in the first group. The results of research showed a statistically significant association emotional eating and insomnia. Patients with chronic insomnia without obstructive sleep apnea had low levels of free cortisol in 24-hour urinary compared with patients without sleep disorders (169 [145, 194] vs. 324 [244, 330], respectively, p=0.001, positive correlation with total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and negative with wake time during sleep period time. Conclusions. Sleep disorders in obese patients are one of the factors contributing to the increase in food intake in response to changes in emotional state on the background of "hidden" anxiety and depressive disorders. It is possible that the data eating disorders and psychological status may have a negative impact on the dynamics of weight during the treatment of obesity.

  17. Nutritional Ketosis Affects Metabolism and Behavior in Sprague-Dawley Rats in Both Control and Chronic Stress Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene L. Brownlow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources. We tested the hypotheses that ketosis induced by endogenous or exogenous ketones could: (a augment cognitive outcomes in healthy subjects; and (b prevent stress-induced detriments in cognitive parameters. Adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate metabolic and behavioral outcomes in 3 dietary conditions: ketogenic (KD, ketone supplemented (KS, or NIH-31 control diet in both control or chronic stress conditions. Acute administration of exogenous ketones resulted in reduction in blood glucose and sustained ketosis. Chronic experiments showed that in control conditions, only KD resulted in pronounced metabolic alterations and improved performance in the novel object recognition test. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response revealed that KD-fed rats maintained peripheral ketosis despite increases in glucose whereas no diet effects were observed in ACTH or CORT levels. Both KD and KS-fed rats decreased escape latencies on the third day of water maze, whereas only KD prevented stress-induced deficits on the last testing day and improved probe test performance. Stress-induced decrease in hippocampal levels of β-hydroxybutyrate was attenuated in KD group while both KD and KS prevented stress effects on BDNF levels. Mitochondrial enzymes associated with ketogenesis were increased in both KD and KS hippocampal samples and both endothelial and neuronal glucose transporters were affected by stress but only in the

  18. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrione, Martine M; Schulz, Daniela; Lapidus, Kyle A B; Zhang, Samuel; Goodman, Wayne; Henn, Fritz A

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism's ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)FDG) to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula.

  19. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine M Mirrione

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism’s ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula.

  20. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams. PMID:27063002

  1. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-11

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  2. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  3. Gradual training of alpacas to the confinement of metabolism pens reduces stress when normal excretion behavior is accommodated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kirrin E; Maloney, Shane K; Milton, John T B; Blache, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Confinement in metabolism pens may provoke a stress response in alpacas that will reduce the welfare of the animal and jeopardize the validity of scientific results obtained in such pens. In this study, we tested a protocol designed to successfully train alpacas to be held in a specially designed metabolism pen so that the animals' confinement would not jeopardize their welfare. We hypothesized that the alpacas would show fewer behaviors associated with a response to stress as training gradually progressed, and that they would adapt to being in the confinement of the metabolism pen. The training protocol was successful at introducing alpacas to the metabolism pens, and it did reduce the incidence of behavioral responses to stress as the training progressed. The success of the training protocol may be attributed to the progressive nature of the training, the tailoring of the protocol to suit alpacas, and the use of positive reinforcement. This study demonstrated that both animal welfare and the validity of the scientific outcomes could be maximized by the gradual training of experimental animals, thereby minimizing the stress imposed on the animals during experimental procedures.

  4. Vaccinium virgatum fruit extract as an important adjuvant in biochemical and behavioral alterations observed in animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Gazal, Marta; Flores, Natália Porto; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Kaster, Manuella Pinto; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Lencina, Claiton Leoneti; Stefanello, Francieli Moro

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum) fruit extract on metabolic, behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice submitted to an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Mice C57BL/6 were divided into 4 experimental groups: (1) received standard chow and saline orally, (2) received standard chow and blueberry hydroalcoholic extract, (3) received HPD and saline orally, (4) received HPD and blueberry hydroalcoholic extract. The animals were treated for 150days. Our results showed that the animals fed with HPD presented insulin resistance, increased body weight, visceral fat, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol when compared to the control group. The blueberry extract prevented the increase of these metabolic parameters. Also, the extract was able to reduce the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of animals submitted to HPD. In contrast, no differences were observed in the total thiol content, activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. In addition, the HPD fed animals showed a significant increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test and blueberry prevented this alteration, although no changes were observed in the ambulatory behavior, as well as in the anxiolytic profile of these animals. Overall, our findings suggest that chronic consumption of blueberry extract exhibits hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antidepressant-like and antiperoxidative effects in an animal model of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Alterations in the brain adenosine metabolism cause behavioral and neurological impairment in ADA-deficient mice and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Fumagalli, Francesca; Bianchi, Veronica; Poliani, Pietro L.; Dallatomasina, Chiara; Riboni, Elisa; Politi, Letterio S.; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Casiraghi, Miriam; Carriglio, Nicola; Cominelli, Manuela; Forcellini, Carlo Alberto; Barzaghi, Federica; Ferrua, Francesca; Minicucci, Fabio; Medaglini, Stefania; Leocani, Letizia; la Marca, Giancarlo; Notarangelo, Lucia D.; Azzari, Chiara; Comi, Giancarlo; Baldoli, Cristina; Canale, Sabrina; Sessa, Maria; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA. These included motor dysfunction, EEG alterations, sensorineural hypoacusia, white matter and ventricular alterations in MRI as well as a low mental development index or IQ. Ada-deficient mice were significantly less active and showed anxiety-like behavior. Molecular and metabolic analyses showed that this phenotype coincides with metabolic alterations and aberrant adenosine receptor signaling. PEG-ADA treatment corrected metabolic adenosine-based alterations, but not cellular and signaling defects, indicating an intrinsic nature of the neurological and behavioral phenotype in ADA deficiency. PMID:28074903

  6. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Varun Malayala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  7. Leisure time sedentary behavior, occupational/domestic physical activity, and metabolic syndrome in U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Camhi, Sarah M; Church, Timothy S; Martin, Corby K; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Bouchard, Claude; Earnest, Conrad P; Smith, Steven R; Newton, Robert L; Rankinen, Tuomo; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2009-12-01

    This study examines leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB) and usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA) and their relationship with metabolic syndrome and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, independent of physical activity level. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 data from men (n = 1868) and women (n = 1688) with fasting measures were classified as having metabolic syndrome by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definition. LTSB was determined from self-reported television viewing and computer usage. UODA was self-reported daily behavior (sitting, standing, walking, carrying loads). LTSB >or=4 hours/day was associated with odds of having metabolic syndrome of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24, 3.03) in men compared to or=4 hour/day was also associated with higher odds of elevated waist circumference (1.88, CI, 1.03, 3.41), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.84, CI, 1.35, 2.51), and high blood pressure (1.55, CI, 1.07, 2.24) in men. LTSB 2-3 hours/day was associated with higher odds of elevated glucose (1.32, CI, 1.00, 1.75) in men. In women, odds of metabolic syndrome were 1.54 (CI, 1.00, 2.37) with >or=4 hours/day LTSB, but LTSB was not associated with risk of the individual CVD risk factors. Higher LTSB was associated with metabolic syndrome in inactive men (1.50, CI, 1.07, 2.09), active men (1.74, CI, 1.11, 2.71), inactive women (1.69, CI, 1.24, 2.33), but not active women (1.62, CI, 0.87,3.01). UODA was not strongly associated with metabolic syndrome or CVD risk factors in either men or women. In men, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome and individual CVD risk factors regardless of meeting physical activity recommendations. In women, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome only in those not meeting the physical activity recommendations.

  8. Maternal Diet, Metabolic State, and Inflammatory Response Exert Unique and Long-Lasting Influences on Offspring Behavior in Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Thompson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status influences brain health and gestational exposure to metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and diabetes increases the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of maternal Western-style diet (WSD, metabolic state, and inflammatory factors in the programming of Japanese macaque offspring behavior. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we investigated the relationships between maternal diet, prepregnancy adiposity, third trimester insulin response, and plasma cytokine levels on 11-month-old offspring behavior. Maternal WSD was associated with greater reactive and ritualized anxiety in offspring. Maternal adiposity and third trimester macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC exerted opposing effects on offspring high-energy outbursts. Elevated levels of this behavior were associated with low maternal MDC and increased prepregnancy adiposity. This is the first study to show that maternal MDC levels influence offspring behavior. We found no evidence suggesting maternal peripheral inflammatory response mediated the effect of maternal diet and metabolic state on aberrant offspring behavior. Additionally, the extent of maternal metabolic impairment differentially influenced chemokine response. Elevated prepregnancy adiposity suppressed third trimester chemokines, while obesity-induced insulin resistance augmented peripheral chemokine levels. WSD also directly increased maternal interleukin-12. This is the first non-human primate study to delineate the effects of maternal diet and metabolic state on gestational inflammatory environment and subsequent offspring behavior. Our findings give insight to the complex mechanisms by which diet, metabolic state, and inflammation during pregnancy exert unique influences on offspring behavioral regulation.

  9. 5-HT2A receptor deficiency alters the metabolic and transcriptional, but not the behavioral, consequences of chronic unpredictable stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Jaggar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress enhances risk for psychiatric disorders, and in animal models is known to evoke depression-like behavior accompanied by perturbed neurohormonal, metabolic, neuroarchitectural and transcriptional changes. Serotonergic neurotransmission, including serotonin2A (5-HT2A receptors, have been implicated in mediating specific aspects of stress-induced responses. Here we investigated the influence of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS on depression-like behavior, serum metabolic measures, and gene expression in stress-associated neurocircuitry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus in 5-HT2A receptor knockout (5-HT2A−/− and wild-type mice of both sexes. While 5-HT2A−/− male and female mice exhibited a baseline reduced anxiety-like state, this did not alter the onset or severity of behavioral despair during and at the cessation of CUS, indicating that these mice can develop stress-evoked depressive behavior. Analysis of metabolic parameters in serum revealed a CUS-evoked dyslipidemia, which was abrogated in 5-HT2A−/− female mice with a hyperlipidemic baseline phenotype. 5-HT2A−/− male mice in contrast did not exhibit such a baseline shift in their serum lipid profile. Specific stress-responsive genes (Crh, Crhr1, Nr3c1, and Nr3c2, trophic factors (Bdnf, Igf1 and immediate early genes (IEGs (Arc, Fos, Fosb, Egr1-4 in the PFC and hippocampus were altered in 5-HT2A−/− mice both under baseline and CUS conditions. Our results support a role for the 5-HT2A receptor in specific metabolic and transcriptional, but not behavioral, consequences of CUS, and highlight that the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to stress-evoked changes is sexually dimorphic. Keywords: 5-HT2A−/− mice, Prefrontal cortex, Hippocampus, Gene expression, Sexual dimorphism, Despair

  10. The growth benefits of aggressive behavior vary with individual metabolism and resource predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Armstrong, John D.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in behavioral responses to environmental conditions and biological interactions are a key determinant of individual performance. This study investigated how the availability and predictability of food resources modulates the growth of animals that adopt different behavioral strategies.

  11. The effects of oil contamination and cleaning on sea otters (Enhydra lutris); II. Metabolism, thermoregulation, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R W; Williams, T M; Thomas, J A; DasSelein, R A; Cornell, L H [Hubbs marine Research Center, San Diego, CA (USA)

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to clean and rehabilitate sea otters that might become contaminated during an oil spill and to determine which physiological and behavioral factors were important in restoring the insulation provided by the fur. Tests were conducted on 12 sea otters; measurements of average metabolic rate, core body temperature, behavior, and squalene concentration on the fur were made before oiling 1-3 days after 20% of the body surface area was covered with fresh crude oil, and after cleaning. Under base-line conditions in water at 13{degrees}C, average metabolic rate was 8.0 W/kg, core body temperature was 38.9{degrees}C, and whole body thermal conductance was 10.7 W/(m2/{degrees}C). The squalene concentration on the fur averaged 3.7 mg/g fur. Oiling increased thermal conductance 1.8 times. To compensate for the loss of insulation and maintain a normal core body temperature (39{degrees}C), the otters increased average metabolic rate (1.9 times) through voluntary activity and shivering; the time spent grooming and swimming increased 1.7 times. Using detergent, the oiled fur could be cleaned during 40 min. of washing and rinsing. Grooming activity by the otters was essential for restoring the water-repellent quality of the fur. Core body temperature, average metabolic rate, and thermal conductance returned to base-line levels 3-6 days after cleaning. Squalene was removed by cleaning and did not return to normal levels in the oiled area after 7 days. Veterinary care was important to keep the otters healthy. At least 1-2 weeks should be allowed for otters to restore the insulation of their fur and for recovery from the stress of oiling and cleaning. 29 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. A small potassium current in AgRP/NPY neurons regulates feeding behavior and enery metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic m...

  14. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-05

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy in an obese rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Ilana B; Grayson, Bernadette E; Seeley, Randy J

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Its clinical expression is diverse, including metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive effects, with many affected by obesity and decreased quality of life. Women with PCOS who have undergone surgically induced weight loss have reported tremendous benefit, not only with weight loss, but also improvement of hyperandrogenism and menstrual cyclicity. In a rat model of PCOS achieved via chronic administration of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure, we investigated the ability of bariatric surgery, specifically vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), to ameliorate the metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive abnormalities invoked by this PCOS model. We found that DHT treatment combined with exposure to a high-fat diet resulted in increased body weight and body fat, impaired fasting glucose, hirsutism, anxiety, and irregular cycles. VSG resulted in reduced food intake, body weight, and adiposity with improved fasting glucose and triglycerides. VSG induced lower basal corticosterone levels and attenuated stress responsivity. Once the DHT levels decreased to normal, regular estrous cyclicity was also restored. VSG, therefore, improved PCOS manifestations in a comprehensive manner and may represent a potential therapeutic approach for specific aspects of PCOS.

  16. Abnormal brain iron metabolism in Irp2 deficient mice is associated with mild neurological and behavioral impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Zumbrennen-Bullough

    Full Text Available Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2 is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2-/- mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc, expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2-/- mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptor Interactions Regulate Energy Metabolism, Behavior, and Inflammation in Non-alcoholic-Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Prough, Russell A; Falkner, K Cameron; Hardesty, Josiah E; Song, Ming; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; States, J Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  19. Modeling combined schizophrenia-related behavioral and metabolic phenotypes in rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Jashar, Cassandra; Olivier, Berend

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating disorder with a complex behavioral and cognitive phenotype underlined by a similarly complex etiology involving an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors during early development. Limited progress has been made in developing novel

  20. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossom, Sarah J., E-mail: blossomsarah@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children' s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Cooney, Craig A. [Department of Research and Development, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital, 4300 West 7th St., Little Rock, AR 72205-5484 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children' s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Wessinger, William D. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, 4301 West Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  1. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  2. Meta-analysis of melanin-concentrating hormone signaling-deficient mice on behavioral and metabolic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenkichi Takase

    Full Text Available The demand for meta-analyses in basic biomedical research has been increasing because the phenotyping of genetically modified mice does not always produce consistent results. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH has been reported to be involved in a variety of behaviors that include feeding, body-weight regulation, anxiety, sleep, and reward behavior. However, the reported behavioral and metabolic characteristics of MCH signaling-deficient mice, such as MCH-deficient mice and MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1-deficient mice, are not consistent with each other. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the published data related to MCH-deficient and MCHR1-deficient mice to obtain robust conclusions about the role of MCH signaling. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed that the deletion of MCH signaling enhanced wakefulness, locomotor activity, aggression, and male sexual behavior and that MCH signaling deficiency suppressed non-REM sleep, anxiety, responses to novelty, startle responses, and conditioned place preferences. In contrast to the acute orexigenic effect of MCH, MCH signaling deficiency significantly increased food intake. Overall, the meta-analysis also revealed that the deletion of MCH signaling suppressed the body weight, fat mass, and plasma leptin, while MCH signaling deficiency increased the body temperature, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure. The lean phenotype of the MCH signaling-deficient mice was also confirmed in separate meta-analyses that were specific to sex and background strain (i.e., C57BL/6 and 129Sv. MCH signaling deficiency caused a weak anxiolytic effect as assessed with the elevated plus maze and the open field test but also caused a weak anxiogenic effect as assessed with the emergence test. MCH signaling-deficient mice also exhibited increased plasma corticosterone under non-stressed conditions, which suggests enhanced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To the best of our

  3. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  4. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  5. Effect of mercury on survival, metabolism and behavior of larval Uca pugilator (Brachyura)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCoursey, P J; Vernberg, W B

    1972-01-01

    A battery of tests was used to determine the effects of three dilute mercuric chloride solutions on larval stages (Zoea I, III, V) of the fiddler crab Uca pugilator(Bosc). The influence of both acute and chronic exposures on viability, oxygen consumption, and swimming activity was measured. No stage V and only a few stage I or III larvae were able to survive a concentration of 9 x 10/sup -7/ M HgCl/sub 2/ (0.18 ppm Hg) longer than 24 hr; an exposure as short as 6 hr resulted in reduced metabolism and swimming rate of all stages. Although concentrations of 9 x 10/sup -9/ M Hg Cl/sub 2/ (0.0018 ppm) and 9 x 10/sup -11/ M HgCl/sub 2/ (0.000018 ppm) were sublethal, 24-hr exposures did affect metabolism and swimming. Some larvae reared in the more dilute mercury solutions developed to the megalopa stage, but survival was reduced in relation to the mercury concentration. The data from all tests suggest that toxicity of mercury increases with larval age. 20 references, 6 figures.

  6. Diet-induced obesity exacerbates metabolic and behavioral effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Ilana B; Grayson, Bernadette E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Seeley, Randy J

    2015-06-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Although a comorbidity of PCOS is obesity, many are lean. We hypothesized that increased saturated fat consumption and obesity would exacerbate metabolic and stress indices in a rodent model of PCOS. Female rats were implanted with the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets prior to puberty. Half of each group was maintained ad libitum on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% butter fat calories) or nutrient-matched low-fat diet (LFD). Irrespective of diet, DHT-treated animals gained more body weight, had irregular cycles, and were glucose intolerant compared with controls on both diets. HFD/DHT animals had the highest levels of fat mass and insulin resistance. DHT animals demonstrated increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze by decreased distance traveled and time in the open arms. HFD consumption increased immobility during the forced-swim test. DHT treatment suppressed diurnal corticosterone measurements in both diet groups. In parallel, DHT treatment significantly dampened stress responsivity to a mild stressor. Brains of DHT animals showed attenuated c-Fos activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; irrespective of DHT-treatment, however, all HFD animals had elevated hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus c-Fos activation. Whereas hyperandrogenism drives overall body weight gain, glucose intolerance, anxiety behaviors, and stress responsivity, HFD consumption exacerbates the effect of androgens on adiposity, insulin resistance, and depressive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Addressing unknown constants and metabolic network behaviors through petascale computing: understanding H2 production in green algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Christopher; Alber, David; Graf, Peter; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H 2 -producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems

  8. Addressing unknown constants and metabolic network behaviors through petascale computing: understanding H{sub 2} production in green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Christopher; Alber, David; Graf, Peter; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H{sub 2}-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high

  9. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds. PMID:29492036

  10. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, Andrey; Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds.

  11. Self-reported health and behavioral factors are associated with metabolic syndrome in Americans aged 40 and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether behavioral factors differ among metabolic conditions and self-reported health, and to determine whether self-reported health is a valid predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 2997 individuals (≥40 years old were selected from four biennial U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007–2014. A set of weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIsIndividuals with light physical activity are more likely to have MetS and report poor health than those with vigorous physical activity with OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 2.23, 4.66 and 4.52 (95% CI: 2.78, 7.33, respectively. Individuals eating poor diet have greater odds of developing MetS and reporting poor health with OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.66 and 3.13 (95% CI: 2.46, 3.98. The aforementioned relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic status. A potential intervention strategy will be needed to encourage individuals to aggressively improve their lifestyle to reduce MetS and improve quality of life. Despite the significant association between self-reported health with MetS, a low sensitivity indicated that better screening tools for MetS, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are essential.

  12. Persuasive user experiences of a health Behavior Change Support System: A 12-month study for prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Pasi; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Jokelainen, Terhi; Keränen, Anna-Maria; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a severe health problem in the world. Even a moderate 5% weight loss can significantly reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which can be vital for preventing comorbidities caused by the obesity. Health Behavior Change Support Systems (hBCSS) emphasize an autogenous approach, where an individual uses the system to influence one's own attitude or behavior to achieve his or her own goal. Regardless of promising results, such health interventions technology has often been considered merely as a tool for delivering content that has no effect or value of its own. More research on actual system features is required. The objective of this study is to describe how users perceive persuasive software features designed and implemented into a support system. The research medium in this study is a web-based information system designed as a lifestyle intervention for participants who are at risk of developing a metabolic syndrome or who are already suffering from it. The system was designed closely following the principles of the Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model and the Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS) framework. A total of 43 system users were interviewed for this study during and after a 52 week intervention period. In addition, the system's login data and subjects' Body Mass Index (BMI) measures were used to interpret the results. This study explains in detail how the users perceived using the system and its persuasive features. Self-monitoring, reminders, and tunneling were perceived as especially beneficial persuasive features. The need for social support appeared to grow along the duration of the intervention. Unobtrusiveness was found to be very important in all stages of the intervention rather than only at the beginning. Persuasive software features have power to affect individuals' health behaviors. Through their systematicity the PSD model and the BCSS framework provide effective support for the design and development of

  13. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-03-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (-10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint ( p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition ( p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger ( p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.

  14. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Carbonneau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001 and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02 and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01. Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.

  15. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palomo-Siguero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs. Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs.

  16. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by 18F-FDG PET. A pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimajiri, Mami; Jaeger, C.B.; Luescher, A.U.; Miller, M.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. (author)

  17. Correlated Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Behavioral and Metabolic Traits of a Large Pelagic Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn D. Laubenstein

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are co-occurring stressors, yet their effects on early life stages of large pelagic fishes are not well known. Here, we determined the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature at levels projected for the end of the century on activity levels, boldness, and metabolic traits (i.e., oxygen uptake rates in larval kingfish (Seriola lalandi, a large pelagic fish with a circumglobal distribution. We also examined correlations between these behavioral and physiological traits measured under different treatments. Kingfish were reared from the egg stage to 25 days post-hatch in a full factorial design of ambient and elevated CO2 (~500 µatm and ~1000 µatm and temperature (21 °C and 25 °C. Activity levels were higher in fish from the elevated temperature treatment compared with fish reared under ambient temperature. However, elevated CO2 did not affect activity, and boldness was not affected by either elevated CO2 or temperature. Both elevated CO2 and temperature resulted in increased resting oxygen uptake rates compared to fish reared under ambient conditions, but neither affected maximum oxygen uptake rates nor aerobic scope. Resting oxygen uptake rates and boldness were negatively correlated under ambient temperature, but positively correlated under elevated temperature. Maximum oxygen uptake rates and boldness were also negatively correlated under ambient temperature. These findings suggest that elevated temperature has a greater impact on behavioral and physiological traits of larval kingfish than elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 exposure did increase resting oxygen uptake rates and interact with temperature in complex ways. Our results provide novel behavioral and physiological data on the responses of the larval stage of a large pelagic fish to ocean acidification and warming conditions, demonstrate correlations between these traits, and suggest that these correlations could influence the direction and pace of

  18. Epidemiologic behavior of obesity in the Maracaibo City metabolic syndrome prevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Since the epidemiological behaviour of this disease is not well established in our country, the purpose of this study was to determinate its prevalence in the Maracaibo City, Zulia State- Venezuela. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the data set from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study. The sample consists of 2108 individuals from both genders and randomly selected: 1119 (53.09% women and 989 (46.91% men. The participants were interrogated for a complete clinical history and anthropometric measurements. To classify obesity, the WHO criteria for Body Mass Index (BMI, and Waist Circumference (WC from the IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO-2009 (IDF-2009 and ATPIII statements were applied. RESULTS: For BMI, obesity had an overall prevalence of 33.3% (n = 701, and according to gender women had 32.4% (n = 363 and men had 34.2% (n = 338. Overweight had a prevalence of 34.8% (n = 733, Normal weight had 29.8% (n = 629, and Underweight had 2.1% (n = 45. Adding Obesity and Overweight results, the prevalence of elevated BMI (>25 Kg/m(2 was 68.1%. Using the IDF-2009 WC's cut-off, Obesity had 74.2% prevalence, compared to 51.7% using the ATPIII parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in our locality defined by the WHO, IDF-2009 and ATPIII criteria, which were not designed for Latin-American populations. We suggest further investigation to estimate the proper values according to ethnicity, genetic background and sociocultural aspects.

  19. Impact of Baseline Physical Activity and Diet Behavior on Metabolic Syndrome in a Pharmaceutical Trial: Results from NAVIGATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Thomas, Laine; Bales, Connie W.; Califf, Robert M.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Holman, Rury R.; McMurray, John J.V.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Haffner, Steven M.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The cardiometabolic risk cluster metabolic syndrome (MS) includes ≥3of elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), and increased waist circumference. Each can be affected by physical activity and diet. Our objective was to determine whether determine whether baseline physical activity and/or diet behavior impact MS in the course of a large pharmaceutical trial. Materials/Methods This was an observational study from NAVIGATOR, a double-blind, randomized (nateglinide, valsartan, both, or placebo), controlled trial between 2002 and 2004. We studied data from persons (n=9306) with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors; 7118 with pedometer data were included in this analysis. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day pedometer records; diet behavior was self-reported on a 6-item survey. An MS score (MSSc) was calculated using the sum of each MS component, centered around the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold, and standardized according to sample standard deviation. Excepting HDL-c, assessed at baseline and year 3, MS components were assessed yearly. Follow-up averaged 6 years. Results For every 2000-stepincrease in average daily steps, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.29(95%CI−0.33to−0.25).For each diet behavior endorsed, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.05 (95%CI−0.08 to −0.01).Accounting for the effects of pedometer steps and diet behavior together had minimal impact on parameter estimates with no significant interaction. Relations were independent of age, sex, race, region, smoking, family history of diabetes, and use of nateglinide, valsartan, aspirin, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering agent. Conclusions Baseline physical activity and diet behavior were associated independently with reductions in MSSc such that increased attention to these lifestyle elements providescardiometabolic

  20. 18F-FDG PET/CT in solitary plasmacytoma: metabolic behavior and progression to multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Domenico; Bosio, Giovanni [Spedali Civili di Brescia, Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy); Treglia, Giorgio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Center, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco [University of Brescia and Spedali Civili Brescia, Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is a rare plasma-cell neoplasm, which can develop both in skeletal and/or soft tissue and frequently progresses to multiple myeloma (MM). Our aim was to study the metabolic behavior of SP and the role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in predicting progression to MM. Sixty-two patients with SP who underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT before any treatment were included. PET images were qualitatively and semiquantitatively analyzed by measuring the maximum standardized uptake value body weight (SUVbw), lean body mass (SUVlbm), body surface area (SUVbsa), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and compared with age, sex, site of primary disease, and tumor size. Fifty-one patients had positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT (average SUVbw was 8.3 ± 4.7; SUVlbm 5.8 ± 2.6; SUVbsa 2 ± 1; MTV 45.4 ± 37; TLG 227 ± 114); the remaining 11 were not 18F-FDG-avid. Tumor size was significantly higher in patients avid lesions compared to FDG not avid; no other features are associated with FDG-avidity. Progression to MM occurred in 29 patients with an average of 18.3 months; MM was more likely to develop in patients with bone plasmacytoma and in patients with 18F-FDG avid lesion. Time to transformation in MM (TTMM) was significantly shorter in patients with osseous SP, in 18F-FDG avid lesion, for SUVlbm > 5.2 and SUVbsa > 1.7. 18F-FDG pathological uptake in SP occurred in most cases, being independently associated with tumor size. PET/CT seemed to be correlated to a higher risk of transformation in MM, in particular for 18F-FDG avid plasmacytoma and SBP. Among semiquantitative features, SUVlbm > 5.2 and SUVbsa > 1.7 were significantly correlated with TTMM. (orig.)

  1. Performance, nutritional behavior, and metabolic responses of calves supplemented with forage depend on starch fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M; Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F

    2018-05-16

    This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk and weaned on d 56 of the experiment; the study was terminated on d 70. Steam-flaked corn contained higher amounts of gelatinized starch in comparison with cracked corn (44.1 vs. 12.5% of total starch, respectively). Starter intake was not affected by corn processing methods or AH provision during the pre- or postweaning periods. However, we noted an interaction between corn processing methods and forage supplementation for starter intake during d 31 to 50 of the experiment, where calves fed on SF-AH starter had greater starter intake than those fed SF-NO starter, but the starter intake was not different between CR-NO and CR-AH fed calves. Furthermore, AH increased average daily gain (ADG) of calves fed an SF-based diet but not in calves fed a CR-based diet during the preweaning and overall periods. Interaction between forage provision and time was significant for ADG and feed efficiency, as calves supplemented with forage had higher ADG (0.982 vs. 0.592, respectively) and feed efficiency compared with forage unsupplemented calves at the weaning week. Forage supplementation resulted in more stable ruminal condition compared with nonforage-fed calves, as evidenced by higher ruminal pH (5.71 vs. 5.29, respectively) at postweaning and lower non-nutritive oral behavior around weaning time (55 vs. 70.5 min

  2. VENTILATION BEHAVIOR IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED MEN DURING INCREMENTAL TEST: EVIDENCE OF ONE METABOLIC TRANSITION POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio O. Pires

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe and compare the ventilation behavior during an incremental test utilizing three mathematical models and to compare the feature of ventilation curve fitted by the best mathematical model between aerobically trained (TR and untrained (UT men. Thirty five subjects underwent a treadmill test with 1 km·h-1 increases every minute until exhaustion. Ventilation averages of 20 seconds were plotted against time and fitted by: bi-segmental regression model (2SRM; three-segmental regression model (3SRM; and growth exponential model (GEM. Residual sum of squares (RSS and mean square error (MSE were calculated for each model. The correlations between peak VO2 (VO2PEAK, peak speed (SpeedPEAK, ventilatory threshold identified by the best model (VT2SRM and the first derivative calculated for workloads below (moderate intensity and above (heavy intensity VT2SRM were calculated. The RSS and MSE for GEM were significantly higher (p < 0.01 than for 2SRM and 3SRM in pooled data and in UT, but no significant difference was observed among the mathematical models in TR. In the pooled data, the first derivative of moderate intensities showed significant negative correlations with VT2SRM (r = -0.58; p < 0.01 and SpeedPEAK (r = -0.46; p < 0.05 while the first derivative of heavy intensities showed significant negative correlation with VT2SRM (r = -0. 43; p < 0.05. In UT group the first derivative of moderate intensities showed significant negative correlations with VT2SRM (r = -0.65; p < 0.05 and SpeedPEAK (r = -0.61; p < 0.05, while the first derivative of heavy intensities showed significant negative correlation with VT2SRM (r= -0.73; p< 0.01, SpeedPEAK (r = -0.73; p < 0.01 and VO2PEAK (r = -0.61; p < 0.05 in TR group. The ventilation behavior during incremental treadmill test tends to show only one threshold. UT subjects showed a slower ventilation increase during moderate intensities while TR subjects showed a slower ventilation increase

  3. Endothelial ErbB4 deficit induces alterations in exploratory behavior and brain energy metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Lu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Qi-Bing; Tian, Yun; Ye, Wei-Feng; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Tao, Rong-Rong; Han, Feng; Lu, Ying-Mei

    2017-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is present throughout the primate brain and has a distinct functional profile. In this study, we investigate the potential role of endothelial ErbB4 receptor signaling in the brain. Here, we show that the endothelial cell-specific deletion of ErbB4 induces decreased exploratory behavior in adult mice. However, the water maze task for spatial memory and the memory reconsolidation test reveal no changes; additionally, we observe no impairment in CaMKII phosphorylation in Cdh5Cre;ErbB4 f/f mice, which indicates that the endothelial ErbB4 deficit leads to decreased exploratory activity rather than direct memory deficits. Furthermore, decreased brain metabolism, which was measured using micro-positron emission tomography, is observed in the Cdh5Cre;ErbB4 f/f mice. Consistently, the immunoblot data demonstrate the downregulation of brain Glut1, phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), and TIGAR in the endothelial ErbB4 conditional knockout mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that endothelial ErbB4 plays a critical role in regulating brain function, at least in part, through maintaining normal brain energy homeostasis. Targeting ErbB4 or the modulation of endothelial ErbB4 signaling may represent a rational pharmacological approach to treat neurological disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Photoperiodic responses of depression-like behavior, the brain serotonergic system, and peripheral metabolism in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Misato; Togo, Yuki; Goda, Ryosei; Kawase, Takahiro; Matsuo, Haruka; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depression during specific seasons, generally winter. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD remain elusive due to a limited number of animal models with high availability and validity. Here we show that laboratory C57BL/6J mice display photoperiodic changes in depression-like behavior and brain serotonin content. C57BL/6J mice maintained under short-day conditions, as compared to those under long-day conditions, demonstrated prolonged immobility times in the forced swimming test with lower brain levels of serotonin and its precursor l-tryptophan. Furthermore, photoperiod altered multiple parameters reflective of peripheral metabolism, including the ratio of plasma l-tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids that compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier, responses of circulating glucose and insulin to glucose load, sucrose intake under restricted feeding condition, and sensitivity of the brain serotonergic system to peripherally administered glucose. These data suggest that the mechanisms underlying SAD involve the brain-peripheral tissue network, and C57BL/6J mice can serve as a powerful tool for investigating the link between seasons and mood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental programming of somatic growth, behavior and endocannabinoid metabolism by variation of early postnatal nutrition in a cross-fostering mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Felix; Ackermann, Merle; Michalik, Michael; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Racz, Ildiko; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Dötsch, Jörg; Zimmer, Andreas; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother). After weaning and redistribution at P21, all pups received standard chow ad libitum. Gene expression analyses (liver, visceral fat, hypothalamus) were performed at P50, eCB concentrations were determined in liver and visceral fat. Locomotor activity and social behavior were analyzed by means of computer-assisted videotracking. Body growth was permanently altered, with differences for length, weight, body mass index and fat mass persisting beyond P100 (all 3>6>10,p6>10 (DAGLα p6>10 (FAAH pOpen-field social behavior testing revealed significant group differences, with formerly underfed mice turning out to be the most sociable animals (p<0.01). Locomotor activity did not differ. Our data indicate a developmental plasticity of somatic growth, behavior and parameters of the eCB system, with long-lasting impact of early postnatal nutrition. Developmental programming of the eCB system in metabolically active tissues, as shown here for liver and fat, may play a role in the formation of the adult cardiometabolic risk profile following perinatal malnutrition in humans.

  6. Robotic set-up to quantify hand-eye behavior in motor execution and learning of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellato, Claudia; Gandolla, Marta; Crippa, Alessandro; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen. The protocol includes trials of reaching under a perturbing force field and catching moving targets, with or without visual availability of the whole path. We acquired 16 typically-developing scholar-age children and one child with ASD as a case study. Speed-accuracy tradeoff, motor performance, and gaze-hand spatial coordination have been evaluated. Compared to typically developing peers, in the force field sequence, the child with ASD showed an intact but delayed learning, and more variable gazehand patterns. In the catching trials, he showed less efficient movements, but an intact capability of exploiting the available a-priori plan. The proposed protocol represents a powerful tool, easily tunable, for quantitative (longitudinal) assessment, and for subject-tailored training in ASD.

  7. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  8. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    OpenAIRE

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  9. Diacylglycerol lipase a knockout mice demonstrate metabolic and behavioral phenotypes similar to those of cannabinoid receptor 1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Powell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After creating >4650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes, we screened them by high-throughput phenotyping and found that cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1 KO mice had the same lean phenotype published by others. We asked if our KOs of DAG lipase a or b (Dagla or Daglb, which catalyze biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid (EC 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, or Napepld, which catalyzes biosynthesis of the EC anandamide, shared the lean phenotype of Cnr1 KO mice. We found that Dagla KO mice, but not Daglb or Napepld KO mice, were among the leanest of 3651 chow-fed KO lines screened. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high fat diet-fed Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice were leaner than wild type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 47% and 45% lower in Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice, respectively, relative to WT values. In contrast, neither Daglb nor Napepld KO mice were lean. Weanling Dagla KO mice ate less than WT mice and had body weight similar to pair-fed WT mice, and adult Dagla KO mice had normal activity and VO2 levels, similar to Cnr1 KO mice. Our Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also had low fasting insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, and after a glucose challenge had normal glucose but very low insulin levels. Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also showed similar responses to a battery of behavioral tests. These data suggest: 1 the lean phenotype of young Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice is mainly due to hypophagia; 2 in pathways where ECs signal through Cnr1 to regulate food intake and other metabolic and behavioral phenotypes observed in Cnr1 KO mice, Dagla alone provides the 2-AG that serves as the EC signal; and 3 small molecule Dagla inhibitors with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of Cnr1 inverse agonists are likely to mirror the ability of these Cnr1 inverse agonists to lower body weight and improve glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but may also induce undesirable neuropsychiatric

  10. [The effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.

  11. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  12. Structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than behavioral therapy in reducing metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Mier-Cabrera, Jennifer; Aguilera-Pérez, Jesús Rafael

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of a lifestyle intervention using a behavioral therapy (BT) approach with the effects of a cardioprotective structured hypocaloric diet on metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women. This study is a randomized clinical trial (2006-2009) of Mexican postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) who were recruited from the Postmenopause Clinic of the National Institute of Perinatology in Mexico City. Women were assigned to one of two groups--group 1 (structured hypocaloric diet; n = 63): energy restriction (-300 to -500 kcal/d) emphasizing cardioprotective dietary changes; and group 2 (BT; n = 55): goal setting, problem-solving, and stimulus control to achieve cardioprotective dietary and lifestyle recommendations. Metabolic syndrome prevalence, as well as weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting biochemical markers (glucose and lipid profile), were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 months after the intervention. Metabolic syndrome risk (relative risk and absolute risk reduction), mean differences between groups, and logistic regression were evaluated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 17.0. A total of 118 women were studied (mean [SD] age, 53.81 [6.43] y). No baseline differences were observed between groups. At the end of the study, a higher reduction in metabolic syndrome prevalence was observed in group 1 (-38.1%) compared with group 2 (-12.7%; relative risk, 0.237; 95% CI, 0.092-0.608; P = 0.003). The effect was maintained even when adjusted by age, hormone therapy and antihypertensive drug use. A cardioprotective structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than the BT approach in reducing metabolic syndrome after 6 months of intervention. Both strategies have positive effects on different individual cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. Early Life Stress Increases Metabolic Risk, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Depressive-Like Behavior When Combined with Postweaning Social Isolation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that

  14. Metabolic and behavioral responses to high-fat feeding in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Jonas, I.; Doornbos, M.; Schubert, K. A.; Nyakas, C.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased dietary fat intake is a precipitating factor for the development of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Physically active individuals generally have a reduced risk of developing these unhealthy states, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  16. Assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a behavioral-automaticity focused lifestyle intervention for African Americans with metabolic syndrome: The Pick two to Stick to protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Fritz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS significantly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Being physically active and eating a healthy diet can reduce MetS risk factors. Too frequently, however, studies report that the effects of interventions targeting those factors are not maintained once interventions are withdrawn. A potential solution to the problem is targeting behavioral automaticity (habit-development to aid in initiation and maintenance of health-behavior changes. The Pick two to Stick To (P2S2, is an 8-week, theory-based hybrid (face-to-face/telecoaching habit focused lifestyle intervention designed to increase healthful physical activity and dietary behavioral automaticity. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and protocol for evaluating the P2S2 program's feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness. Methods: Using a prospective, non-comparative design, the P2S2 program will be implemented by trained occupational therapy ‘coaches’ to 40 African Americans aged 40 and above with MetS recruited from the emergency department. Semi-structured interviews with participants, bi-weekly research meetings with study staff, and observations of intervention delivery will provide data for a process evaluation. Estimates of effectiveness include weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and behavioral automaticity measures that will be collected at baseline and week 20. Conclusion: The P2S2 program could facilitate the development of healthful dietary and physical activity habits in an underserved population. Whether interventions aimed at changing habits can feasibly influence this automaticity, particularly for high-risk, low resource communities where other barriers exist, is not known. This pilot study, therefore, will fill an important gap, providing insight to inform subsequent trials. Keywords: Habits, Behavioral automaticity, Health behavior, Metabolic syndrome

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-induced brain activation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and depressive-like behavior are impaired in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Anne-Laure; André, Caroline; Aubert, Agnès; Ferreira, Guillaume; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    Although peripheral low-grade inflammation has been associated with a high incidence of mood symptoms in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), much less is known about the potential involvement of brain activation of cytokines in that context. Recently we showed in a mouse model of MetS, namely the db/db mice, an enhanced hippocampal inflammation associated with increased anxiety-like behavior (Dinel et al., 2011). However, depressive-like behavior was not affected in db/db mice. Based on the strong association between depressive-like behavior and cytokine-induced brain activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, these results may suggest an impairment of brain IDO activation in db/db mice. To test this hypothesis, we measured the ability of db/db mice and their healthy db/+ littermates to enhance brain IDO activity and depressive-like behavior after a systemic immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we show that LPS (5 μg/mouse) significantly increased depressive-like behavior (increased immobility time in a forced-swim test, FST) 24h after treatment in db/+ mice, but not in db/db mice. Interestingly, db/db mice also displayed after LPS treatment blunted increase of brain kynurenine/tryptophan ratio compared to their db/+ counterparts, despite enhanced induction of hippocampal cytokine expression (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α). Moreover, this was associated with an impaired effect of LPS on hippocampal expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that contributes to mood regulation, including under inflammatory conditions. Collectively, these data indicate that the rise in brain tryptophan catabolism and depressive-like behavior induced by innate immune system activation is impaired in db/db mice. These findings could have relevance in improving the management and treatment of inflammation-related complications in MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  18. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  19. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  20. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  1. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  2. The quantified relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaher, J.; Nyholm, S.R.; Earp, B.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of self-tracking and personal surveillance has given rise to the Quantified Self movement. Members of this movement seek to enhance their personal well-being, productivity, and self-actualization through the tracking and gamification of personal data. The technologies that make this

  3. Quantifying IT estimation risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed for quantifying the impact of factors that influence the quality of the estimation of costs for IT-enabled business projects. We call these factors risk drivers as they influence the risk of the misestimation of project costs. The method can effortlessly be

  4. Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    Full Text Available Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.

  5. Metabolic anatomy of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.E.; Posner, J.B.; Sidtis, J.J.; Moeller, J.R.; Strother, S.C.; Dhawan, V.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients with acquired cerebellar degeneration (10 of whom had paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration [PCD]) were evaluated using neuropsychological tests and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography to (1) quantify motor, cognitive, and metabolic abnormalities; (2) determine if characteristic alterations in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) are associated with PCD; and (3) correlate behavioral and metabolic measures of disease severity. Eighteen volunteer subjects served as normal controls. Although some PCD neuropsychological test scores were abnormal, these results could not, in general, be dissociated from the effects of dysarthria and ataxia. rCMRGlc was reduced in patients with PCD (versus normal control subjects) in all regions except the brainstem. Analysis of patient and control rCMRGlc data using a mathematical model of regional metabolic interactions revealed two metabolic pattern descriptors, SSF1 and SSF2, which distinguished patients with PCD from normal control subjects; SSF2, which described a metabolic coupling between cerebellum, cuneus, and posterior temporal, lateral frontal, and paracentral cortex, correlated with quantitative indices of cerebellar dysfunction. Our inability to document substantial intellectual impairment in 7 of 10 patients with PCD contrasts with the 50% incidence of dementia in PCD reported by previous investigators. Widespread reductions in PCD rCMRGlc may result from the loss of cerebellar efferents to thalamus and forebrain structures, a reverse cerebellar diaschisis

  6. BeWell24: development and process evaluation of a smartphone "app" to improve sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors in US Veterans with increased metabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Epstein, Dana R; Gutierrez, Monica; Herb, Christine; Hollingshead, Kevin; Huberty, Jennifer L; Hekler, Eric B; Vega-López, Sonia; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Hekler, Andrea C; Baldwin, Carol M

    2016-09-01

    Lifestyle behaviors across the 24-h spectrum (i.e., sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors) drive metabolic risk. We describe the development and process evaluation of BeWell24, a multicomponent smartphone application (or "app") that targets behavior change in these interdependent behaviors. A community-embedded iterative design framework was used to develop the app. An 8-week multiphase optimization strategy design study was used to test the initial efficacy of the sleep, sedentary, and exercise components of the app. Process evaluation outcomes included objectively measured app usage statistics (e.g., minutes of usage, self-monitoring patterns), user experience interviews, and satisfaction ratings. Participants (N = 26) logged approximately 60 % of their sleep, sedentary, and exercise behaviors, which took 3-4 min/day to complete. Usage of the sleep and sedentary components peaked at week 2 and remained high throughout the intervention. Exercise component use was low. User experiences were mixed, and overall satisfaction was modest.

  7. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  8. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  9. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, J.; Goudard, F.; Milcent, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  10. Central and peripheral metabolism of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the male Japanese quail: biochemical characterization and relationship with reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviche, P; Delville, Y; Balthazart, J

    1987-09-22

    An in vitro radioenzymatic assay and purification procedure by thin-layer chromatography were used to study the metabolism of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into 3 alpha- and 3 beta-androstanediols by the brain and cloacal gland of Japanese quail. Kinetic studies showed that these 2 metabolites are produced in a linear fashion with respect to time of incubation for up to 15 min but that they continue to accumulate for up to 4 h. The maximum velocity of these reactions is high (nmol/mg protein/15 min), but the affinities of the enzymes for DHT are low (in the microM range). The enzymatic activities are not evenly distributed in the brain: they are high in the tuberal hypothalamus and lobus parolfactorius but low in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus. Enzyme activities are not markedly affected by treatment of the birds with either testosterone or DHT. The activity of these enzymes is lower in the preoptic area and tuberal hypothalamus of DHT-treated birds which display female-directed sexual behavior than in the same brain areas of birds which are sexually inactive. We discuss the relationships between this reductive metabolism of DHT and the activational effects of the steroid on sexual behavior.

  11. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2013-01-01

    The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79) and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92) and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06). The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  12. Effects of lifestyle intervention using patient-centered cognitive behavioral therapy among patients with cardio-metabolic syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Yang, Rui; Chen, Ling; Gao, Hang; Li, Li

    2016-11-18

    Cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) is a highly prevalent condition. There is an urgent need to identify effective and integrated multi-disciplinary approaches that can reduce risk factors for CMS. Sixty-two patients with a history of CMS were randomized 1:1 into two groups: a standard information -only group (control), or a self-regulated lifestyle waist circumference (patient-centered cognitive behavioral therapy) intervention group. A pretest and posttest, controlled, experimental design was used. Outcomes were measured at the baseline (week 0) and at the end of intervention (week 12). Comparisons were drawn between groups and over time. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 48.6 (5.8) years ranging from 32 to 63, and 56.9% of the participants were female. Both groups showed no significant differences in Demographic variables and the metabolic syndrome indicators at baseline. While the control group only showed modest improvement after 12 weeks, compared to baseline, the intervention group demonstrated significant improvement from baseline. This study controlled for patients' demographics and baseline characteristics when assessing the effects of intervention. After adjusting for age, education and baseline level, the experimental group and the control group were statistically significant different in the following post-treatment outcomes: WC (F = 35.96, P cognitive behavioral therapy can improve the physical and mental health conditions among individuals reporting a history of cardio-metabolic syndrome, and possibly provided preliminary benefits for the treatment of CMS. Chinese Clinical Trial Register #, ChiCTR15006148 .

  13. Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Developmental Trajectories of Eating and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...

  14. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  15. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. An association of health behaviors with depression and metabolic risks: Data from 2007 to 2014 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai

    2017-08-01

    Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term effects of maternal feed restriction during pregnancy on goat kid morphology, metabolism, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte-Broux, Bérengère; Roussel, Sabine; Ponter, Andrew; Perault, Julien; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Morphometric, metabolic, and behavioural modifications were studied in goat kids after maternal feed restriction during the last one-third of pregnancy. At birth, only kids from twin and triplet litters were studied [n = 40 kids born to control dams (CONT) and n = 38 born to restricted dams (REST)] and only males thereafter (n = 13 CONT and 15 REST kids) until slaughter at 6 wk of age. Kids born to restricted goats had a smaller abdominal girth at birth P < 0.01) and tended to have a smaller ...

  19. Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety-and depression-like behavior and metabolic dysfunction in C57Bl/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.; Wang, T.; Singewald, N.

    2012-01-01

    ) in mice through depression-and anxiety phenotyping experiments, namely the forced swim test and light-dark box respectively. We determined the behavioural effects 30 minutes after treatment with imipramine (20 mg/kg), diazepam (2 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg). The glucose tolerance test was used to assess...... metabolic function in Mg deficient mice. Results: We found that, compared to control (n=10), mice receiving Mg deficient diet (n=10) (10 % RDA), were more immobile in the forced swim test....

  20. Effects of a T'ai Chi-Based Health Promotion Program on Metabolic Syndrome Markers, Health Behaviors, and Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Male Office Workers: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ye-Sook; Song, Rhayun; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2017-12-01

    To determine the effects of a t'ai chi-applied worksite health promotion program on metabolic syndrome markers, health behaviors, and quality of life in middle-aged male office workers at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. A prospective randomized controlled study. Health center of a government office building in Korea. Forty-three male office workers with two or more metabolic syndrome markers. The office workers were randomly assigned either to an experimental group that received t'ai chi combined with health education twice weekly for 12 weeks, or to a control group that received health education only. Blood sampling for metabolic syndrome markers and structured questionnaires for health behaviors and quality of life. The experimental group showed significant reductions in systolic (t = -3.103, p = 0.003) and diastolic (t = -2.159, p = 0.037) blood pressures and the triglyceride level (t = -2.451, p = 0.019) compared with the control group. Those in the experimental group also performed health behaviors more frequently (t = 4.047, p effective adjunctive intervention in a worksite health promotion program for middle-aged office workers at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of t'ai chi-applied worksite health promotion programs in individuals with confirmed metabolic syndrome.

  1. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  2. Relation of uptake and metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone to individual differences in sexual behavior in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C F; Feder, H H

    1976-03-19

    Male guinea pigs were given 3 tests for sexual behavior. Animals that never ejaculated were classified as low activity (LA), animals that ejaculated on one test were classified as medium activity (MA), and animals that ejaculated on two or more tests were classified as high activity (HA). Subsequently, animals from each group were castrated and given an s.c. injection of 43 muCi of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone and were killed 0.5, 1, or 4 h after injection. There were no significant differences in uptake or metabolism of radioactive testosterone among LA, MA, and HA males in homogenates of anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, midbrain, or seminal vesicle. Thus, differences in sexual behavior could not be attributed to differences in testosterone uptake in tissue homogenates. At the 1 h time interval (time of peak plasma radioactivity), radioactivity in the seminal vesicles of all males was primarily in the form of steroids with the chromatographic mobility of dihydrotestosterone. In all males, anterior and posterior hypothalamus contained a higher proportion of steroids with the mobility of testosterone than did midbrain, and midbrain contained more testosterone zone radioactivity than cerebral cortex at 1 h. The highest proportion of dihydrotestosterone zone radioactivity in neural tissues was found in anterior hypothalamus. These results are discussed in terms of androgenic mediation of sex behavior by the anterior hypothalamus in guinea pigs.

  3. A prenatal interruption of DISC1 function in the brain exhibits a lasting impact on adult behaviors, brain metabolism, and interneuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dazhi; Jian, Chongdong; Lei, Ling; Zhou, Yijing; McSweeney, Colleen; Dong, Fengping; Shen, Yilun; Zou, Donghua; Wang, Yonggang; Wu, Yuan; Zhang, Limin; Mao, Yingwei

    2017-10-17

    Mental illnesses like schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depression disorder (MDD) are devastating brain disorders. The SCZ risk gene, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 ( DISC1 ), has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, little is known regarding the long-lasting impacts on brain metabolism and behavioral outcomes from genetic insults on fetal NPCs during early life. We have established a new mouse model that specifically interrupts DISC1 functions in NPCs in vivo by a dominant-negative DISC1 (DN-DISC1) with a precise temporal and spatial regulation. Interestingly, prenatal interruption of mouse Disc1 function in NPCs leads to abnormal depression-like deficit in adult mice. Here we took a novel unbiased metabonomics approach to identify brain-specific metabolites that are significantly changed in DN-DISC1 mice. Surprisingly, the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, is augmented. Consistently, parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are increased in the cingulate cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, and motor cortex. Interestingly, somatostatin (SST) positive and neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons are decreased in some brain regions, suggesting that DN-DISC1 expression affects the localization of interneuron subtypes. To further explore the cellular mechanisms that cause this change, DN-DISC1 suppresses proliferation and promotes the cell cycle exit of progenitors in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), whereas it stimulates ectopic proliferation of neighboring cells through cell non-autonomous effect. Mechanistically, it modulates GSK3 activity and interrupts Dlx2 activity in the Wnt activation. In sum, our results provide evidence that specific genetic insults on NSCs at a short period of time could lead to prolonged changes of brain metabolism and development, eventually behavioral defects.

  4. Assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a behavioral-automaticity focused lifestyle intervention for African Americans with metabolic syndrome: The Pick two to Stick to protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heather; Brody, Aaron; Levy, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Being physically active and eating a healthy diet can reduce MetS risk factors. Too frequently, however, studies report that the effects of interventions targeting those factors are not maintained once interventions are withdrawn. A potential solution to the problem is targeting behavioral automaticity (habit-development) to aid in initiation and maintenance of health-behavior changes. The Pick two to Stick To (P2S2), is an 8-week, theory-based hybrid (face-to-face/telecoaching) habit focused lifestyle intervention designed to increase healthful physical activity and dietary behavioral automaticity. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and protocol for evaluating the P2S2 program's feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness. Using a prospective, non-comparative design, the P2S2 program will be implemented by trained occupational therapy 'coaches' to 40 African Americans aged 40 and above with MetS recruited from the emergency department. Semi-structured interviews with participants, bi-weekly research meetings with study staff, and observations of intervention delivery will provide data for a process evaluation. Estimates of effectiveness include weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and behavioral automaticity measures that will be collected at baseline and week 20. The P2S2 program could facilitate the development of healthful dietary and physical activity habits in an underserved population. Whether interventions aimed at changing habits can feasibly influence this automaticity, particularly for high-risk, low resource communities where other barriers exist, is not known. This pilot study, therefore, will fill an important gap, providing insight to inform subsequent trials.

  5. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  6. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  7. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  8. Inter-Kingdom Modification of Metabolic Behavior: [GAR+] Prion Induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediated by Wine Ecosystem Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda F Bisson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved to dominate grape juice fermentation. A suite of cellular properties, rapid nutrient depletion, production of inhibitory compounds and the metabolic narrowing of the niche, all enable a minor resident of the initial population to dramatically increase its relative biomass in the ecosystem. This dominance of the grape juice environment is fueled by a rapid launch of glycolysis and energy generation mediated by transport of hexoses and an efficient coupling of transport and catabolism. Fermentation occurs in the presence of molecular oxygen as the choice between respiratory or fermentative growth is regulated by the availability of sugar a phenomenon known as glucose or catabolite repression. Induction of the GAR+ prion alters the expression of the major hexose transporter active under these conditions, Hxt3, reducing glycolytic capacity. Bacteria present in the grape juice ecosystem were able to induce the GAR+ prion in wine strains of S. cerevisiae. This induction reduced fermentation capacity but did not block it entirely. However, dominance factors such as the rapid depletion of amino acids and other nitrogen sources from the environment were impeded enabling greater access to these substrates for the bacteria. Bacteria associated with arrested commercial wine fermentations were able to induce the prion state, and yeast cells isolated from arrested commercial fermentations were found to be GAR+ thus confirming the ecological relevance of prion induction. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the presence of environmental acetic acid could lead to GAR+ induction in yeast strains under certain conditions. The induction of the prion enabled yeast growth on non-preferred substrates, oxidation and reduction products of glucose and fructose, present as a consequence of bacterial energy production. In native ecosystems prion induction never exceeded roughly 50-60% of the population of yeast cells

  9. [Nineteen cases of school-aged children with degenerative or metabolic neurological disorders initially presenting with learning difficulty and/or behavior disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzawa, Shiho; Sugai, Kenji; Akaike, Hiroto; Nakayama, Tojo; Fujikawa, Yoshinao; Komaki, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2012-07-01

    We reported 19 cases of school-aged children. They were initially judged to have learning difficulty or school maladaptation because of attention deficits, hyperactive behaviors or poor school performance, followed by the diagnosis such as degenerative or metabolic neurological diseases. The patients consisted of 4 cases of adrenoleukodystrophy, 5 cases of dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, 3 cases of Sanfilippo syndrome, 3 cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and each one case of juvenile Gaucher disease, juvenile Huntington disease, juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy and Leigh disease. They had markedly poor school performance, and/or abnormal behaviors, followed by seizures, character disorders or psychomotor regression. The diagnostic clues included brain CT scan and/or MRI, peculiar facial appearance and notable family histories. When the children were indicated to have learning difficulty or maladjustment to school life, we should make deliberate differential diagnoses before concluding that they have a learning disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Instead they should be recommended to visit child neurologists, when they present with any problems as aforesaid.

  10. Effects of Refined Xiaoyaosan on Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress through Neurosteroids, Their Synthesis and Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To observe the effects of refined Xiaoyaosan (XYS on the depressive-like behaviors in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, and to explore the relationship between the changes of neurosteroids and mRNA expressions of their synthesis and metabolic enzymes, and the mechanism of XYS in the treatment of depression. Methods: Eighty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XYS group and fluoxetine group. The latter three groups were subjected to 21 days of CUMS to prepare the stress depression model. Rats in the XYS group, and fluoxetine group were given intragastric administration with refined XYS and fluoxetine, respectively. The behavioral changes of the rats were observed after 21 days. The contents of pregnenolone (PREG, progesterone (PROG and alloprognanolone (ALLO in the plasma of rats were measured by ELISA. The levels of PREG, PROG and ALLO in the hippocampus and amygdala tissues were measured by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA expressions of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc and 5α-reductase (5a-R in the hippocampus and amygdala were detected by RT-qPCR methods. Results: There were changes in the model rats. The contents of PREG, PROG and ALLO changed similarly, which reflected in the decrease of PROG and ALLO, and the increase of PREG. The mRNA expression of P450scc was increased, and the mRNA expressions of 3α-HSD, 3β-HSD and 5a-R were decreased. Refined XYS could improve the behaviors of rats and the biological indicators. Conclusions: There is a neurosteroid dysfunction in the brain region of depression rat model animals, and the mechanism of refined XYS depression treatment may be related to the regulation of the control of mRNA expression of related synthesis and metabolic enzymes in the hippocampus and amygdala, further affecting the contents of neurosteroids.

  11. Quantifying social asymmetric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanas, Antonio; Salafranca, Lluís; Riba, Carles; Sierra, Vicenta; Leiva, David

    2006-08-01

    Many social phenomena involve a set of dyadic relations among agents whose actions may be dependent. Although individualistic approaches have frequently been applied to analyze social processes, these are not generally concerned with dyadic relations, nor do they deal with dependency. This article describes a mathematical procedure for analyzing dyadic interactions in a social system. The proposed method consists mainly of decomposing asymmetric data into their symmetric and skew-symmetric parts. A quantification of skew symmetry for a social system can be obtained by dividing the norm of the skew-symmetric matrix by the norm of the asymmetric matrix. This calculation makes available to researchers a quantity related to the amount of dyadic reciprocity. With regard to agents, the procedure enables researchers to identify those whose behavior is asymmetric with respect to all agents. It is also possible to derive symmetric measurements among agents and to use multivariate statistical techniques.

  12. Concentration-related metabolic rate and behavioral thermoregulatory adaptations to serial administrations of nitrous oxide in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Initial administration of ≥60% nitrous oxide (N2O) to rats evokes hypothermia, but after repeated administrations the gas instead evokes hyperthermia. This sign reversal is driven mainly by increased heat production. To determine whether rats will behaviorally oppose or assist the development of hyperthermia, we previously performed thermal gradient testing. Inhalation of N2O at ≥60% causes rats to select cooler ambient temperatures both during initial administrations and during subsequent administrations in which the hyperthermic state exists. Thus, an available behavioral response opposes (but does not completely prevent) the acquired hyperthermia that develops over repeated high-concentration N2O administrations. However, recreational and clinical uses of N2O span a wide range of concentrations. Therefore, we sought to determine the thermoregulatory adaptations to chronic N2O administration over a wide range of concentrations. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase we adapted rats to twelve 3-h N2O administrations at either 0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 60% or 75% N2O (n = 12 per group); outcomes were core temperature (via telemetry) and heat production (via respirometry). In the second phase, we used a thermal gradient (range 8°C—38°C) to assess each adapted group’s thermal preference, core temperature and locomotion on a single occasion during N2O inhalation at the assigned concentration. Results In phase 1, repeated N2O administrations led to dose related hyperthermic and hypermetabolic states during inhalation of ≥45% N2O compared to controls (≥ 30% N2O compared to baseline). In phase 2, rats in these groups selected cooler ambient temperatures during N2O inhalation but still developed some hyperthermia. However, a concentration-related increase of locomotion was evident in the gradient, and theoretical calculations and regression analyses both suggest that locomotion contributed to the residual hyperthermia. Conclusions Acquired

  13. The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2012 18 The Fallacy of Quantifying Risk David E. Frick, Ph.D. Frick is a 35-year veteran of the Department of...a key to risk analysis was “choosing the right technique” of quantifying risk . The weakness in this argument stems not from the assertion that one...of information about the enemy), yet achiev- ing great outcomes. Attempts at quantifying risk are not, in and of themselves, objectionable. Prudence

  14. [The course of inpatient rehabilitation in gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases under increasing integration of behavior and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschmidt, S; Hänisch, S; Würthner, K

    1993-08-01

    negatively with the ERSS, but positively with the scope of the interventions designed to foster integration of behaviour and felt experience. The judgements given for quality of care provided relative to the patient's self-reported primary disorder and for general medical care correlate positively both with the scope of diagnostic/therapeutic organ-medical interventions and integration-focussed ones, which, at least from the patient's perspective, hence exercise an ascertainable, essential effect in the therapeutic setting of in-patient rehabilitation in gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases.

  15. Chronic psychological stress and high-fat high-fructose diet disrupt metabolic and inflammatory gene networks in the brain, liver, and gut and promote behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Houser, Madelyn C; Chang, Jianjun; Walker, Douglas I; Jones, Dean P; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M P; Barnum, Christopher J; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between chronic psychological stress, development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and behavioral impairment in obesity are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of mild chronic psychological stress on metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral profiles in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that (1) high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF) and psychological stress would synergize to mediate the impact of inflammation on the central nervous system in the presence of behavioral dysfunction, and that (2) HFHF and stress interactions would impact insulin and lipid metabolism. C57Bl/6 male mice underwent a combination of HFHF and two weeks of chronic psychological stress. MetS-related conditions were assessed using untargeted plasma metabolomics, and structural and immune changes in the gut and liver were evaluated. Inflammation was measured in plasma, liver, gut, and brain. Our results show a complex interplay of diet and stress on gut alterations, energetic homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and plasma insulin levels. Psychological stress and HFHF diet promoted changes in intestinal tight junctions proteins and increases in insulin resistance and plasma cholesterol, and impacted the RNA expression of inflammatory factors in the hippocampus. Stress promoted an adaptive anti-inflammatory profile in the hippocampus that was abolished by diet treatment. HFHF increased hippocampal and hepatic Lcn2 mRNA expression as well as LCN2 plasma levels. Behavioral changes were associated with HFHF and stress. Collectively, these results suggest that diet and stress as pervasive factors exacerbate MetS-related conditions through an inflammatory mechanism that ultimately can impact behavior. This rodent model may prove useful for identification of possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets to treat metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early and long-term effects of low- and high-LET radiation on rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in different brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Oleg

    Space radiation is one of the factors representing a significant health risk to the astronauts during deep-space missions. A most harmful component of space radiation beyond the Earth's magnetosphere is the galactic cosmic rays which are composed of high-energy protons, α particles, and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. Recent studies performed at particle accelerators have revealed a significant impact of HZE nuclei on the central nervous system and, in particular, on the cognitive functions. However the exact molecular mechanisms behind the observed impairments remain mostly unclear. This research is focused on study of early and long-term effects of low- and high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation on the rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in the brain regions involved in behavior and motor control and form emotional and motivational states. Different groups of rats were whole-body exposed to 500 MeV/u (12) C particles (LET 10.6 keV/µm) available at the Nuclotron accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) and to gamma rays at the equivalent dose of 1 Gy. An additional group of animals was sham-irradiated and considered as a control. The isolated brain regions have included the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum where we determined the concentrations of noradrenalin, dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-doxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxytyramine and serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The following effects were observed in the different periods after irradiation. 1 day after exposure to (12) C particles strong changes in the concentration of monoamines and their metabolites were observed in three structures, namely, the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. However, significant changes were found in the prefrontal cortex and weaker changes were seen in the nucleus accumbens, whereas changes were insignificant in the hippocampus

  17. Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianoulis, Tara A; Raes, Jeroen; Patel, Prianka V

    2009-01-01

    of particular pathways and subnetworks reflects the adaptation of microbial communities across environments and habitats-i.e., how network dynamics relates to environmental features. Previous research has treated environments as discrete, somewhat simplified classes (e.g., terrestrial vs. marine), and searched...... multiple, continuously varying factors defining an environment to the extent of particular microbial pathways present in a geographic site. Moreover, rather than looking only at individual correlations (one-to-one), we adapted canonical correlation analysis and related techniques to define an ensemble...

  18. Multidominance, ellipsis, and quantifier scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, Tanja Maria Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides a novel perspective on the interaction between quantifier scope and ellipsis. It presents a detailed investigation of the scopal interaction between English negative indefinites, modals, and quantified phrases in ellipsis. One of the crucial observations is that a negative

  19. Short communication: Pilot study on hormonal, metabolic, and behavioral stress response to treatment of claw horn lesions in acutely lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, S; Wunderlich, C; Heppelmann, M; Palme, R; Starke, A; Kehler, W; Steiner, A; Rizk, A; Meyer, U; Daenicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-09-01

    Short-term effects of therapeutic claw trimming in acutely lame cows (n=21) with nonadvanced claw horn lesions on the endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral stress responses were investigated in comparison to regular claw trimming in nonlame control cows (n=21). Controls were matched to lame cows by parity and stage of lactation. Lame cows suffering from typical sole ulcers or white line disease were blinded and randomly assigned to 2 treatments, receiving 15 min before interventions either ketoprofen (n=11; 3mg/kg of BW intramuscularly; Romefen, Merial, Lyon, France) or placebo (n=10; saline in equivalent amount and route of administration). All cows underwent functional claw trimming in lateral recumbency on a surgical tipping table, and claw horn lesions in lame cows were conventionally treated (removal of loose horn, block on opposing claw, bandaging of affected claw). Blood samples collected 15 min before, at the end, and 24h after claw trimming were analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, lactate, and glucose, and fecal samples (collected before treatment and after 24 h) for cortisol metabolites. Behavioral stress responses during functional and therapeutic claw trimming were recorded. Concentrations of blood cortisol, fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites were higher in lame than in nonlame cows after treatment. During claw treatment, more leg movements were recorded for lame cows than nonlame cows. Pre-emptive administration of ketoprofen had no obvious effects on stress responses to therapeutic claw trimming. Treatments of claw horn lesions caused a significant stress and pain reaction in acutely lame cows, demonstrating the necessity of adequate pain management protocols for such interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  1. Life course socioeconomic position and C-reactive protein: mediating role of health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidyane V Camelo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP and cardiovascular disease (CVD. We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption, and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes. Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001. The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4% than among men (36.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable

  2. Icariin reverses corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior, decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabolic network disturbances revealed by NMR-based metabonomics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Meng-Juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang; Zou, Zhong-jie

    2016-05-10

    Previously published reports have revealed the antidepressant-like effects of icariin in a chronic mild stress model of depression and in a social defeat stress model in mice. However, the therapeutic effect of icariin in an animal model of glucocorticoid-induced depression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of icariin in a rat model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression by using a combination of behavioral and biochemical assessments and NMR-based metabonomics. The depression model was established by subcutaneous injections of CORT for 21 consecutive days in rats, as evidenced by reduced sucrose intake and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, together with an increase in immobility time in a forced swim test (FST). Icariin significantly increased sucrose intake and hippocampal BDNF level and decreased the immobility time in FST in CORT-induced depressive rats, suggesting its potent antidepressant activity. Moreover, metabonomic analysis identified eight, five and three potential biomarkers associated with depression in serum, urine and brain tissue extract, respectively. These biomarkers are primarily involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut microbe metabolism. Icariin reversed the pathological process of CORT-induced depression, partially via regulation of the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of icariin against CORT-induced depression and metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying Stock Return Distributions in Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Federico; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Being able to quantify the probability of large price changes in stock markets is of crucial importance in understanding financial crises that affect the lives of people worldwide. Large changes in stock market prices can arise abruptly, within a matter of minutes, or develop across much longer time scales. Here, we analyze a dataset comprising the stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average at a second by second resolution in the period from January 2008 to July 2010 in order to quantify the distribution of changes in market prices at a range of time scales. We find that the tails of the distributions of logarithmic price changes, or returns, exhibit power law decays for time scales ranging from 300 seconds to 3600 seconds. For larger time scales, we find that the distributions tails exhibit exponential decay. Our findings may inform the development of models of market behavior across varying time scales.

  4. Modulation of Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as a Biochemical Basis of the Behavioral Effects of Use and Withdrawal of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids and Other Image- and Performance-Enhancing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A-B Badawy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of tryptophan (Trp metabolism may underpin the behavioral effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS and associated image and performance enhancers. Euphoria, arousal, and decreased anxiety observed with moderate use and exercise may involve enhanced cerebral serotonin synthesis and function by increased release of albumin-bound Trp and estrogen-mediated liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO inhibition and enhancement of serotonin function. Aggression, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and psychosis, observed on withdrawal of AAS or with use of large doses, can be caused by decreased serotonin synthesis due to TDO induction on withdrawal, excess Trp inhibiting the 2 enzymes of serotonin synthesis, and increased cerebral levels of neuroactive kynurenines. Exercise and excessive protein and branched-chain amino acid intakes may aggravate the effects of large AAS dosage. The hypothesis is testable in humans and experimental animals by measuring parameters of Trp metabolism and disposition and related metabolic processes.

  5. The effect of lameness on the resting behavior and metabolic status of dairy cattle during the transition period in a freestall-housed dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, D F; Cook, N B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to examine the effect of lameness on the resting behavior of dairy cattle through the transition period in a mattress-bedded commercial freestall facility, and explore the relationships between lameness, behavior, and metabolic indicators of disease. A convenience sample was used, comprised of 40 multiparous and 17 primiparous Holstein cows that were recruited as they entered the close-up pen and tracked through the maternity, hospital, and fresh pens. At recruitment, 87.5% of multiparous cows and 23.5% of primiparous cows showed evidence of abnormal gait. Lying time decreased from 16 d before calving from a least squares means ± standard error of 13.5 ± 0.6 h/d to a nadir of 10.6 ± 0.38 h/d on the day of calving. After a period of increased rest after calving, lying time stabilized by d 6 to between 9.8 and 10.8h/d. This change was accompanied by an increase in the number of lying bouts per day from least squares means (95% confidence limits) of 11.2 (10.0 to 12.4) bouts per day to a peak of 17.7 (16.5 to 18.8) bouts per day on the day before calving, and a decrease in the duration of each lying bout. Resting behavior was influenced by calving month, temperature humidity index, body condition, parity, and lameness. Moderate and severely lame cows had significantly longer lying times throughout the transition period before and after calving, but most notable was a dramatic increase in the number of lying bouts observed 3 d before and after calving. In the straw-bedded, loose-housed maternity pen, moderate and severely lame cows had 20.3 (19.1 to 21.5) bouts per day, compared with 15.6 (14.3 to 16.8) bouts per day for nonlame cows. We hypothesized that this alteration in behavior may be associated with hypersensitivity to pain due to lameness. A total of 26.3% of cows tested above a threshold of 1,400 μM β-hydroxybutyrate. Moderate and severely lame cows had a least squares means (95% confidence limits)

  6. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  7. Quantified Self in de huisartsenpraktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martijn; Timmers, Bart; Kooiman, Thea; van Ittersum, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Quantified Self staat voor de zelfmetende mens. Het aantal mensen dat met zelf gegeneerde gezondheidsgegevens het zorgproces binnenwandelt gaat de komende jaren groeien. Verschillende soorten activity trackers en gezondheidsapplicaties voor de smartphone maken het relatief eenvoudig om persoonlijke

  8. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attackers...... capable to observe the internal behavior of the system, and quantify the information leakage of such systems. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed and non-timed attacks...

  9. A high-throughput assay for quantifying appetite and digestive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggiana-Nilo, Drago; Soucy, Edward; Song, Erin Yue; Lei Wee, Caroline; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Food intake and digestion are vital functions, and their dysregulation is fundamental for many human diseases. Current methods do not support their dynamic quantification on large scales in unrestrained vertebrates. Here, we combine an infrared macroscope with fluorescently labeled food to quantify feeding behavior and intestinal nutrient metabolism with high temporal resolution, sensitivity, and throughput in naturally behaving zebrafish larvae. Using this method and rate-based modeling, we demonstrate that zebrafish larvae match nutrient intake to their bodily demand and that larvae adjust their digestion rate, according to the ingested meal size. Such adaptive feedback mechanisms make this model system amenable to identify potential chemical modulators. As proof of concept, we demonstrate that nicotine, l-lysine, ghrelin, and insulin have analogous impact on food intake as in mammals. Consequently, the method presented here will promote large-scale translational research of food intake and digestive function in a naturally behaving vertebrate. PMID:26108871

  10. An innovative, quick and convenient labeling method for the investigation of pharmacological behavior and the metabolism of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanovic, Magdalena; Uskokovic, Dragan [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Maksin, Tatjana [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Petkovic, Jana; Filipic, Metka, E-mail: magdalena.stevanovic@itn.sanu.ac.r, E-mail: magir@eunet.r [Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-08-19

    Nanoparticles of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) in the size range 90-150 nm were produced using the physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems. The encapsulation of the ascorbic acid in the polymer matrix was performed by homogenization of the water and organic phases. In vitro degradation and release tests of PLGA nanoparticles with and without encapsulated ascorbic acid were studied for more than 60 days in PBS and it has been determined that PLGA completely degrades within this period, fully releasing all encapsulated ascorbic acid. The cytotoxicity of PLGA and PLGA/ascorbic acid 85/15% nanoparticles was examined with human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 ECACC), in vitro. The obtained results indicate that neither PLGA nanospheres nor PLGA/ascorbic acid 85/15% nanoparticles significantly affected the viability of the HepG2 cells. The investigation of the distribution and pharmacokinetics of PLGA is crucial for the effective prediction of host responses to PLGA in particular applications. Thus we present a method of labeling PLGA nanospheres and PLGA/ascorbic acid 85/15 wt% nanoparticles by {sup 99m}Tc which binds outside, leaving the cage intact. This enables a quick and convenient investigation of the pharmacological behavior and metabolism of PLGA. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled PLGA particles with and without encapsulated ascorbic acid after different periods of time of their installation into rats was examined. PLGA nanospheres with encapsulated ascorbic acid exhibit prolonged blood circulation accompanied by time-dependent reduction in the lungs, liver and spleen, and addition in the kidney, stomach and intestine. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy and instant thin layer chromatography.

  11. An innovative, quick and convenient labeling method for the investigation of pharmacological behavior and the metabolism of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanovic, Magdalena; Uskokovic, Dragan; Maksin, Tatjana; Petkovic, Jana; Filipic, Metka

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) in the size range 90-150 nm were produced using the physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems. The encapsulation of the ascorbic acid in the polymer matrix was performed by homogenization of the water and organic phases. In vitro degradation and release tests of PLGA nanoparticles with and without encapsulated ascorbic acid were studied for more than 60 days in PBS and it has been determined that PLGA completely degrades within this period, fully releasing all encapsulated ascorbic acid. The cytotoxicity of PLGA and PLGA/ascorbic acid 85/15% nanoparticles was examined with human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 ECACC), in vitro. The obtained results indicate that neither PLGA nanospheres nor PLGA/ascorbic acid 85/15% nanoparticles significantly affected the viability of the HepG2 cells. The investigation of the distribution and pharmacokinetics of PLGA is crucial for the effective prediction of host responses to PLGA in particular applications. Thus we present a method of labeling PLGA nanospheres and PLGA/ascorbic acid 85/15 wt% nanoparticles by 99m Tc which binds outside, leaving the cage intact. This enables a quick and convenient investigation of the pharmacological behavior and metabolism of PLGA. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-labeled PLGA particles with and without encapsulated ascorbic acid after different periods of time of their installation into rats was examined. PLGA nanospheres with encapsulated ascorbic acid exhibit prolonged blood circulation accompanied by time-dependent reduction in the lungs, liver and spleen, and addition in the kidney, stomach and intestine. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy and instant thin layer chromatography.

  12. Central nervous system neuropeptide Y signaling via the Y1 receptor partially dissociates feeding behavior from lipoprotein metabolism in lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jennifer M; Stafford, John M; Saadat, Sanaz; Printz, Richard L; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Niswender, Kevin D

    2012-12-15

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels contribute to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity are characterized by increased central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptide Y (NPY) tone that contributes to excess food intake and obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of NPY in lean fasted rats also elevates hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. Thus, we hypothesize that elevated CNS NPY action contributes to not only the pathogenesis of obesity but also dyslipidemia. Here, we sought to determine whether the effects of NPY on feeding and/or obesity are dissociable from effects on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Pair-fed, icv NPY-treated, chow-fed Long-Evans rats develop hypertriglyceridemia in the absence of increased food intake and body fat accumulation compared with vehicle-treated controls. We then modulated CNS NPY signaling by icv injection of selective NPY receptor agonists and found that Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5 receptor agonists all induced hyperphagia in lean, ad libitum chow-fed Long-Evans rats, with the Y2 receptor agonist having the most pronounced effect. Next, we found that at equipotent doses for food intake NPY Y1 receptor agonist had the most robust effect on VLDL-TG secretion, a Y2 receptor agonist had a modest effect, and no effect was observed for Y4 and Y5 receptor agonists. These findings, using selective agonists, suggest the possibility that the effect of CNS NPY signaling on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion may be relatively dissociable from effects on feeding behavior via the Y1 receptor.

  13. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrida Fernando MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1 assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2 detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3 compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5% and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54 and 2.51 (1.46-4.31, in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37. OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98 and 0.41 (0.19-0.85 in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437 with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1

  14. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The nervous system and metabolic dysregulation: emerging evidence converges on ketogenic diet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Ruskin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, ketogenic diet therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. More recently, cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders - although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a ketogenic diet and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a ketogenic diet on cognition and recent data on the effects of a ketogenic diet on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system.

  16. The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, KD therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. Cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders – although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a KD and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a KD on cognition and recent data on the effects of a KD on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system. PMID:22470316

  17. Quantifying Pilot Visual Attention in Low Visibility Terminal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K.; Arthur, J. J.; Latorella, Kara A.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, Robert M.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying pilot visual behavior allows researchers to determine not only where a pilot is looking and when, but holds implications for specific behavioral tracking when these data are coupled with flight technical performance. Remote eye tracking systems have been integrated into simulators at NASA Langley with effectively no impact on the pilot environment. This paper discusses the installation and use of a remote eye tracking system. The data collection techniques from a complex human-in-the-loop (HITL) research experiment are discussed; especially, the data reduction algorithms and logic to transform raw eye tracking data into quantified visual behavior metrics, and analysis methods to interpret visual behavior. The findings suggest superior performance for Head-Up Display (HUD) and improved attentional behavior for Head-Down Display (HDD) implementations of Synthetic Vision System (SVS) technologies for low visibility terminal area operations. Keywords: eye tracking, flight deck, NextGen, human machine interface, aviation

  18. Quantifying the uncertainty in heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Heckerman, David; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The use of mixed models to determine narrow-sense heritability and related quantities such as SNP heritability has received much recent attention. Less attention has been paid to the inherent variability in these estimates. One approach for quantifying variability in estimates of heritability is a frequentist approach, in which heritability is estimated using maximum likelihood and its variance is quantified through an asymptotic normal approximation. An alternative approach is to quantify the uncertainty in heritability through its Bayesian posterior distribution. In this paper, we develop the latter approach, make it computationally efficient and compare it to the frequentist approach. We show theoretically that, for a sufficiently large sample size and intermediate values of heritability, the two approaches provide similar results. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort, we show empirically that the two approaches can give different results and that the variance/uncertainty can remain large.

  19. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Berry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS, might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother’s body weight and offspring’s weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females and in the central nervous system (males. Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important

  20. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Bellisario, Veronica; Panetta, Pamela; Raggi, Carla; Magnifico, Maria C; Arese, Marzia; Cirulli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS), might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy) on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery) and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother's body weight and offspring's weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females) and in the central nervous system (males). Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important long

  1. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  2. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus enhances both fat utilization and metabolic rate that precede and parallel the inhibition of feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruffin, MP; Nicolaidis, S

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) stimulation on various metabolic parameters in freely moving animals were measured using a specific indirect calorimetric chamber associated with a quantitative measurement of locomotor activity, which allows the separate measurement of locomotor energy

  3. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  4. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  5. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  6. Towards Quantifying a Wider Reality: Shannon Exonerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Ulanowicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1872 Ludwig von Boltzmann derived a statistical formula to represent the entropy (an apophasis of a highly simplistic system. In 1948 Claude Shannon independently formulated the same expression to capture the positivist essence of information. Such contradictory thrusts engendered decades of ambiguity concerning exactly what is conveyed by the expression. Resolution of widespread confusion is possible by invoking the third law of thermodynamics, which requires that entropy be treated in a relativistic fashion. Doing so parses the Boltzmann expression into separate terms that segregate apophatic entropy from positivist information. Possibly more importantly, the decomposition itself portrays a dialectic-like agonism between constraint and disorder that may provide a more appropriate description of the behavior of living systems than is possible using conventional dynamics. By quantifying the apophatic side of evolution, the Shannon approach to information achieves what no other treatment of the subject affords: It opens the window on a more encompassing perception of reality.

  7. Vitamin A metabolism, kinetic behavior and utilization: Rationale for the continued development and use of an isotope dilution technique for assessing vitamin A stores in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the applicability of isotope dilution method in general and oral isotope dilution in particular to the assessment of vitamin A status in humans. It also highlights some aspects of vitamin A intake and metabolism as related to isotope dilution method. Areas of methodological research and development in vitamin A research are also proposed

  8. Limited Access to Food and Physiological Trade-Offs in a Long-Distance Migrant Shorebird. I. Energy Metabolism, Behavior, and Body-Mass Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezina, Francois; Petit, Magali; Buehler, Deborah M.; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments showed reduction of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds facing energetic challenges. We alternately exposed two groups of red knots (Calidris canutus) to either 6 h or 22 h of food availability for periods of 22 d. Six h of access to food led to a 6%-10% loss of body mass over

  9. Ecological and hormonal correlates of antipredator behavior in adult Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi)

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Jill M.

    2007-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships provide an excellent opportunity to study coevolved adaptations. Decades of theoretical and empirical research have illuminated the various behavioral adaptations exhibited by prey animals to avoid detection and capture, and recent work has begun to characterize physiological adaptations, such as immune reactions, metabolic changes, and hormonal responses to predators or their cues. A 2-year study quantified the activity budgets and antipredator responses of adult ...

  10. Quantifying Quantum-Mechanical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jen-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Hsuan; Li, Che-Ming

    2017-10-19

    The act of describing how a physical process changes a system is the basis for understanding observed phenomena. For quantum-mechanical processes in particular, the affect of processes on quantum states profoundly advances our knowledge of the natural world, from understanding counter-intuitive concepts to the development of wholly quantum-mechanical technology. Here, we show that quantum-mechanical processes can be quantified using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry can be ruled out. We demonstrate the success of this formalism using fundamental processes postulated in quantum mechanics, the dynamics of open quantum systems, quantum-information processing, the fusion of entangled photon pairs, and the energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Since our framework does not depend on any specifics of the states being processed, it reveals a new class of correlations in the hierarchy between entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and paves the way for the elaboration of a generic method for quantifying physical processes.

  11. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  12. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  13. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  14. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  15. Energetics of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmission in Aluminum Chloride Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Reversal of Behavioral and Metabolic Deficits by Rasa Sindoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions and memory. Excessive intake of aluminum chloride in drinking water is associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the hallmark of AD. We have evaluated brain energy metabolism in aluminum chloride (AlCl3 mouse model of AD. In addition, effectiveness of Rasa Sindoor (RS, a formulation used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, for alleviation of symptoms of AD was evaluated. Mice were administered AlCl3 (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day for 60 days. The memory of mice was measured using Morris Water Maze test. The 13C labeling of brain amino acids was measured ex vivo in tissue extracts using 1H-[13C]-NMR spectroscopy with timed infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose. The 13C turnover of brain amino acids was analyzed using a three-compartment metabolic model to derive the neurotransmitter cycling and TCA cycle rates associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways. Exposure of AlCl3 led to reduction in memory of mice. The glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter cycling and glucose oxidation were found to be reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum following chronic AlCl3 treatment. The perturbation in metabolic rates was highest in the cerebral cortex. However, reduction in metabolic fluxes was higher in hippocampus and striatum following one month post AlCl3 treatment. Most interestingly, oral administration of RS (2 g/kg restored memory as well as the energetics of neurotransmission in mice exposed to AlCl3. These data suggest therapeutic potential of RS to manage cognitive functions and memory in preclinical AD.

  16. [Metabolic acidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fani, Filippo; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Cremaschi, Elena; Greco, Paolo; Parenti, Elisabetta; Morabito, Santo; Sabatino, Alice; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is frequently observed in clinical practice, especially among critically ill patients and/or in the course of renal failure. Complex mechanisms are involved, in most cases identifiable by medical history, pathophysiology-based diagnostic reasoning and measure of some key acid-base parameters that are easily available or calculable. On this basis the bedside differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis should be started from the identification of the two main subtypes of metabolic acidosis: the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and the normal anion gap (or hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, especially in its acute forms with elevated anion gap such as is the case of lactic acidosis, diabetic and acute intoxications, may significantly affect metabolic body homeostasis and patients hemodynamic status, setting the stage for true medical emergencies. The therapeutic approach should be first aimed at early correction of concurrent clinical problems (e.g. fluids and hemodynamic optimization in case of shock, mechanical ventilation in case of concomitant respiratory failure, hemodialysis for acute intoxications etc.), in parallel to the formulation of a diagnosis. In case of severe acidosis, the administration of alkalizing agents should be carefully evaluated, taking into account the risk of side effects, as well as the potential need of renal replacement therapy.

  17. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  18. Quantifying sound quality in loudspeaker reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, John G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Kevin; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present PREQUEL: Perceptual Reproduction Quality Evaluation for Loudspeakers. Instead of quantifying the loudspeaker system itself, PREQUEL quantifies the overall loudspeakers' perceived sound quality by assessing their acoustic output using a set of music signals. This approach introduces a

  19. Quantifying the semantics of search behavior before stock market moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curme, Chester; Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H Eugene; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2014-08-12

    Technology is becoming deeply interwoven into the fabric of society. The Internet has become a central source of information for many people when making day-to-day decisions. Here, we present a method to mine the vast data Internet users create when searching for information online, to identify topics of interest before stock market moves. In an analysis of historic data from 2004 until 2012, we draw on records from the search engine Google and online encyclopedia Wikipedia as well as judgments from the service Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find evidence of links between Internet searches relating to politics or business and subsequent stock market moves. In particular, we find that an increase in search volume for these topics tends to precede stock market falls. We suggest that extensions of these analyses could offer insight into large-scale information flow before a range of real-world events.

  20. Modeling and analysis to quantify MSE wall behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    To better understand potential sources of adverse performance of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls, a suite of analytical models was studied using the computer program FLAC, a numerical modeling computer program widely used in geotechnical en...

  1. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  2. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    behind metabolic reactions, importance, and consequences with several ... required for drug action. ... lism, which is catalyzed by enzymes present in the above-men- ... catalyze the transfer of one atom of oxygen to a substrate produc-.

  3. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  4. Quantifying human vitamin kinetics using AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillegonds, D; Dueker, S; Ognibene, T; Buchholz, B; Lin, Y; Vogel, J; Clifford, A

    2004-02-19

    Tracing vitamin kinetics at physiologic concentrations has been hampered by a lack of quantitative sensitivity for chemically equivalent tracers that could be used safely in healthy people. Instead, elderly or ill volunteers were sought for studies involving pharmacologic doses with radioisotopic labels. These studies fail to be relevant in two ways: vitamins are inherently micronutrients, whose biochemical paths are saturated and distorted by pharmacological doses; and while vitamins remain important for health in the elderly or ill, their greatest effects may be in preventing slow and cumulative diseases by proper consumption throughout youth and adulthood. Neither the target dose nor the target population are available for nutrient metabolic studies through decay counting of radioisotopes at high levels. Stable isotopic labels are quantified by isotope ratio mass spectrometry at levels that trace physiologic vitamin doses, but the natural background of stable isotopes severely limits the time span over which the tracer is distinguishable. Indeed, study periods seldom ranged over a single biological mean life of the labeled nutrients, failing to provide data on the important final elimination phase of the compound. Kinetic data for the absorption phase is similarly rare in micronutrient research because the phase is rapid, requiring many consecutive plasma samples for accurate representation. However, repeated blood samples of sufficient volume for precise stable or radio-isotope quantitations consume an indefensible amount of the volunteer's blood over a short period. Thus, vitamin pharmacokinetics in humans has often relied on compartmental modeling based upon assumptions and tested only for the short period of maximal blood circulation, a period that poorly reflects absorption or final elimination kinetics except for the most simple models.

  5. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  6. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  7. Quantify the complexity of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingtian; Wu, Huixuan

    2017-11-01

    Many researchers have used Reynolds stress, power spectrum and Shannon entropy to characterize a turbulent flow, but few of them have measured the complexity of turbulence. Yet as this study shows, conventional turbulence statistics and Shannon entropy have limits when quantifying the flow complexity. Thus, it is necessary to introduce new complexity measures- such as topology complexity and excess information-to describe turbulence. Our test flow is a classic turbulent cylinder wake at Reynolds number 8100. Along the stream-wise direction, the flow becomes more isotropic and the magnitudes of normal Reynolds stresses decrease monotonically. These seem to indicate the flow dynamics becomes simpler downstream. However, the Shannon entropy keeps increasing along the flow direction and the dynamics seems to be more complex, because the large-scale vortices cascade to small eddies, the flow is less correlated and more unpredictable. In fact, these two contradictory observations partially describe the complexity of a turbulent wake. Our measurements (up to 40 diameters downstream the cylinder) show that the flow's degree-of-complexity actually increases firstly and then becomes a constant (or drops slightly) along the stream-wise direction. University of Kansas General Research Fund.

  8. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  10. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  11. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  13. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  14. Neural basis for generalized quantifier comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Corey T; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Devita, Christian; Grossman, Murray

    2005-01-01

    Generalized quantifiers like "all cars" are semantically well understood, yet we know little about their neural representation. Our model of quantifier processing includes a numerosity device, operations that combine number elements and working memory. Semantic theory posits two types of quantifiers: first-order quantifiers identify a number state (e.g. "at least 3") and higher-order quantifiers additionally require maintaining a number state actively in working memory for comparison with another state (e.g. "less than half"). We used BOLD fMRI to test the hypothesis that all quantifiers recruit inferior parietal cortex associated with numerosity, while only higher-order quantifiers recruit prefrontal cortex associated with executive resources like working memory. Our findings showed that first-order and higher-order quantifiers both recruit right inferior parietal cortex, suggesting that a numerosity component contributes to quantifier comprehension. Moreover, only probes of higher-order quantifiers recruited right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting involvement of executive resources like working memory. We also observed activation of thalamus and anterior cingulate that may be associated with selective attention. Our findings are consistent with a large-scale neural network centered in frontal and parietal cortex that supports comprehension of generalized quantifiers.

  15. Quantifying the web browser ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, Sela; Minkov, Einat; Bekkerman, Ron; Gefen, David

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the assumption that web browsers are designed to support the user, an examination of a 900,000 distinct PCs shows that web browsers comprise a complex ecosystem with millions of addons collaborating and competing with each other. It is possible for addons to "sneak in" through third party installations or to get "kicked out" by their competitors without user involvement. This study examines that ecosystem quantitatively by constructing a large-scale graph with nodes corresponding to users, addons, and words (terms) that describe addon functionality. Analyzing addon interactions at user level using the Personalized PageRank (PPR) random walk measure shows that the graph demonstrates ecological resilience. Adapting the PPR model to analyzing the browser ecosystem at the level of addon manufacturer, the study shows that some addon companies are in symbiosis and others clash with each other as shown by analyzing the behavior of 18 prominent addon manufacturers. Results may herald insight on how other evolving internet ecosystems may behave, and suggest a methodology for measuring this behavior. Specifically, applying such a methodology could transform the addon market.

  16. Quantifying the web browser ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, Sela; Minkov, Einat; Gefen, David

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the assumption that web browsers are designed to support the user, an examination of a 900,000 distinct PCs shows that web browsers comprise a complex ecosystem with millions of addons collaborating and competing with each other. It is possible for addons to “sneak in” through third party installations or to get “kicked out” by their competitors without user involvement. This study examines that ecosystem quantitatively by constructing a large-scale graph with nodes corresponding to users, addons, and words (terms) that describe addon functionality. Analyzing addon interactions at user level using the Personalized PageRank (PPR) random walk measure shows that the graph demonstrates ecological resilience. Adapting the PPR model to analyzing the browser ecosystem at the level of addon manufacturer, the study shows that some addon companies are in symbiosis and others clash with each other as shown by analyzing the behavior of 18 prominent addon manufacturers. Results may herald insight on how other evolving internet ecosystems may behave, and suggest a methodology for measuring this behavior. Specifically, applying such a methodology could transform the addon market. PMID:28644833

  17. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook; Kincaid, Meegin; Young, Jared W.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that a cardinal symptom of mania is over-activity and exaggerated goal-directed behavior. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to quantify this behavior objectively in a laboratory environment. Having a methodology to assess over-activity reliably might be useful in distinguishing manic bipolar disorder (BD) from schizophrenia (SCZ) during highly activated states. In the current study, quantifiable measures of object-interaction were assessed using a multivariate ...

  18. Differences in the effects of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on forced swimming behavior and brain 5-HT metabolism between low and high aggressive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Cremers, TIFH; Jongsma, ME; Steenbergen, PJ; de Boer, SF; Koolhaas, JM; Jongsma, Minke E.

    Rationale: Male wild house- mice genetically selected for long attack latency ( LAL) and short attack latency ( SAL) differ in structural and functional properties of postsynaptic serotonergic- 1A ( 5- HT1A) receptors. These mouse lines also show divergent behavioral responses in the forced swimming

  19. [Metabolic myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-06

    To review the metabolic myopathies manifested only by crisis of myalgias, cramps and rigidity of the muscles with decreased voluntary contractions and normal inter crisis neurologic examination in children and adolescents. These metabolic myopathies are autosomic recessive inherited enzymatic deficiencies of the carbohydrates and lipids metabolisms. The end result is a reduction of intra muscle adenosine triphosphate, mainly through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with decrease of available energy for muscle contraction. The one secondary to carbohydrates intra muscle metabolism disorders are triggered by high intensity brief (fatty acids metabolism disorders are triggered by low intensity prolonged (> 10 min) exercises. The conditions in the first group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of myophosforilase (GSD V), muscle phosphofructokinase (GSD VII), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (GSD X) and beta enolase (GSD XIII). The conditions in the second group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II and very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase. The differential characteristics of patients in each group and within each group will allow to make the initial presumptive clinical diagnosis in the majority and then to order only the necessary tests to achieve the final diagnosis. Treatment during the crisis includes hydration, glucose and alkalinization of urine if myoglobin in blood and urine are elevated. Prevention includes avoiding exercise which may induce the crisis and fasting. The prognosis is good with the exception of rare cases of acute renal failure due to hipermyoglobinemia because of severe rabdomyolisis.

  20. Quantifying social development in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, F R; Carter, A; Sparrow, S S; Cicchetti, D V

    1993-05-01

    This study was concerned with the development of quantitative measures of social development in autism. Multiple regression equations predicting social, communicative, and daily living skills on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were derived from a large, normative sample and applied to groups of autistic and nonautistic, developmentally disordered children. Predictive models included either mental or chronological age and other relevant variables. Social skills in the autistic group were more than two standard deviations below those predicted by their mental age; an index derived from the ratio of actual to predicted social skills correctly classified 94% of the autistic and 92% of the nonautistic, developmentally disordered cases. The findings are consistent with the idea that social disturbance is central in the definition of autism. The approach used in this study has potential advantages for providing more precise measures of social development in autism.

  1. Quantifying Information Flow During Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Song, Chaoming; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P.; Wang, Dashun

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics.

  2. The effect of insulin glargine and nutritional model on metabolic control, quality of life and behavior in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran; Buyukinan, Muammer; Köse, Timur; Erermis, Serpil; Coker, Mahmut

    2008-03-01

    To determine the impact of glargine insulin therapy with different nutritional models on key parameters of diabetes including quality of life, behavior in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, anthropometric data and episodes of severe hypoglycemia were taken from patients' charts. Diabetes quality of life scale and childhood behavior checklist questionnaires were given to each child at the start and at the end of 6 months. Mean age when starting on glargine insulin was 15.5 +/- 3. 8 years. Duration of diabetes was 7.1 +/- 4.3 years. About 14 of the patients chose to be in the carbohydrate counting group, whereas 24 of them continued with exchange meal plan as nutritional model. There was a reduction in HbA1c levels from 7.86 to 7.1% in the carbohydrate group and 8.8 to 8.0% in the exchange meal plan group. Total daily insulin dose did not change in both of the groups. BMI did not change in both of the groups. Diabetes-related worries decreased in carbohydrate group. No change was found in the behavior scores in both of the groups at the end of the study period. The use of glargine therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes was associated with improved overall glycemic control.

  3. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  4. Effects of circadian clock genes and health-related behavior on metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese population: Evidence from association and interaction analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lin

    Full Text Available Increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS has been associated with the circadian clock genes. In this study, we assessed whether 29 circadian clock-related genes (including ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHE40, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, GSK3B, HCRTR2, KLF10, NFIL3, NPAS2, NR1D1, NR1D2, PER1, PER2, PER3, REV1, RORA, RORB, RORC, SENP3, SERPINE1, TIMELESS, TIPIN, VIP, and VIPR2 are associated with MetS and its individual components independently and/or through complex interactions in a Taiwanese population. We also analyzed the interactions between environmental factors and these genes in influencing MetS and its individual components. A total of 3,000 Taiwanese subjects from the Taiwan Biobank were assessed in this study. Metabolic traits such as waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose were measured. Our data showed a nominal association of MetS with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in five key circadian clock genes including ARNTL, GSK3B, PER3, RORA, and RORB; but none of these SNPs persisted significantly after performing Bonferroni correction. Moreover, we identified the effect of GSK3B rs2199503 on high fasting glucose (P = 0.0002. Additionally, we found interactions among the ARNTL rs10832020, GSK3B rs2199503, PER3 rs10746473, RORA rs8034880, and RORB rs972902 SNPs influenced MetS (P < 0.001 ~ P = 0.002. Finally, we investigated the influence of interactions between ARNTL rs10832020, GSK3B rs2199503, PER3 rs10746473, and RORB rs972902 with environmental factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity on MetS and its individual components (P < 0.001 ~ P = 0.002. Our study indicates that circadian clock genes such as ARNTL, GSK3B, PER3, RORA, and RORB genes may contribute to the risk of MetS independently as well as through gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

  5. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolis...

  6. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate metabolism in synaptic growth, strength, and precision: neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc phosphodiesterase and rut adenylyl cyclase mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-03-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrates that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29-30°C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and wild-type (WT). Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss

  7. Cyclic-AMP metabolism in synaptic growth, strength and precision: Neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc PDE and rut AC mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cAMP synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrate that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29–30 °C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and WT. Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss factors that could contribute to the

  8. Effects of Aging and Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Supplementation on Brain Arginine Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalmah Mazlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism is involved in the aging and neurodegenerative processes. This study sought to determine the effects of age and vitamin E supplementation in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on brain arginine metabolism. Male Wistar rats at ages of 3 and 21 months were supplemented with TRF orally for 3 months prior to the dissection of tissue from five brain regions. The tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its nine downstream metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found age-related alterations in L-arginine metabolites in the chemical- and region-specific manners. Moreover, TRF supplementation reversed age-associated changes in arginine metabolites in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Multiple regression analysis revealed a number of significant neurochemical-behavioral correlations, indicating the beneficial effects of TRF supplementation on memory and motor function.

  9. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  10. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Canuto; Marcos Pascoal Pattussi; Jamile Block Araldi Macagnan; Ruth Liane Henn; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic ...

  11. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers.METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (...

  12. Quantifying forecast quality of IT business value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, J.L.; van der Pas, M.; Verhoef, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how to quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value. We address a common economic indicator often used to determine the business value of project proposals, the Net Present Value (NPV). To quantify the forecasting quality of IT business value, we develop a generalized

  13. Effect of replacing ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake on the performance, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and ingestive behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Vieira, J F; Barbosa, A M; Silva, T M; Bezerra, L R; Nascimento, N G; de Freitas, J E; Jaeger, S M P L; Oliveira, P de A; Oliveira, R L

    2017-11-01

    Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (Pdairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat without negative effects on productive parameters.

  14. Metabolic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Schauer, Philip R; Kaplan, Lee M

    2018-01-01

    The alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity is paralleled by an increasing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic surgery is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Randomized trials have recently shown...... the superiority of surgery over medical treatment alone in achieving improved glycemic control, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms seem to extend beyond the magnitude of weight loss alone and include improvements in incretin profiles, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity....... Moreover, observational data suggest that the reduction in cardiovascular risk factors translates to better patient outcomes. This review describes commonly used metabolic surgical procedures and their current indications and summarizes the evidence related to weight loss and glycemic outcomes. It further...

  15. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  16. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  17. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  18. Meiofauna metabolism in suboxic sediments: currently overestimated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Braeckman

    Full Text Available Oxygen is recognized as a structuring factor of metazoan communities in marine sediments. The importance of oxygen as a controlling factor on meiofauna (32 µm-1 mm in size respiration rates is however less clear. Typically, respiration rates are measured under oxic conditions, after which these rates are used in food web studies to quantify the role of meiofauna in sediment carbon turnover. Sediment oxygen concentration ([O(2] is generally far from saturated, implying that (1 current estimates of the role of meiofauna in carbon cycling may be biased and (2 meiofaunal organisms need strategies to survive in oxygen-stressed environments. Two main survival strategies are often hypothesized: 1 frequent migration to oxic layers and 2 morphological adaptation. To evaluate these hypotheses, we (1 used a model of oxygen turnover in the meiofauna body as a function of ambient [O(2], and (2 performed respiration measurements at a range of [O(2] conditions. The oxygen turnover model predicts a tight coupling between ambient [O(2] and meiofauna body [O(2] with oxygen within the body being consumed in seconds. This fast turnover favors long and slender organisms in sediments with low ambient [O(2] but even then frequent migration between suboxic and oxic layers is for most organisms not a viable strategy to alleviate oxygen limitation. Respiration rates of all measured meiofauna organisms slowed down in response to decreasing ambient [O(2], with Nematoda displaying the highest metabolic sensitivity for declining [O(2] followed by Foraminifera and juvenile Gastropoda. Ostracoda showed a behavioral stress response when ambient [O(2] reached a critical level. Reduced respiration at low ambient [O(2] implies that meiofauna in natural, i.e. suboxic, sediments must have a lower metabolism than inferred from earlier respiration rates conducted under oxic conditions. The implications of these findings are discussed for the contribution of meiofauna to carbon

  19. Cordilleran forest scaling dynamics and disturbance regimes quantified by aerial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, Tyson L.

    Semi-arid forests are in a period of rapid transition as a result of unprecedented landscape scale fires, insect outbreaks, drought, and anthropogenic land use practices. Understanding how historically episodic disturbances led to coherent forest structural and spatial patterns that promoted resilience and resistance is a critical part of addressing change. Here my coauthors and I apply metabolic scaling theory (MST) to examine scaling behavior and structural patterns of semi-arid conifer forests in Arizona and New Mexico. We conceptualize a linkage to mechanistic drivers of forest assembly that incorporates the effects of low-intensity disturbance, and physiologic and resource limitations as an extension of MST. We use both aerial LiDAR data and field observations to quantify changes in forest structure from the sub-meter to landscape scales. We found: (1) semi-arid forest structure exhibits MST-predicted behaviors regardless of disturbance and that MST can help to quantitatively measure the level of disturbance intensity in a forest, (2) the application of a power law to a forest overstory frequency distribution can help predict understory presence/absence, (3) local indicators of spatial association can help to define first order effects (e.g. topographic changes) and map where recent disturbances (e.g. logging and fire) have altered forest structure. Lastly, we produced a comprehensive set of above-ground biomass and carbon models for five distinct forest types and ten common species of the southwestern US that are meant for use in aerial LiDAR forest inventory projects. This dissertation presents both a conceptual framework and applications for investigating local scales (stands of trees) up to entire ecosystems for diagnosis of current carbon balances, levels of departure from historical norms, and ecological stability. These tools and models will become more important as we prepare our ecosystems for a future characterized by increased climatic variability

  20. Bare quantifier fronting as contrastive topicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that indefinites (in particular bare quantifiers such as ‘something’, ‘somebody’, etc. which are neither existentially presupposed nor in the restriction of a quantifier over situations, can undergo topicalization in a number of Romance languages (Catalan, Italian, Romanian, Spanish, but only if the sentence contains “verum” focus, i.e. focus on a high degree of certainty of the sentence. I analyze these indefinites as contrastive topics, using Büring’s (1999 theory (where the term ‘S-topic’ is used for what I call ‘contrastive topic’. I propose that the topic is evaluated in relation to a scalar set including generalized quantifiers such as {lP $x P(x, lP MANYx P(x, lP MOSTx P(x, lP “xP(x} or {lP $xP(x, lP P(a, lP P(b …}, and that the contrastive topic is the weakest generalized quantifier in this set. The verum focus, which is part of the “comment” that co-occurs with the “Topic”, introduces a set of alternatives including degrees of certainty of the assertion. The speaker asserts that his claim is certainly true or highly probable, contrasting it with stronger claims for which the degree of probability is unknown. This explains the observation that in downward entailing contexts, the fronted quantified DPs are headed by ‘all’ or ‘many’, whereas ‘some’, small numbers or ‘at least n’ appear in upward entailing contexts. Unlike other cases of non-specific topics, which are property topics, these are quantifier topics: the topic part is a generalized quantifier, the comment is a property of generalized quantifiers. This explains the narrow scope of the fronted quantified DP.

  1. Individual variation in metabolic reaction norms over ambient temperature causes low correlation between basal and standard metabolic rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is often assumed to be indicative of the energy turnover at ambient temperatures (T-a) below the thermoneutral zone (SMR), but this assumption has remained largely untested. Using a new statistical approach, we quantified the consistency in nocturnal metabolic rate across

  2. Plant metabolic modeling: achieving new insight into metabolism and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress-induced activation of the brainstem Bcl-xL gene expression in rats treated with fluoxetine: correlations with serotonin metabolism and depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, Galina T; Kalinina, Tatyana S; Berezova, Inna V; Dygalo, Nikolay N

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression and antidepressant drug action were shown to involve alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission and expression of genes coding for proteins associated with neurotrophic signaling pathways and cell-survival in the hippocampus and cortex. Expression of these genes in the brainstem containing 5-HT neurons may also be related to vulnerability or resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Here we investigated 5-HT markers and expression of genes for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and apoptotic proteins in the brainstem in relation to swim stress-induced behavioral despair. We found that anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL gene is sensitive to stress during the course of fluoxetine administration. Responsiveness of this gene to stress appeared concomitantly with an antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the forced swim test. Bcl-xL transcript levels showed negative correlations with duration of immobility in the test and 5-HT turnover in the brainstem. In contrast, BDNF and pro-apoptotic protein Bax mRNA levels were unchanged by either fluoxetine or stress, suggesting specificity of Bcl-xL gene responses to these treatments. We also found that the levels of mRNAs for tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) were significantly down-regulated following prolonged treatment with fluoxetine, but were not affected by stress. Unlike TPH2 and 5-HTT, 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels were not altered by fluoxetine but significantly increased in response to swim stress. These data show that long-term fluoxetine treatment leads to changes in 5-HT and Bcl-xL responses to stress associated with antidepressant-like effects of the drug. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantify Risk to Manage Cost and Schedule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Too many projects suffer from unachievable budget and schedule goals, caused by unrealistic estimates and the failure to quantify and communicate the uncertainty of these estimates to managers and sponsoring executives...

  5. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS

  6. New frontiers of quantified self 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Quantified Self (QS) field needs to start thinking of how situated needs may affect the use of self-tracking technologies. In this workshop we will focus on the idiosyncrasies of specific categories of users....

  7. Metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria and corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the continuous culturing medium; Renzoku baiyo baichichu ni okeru ryusan`en kangen no taisha to tansoko no fushoku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, F.; Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Seo, M. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-08-25

    Investigations were made on metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria and corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the continuous culturing medium. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were cultured for 50 days by supplying the culturing medium prepared to a prescribed chemical composition (containing Fe {sup 2+} at 0.01 mol/kg) at a rate of 10 cm {sup 3}/h, and drawing them out at the same rate. Test carbon steel pieces were immersed into this culturing medium. As a result, the following matters were clarified: the number of bacteria is maintained at more than 10 {sup 10}/cm{sup 3} after several days since inauguration of the immersion, with the bacteria stably producing H2S and FeS until the culturing is finished; comma-shaped bacteria which move actively and rod-shaped bacteria which do not move very actively exist in the culturing medium; a black film has been produced on surface of the test pieces throughout the culturing period, and satin-like corrosion was found underneath the surface; and weight increase of this film and weight decrease of the lower layer progress as the time lapses (the weight decrease of the lower layer has reached 40 mg/cm{sup 2} in 50 days). 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  9. Quantifying space, understanding minds: A visual summary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Simpson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an illustrated, validated taxonomy of research that compares spatial measures to human behavior. Spatial measures quantify the spatial characteristics of environments, such as the centrality of intersections in a street network or the accessibility of a room in a building from all the other rooms. While spatial measures have been of interest to spatial sciences, they are also of importance in the behavioral sciences for use in modeling human behavior. A high correlation between values for spatial measures and specific behaviors can provide insights into an environment's legibility, and contribute to a deeper understanding of human spatial cognition. Research in this area takes place in several domains, which makes a full understanding of existing literature difficult. To address this challenge, we adopt a visual summary approach. Literature is analyzed, and recurring topics are identified and validated with independent inter-rater agreement tasks in order to create a robust taxonomy for spatial measures and human behavior. The taxonomy is then illustrated with a visual representation that allows for at-a-glance visual access to the content of individual research papers in a corpus. A public web interface has been created that allows interested researchers to add to the database and create visual summaries for their research papers using our taxonomy.

  10. Study of the muscular metabolism using Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, T.S.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Santos, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) is a powerful technique for evaluating human muscular metabolism. Some reports indicated the behavior of phosphorylated metabolites (PCr, ADP and Pi) and other indirect parameters (intracellular pH and [Mg 2+ ]) in muscles at rest and after an exercise load. The aim of this work is a quantitative study of the phosphorylated metabolite levels in the calf muscle of normal subjects at rest and post-exercise, in order to create a normal control database. 31 P spectra of seven volunteers were acquired in both conditions. Firstly, different quantification methodologies were evaluated to use the more reliable. The P Cr metabolite was the more stable at rest and it had mono-exponential behavior after exercise. The Pi was the more sensible indicator of the physical activities. The time constants of the recuperation process are report for all the evaluated metabolites and parameters. Finally, the temporal behavior of phospho monoesters was quantified. (author)

  11. Development of an algorithm for quantifying extremity biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Ana L.M.; Miranda, Jose R.A.; Pina, Diana R. de

    2013-01-01

    The computerized radiology (CR) has become the most widely used device for image acquisition and production, since its introduction in the 80s. The detection and early diagnosis, obtained via CR, are important for the successful treatment of diseases such as arthritis, metabolic bone diseases, tumors, infections and fractures. However, the standards used for optimization of these images are based on international protocols. Therefore, it is necessary to compose radiographic techniques for CR system that provides a secure medical diagnosis, with doses as low as reasonably achievable. To this end, the aim of this work is to develop a quantifier algorithm of tissue, allowing the construction of a homogeneous end used phantom to compose such techniques. It was developed a database of computed tomography images of hand and wrist of adult patients. Using the Matlab ® software, was developed a computational algorithm able to quantify the average thickness of soft tissue and bones present in the anatomical region under study, as well as the corresponding thickness in simulators materials (aluminium and lucite). This was possible through the application of mask and Gaussian removal technique of histograms. As a result, was obtained an average thickness of soft tissue of 18,97 mm and bone tissue of 6,15 mm, and their equivalents in materials simulators of 23,87 mm of acrylic and 1,07mm of aluminum. The results obtained agreed with the medium thickness of biological tissues of a patient's hand pattern, enabling the construction of an homogeneous phantom

  12. MetaFluxNet: the management of metabolic reaction information and quantitative metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Yun, Hongsoek; Park, Sunwon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2003-11-01

    MetaFluxNet is a program package for managing information on the metabolic reaction network and for quantitatively analyzing metabolic fluxes in an interactive and customized way. It allows users to interpret and examine metabolic behavior in response to genetic and/or environmental modifications. As a result, quantitative in silico simulations of metabolic pathways can be carried out to understand the metabolic status and to design the metabolic engineering strategies. The main features of the program include a well-developed model construction environment, user-friendly interface for metabolic flux analysis (MFA), comparative MFA of strains having different genotypes under various environmental conditions, and automated pathway layout creation. http://mbel.kaist.ac.kr/ A manual for MetaFluxNet is available as PDF file.

  13. Metabolic heterogeneity in clonal microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhaveev, Vakil; Heinemann, Matthias

    2018-02-21

    In the past decades, numerous instances of phenotypic diversity were observed in clonal microbial populations, particularly, on the gene expression level. Much less is, however, known about phenotypic differences that occur on the level of metabolism. This is likely explained by the fact that experimental tools probing metabolism of single cells are still at an early stage of development. Here, we review recent exciting discoveries that point out different causes for metabolic heterogeneity within clonal microbial populations. These causes range from ecological factors and cell-inherent dynamics in constant environments to molecular noise in gene expression that propagates into metabolism. Furthermore, we provide an overview of current methods to quantify the levels of metabolites and biomass components in single cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  15. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  16. Quantifying graininess of glossy food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Flemming; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    The sensory quality of yoghurt can be altered when changing the milk composition or processing conditions. Part of the sensory quality may be assessed visually. It is described how a non-contact method for quantifying surface gloss and grains in yoghurt can be made. It was found that the standard...

  17. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  18. QS Spiral: Visualizing Periodic Quantified Self Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an interactive visualization technique QS Spiral that aims to capture the periodic properties of quantified self data and let the user explore those recurring patterns. The approach is based on time-series data visualized as a spiral structure. The interactivity includes ...

  19. Quantifying recontamination through factory environments - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt-den Aantrekker, van E.D.; Boom, R.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Schothorst, van M.

    2003-01-01

    Recontamination of food products can be the origin of foodborne illnesses and should therefore be included in quantitative microbial risk assessment (MRA) studies. In order to do this, recontamination should be quantified using predictive models. This paper gives an overview of the relevant

  20. Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X N; Wei, L F

    2017-11-14

    Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.

  1. Interbank exposures: quantifying the risk of contagion

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Furfine

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the likelihood that failure of one bank would cause the subsequent collapse of a large number of other banks. Using unique data on interbank payment flows, the magnitude of bilateral federal funds exposures is quantified. These exposures are used to simulate the impact of various failure scenarios, and the risk of contagion is found to be economically small.

  2. Quantifying Productivity Gains from Foreign Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fons-Rosen (Christian); S. Kalemli-Ozcan (Sebnem); B.E. Sorensen (Bent); C. Villegas-Sanchez (Carolina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe quantify the causal effect of foreign investment on total factor productivity (TFP) using a new global firm-level database. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the difference in the amount of foreign investment by financial and industrial investors and simultaneously

  3. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  4. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  5. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    . nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  6. New frontiers of quantified self 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Amon; Cena, Federica; Kay, Judy

    2016-01-01

    While the Quantified Self (QS) community is described in terms of "self-knowledge through numbers" people are increasingly demanding value and meaning. In this workshop we aim at refocusing the QS debate on the value of data for providing new services....

  7. Quantifying temporal ventriloquism in audiovisual synchrony perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuling, I.A.; Kohlrausch, A.G.; Juola, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from

  8. Reliability-How to Quantify and Improve?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Reliability - How to Quantify and Improve? - Improving the Health of Products. N K Srinivasan. General Article Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Metabolic behavior of cell surface biotinylated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, J.F.; Lee, E.

    1989-01-01

    The turnover of proteins on the surface of cultured mammalian cells was measured by a new approach. Reactive free amino or sulfhydryl groups on surface-accessible proteins were derivatized with biotinyl reagents and the proteins solubilized from culture dishes with detergent. Solubilized, biotinylated proteins were then adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose, released with sodium dodecyl sulfate and mercaptoethanol, and separated on polyacrylamide gels. Biotin-epsilon-aminocaproic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BNHS) or N-biotinoyl-N'-(maleimidohexanoyl)hydrazine (BM) were the derivatizing agents. Only 10-12 bands were adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose from undervatized cells or from derivatized cells treated with free avidin at 4 degrees C. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis resolved greater than 100 BNHS-derivatized proteins and greater than 40 BM-derivatized proteins. There appeared to be little overlap between the two groups of derivatized proteins. Short-term pulse-chase studies showed an accumulation of label into both groups of biotinylated proteins up until 1-2 h of chase and a rapid decrease over the next 1-5 h. Delayed appearance of labeled protein at the cell surface was attributed to transit time from site of synthesis. The unexpected and unexplained rapid disappearance of pulse-labeled proteins from the cell surface was invariant for all two-dimensionally resolved proteins and was sensitive to temperature reduction to 18 degrees C. Long-term pulse-chase experiments beginning 4-8 h after the initiation of chase showed the disappearance of derivatized proteins to be a simple first-order process having a half-life of 115 h in the case of BNHS-derivatized proteins and 30 h in the case of BM-derivatized proteins

  10. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  11. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  12. Glycogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis from dietary starch in juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    the metabolic fate of dietary starch, 0·7% wheat starch was replaced with isotope-labelled starch (.98% 13C). Fish were fed the experimental diets for three consecutive 10 d periods, and isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify 13C enrichment of liver and whole-body glycogen and lipid pools over the three...

  13. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  14. How are the catastrophical risks quantifiable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1985-01-01

    For the assessment and evaluation of industrial risks the question must be asked how are the catastrophical risks quantifiable. Typical real catastrophical risks and risk assessment based on modelling assumptions have been placed against each other in order to put the risks into proper perspective. However, the society is risk averse when there is a catastrophic potential of severe accidents in a large scale industrial facility even though there is extremely low probability of occurence. (orig.) [de

  15. Quantifying Distributional Model Risk via Optimal Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Jose; Murthy, Karthyek R. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of quantifying the impact of model misspecification when computing general expected values of interest. The methodology that we propose is applicable in great generality, in particular, we provide examples involving path dependent expectations of stochastic processes. Our approach consists in computing bounds for the expectation of interest regardless of the probability measure used, as long as the measure lies within a prescribed tolerance measured in terms ...

  16. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R. Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to e...

  17. Incorporating Protein Biosynthesis into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-scale Metabolic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Hernandez, Roberto

    Based on stoichiometric biochemical equations that occur into the cell, the genome-scale metabolic models can quantify the metabolic fluxes, which are regarded as the final representation of the physiological state of the cell. For Saccharomyces Cerevisiae the genome scale model has been construc......Based on stoichiometric biochemical equations that occur into the cell, the genome-scale metabolic models can quantify the metabolic fluxes, which are regarded as the final representation of the physiological state of the cell. For Saccharomyces Cerevisiae the genome scale model has been...

  18. Dynamics of pyruvate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiorsen, Claus Rix; Jensen, Niels B.S.; Christensen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    The pyruvate metabolism in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis was studied in anaerobic cultures under transient conditions. During growth of L. lactis in continuous culture at high dilution rate, homolactic product formation was observed, i.e., lactate was produced as the major end...... product. At a lower dilution rate, the pyruvate metabolism shifted towards mixed acid-product formation where formate, acetate, and ethanol were produced in addition to lactate. The regulation of the shift in pyruvate metabolism was investigated by monitoring the dynamic behavior of L. lactis...

  19. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  1. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries.

  2. Quantifying Diffuse Contamination: Method and Application to Pb in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-06-20

    A new method for detecting and quantifying diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale is based on the analysis of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). It uses cumulative probability (CP) plots for spatially representative data sets, preferably containing >1000 determinations. Simulations demonstrate how different types of contamination influence elemental CDFs of different sample media. It is found that diffuse contamination is characterized by a distinctive shift of the low-concentration end of the distribution of the studied element in its CP plot. Diffuse contamination can be detected and quantified via either (1) comparing the distribution of the contaminating element to that of an element with a geochemically comparable behavior but no contamination source (e.g., Pb vs Rb), or (2) comparing the top soil distribution of an element to the distribution of the same element in subsoil samples from the same area, taking soil forming processes into consideration. Both procedures are demonstrated for geochemical soil data sets from Europe, Australia, and the U.S.A. Several different data sets from Europe deliver comparable results at different scales. Diffuse Pb contamination in surface soil is estimated to be contamination sources and can be used to efficiently monitor diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale.

  3. Quantifying the Metabolome of Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120: Evaluation of Hot and Cold Combined Quenching/Extraction Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wordofa, Gossa Garedew; Kristensen, Mette; Schrübbers, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Absolute quantification of free intracellular metabolites is a valuable tool in both pathway discovery and metabolic engineering. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive examination of different hot and cold combined quenching/extraction approaches to extract and quantify intracellular...... (such as cold methanol/acetonitrile/water, hot water, and boiling ethanol/water, as well as cold ethanol/water) were tested and evaluated for P. taiwanensis VLB120 metabolome analysis. In total 94 out of 107 detected intracellular metabolites were quantified using an isotope-ratio-based approach....... The quantified metabolites include amino acids, nucleotides, central carbon metabolism intermediates, redox cofactors, and others. The acquired data demonstrate that the pressure driven fast filtration approach followed by boiling ethanol quenching/extraction is the most adequate technique for P. taiwanensis VLB...

  4. Quantifying the relationship between financial news and the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanyali, Merve; Moat, Helen Susannah; Preis, Tobias

    2013-12-20

    The complex behavior of financial markets emerges from decisions made by many traders. Here, we exploit a large corpus of daily print issues of the Financial Times from 2(nd) January 2007 until 31(st) December 2012 to quantify the relationship between decisions taken in financial markets and developments in financial news. We find a positive correlation between the daily number of mentions of a company in the Financial Times and the daily transaction volume of a company's stock both on the day before the news is released, and on the same day as the news is released. Our results provide quantitative support for the suggestion that movements in financial markets and movements in financial news are intrinsically interlinked.

  5. National survey describing and quantifying students with communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andzik, Natalie R; Schaefer, John M; Nichols, Robert T; Chung, Yun-Ching

    2018-01-01

    Research literature has yet to quantify and describe how students with complex communication needs are supported in the classroom and how special educators are being prepared to offer support. This study sought out special educators to complete a survey about their students with complex communication needs. Over 4,000 teachers representing 50 states reported on the communicative and behavioral characteristics of 15,643 students. Teachers described the training they have received and instructional approaches they used. The majority of students were reported to use speech as their primary communication mode. Over half of students utilizing alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) were reported to have non-proficient communication. Teacher training varied across respondents as well as the supports they used to support these students in the classroom. The majority of students with disabilities using AAC when communicating across the nation are not proficiently communicating. Implications and recommendations will be discussed.

  6. Quantifying entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkis, Spyros; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2017-12-01

    Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure that is straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.

  7. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  8. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification over individuals, times, and worlds can in principle be made explicit in the syntax of the object language, or left to the semantics and spelled out in the meta-language. The traditional view is that quantification over individuals is syntactically explicit, whereas quantification over times and worlds is not. But a growing body of literature proposes a uniform treatment. This paper examines the scopal interaction of aspectual raising verbs (begin, modals (can, and intensional raising verbs (threaten with quantificational subjects in Shupamem, Dutch, and English. It appears that aspectual raising verbs and at least modals may undergo the same kind of overt or covert scope-changing operations as nominal quantifiers; the case of intensional raising verbs is less clear. Scope interaction is thus shown to be a new potential diagnostic of object-linguistic quantification, and the similarity in the scope behavior of nominal and verbal quantifiers supports the grammatical plausibility of ontological symmetry, explored in Schlenker (2006.ReferencesBen-Shalom, D. 1996. Semantic Trees. Ph.D. thesis, UCLA.Bittner, M. 1993. Case, Scope, and Binding. Dordrecht: Reidel.Cresswell, M. 1990. Entities and Indices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Cresti, D. 1995. ‘Extraction and reconstruction’. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01252885Curry, B. H. & Feys, R. 1958. Combinatory Logic I. Dordrecht: North-Holland.Dowty, D. R. 1988. ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction’. In Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon W. Bach & Deirdre Wheeler (eds. ‘Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures’, 153–197. Dordrecht: Reidel.Fox, D. 2002. ‘TOn Logical Form’. In Randall Hendrick (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–124. Oxford: Blackwell.Gallin, D. 1975. Intensional and higher-order modal logic: with applications to Montague semantics. North Holland Pub. Co.; American Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam

  9. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël B van Schalkwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI. Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required.

  10. Quantifier spreading: children misled by ostensive cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin É. Kiss

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls attention to a methodological problem of acquisition experiments. It shows that the economy of the stimulus employed in child language experiments may lend an increased ostensive effect to the message communicated to the child. Thus, when the visual stimulus in a sentence-picture matching task is a minimal model abstracting away from the details of the situation, children often regard all the elements of the stimulus as ostensive clues to be represented in the corresponding sentence. The use of such minimal stimuli is mistaken when the experiment aims to test whether or not a certain element of the stimulus is relevant for the linguistic representation or interpretation. The paper illustrates this point by an experiment involving quantifier spreading. It is claimed that children find a universally quantified sentence like 'Every girl is riding a bicycle 'to be a false description of a picture showing three girls riding bicycles and a solo bicycle because they are misled to believe that all the elements in the visual stimulus are relevant, hence all of them are to be represented by the corresponding linguistic description. When the iconic drawings were replaced by photos taken in a natural environment rich in accidental details, the occurrence of quantifier spreading was radically reduced. It is shown that an extra object in the visual stimulus can lead to the rejection of the sentence also in the case of sentences involving no quantification, which gives further support to the claim that the source of the problem is not (or not only the grammatical or cognitive difficulty of quantification but the unintended ostensive effect of the extra object.  This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  11. An ex Vivo Model for Evaluating Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Efflux, and Drug Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Karin; Aadal Nielsen, Peter; Ek, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    , risperidone, citalopram, fluoxetine, and haloperidol were studied, and one preselected metabolite for each drug was analyzed, identified, and quantified. Metabolite identification studies of clozapine and midazolam showed that the locust brain was highly metabolically active, and 18 and 14 metabolites...

  12. Characterization of autoregressive processes using entropic quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversaro, Francisco; Redelico, Francisco O.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the contribution is to introduce a novel information plane, the causal-amplitude informational plane. As previous works seems to indicate, Bandt and Pompe methodology for estimating entropy does not allow to distinguish between probability distributions which could be fundamental for simulation or for probability analysis purposes. Once a time series is identified as stochastic by the causal complexity-entropy informational plane, the novel causal-amplitude gives a deeper understanding of the time series, quantifying both, the autocorrelation strength and the probability distribution of the data extracted from the generating processes. Two examples are presented, one from climate change model and the other from financial markets.

  13. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  14. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying heterogeneity in human tumours using MRI and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marie-Claude; O'Connor, James P B; Boellaard, Ronald; Thacker, Neil A; Jackson, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Most tumours, even those of the same histological type and grade, demonstrate considerable biological heterogeneity. Variations in genomic subtype, growth factor expression and local microenvironmental factors can result in regional variations within individual tumours. For example, localised variations in tumour cell proliferation, cell death, metabolic activity and vascular structure will be accompanied by variations in oxygenation status, pH and drug delivery that may directly affect therapeutic response. Documenting and quantifying regional heterogeneity within the tumour requires histological or imaging techniques. There is increasing evidence that quantitative imaging biomarkers can be used in vivo to provide important, reproducible and repeatable estimates of tumoural heterogeneity. In this article we review the imaging methods available to provide appropriate biomarkers of tumour structure and function. We also discuss the significant technical issues involved in the quantitative estimation of heterogeneity and the range of descriptive metrics that can be derived. Finally, we have reviewed the existing clinical evidence that heterogeneity metrics provide additional useful information in drug discovery and development and in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational model of cellular metabolic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M

    2010-01-01

    of the cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data......: intracellular metabolite concentrations and patterns of glucose disposal. Model variations were simulated to investigate three alternative mechanisms to explain insulin enhancements: Model 1 (M.1), simple mass action; M.2, insulin-mediated activation of key metabolic enzymes (i.e., hexokinase, glycogen synthase......, by application of mechanism M.3, the model predicts metabolite concentration changes and glucose partitioning patterns consistent with experimental data. The reaction rate fluxes quantified by this detailed model of insulin/glucose metabolism provide information that can be used to evaluate the development...

  17. A Generalizable Methodology for Quantifying User Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Te-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Huang, Polly; Lei, Chin-Laung

    Quantifying user satisfaction is essential, because the results can help service providers deliver better services. In this work, we propose a generalizable methodology, based on survival analysis, to quantify user satisfaction in terms of session times, i. e., the length of time users stay with an application. Unlike subjective human surveys, our methodology is based solely on passive measurement, which is more cost-efficient and better able to capture subconscious reactions. Furthermore, by using session times, rather than a specific performance indicator, such as the level of distortion of voice signals, the effects of other factors like loudness and sidetone, can also be captured by the developed models. Like survival analysis, our methodology is characterized by low complexity and a simple model-developing process. The feasibility of our methodology is demonstrated through case studies of ShenZhou Online, a commercial MMORPG in Taiwan, and the most prevalent VoIP application in the world, namely Skype. Through the model development process, we can also identify the most significant performance factors and their impacts on user satisfaction and discuss how they can be exploited to improve user experience and optimize resource allocation.

  18. Quantifying the efficiency of river regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rödel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-affected hydrologic time series give rise to uncertainties when they are used for calibrating large-scale hydrologic models or for analysing runoff records. It is therefore necessary to identify and to quantify the impact of impoundments on runoff time series. Two different approaches were employed. The first, classic approach compares the volume of the dams that are located upstream from a station with the annual discharge. The catchment areas of the stations are calculated and then related to geo-referenced dam attributes. The paper introduces a data set of geo-referenced dams linked with 677 gauging stations in Europe. Second, the intensity of the impoundment impact on runoff times series can be quantified more exactly and directly when long-term runoff records are available. Dams cause a change in the variability of flow regimes. This effect can be measured using the model of linear single storage. The dam-caused storage change ΔS can be assessed through the volume of the emptying process between two flow regimes. As an example, the storage change ΔS is calculated for regulated long-term series of the Luleälven in northern Sweden.

  19. Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-08-01

    Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.

  20. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry quantifies stem cell division and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Bailey, Andrew P; Senyo, Samuel E; Guillermier, Christelle; Perlstein, Todd S; Gould, Alex P; Lee, Richard T; Lechene, Claude P

    2012-01-15

    Mass spectrometry with stable isotope labels has been seminal in discovering the dynamic state of living matter, but is limited to bulk tissues or cells. We developed multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) that allowed us to view and measure stable isotope incorporation with submicrometre resolution. Here we apply MIMS to diverse organisms, including Drosophila, mice and humans. We test the 'immortal strand hypothesis', which predicts that during asymmetric stem cell division chromosomes containing older template DNA are segregated to the daughter destined to remain a stem cell, thus insuring lifetime genetic stability. After labelling mice with (15)N-thymidine from gestation until post-natal week 8, we find no (15)N label retention by dividing small intestinal crypt cells after a four-week chase. In adult mice administered (15)N-thymidine pulse-chase, we find that proliferating crypt cells dilute the (15)N label, consistent with random strand segregation. We demonstrate the broad utility of MIMS with proof-of-principle studies of lipid turnover in Drosophila and translation to the human haematopoietic system. These studies show that MIMS provides high-resolution quantification of stable isotope labels that cannot be obtained using other techniques and that is broadly applicable to biological and medical research.

  1. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  2. Metabolism and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grodzicker, Terri; Stewart, David J; Stillman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    ...), cellular, organ system (cardiovascular, bone), and organismal (timing and life span) scales. Diseases impacted by metabolic imbalance or dysregulation that were covered in detail included diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer...

  3. Linking metabolomics data to underlying metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eNägele

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive experimental analysis of a metabolic constitution plays a central role in approaches of organismal systems biology.Quantifying the impact of a changing environment on the homeostasis of cellular metabolism has been the focus of numerous studies applying various metabolomics techniques. It has been proven that approaches which integrate different analytical techniques, e.g. LC-MS, GC-MS, CE-MS and H-NMR, can provide a comprehensive picture of a certain metabolic homeostasis. Identification of metabolic compounds and quantification of metabolite levels represent the groundwork for the analysis of regulatory strategies in cellular metabolism. This significantly promotes our current understanding of the molecular organization and regulation of cells, tissues and whole organisms.Nevertheless, it is demanding to elicit the pertinent information which is contained in metabolomics data sets.Based on the central dogma of molecular biology, metabolite levels and their fluctuations are the result of a directed flux of information from gene activation over transcription to translation and posttranslational modification.Hence, metabolomics data represent the summed output of a metabolic system comprising various levels of molecular organization.As a consequence, the inverse assignment of metabolomics data to underlying regulatory processes should yield information which-if deciphered correctly-provides comprehensive insight into a metabolic system.Yet, the deduction of regulatory principles is complex not only due to the high number of metabolic compounds, but also because of a high level of cellular compartmentalization and differentiation.Motivated by the question how metabolomics approaches can provide a representative view on regulatory biochemical processes, this article intends to present and discuss current metabolomics applications, strategies of data analysis and their limitations with respect to the interpretability in context of

  4. Quantifying climate risk - the starting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairweather, Helen; Luo, Qunying; Liu, De Li; Wiles, Perry

    2007-01-01

    Full text: All natural systems have evolved to their current state as a result inter alia of the climate in which they developed. Similarly, man-made systems (such as agricultural production) have developed to suit the climate experienced over the last 100 or so years. The capacity of different systems to adapt to changes in climate that are outside those that have been experienced previously is largely unknown. This results in considerable uncertainty when predicting climate change impacts. However, it is possible to quantify the relative probabilities of a range of potential impacts of climate change. Quantifying current climate risks is an effective starting point for analysing the probable impacts of future climate change and guiding the selection of appropriate adaptation strategies. For a farming system to be viable within the current climate, its profitability must be sustained and, therefore, possible adaptation strategies need to be tested for continued viability in a changed climate. The methodology outlined in this paper examines historical patterns of key climate variables (rainfall and temperature) across the season and their influence on the productivity of wheat growing in NSW. This analysis is used to identify the time of year that the system is most vulnerable to climate variation, within the constraints of the current climate. Wheat yield is used as a measure of productivity, which is also assumed to be a surrogate for profitability. A time series of wheat yields is sorted into ascending order and categorised into five percentile groupings (i.e. 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th percentiles) for each shire across NSW (-100 years). Five time series of climate data (which are aggregated daily data from the years in each percentile) are analysed to determine the period that provides the greatest climate risk to the production system. Once this period has been determined, this risk is quantified in terms of the degree of separation of the time series

  5. translin is required for metabolic regulation of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M.; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W.; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Keene, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the iden...

  6. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Dantas Filho, Fábio Fernandes; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and soc...

  7. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  8. Quantifying the topology of porous structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Computerized x-ray tomography, with microscopic resolution, has been used to volumetrically visualize the evolution of porosity in a ceramic matrix composite during processing. The topological variables describing the porosity have been measured. The evolution of the porosity exhibits critical scaling behavior near final consolidation, and appears to be independent of the structure (universality).

  9. Quantifying selectivity in spectrophotometric multicomponent analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, N.M.; Ferre, J.; Boque, R.; Kalivas, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest recommendation of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, "selectivity refers to the extent to which the method can be used to determine particular analytes in mixtures or matrices without interferences from other components of similar behavior". Because of the

  10. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  11. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  12. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ER Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  13. Quantifying decoherence in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; Illuminati, F; De Siena, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the decoherence of quantum states of continuous variable systems under the action of a quantum optical master equation resulting from the interaction with general Gaussian uncorrelated environments. The rate of decoherence is quantified by relating it to the decay rates of various, complementary measures of the quantum nature of a state, such as the purity, some non-classicality indicators in phase space, and, for two-mode states, entanglement measures and total correlations between the modes. Different sets of physically relevant initial configurations are considered, including one- and two-mode Gaussian states, number states, and coherent superpositions. Our analysis shows that, generally, the use of initially squeezed configurations does not help to preserve the coherence of Gaussian states, whereas it can be effective in protecting coherent superpositions of both number states and Gaussian wavepackets. (review article)

  14. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    material used amounting to 19,000–26,000tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000MWh. In terms of the environmental burden...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted.......Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...

  16. Pendulum Underwater - An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long and lightweight wire that carries a ball at its lower end, which is totally immersed in water, so as to determine the water viscosity. The system used represents a viscous damped pendulum and we tried different theoretical models to describe it. The experimental part of the present paper is based on a very simple and low-cost image capturing apparatus that can easily be replicated in a physics classroom. Data on the pendulum's amplitude as a function of time were acquired using digital video analysis with the open source software Tracker.

  17. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  18. Quantifying brain microstructure with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Dmitry S.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2016-01-01

    the potential to quantify the relevant length scales for neuronal tissue, such as the packing correlation length for neuronal fibers, the degree of neuronal beading, and compartment sizes. The second avenue corresponds to the long-time limit, when the observed signal can be approximated as a sum of multiple non......-exchanging anisotropic Gaussian components. Here the challenge lies in parameter estimation and in resolving its hidden degeneracies. The third avenue employs multiple diffusion encoding techniques, able to access information not contained in the conventional diffusion propagator. We conclude with our outlook...... on the future research directions which can open exciting possibilities for developing markers of pathology and development based on methods of studying mesoscopic transport in disordered systems....

  19. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of quantifiable information from complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Griebel, Michael; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Ritter, Klaus; Schneider, Reinhold; Schwab, Christoph; Yserentant, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In April 2007, the  Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) approved the  Priority Program 1324 “Mathematical Methods for Extracting Quantifiable Information from Complex Systems.” This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the most important results obtained over the course of the program.   Mathematical models of complex systems provide the foundation for further technological developments in science, engineering and computational finance.  Motivated by the trend toward steadily increasing computer power, ever more realistic models have been developed in recent years. These models have also become increasingly complex, and their numerical treatment poses serious challenges.   Recent developments in mathematics suggest that, in the long run, much more powerful numerical solution strategies could be derived if the interconnections between the different fields of research were systematically exploited at a conceptual level. Accordingly, a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations as w...

  1. Quantifying the evolution of individual scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Roberta; Wang, Dashun; Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-11-04

    Despite the frequent use of numerous quantitative indicators to gauge the professional impact of a scientist, little is known about how scientific impact emerges and evolves in time. Here, we quantify the changes in impact and productivity throughout a career in science, finding that impact, as measured by influential publications, is distributed randomly within a scientist's sequence of publications. This random-impact rule allows us to formulate a stochastic model that uncouples the effects of productivity, individual ability, and luck and unveils the existence of universal patterns governing the emergence of scientific success. The model assigns a unique individual parameter Q to each scientist, which is stable during a career, and it accurately predicts the evolution of a scientist's impact, from the h-index to cumulative citations, and independent recognitions, such as prizes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-03-01

    Because the cognitive neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon of creativity, the issue arises of how creativity is to be optimally measured. Unlike intelligence, which can be assessed across the full range of intellectual ability creativity measures tend to concentrate on different sections of the overall spectrum. After first defining creativity in terms of the three criteria of novelty, usefulness, and surprise, this article provides an overview of the available measures. Not only do these instruments vary according to whether they focus on the creative process, person, or product, but they differ regarding whether they tap into "little-c" versus "Big-C" creativity; only productivity and eminence measures reach into genius-level manifestations of the phenomenon. The article closes by discussing whether various alternative assessment techniques can be integrated into a single measure that quantifies creativity across the full spectrum.

  3. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  4. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted

  5. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  6. Temporal expression-based analysis of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B Collins

    Full Text Available Metabolic flux is frequently rerouted through cellular metabolism in response to dynamic changes in the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Capturing the mechanisms underlying these metabolic transitions in quantitative and predictive models is a prominent challenge in systems biology. Progress in this regard has been made by integrating high-throughput gene expression data into genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism. Here, we extend previous approaches to perform a Temporal Expression-based Analysis of Metabolism (TEAM. We apply TEAM to understanding the complex metabolic dynamics of the respiratorily versatile bacterium Shewanella oneidensis grown under aerobic, lactate-limited conditions. TEAM predicts temporal metabolic flux distributions using time-series gene expression data. Increased predictive power is achieved by supplementing these data with a large reference compendium of gene expression, which allows us to take into account the unique character of the distribution of expression of each individual gene. We further propose a straightforward method for studying the sensitivity of TEAM to changes in its fundamental free threshold parameter θ, and reveal that discrete zones of distinct metabolic behavior arise as this parameter is changed. By comparing the qualitative characteristics of these zones to additional experimental data, we are able to constrain the range of θ to a small, well-defined interval. In parallel, the sensitivity analysis reveals the inherently difficult nature of dynamic metabolic flux modeling: small errors early in the simulation propagate to relatively large changes later in the simulation. We expect that handling such "history-dependent" sensitivities will be a major challenge in the future development of dynamic metabolic-modeling techniques.

  7. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.

  8. MO-DE-206-02: Cellular Metabolism of FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, S. [University of California-Davis (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In this symposium jointly sponsored by the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM, luminary speakers on imaging metabolism will discuss three impactful topics. The first presentation on Cellular Metabolism of FDG will be given by Guillem Pratx (Stanford). This presentation will detail new work on looking at how the most common molecular imaging agent, fluoro-deoxy-glucose is metabolized at a cellular level. This will be followed by a talk on an improved approach to whole-body PET imaging by Simon Cherry (UC Davis). Simon’s work on a new whole-body PET imaging system promises to have dramatic improvement in our ability to detect and characterize cancer using PET. Finally, Jim Bankson (MD Anderson) will discuss extremely sophisticated approaches to quantifying hyperpolarized-13-C pyruvate metabolism using MR imaging. This technology promises to compliment the exquisite sensitivity of PET with an ability to measure not just uptake, but tumor metabolism. Learning Objectives: Understand the metabolism of FDG at a cellular level. Appreciate the engineering related to a novel new high-sensitivity whole-body PET imaging system. Understand the process of hyperpolarization, how pyruvate relates to metabolism and how advanced modeling can be used to better quantify this data. G. Pratx, Funding: 5R01CA186275, 1R21CA193001, and Damon Runyon Cancer Foundation. S. Cherry, National Institutes of Health; University of California, Davis; Siemens Medical SolutionsJ. Bankson, GE Healthcare; NCI P30-CA016672; CPRIT PR140021-P5.

  9. MO-DE-206-01: Cellular Metabolism of FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratx, G. [Stanford University (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In this symposium jointly sponsored by the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) and the AAPM, luminary speakers on imaging metabolism will discuss three impactful topics. The first presentation on Cellular Metabolism of FDG will be given by Guillem Pratx (Stanford). This presentation will detail new work on looking at how the most common molecular imaging agent, fluoro-deoxy-glucose is metabolized at a cellular level. This will be followed by a talk on an improved approach to whole-body PET imaging by Simon Cherry (UC Davis). Simon’s work on a new whole-body PET imaging system promises to have dramatic improvement in our ability to detect and characterize cancer using PET. Finally, Jim Bankson (MD Anderson) will discuss extremely sophisticated approaches to quantifying hyperpolarized-13-C pyruvate metabolism using MR imaging. This technology promises to compliment the exquisite sensitivity of PET with an ability to measure not just uptake, but tumor metabolism. Learning Objectives: Understand the metabolism of FDG at a cellular level. Appreciate the engineering related to a novel new high-sensitivity whole-body PET imaging system. Understand the process of hyperpolarization, how pyruvate relates to metabolism and how advanced modeling can be used to better quantify this data. G. Pratx, Funding: 5R01CA186275, 1R21CA193001, and Damon Runyon Cancer Foundation. S. Cherry, National Institutes of Health; University of California, Davis; Siemens Medical SolutionsJ. Bankson, GE Healthcare; NCI P30-CA016672; CPRIT PR140021-P5.

  10. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  11. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  12. NMR-based metabolic study of fruits of Physalis peruviana L. grown in eight different Peruvian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruenda, Helena; Cabrera, Rodrigo; Cañari-Chumpitaz, Cristhian; Lopez, Juan M; Toubiana, David

    2018-10-01

    The berry of Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) represents an important socio-economical commodity for Latin America. The absence of a clear phenotype renders it difficult to trace its place of origin. In this study, Cape gooseberries from eight different regions within the Peruvian Andes were profiled for their metabolism implementing a NMR platform. Twenty-four compounds could be unequivocally identified and sixteen quantified. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that all of the quantified metabolites changed significantly among regions: Bambamarca I showed the most accumulated significant differences. The coefficient of variation demonstrated high phenotypic plasticity for amino acids, while sugars displayed low phenotypic plasticity. Correlation analysis highlighted the closely coordinated behavior of the amino acid profile. Finally, PLS-DA revealed a clear separation among the regions based on their metabolic profiles, accentuating the discriminatory capacity of NMR in establishing significant phytochemical differences between producing regions of the fruit of P. peruviana L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positron emission tomography of hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, S; Munk, O L; Roelsgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    Hepatic first-pass metabolism plays a key role in metabolic regulation and drug metabolism. Metabolic processes can be quantified in vivo by positron emission tomography scanning (PET). We wished to develop a PET technique to measure hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia. Seven anaesthetised...... pigs were given positron-labelled ammonia, (13)NH(3), into the portal vein and into the vena cava as successive 2-min infusions followed by 22-min dynamic liver scanning. Vena cava infusion data were used to account for recirculation of tracer and metabolites following the portal vein infusion...

  14. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption metabolic rate (BMR), wet......, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment....

  15. Quantifying multiscale inefficiency in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uritskaya, Olga Y. [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, and Department of Economics and Management, St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    One of the basic features of efficient markets is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices. In this paper, we propose a new approach for measuring deviations from the efficient market state based on an analysis of scale-dependent fractal exponent characterizing correlations at different time scales. The approach is applied to two electricity markets, Alberta and Mid Columbia (Mid-C), as well as to the AECO Alberta natural gas market (for purposes of providing a comparison between storable and non-storable commodities). We show that price fluctuations in all studied markets are not efficient, with electricity prices exhibiting complex multiscale correlated behavior not captured by monofractal methods used in previous studies. (author)

  16. Quantifying multiscale inefficiency in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritskaya, Olga Y.; Serletis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    One of the basic features of efficient markets is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices. In this paper, we propose a new approach for measuring deviations from the efficient market state based on an analysis of scale-dependent fractal exponent characterizing correlations at different time scales. The approach is applied to two electricity markets, Alberta and Mid Columbia (Mid-C), as well as to the AECO Alberta natural gas market (for purposes of providing a comparison between storable and non-storable commodities). We show that price fluctuations in all studied markets are not efficient, with electricity prices exhibiting complex multiscale correlated behavior not captured by monofractal methods used in previous studies. (author)

  17. Quantifying uncertainty in nuclear analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of international consensus on the expression of uncertainty in measurements was recognised by the late 1970s and led, after the issuance of a series of rather generic recommendations, to the publication of a general publication, known as GUM, the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This publication, issued in 1993, was based on co-operation over several years by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the Organisation internationale de metrologie legale. The purpose was to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for harmonized reporting and the international comparison of measurement results. The need to provide more specific guidance to different measurement disciplines was soon recognized and the field of analytical chemistry was addressed by EURACHEM in 1995 in the first edition of a guidance report on Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurements, produced by a group of experts from the field. That publication translated the general concepts of the GUM into specific applications for analytical laboratories and illustrated the principles with a series of selected examples as a didactic tool. Based on feedback from the actual practice, the EURACHEM publication was extensively reviewed in 1997-1999 under the auspices of the Co-operation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry (CITAC), and a second edition was published in 2000. Still, except for a single example on the measurement of radioactivity in GUM, the field of nuclear and radiochemical measurements was not covered. The explicit requirement of ISO standard 17025:1999, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration

  18. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nambron

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III and controls.Control (n = 15, premanifest (n = 14 and stage II/III (n = 13 participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a, fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test.We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05 that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious.Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that

  19. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pbrain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...... of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe....

  20. The terrestrial evolution of metabolism and life – by the numbers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Kelly Gregory C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Allometric scaling relating body mass to metabolic rate by an exponent of the former (Kleiber's Law), commonly known as quarter-power scaling (QPS), is controversial for claims made on its behalf, especially that of its universality for all life. As originally formulated, Kleiber was based upon the study of heat; metabolic rate is quantified in watts (or calories per unit time). Techniques and technology for metabolic energy measurement have been refined but the math has n...

  1. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences; Localisation moleculaire de l'americium, du technetium et du cesium chez des animaux marins comestibles leur comportement metabolique et ses consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieri, J; Goudard, F; Milcent, M C [Laboratoire de Biochimie et Radiochimie, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Nantes Cedex (France)

    1992-07-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  2. Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material

  3. Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Gannon, Nicholas P.; Carriker, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Beetroot (甜菜 tián cài) juice consumption is of current interest for improving aerobic performance by acting as a vasodilator and possibly through alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology. This work explored the effects of a commercially available beetroot supplement on metabolism, gene expression, and mitochondrial content in cultured myocytes. C2C12 myocytes were treated with various concentrations of the beetroot supplement for various durations. Glycolytic metabolism and oxidative metabolism were quantified via measurement of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption, respectively. Metabolic gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and mitochondrial content was assessed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits. PMID:26870674

  4. QUANTIFYING LIFE STYLE IMPACT ON LIFESPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Lorenzini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, physical activity and avoiding dangerous habits such as smoking are effective ways of increasing health and lifespan. Although a significant portion of the world's population still suffers from malnutrition, especially children, the most common cause of death in the world today is non-communicable diseases. Overweight and obesity significantly increase the relative risk for the most relevant non communicable diseases: cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and some cancers. Childhood overweight also seems to increase the likelihood of disease in adulthood through epigenetic mechanisms. This worrisome trend now termed "globesity" will deeply impact society unless preventive strategies are put into effect. Researchers of the basic biology of aging have clearly established that animals with short lifespans live longer when their diet is calorie restricted. Although similar experiments carried on rhesus monkeys, a longer-lived species more closely related to humans, yielded mixed results, overall the available scientific data suggest keeping the body mass index in the "normal" range increases the chances of living a longer, healthier life. This can be successfully achieved both by maintaining a healthy diet and by engaging in physical activity. In this review we will try to quantify the relative impact of life style choices on lifespan.

  5. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  6. Stimfit: quantifying electrophysiological data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Jose Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular electrophysiological recordings provide crucial insights into elementary neuronal signals such as action potentials and synaptic currents. Analyzing and interpreting these signals is essential for a quantitative understanding of neuronal information processing, and requires both fast data visualization and ready access to complex analysis routines. To achieve this goal, we have developed Stimfit, a free software package for cellular neurophysiology with a Python scripting interface and a built-in Python shell. The program supports most standard file formats for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical signals through the Biosig library. To quantify and interpret the activity of single neurons and communication between neurons, the program includes algorithms to characterize the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials and postsynaptic currents, estimate latencies between pre- and postsynaptic events, and detect spontaneously occurring events. We validate and benchmark these algorithms, give estimation errors, and provide sample use cases, showing that Stimfit represents an efficient, accessible and extensible way to accurately analyze and interpret neuronal signals.

  7. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  9. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  10. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-10-10

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (h out ) and inflow (h in ). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime. We subsequently present two scenarios of changes in human water withdrawals and return flow to the system (individually and combined). Results show that approximately one-third of the selected aquifers in the USA, and half of the selected aquifers in Iran are dominated by human activities, while the selected aquifers in Germany are natural flow-dominated. The scenario analysis results also show that reduced human withdrawals could help with regime change in some aquifers. For instance, in two of the selected USA aquifers, a decrease in anthropogenic influences by ~20% may change the condition of depleted regime to natural flow-dominated regime. We specifically highlight a trending threat to the sustainability of groundwater in northwest Iran and California, and the need for more careful assessment and monitoring practices as well as strict regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation.

  11. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  12. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  13. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Leidig

    Full Text Available Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI. The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  14. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  15. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  16. Quantifying Information Leakage of Randomized Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Legay, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model and analyze the information leakage of deterministic and probabilistic systems. We show that this method generalizes the lattice...... of information approach and is a natural framework for modeling refined attackers capable to observe the internal behavior of the system. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed...

  17. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2015-11-01

    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999-2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build.

  19. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999–2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build. (paper)

  20. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook; Kincaid, Meegin; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2010-06-30

    It has been suggested that a cardinal symptom of mania is over-activity and exaggerated goal-directed behavior. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to quantify this behavior objectively in a laboratory environment. Having a methodology to assess over-activity reliably might be useful in distinguishing manic bipolar disorder (BD) from schizophrenia (SCZ) during highly activated states. In the current study, quantifiable measures of object interaction were assessed using a multivariate approach. Additionally, symptom correlates of over-activity were assessed. Patients admitted to an acute care psychiatric hospital for either BD with mania or SCZ (paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes) as well as non-patient comparison (NC) participants were assessed in an open field setting referred to as the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM). Activity and interactions with novel and engaging objects were recorded for 15min via a concealed video camera and rated for exploratory behavior. Both BD and SCZ patients spent more time near the objects and exhibited more overall walking compared to NC. In contrast, BD patients exhibited greater physical contact with objects (number of object interactions and time spent with objects) relative to SCZ patients or NC participants, as well as more perseverative and socially disinhibited behaviors, indicating a unique pattern of over-activity and goal-directed behavior. Further analyses revealed a distinction between SCZ patients according to their subtype. The current study extends our methodology for quantifying exploration and over-activity in a controlled laboratory setting and aids in assessing the overlap and distinguishing characteristics of BD and SCZ.

  1. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Quantifying Riverscape Connectivity with Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; Milledge, D.; Sinha, R.; Tandon, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial catchments convey fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and aquatic biota. At continental scales, crustal topography defines the overall path of channels whilst at local scales depositional and/or erosional features generally determine the exact path of a channel. Furthermore, constructions such as dams, for either water abstraction or hydropower, often have a significant impact on channel networks.The concept of ';connectivity' is commonly invoked when conceptualising the structure of a river network.This concept is easy to grasp but there have been uneven efforts across the environmental sciences to actually quantify connectivity. Currently there have only been a few studies reporting quantitative indices of connectivity in river sciences, notably, in the study of avulsion processes. However, the majority of current work describing some form of environmental connectivity in a quantitative manner is in the field of landscape ecology. Driven by the need to quantify habitat fragmentation, landscape ecologists have returned to graph theory. Within this formal setting, landscape ecologists have successfully developed a range of indices which can model connectivity loss. Such formal connectivity metrics are currently needed for a range of applications in fluvial sciences. One of the most urgent needs relates to dam construction. In the developed world, hydropower development has generally slowed and in many countries, dams are actually being removed. However, this is not the case in the developing world where hydropower is seen as a key element to low-emissions power-security. For example, several dam projects are envisaged in Himalayan catchments in the next 2 decades. This region is already under severe pressure from climate change and urbanisation, and a better understanding of the network fragmentation which can be expected in this system is urgently needed. In this paper, we apply and adapt connectivity metrics from landscape ecology. We then examine the

  3. Quantifying Sentiment and Influence in Blogspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Peter SY; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-07-25

    The weblog, or blog, has become a popular form of social media, through which authors can write posts, which can in turn generate feedback in the form of user comments. When considered in totality, a collection of blogs can thus be viewed as a sort of informal collection of mass sentiment and opinion. An obvious topic of interest might be to mine this collection to obtain some gauge of public sentiment over the wide variety of topics contained therein. However, the sheer size of the so-called blogosphere, combined with the fact that the subjects of posts can vary over a practically limitless number of topics poses some serious challenges when any meaningful analysis is attempted. Namely, the fact that largely anyone with access to the Internet can author their own blog, raises the serious issue of credibility— should some blogs be considered to be more influential than others, and consequently, when gauging sentiment with respect to a topic, should some blogs be weighted more heavily than others? In addition, as new posts and comments can be made on almost a constant basis, any blog analysis algorithm must be able to handle such updates efficiently. In this paper, we give a formalization of the blog model. We give formal methods of quantifying sentiment and influence with respect to a hierarchy of topics, with the specific aim of facilitating the computation of a per-topic, influence-weighted sentiment measure. Finally, as efficiency is a specific endgoal, we give upper bounds on the time required to update these values with new posts, showing that our analysis and algorithms are scalable.

  4. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  5. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  6. Quantifying seasonal velocity at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, E.; Quincey, D. J.; Miles, K.; Hubbard, B. P.; Rowan, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    While the low-gradient debris-covered tongues of many Himalayan glaciers exhibit low surface velocities, quantifying ice flow and its variation through time remains a key challenge for studies aimed at determining the long-term evolution of these glaciers. Recent work has suggested that glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal may show seasonal variability in surface velocity, with ice flow peaking during the summer as monsoon precipitation provides hydrological inputs and thus drives changes in subglacial drainage efficiency. However, satellite and aerial observations of glacier velocity during the monsoon are greatly limited due to cloud cover. Those that do exist do not span the period over which the most dynamic changes occur, and consequently short-term (i.e. daily) changes in flow, as well as the evolution of ice dynamics through the monsoon period, remain poorly understood. In this study, we combine field and remote (satellite image) observations to create a multi-temporal, 3D synthesis of ice deformation rates at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, focused on the 2017 monsoon period. We first determine net annual and seasonal surface displacements for the whole glacier based on Landsat-8 (OLI) panchromatic data (15m) processed with ImGRAFT. We integrate inclinometer observations from three boreholes drilled by the EverDrill project to determine cumulative deformation at depth, providing a 3D perspective and enabling us to assess the role of basal sliding at each site. We additionally analyze high-frequency on-glacier L1 GNSS data from three sites to characterize variability within surface deformation at sub-seasonal timescales. Finally, each dataset is validated against repeat-dGPS observations at gridded points in the vicinity of the boreholes and GNSS dataloggers. These datasets complement one another to infer thermal regime across the debris-covered ablation area of the glacier, and emphasize the seasonal and spatial variability of ice deformation for glaciers in High

  7. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  8. Quantifying motion for pancreatic radiotherapy margin calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, Gillian; Jain, Pooja; Green, Melanie; Watkins, Gillian; Henry, Ann; Stratford, Julie; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Thomas; Moore, Christopher; Price, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pancreatic radiotherapy (RT) is limited by uncertain target motion. We quantified 3D patient/organ motion during pancreatic RT and calculated required treatment margins. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and orthogonal fluoroscopy images were acquired post-RT delivery from 13 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Bony setup errors were calculated from CBCT. Inter- and intra-fraction fiducial (clip/seed/stent) motion was determined from CBCT projections and orthogonal fluoroscopy. Results: Using an off-line CBCT correction protocol, systematic (random) setup errors were 2.4 (3.2), 2.0 (1.7) and 3.2 (3.6) mm laterally (left–right), vertically (anterior–posterior) and longitudinally (cranio-caudal), respectively. Fiducial motion varied substantially. Random inter-fractional changes in mean fiducial position were 2.0, 1.6 and 2.6 mm; 95% of intra-fractional peak-to-peak fiducial motion was up to 6.7, 10.1 and 20.6 mm, respectively. Calculated clinical to planning target volume (CTV–PTV) margins were 1.4 cm laterally, 1.4 cm vertically and 3.0 cm longitudinally for 3D conformal RT, reduced to 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively, if using 4D planning and online setup correction. Conclusions: Commonly used CTV–PTV margins may inadequately account for target motion during pancreatic RT. Our results indicate better immobilisation, individualised allowance for respiratory motion, online setup error correction and 4D planning would improve targeting.

  9. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  10. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  11. Integrative Analysis of Metabolic Models – from Structure to Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Anja, E-mail: hartmann@ipk-gatersleben.de [Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2015-01-26

    The characterization of biological systems with respect to their behavior and functionality based on versatile biochemical interactions is a major challenge. To understand these complex mechanisms at systems level modeling approaches are investigated. Different modeling formalisms allow metabolic models to be analyzed depending on the question to be solved, the biochemical knowledge and the availability of experimental data. Here, we describe a method for an integrative analysis of the structure and dynamics represented by qualitative and quantitative metabolic models. Using various formalisms, the metabolic model is analyzed from different perspectives. Determined structural and dynamic properties are visualized in the context of the metabolic model. Interaction techniques allow the exploration and visual analysis thereby leading to a broader understanding of the behavior and functionality of the underlying biological system. The System Biology Metabolic Model Framework (SBM{sup 2} – Framework) implements the developed method and, as an example, is applied for the integrative analysis of the crop plant potato.

  12. Quantifying Discrete Fracture Network Connectivity in Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, T.; Ardakani, E. P.; Baig, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracture stimulations generally result in microseismicity that is associated with the activation or extension of pre-existing microfractures and discontinuities. Microseismic events acquired under 3D downhole sensor coverage provide accurate event locations outlining hydraulic fracture growth. Combined with source characteristics, these events provide a high quality input for seismic moment tensor inversion and eventually constructing the representative discrete fracture network (DFN). In this study, we investigate the strain and stress state, identified fracture orientation, and DFN connectivity and performance for example stages in a multistage perf and plug completion in a North American shale play. We use topology, the familiar concept in many areas of structural geology, to further describe the relationships between the activated fractures and their effectiveness in enhancing permeability. We explore how local perturbations of stress state lead to the activation of different fractures sets and how that effects the DFN interaction and complexity. In particular, we observe that a more heterogeneous stress state shows a higher percentage of sub-horizontal fractures or bedding plane slips. Based on topology, the fractures are evenly distributed from the injection point, with decreasing numbers of connections by distance. The dimensionless measure of connection per branch and connection per line are used for quantifying the DFN connectivity. In order to connect the concept of connectivity back to productive volume and stimulation efficiency, the connectivity is compared with the character of deformation in the reservoir as deduced from the collective behavior of microseismicity using robustly determined source parameters.

  13. [Metabolic functions and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Current epidemiological studies emphasize the increased of metabolic diseases of the adults, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndromes. Even more worrying is the rising prevalence of obesity in children. It is due more to sedentariness, caused more by inactivity (television, video, games, etc.) than by overeating. Many studies have shown that regular physical activities benefit various bodily functions including metabolism. After dealing with the major benefits of physical exercise on some adult metabolic disorders, we focus on the prime role played by physical activity in combating the public health problem of childhood obesity.

  14. Mathematical modelling of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombert, Andreas Karoly; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cellular metabolism have a special interest within biotechnology. Many different kinds of commercially important products are derived from the cell factory, and metabolic engineering can be applied to improve existing production processes, as well as to make new processes...... availability of genomic information and powerful analytical techniques, mathematical models also serve as a tool for understanding the cellular metabolism and physiology....... available. Both stoichiometric and kinetic models have been used to investigate the metabolism, which has resulted in defining the optimal fermentation conditions, as well as in directing the genetic changes to be introduced in order to obtain a good producer strain or cell line. With the increasing...

  15. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  16. Metabolism as an Integral Cog in the Mammalian Circadian Clockwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L.; Young, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are an integral part of life. These rhythms are apparent in virtually all biological processes studies to date, ranging from the individual cell (e.g., DNA synthesis) to the whole organism (e.g., behaviors such as physical activity). Oscillations in metabolism have been characterized extensively in various organisms, including mammals. These metabolic rhythms often parallel behaviors such as sleep/wake and fasting/feeding cycles that occur on a daily basis. What has become increasingly clear over the past several decades is that many metabolic oscillations are driven by cell autonomous circadian clocks, which orchestrate metabolic processes in a temporally appropriate manner. During the process of identifying the mechanisms by which clocks influence metabolism, molecular-based studies have revealed that metabolism should be considered an integral circadian clock component. The implications of such an interrelationship include the establishment of a vicious cycle during cardiometabolic disease states, wherein metabolism-induced perturbations in the circadian clock exacerbate metabolic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is therefore to highlight recent insights gained regarding links between cell autonomous circadian clocks and metabolism, and the implications of clock dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23594144

  17. Fluoroacetylcarnitine: metabolism and metabolic effects in mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, J; Davis, E J

    1973-01-01

    The metabolism and metabolic effects of fluoroacetylcarnitine have been investigated. Carnitineacetyltransferase transfers the fluoro-acetyl group of fluoroacetylcarnitine nearly as rapidly to CoA as the acetyl group of acetylcarnitine. Fluorocitrate is then formed by citrate synthase, but this second reaction is relatively slow. The fluorocitrate formed intramitochondrially inhibits the metabolism of citrate. In heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria the accumulated citrate inhibits citrate synthesis and the ..beta..-oxidation of fatty acids. Free acetate is formed, presumably because accumulated acetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed. In liver mitochondria the accumulation of citrate leads to a relatively increased rate of ketogenesis. Increased ketogenesis is obtained also upon the addition of citrate to the reaction mixture.

  18. A Methodological Approach to Quantifying Plyometric Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Mark M; Graham-Smith, Phil; Comfort, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Jarvis, MM, Graham-Smith, P, and Comfort, P. A Methodological approach to quantifying plyometric intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2522-2532, 2016-In contrast to other methods of training, the quantification of plyometric exercise intensity is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a range of neuromuscular and mechanical variables to describe the intensity of plyometric exercises. Seven male recreationally active subjects performed a series of 7 plyometric exercises. Neuromuscular activity was measured using surface electromyography (SEMG) at vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). Surface electromyography data were divided into concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases of movement. Mechanical output was measured by ground reaction forces and processed to provide peak impact ground reaction force (PF), peak eccentric power (PEP), and impulse (IMP). Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the reliability intraclass correlation coefficient and sensitivity smallest detectable difference of all variables. Mean values of SEMG demonstrate high reliability (r ≥ 0.82), excluding ECC VL during a 40-cm drop jump (r = 0.74). PF, PEP, and IMP demonstrated high reliability (r ≥ 0.85). Statistical power for force variables was excellent (power = 1.0), and good for SEMG (power ≥0.86) excluding CON BF (power = 0.57). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in CON SEMG between exercises. Eccentric phase SEMG only distinguished between exercises involving a landing and those that did not (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction [%MVIC] = no landing -65 ± 5, landing -140 ± 8). Peak eccentric power, PF, and IMP all distinguished between exercises. In conclusion, CON neuromuscular activity does not appear to vary when intent is maximal, whereas ECC activity is dependent on the presence of a landing. Force characteristics provide a reliable and sensitive measure enabling precise description of intensity

  19. Quantifying Permafrost Characteristics with DCR-ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, W.; Trochim, E.; Munk, J.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methods are an efficient method for quantifying permafrost characteristics for Arctic road design and engineering. In the Alaskan Arctic construction and maintenance of roads requires integration of permafrost; ground that is below 0 degrees C for two or more years. Features such as ice content and temperature are critical for understanding current and future ground conditions for planning, design and evaluation of engineering applications. This study focused on the proposed Foothills West Transportation Access project corridor where the purpose is to construct a new all-season road connecting the Dalton Highway to Umiat. Four major areas were chosen that represented a range of conditions including gravel bars, alluvial plains, tussock tundra (both unburned and burned conditions), high and low centered ice-wedge polygons and an active thermokarst feature. Direct-current resistivity using galvanic contact (DCR-ERT) was applied over transects. In conjunction complimentary site data including boreholes, active layer depths, vegetation descriptions and site photographs was obtained. The boreholes provided information on soil morphology, ice texture and gravimetric moisture content. Horizontal and vertical resolutions in the DCR-ERT were varied to determine the presence or absence of ground ice; subsurface heterogeneity; and the depth to groundwater (if present). The four main DCR-ERT methods used were: 84 electrodes with 2 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 0.5 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 2 m spacing; and 84 electrodes with 1 m spacing. In terms of identifying the ground ice characteristics the higher horizontal resolution DCR-ERT transects with either 42 or 84 electrodes and 0.5 or 1 m spacing were best able to differentiate wedge-ice. This evaluation is based on a combination of both borehole stratigraphy and surface characteristics. Simulated apparent resistivity values for permafrost areas varied from a low of 4582 Ω m to a high of 10034 Ω m. Previous

  20. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  1. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  2. Quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moltmann, Sara; Hagemann, Markus; Eisbrenner, Katja; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Sterk, Wolfgang; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Watanabe, Rie [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Further action is needed that goes far beyond what has been agreed so far under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol to 'prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC. It is out of question that developed countries (Annex I countries) will have to take a leading role. They will have to commit to substantial emission reductions and financing commitments due to their historical responsibility and their financial capability. However, the stabilisation of the climate system will require global emissions to peak within the next decade and decline well below half of current levels by the middle of the century. It is hence a global issue and, thus, depends on the participation of as many countries as possible. This report provides a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including their national climate plans, of the major emitting developing countries Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea. It includes an overview of emissions and economic development, existing national climate change strategies, uses a consistent methodology for estimating emission reduction potential, costs of mitigation options, provides an estimate of the reductions to be achieved through the national climate plans and finally provides a comparison of the results to the allocation of emission rights according to different global effort-sharing approaches. In addition, the report discusses possible nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) the six countries could take based on the analysis of mitigation options. This report is an output of the project 'Proposals for quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economies' by Ecofys and the Wuppertal Institute for the Federal Environment Agency in Dessau. It builds upon earlier joint work ''Proposals for contributions of emerging economies to the climate

  3. Quantifying the impacts of global disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. M.; Ross, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Hansen, R. A.; Johnson, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Thio, H. K.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Geological Survey, and other entities are developing a Tsunami Scenario, depicting a realistic outcome of a hypothetical but plausible large tsunami originating in the eastern Aleutian Arc, affecting the west coast of the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The scenario includes earth-science effects, damage and restoration of the built environment, and social and economic impacts. Like the earlier ShakeOut and ARkStorm disaster scenarios, the purpose of the Tsunami Scenario is to apply science to quantify the impacts of natural disasters in a way that can be used by decision makers in the affected sectors to reduce the potential for loss. Most natural disasters are local. A major hurricane can destroy a city or damage a long swath of coastline while mostly sparing inland areas. The largest earthquake on record caused strong shaking along 1500 km of Chile, but left the capital relatively unscathed. Previous scenarios have used the local nature of disasters to focus interaction with the user community. However, the capacity for global disasters is growing with the interdependency of the global economy. Earthquakes have disrupted global computer chip manufacturing and caused stock market downturns. Tsunamis, however, can be global in their extent and direct impact. Moreover, the vulnerability of seaports to tsunami damage can increase the global consequences. The Tsunami Scenario is trying to capture the widespread effects while maintaining the close interaction with users that has been one of the most successful features of the previous scenarios. The scenario tsunami occurs in the eastern Aleutians with a source similar to the 2011 Tohoku event. Geologic similarities support the argument that a Tohoku-like source is plausible in Alaska. It creates a major nearfield tsunami in the Aleutian arc and peninsula, a moderate tsunami in the US Pacific Northwest, large but not the

  4. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  5. It must be my metabolism: Metabolic control of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Small

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For millennia it was advantageous to overeat whenever food was available in order to create reserves of energy for likely future episodes of famine. Neural circuits thus evolved to promote eating in the absence of hunger when cues signaling food availability were encountered. In today’s food environment, this once adaptive behavior may fuel the obesity epidemic. An oft-used index of one’s propensity to eat in the absence of hunger is “food cue reactivity”. How “reactive” one is to a food cue can be assessed in a variety of ways. Food intake can be measured subsequent to initial exposures to the sight, taste or smell of a palatable food. Not surprisingly, overweight and obese individuals are more likely to eat or to eat more than their lean counterparts when presented with food cues (1. Measuring brain response to food cues can also assess food cue reactivity. Heightened responses in dopamine source and target regions are associated with increased food consumption (2-5, weight gain (6-9, and poor outcomes in weight loss programs (10. Paralleling the behavioral data, overweight and obese individuals also show heightened responses to food cues, as do individuals at risk for overeating (11-14. Despite the reliable relationship between brain response to food cues and obesity the mechanism by which food cues drive brain response is unknown. To identify factors that regulate food cue reactivity in humans we have employed a flavor nutrient conditioning protocol in which associations are formed between a novel flavor and calorie content. In the rodent model, it is well established that pairing a novel flavor with intra-gastric infusion of glucose conditions a strong preference for that flavor when later consumed in the absence of calories (15. This implies that a peripheral signal generated by the glucose infusion is critical for flavor preference formation. Recent work also performed in the rodent model demonstrates that there is a close

  6. Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Ozcelik, İlknur Ş; Hofmann, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    of relevant secondary metabolites, was reconstructed based on detailed metabolic reconstructions available for A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and information on the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of A. nidulans. Thereby, it was possible to identify metabolic functions without a gene associated...... a function. Results: In this work, we have manually assigned functions to 472 orphan genes in the metabolism of A. nidulans, by using a pathway-driven approach and by employing comparative genomics tools based on sequence similarity. The central metabolism of A. nidulans, as well as biosynthetic pathways......, in an objective and systematic manner. The functional assignments served as a basis to develop a mathematical model, linking 666 genes (both previously and newly annotated) to metabolic roles. The model was used to simulate metabolic behavior and additionally to integrate, analyze and interpret large-scale gene...

  7. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifier spreading in child eye movements: A case of the Russian quantifier kazhdyj ‘every'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Sekerina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cross-linguistic work has documented that children up to the age of 9–10 make errors when performing a sentence-picture verification task that pairs spoken sentences with the universal quantifier 'every 'and pictures with entities in partial one-to-one correspondence. These errors stem from children’s difficulties in restricting the domain of a universal quantifier to the appropriate noun phrase and are referred in the literature as 'quantifier-spreading '('q'-spreading. We adapted the task to be performed in conjunction with eye-movement recordings using the Visual World Paradigm. Russian-speaking 5-to-6-year-old children ('N '= 31 listened to sentences like 'Kazhdyj alligator lezhit v vanne '‘Every alligator is lying in a bathtub’ and viewed pictures with three alligators, each in a bathtub, and two extra empty bathtubs. Non-spreader children ('N '= 12 were adult-like in their accuracy whereas 'q'-spreading ones ('N '= 19 were only 43% correct in interpreting such sentences compared to the control sentences. Eye movements of 'q'-spreading children revealed that more looks to the extra containers (two empty bathtubs correlated with higher error rates reflecting the processing pattern of 'q'-spreading. In contrast, more looks to the distractors in control sentences did not lead to errors in interpretation. We argue that 'q'-spreading errors are caused by interference from the extra entities in the visual context, and our results support the processing difficulty account of acquisition of quantification. Interference results in cognitive overload as children have to integrate multiple sources of information, i.e., visual context with salient extra entities and the spoken sentence in which these entities are mentioned in real-time processing.   This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  9. Effects of a Physical Exercise Program (PEP-Aut on Autistic Children’s Stereotyped Behavior, Metabolic and Physical Activity Profiles, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has shown positive effects on symptomatology and on the reduction of comorbidities in population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate exercise intervention model for children with ASD. The physical exercise program for children with autism (PEP-Aut protocol designed allow us to (i examine the multivariate associations between ASD symptoms, metabolic profile, physical activity level, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of children with ASD; (ii assess the effects of a 40-week exercise program on all these aspects of children with ASD. The impact of the exercise program will be assessed based on the sequence of the two phases. Phase 1 is a 12-week cross-sectional study assessing the symptomatology, metabolic profile, physical fitness and physical activity levels, socioeconomic status profile, and health-related quality of life of participants. This phase is the baseline of the following phase. Phase 2 is a 48-week intervention study with a 40-week intervention with exercise that will take place in a specialized center for children with ASD in the city of Maceió-Alagoas, Brazil. The primary outcomes will be change in the symptomatic profile and the level of physical activity of children. Secondary outcomes will be anthropometric and metabolic profiles, aerobic function, grip strength, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life. The study will provide critical information on the efficacy of exercise for children with ASD and help guide design and delivery of future programs.

  10. How doth the little busy bee: unexpected metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L Felipe; Sierralta, Jimena; Weber, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Brain energy metabolism powers information processing and behavior, much as electricity powers a computer. However, a recent study in insects suggests that this relationship is more interesting, causally linking aggressive behavior to energetics. These findings may also shed new light on aerobic glycolysis, a long-standing riddle of human brain physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary fatty acid metabolism in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-01

    Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans. We have recently developed a novel imaging method using PET with oral administration of 14-R,S-F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) to quantify organ-specific DFA partitioning. Our studies thus far confirmed impaired storage of DFA per volume of fat mass in abdominal adipose tissues of individuals with prediabetes. They also highlighted the increased channeling of DFA toward the heart, associated with subclinical reduction in cardiac systolic and diastolic function in individuals with prediabetes. In the present review, we summarize previous work on DFA metabolism in healthy and prediabetic states and discuss these in the light of our novel findings using PET imaging of DFA metabolism. We herein provide an integrated view of abnormal organ-specific DFA partitioning in prediabetes in humans.

  12. Investigation of metabolic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cycle defects is the X-linked recessive disorder, ornithine ... life, or if the child is fed the compounds that they are unable .... as learning difficulties, drowsiness and avoidance of ... Table 2. Laboratory investigation of suspected metabolic encephalopathy. Laboratory .... Clinical approach to treatable inborn metabolic diseases:.

  13. Metabolic regulation of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Immune cells constantly patrol the body via the bloodstream and migrate into multiple tissues where they face variable and sometimes demanding environmental conditions. Nutrient and oxygen availability can vary during homeostasis, and especially during the course of an immune response, creating a demand for immune cells that are highly metabolically dynamic. As an evolutionary response, immune cells have developed different metabolic programmes to supply them with cellular energy and biomolecules, enabling them to cope with changing and challenging metabolic conditions. In the past 5 years, it has become clear that cellular metabolism affects immune cell function and differentiation, and that disease-specific metabolic configurations might provide an explanation for the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases. This Review outlines the metabolic challenges faced by immune cells in states of homeostasis and inflammation, as well as the variety of metabolic configurations utilized by immune cells during differentiation and activation. Changes in cellular metabolism that contribute towards the dysfunctional immune responses seen in rheumatic diseases are also briefly discussed.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  15. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  16. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746

  18. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  19. Metabolic imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  20. Astrocytes and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebil, Mateja; Jensen, Jørgen; Zorec, Robert; Kreft, Marko

    2011-05-01

    Astrocytes are glial cells, which play a significant role in a number of processes, including the brain energy metabolism. Their anatomical position between blood vessels and neurons make them an interface for effective glucose uptake from blood. After entering astrocytes, glucose can be involved in different metabolic pathways, e.g. in glycogen production. Glycogen in the brain is localized mainly in astrocytes and is an important energy source in hypoxic conditions and normal brain functioning. The portion of glucose metabolized into glycogen molecules in astrocytes is as high as 40%. It is thought that the release of gliotransmitters (such as glutamate, neuroactive peptides and ATP) into the extracellular space by regulated exocytosis supports a significant part of communication between astrocytes and neurons. On the other hand, neurotransmitter action on astrocytes has a significant role in brain energy metabolism. Therefore, understanding the astrocytes energy metabolism may help understanding neuron-astrocyte interactions.

  1. Quantifying data worth toward reducing predictive uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausman, A.M.; Doherty, J.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a methodology for optimization of environmental data acquisition. Based on the premise that the worth of data increases in proportion to its ability to reduce the uncertainty of key model predictions, the methodology can be used to compare the worth of different data types, gathered at different locations within study areas of arbitrary complexity. The method is applied to a hypothetical nonlinear, variable density numerical model of salt and heat transport. The relative utilities of temperature and concentration measurements at different locations within the model domain are assessed in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with predictions of movement of the salt water interface in response to a decrease in fresh water recharge. In order to test the sensitivity of the method to nonlinear model behavior, analyses were repeated for multiple realizations of system properties. Rankings of observation worth were similar for all realizations, indicating robust performance of the methodology when employed in conjunction with a highly nonlinear model. The analysis showed that while concentration and temperature measurements can both aid in the prediction of interface movement, concentration measurements, especially when taken in proximity to the interface at locations where the interface is expected to move, are of greater worth than temperature measurements. Nevertheless, it was also demonstrated that pairs of temperature measurements, taken in strategic locations with respect to the interface, can also lead to more precise predictions of interface movement. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  2. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988), Giusti (1990) and Shlonsky (1991) in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004) to constituent (quantifier) negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theor...

  3. Significados da dieta e mudanças de hábitos para portadores de doenças metabólicas crônicas: uma revisão The significance of dietary and behavioral changes in patients with chronic metabolic disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Vieira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Comportamento alimentar e significados psicoculturais da alimentação para portadores de distúrbios metabólicos crônicos têm sido foco de interesse em virtude da dificuldade de adesão às mudanças de hábitos e à promoção do autocuidado. Revisão bibliográfica foi realizada a partir das bases de dados Lilacs e Medline® e no sistema de busca Pubmed, visando estudos qualitativos que analisam a visão dos pacientes sobre dieta e estilo de vida. Palavras chaves: metabolic syndrome, eating behavior, diet, obesity, psychological factors, qualitative study e dietary habits. Critérios de inclusão: idioma inglês, espanhol ou português; período 2000 a 2008; população adulta; contendo um ou mais descritores no título. A partir de 15 artigos analisados foi concluído que a adesão às mudanças de hábitos é um processo dinâmico, dependente de vários fatores individuais para seu estabelecimento e requer maior interação entre profissionais e pacientes na prática clínica. A promoção do autocuidado depende do respeito às decisões e aos sentimentos decorrentes da vivência pessoal.Eating behavior and the psycho-cultural significance of food for patients with chronic metabolic disorders have been a focus of interest due to the difficulty in ensuring the compliance of these patients in terms of changing their habits and in fostering self-care. A review of the literature was condusted using the LILACS and MEDLINE databases and the PUBMED search engine to identify qualitative studies in which the opinion of patients with respect to diet and lifestyle was analyzed. Key words used were: metabolic syndrome; eating behavior; diet; obesity; psychological factors; qualitative study; and dietary habits. Inclusion criteria consisted of: articles in English, Spanish or Portuguese, published between 2000 and 2008; studies carried out in adult populations; containing one or more of the key words in the title. Based on the 15 papers analyzed, it

  4. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-01-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated

  5. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  6. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224 Ra, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  7. Cellular energy metabolism in T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Sawitzki, Birgit; Hoff, Paula; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is a hallmark of cell survival and maintenance of cell function. Here we focus on the impact of cellular energy metabolism on T-lymphocyte differentiation, activation, and function in health and disease. We describe the role of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of lymphocyte metabolism on immune functions of T cells. We also summarize the current knowledge about T-lymphocyte adaptations to inflammation and hypoxia, and the impact on T-cell behavior of pathophysiological hypoxia (as found in tumor tissue, chronically inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis and during bone regeneration). A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control immune cell metabolism and immune response may provide therapeutic opportunities to alter the immune response under conditions of either immunosuppression or inflammation, potentially targeting infections, vaccine response, tumor surveillance, autoimmunity, and inflammatory disorders.

  8. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  9. Ketogenic diet improves behaviors in a maternal immune activation model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available Prenatal factors influence autism spectrum disorder (ASD incidence in children and can increase ASD symptoms in offspring of animal models. These may include maternal immune activation (MIA due to viral or bacterial infection during the first trimesters. Unfortunately, regardless of ASD etiology, existing drugs are poorly effective against core symptoms. For nearly a century a ketogenic diet (KD has been used to treat seizures, and recent insights into mechanisms of ASD and a growing recognition that immune/inflammatory conditions exacerbate ASD risk has increased interest in KD as a treatment for ASD. Here we studied the effects of KD on core ASD symptoms in offspring exposed to MIA. To produce MIA, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were injected with the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; after weaning offspring were fed KD or control diet for three weeks. Consistent with an ASD phenotype of a higher incidence in males, control diet-fed MIA male offspring were not social and exhibited high levels of repetitive self-directed behaviors; female offspring were unaffected. However, KD feeding partially or completely reversed all MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in males; it had no effect on behavior in females. KD-induced metabolic changes of reduced blood glucose and elevated blood ketones were quantified in offspring of both sexes. Prior work from our laboratory and others demonstrate KDs improve relevant behaviors in several ASD models, and here we demonstrate clear benefits of KD in the MIA model of ASD. Together these studies suggest a broad utility for metabolic therapy in improving core ASD symptoms, and support further research to develop and apply ketogenic and/or metabolic strategies in patients with ASD.

  10. Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayne, Ashleigh

    Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the

  11. Slave nodes and the controllability of metabolic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Motter, Adilson E

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on synthetic rescues has shown that the targeted deletion of specific metabolic genes can often be used to rescue otherwise non-viable mutants. This raises a fundamental biophysical question: to what extent can the whole-cell behavior of a large metabolic network be controlled by constraining the flux of one or more reactions in the network? This touches upon the issue of the number of degrees of freedom contained by one such network. Using the metabolic network of Escherichia coli as a model system, here we address this question theoretically by exploring not only reaction deletions, but also a continuum of all possible reaction expression levels. We show that the behavior of the metabolic network can be largely manipulated by the pinned expression of a single reaction. In particular, a relevant fraction of the metabolic reactions exhibits canalizing interactions, in that the specification of one reaction flux determines cellular growth as well as the fluxes of most other reactions in optimal steady states. The activity of individual reactions can thus be used as surrogates to monitor and possibly control cellular growth and other whole-cell behaviors. In addition to its implications for the study of control processes, our methodology provides a new approach to study how the integrated dynamics of the entire metabolic network emerges from the coordinated behavior of its component parts.

  12. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  13. Quantifying the impact of relativity and of dispersion interactions on the activation of molecular oxygen promoted by noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    an energy barrier close to 20 kcal/mol on Ag38, which decreases to slightly more than 10 kcal/mol on Au38. This behavior is analyzed to quantify the impact of relativity and of dispersion interactions through a comparison of nonrelativistic, scalar

  14. In vivo biochemistry: quantifying ion and metabolite levels in individual cells or cultures of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Clara; Ewald, Jennifer C; Lanquar, Viviane; Jones, Alexander M; Frommer, Wolf B

    2011-08-15

    Over the past decade, we have learned that cellular processes, including signalling and metabolism, are highly compartmentalized, and that relevant changes in metabolic state can occur at sub-second timescales. Moreover, we have learned that individual cells in populations, or as part of a tissue, exist in different states. If we want to understand metabolic processes and signalling better, it will be necessary to measure biochemical and biophysical responses of individual cells with high temporal and spatial resolution. Fluorescence imaging has revolutionized all aspects of biology since it has the potential to provide information on the cellular and subcellular distribution of ions and metabolites with sub-second time resolution. In the present review we summarize recent progress in quantifying ions and metabolites in populations of yeast cells as well as in individual yeast cells with the help of quantitative fluorescent indicators, namely FRET metabolite sensors. We discuss the opportunities and potential pitfalls and the controls that help preclude misinterpretation. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  15. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  16. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  17. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chevereau

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the "morbidostat", a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations-an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation

  18. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Ming, Katherine Y.; Singer, Brett C.

    2005-01-05

    The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces. Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms. Access to 33 rooms in nine residences consisting of bathrooms, bedroom/offices and common areas was solicited from among research group members living in the East San Francisco Bay Area. A systematic approach was implemented for measuring rooms and objects from 300 cm{sup 2} and larger. The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area-to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area-to-volume ratios also were determined for each room. The bathrooms had the highest total surface area-to-volume ratios. Bedrooms generally had higher ratios than common areas consisting of kitchens, living/dining rooms and transitional rooms. Total surface area-to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2.3 and 4.7 m{sup 2} m{sup -3}. The importance of individual objects and materials with respect to sorption will depend upon the sorption coefficients for the various VOC/materials combinations. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.5 m{sup 2} m{sup -3} for all three types of rooms.

  19. Quantifying uncertainty in observational rainfall datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris; Dosio, Alessandro; Nikulin, Grigory; Pinto, Izidine; Seid, Hussen

    2015-04-01

    rainfall datasets available over Africa on monthly, daily and sub-daily time scales as appropriate to quantify spatial and temporal differences between the datasets. We find regional wet and dry biases between datasets (using the ensemble mean as a reference) with generally larger biases in reanalysis products. Rainfall intensity is poorly represented in some datasets which demonstrates some datasets should not be used for rainfall intensity analyses. Using 10 CORDEX models we show in east Africa that the spread between observed datasets is often similar to the spread between models. We recommend that specific observational rainfall datasets datasets be used for specific investigations and also that where many datasets are applicable to an investigation, a probabilistic view be adopted for rainfall studies over Africa. Endris, H. S., P. Omondi, S. Jain, C. Lennard, B. Hewitson, L. Chang'a, J. L. Awange, A. Dosio, P. Ketiem, G. Nikulin, H-J. Panitz, M. Büchner, F. Stordal, and L. Tazalika (2013) Assessment of the Performance of CORDEX Regional Climate Models in Simulating East African Rainfall. J. Climate, 26, 8453-8475. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00708.1 Gbobaniyi, E., A. Sarr, M. B. Sylla, I. Diallo, C. Lennard, A. Dosio, A. Dhie ?diou, A. Kamga, N. A. B. Klutse, B. Hewitson, and B. Lamptey (2013) Climatology, annual cycle and interannual variability of precipitation and temperature in CORDEX simulations over West Africa. Int. J. Climatol., DOI: 10.1002/joc.3834 Hernández-Díaz, L., R. Laprise, L. Sushama, A. Martynov, K. Winger, and B. Dugas (2013) Climate simulation over CORDEX Africa domain using the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). Clim. Dyn. 40, 1415-1433. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1387-z Kalognomou, E., C. Lennard, M. Shongwe, I. Pinto, A. Favre, M. Kent, B. Hewitson, A. Dosio, G. Nikulin, H. Panitz, and M. Büchner (2013) A diagnostic evaluation of precipitation in CORDEX models over southern Africa. Journal of Climate, 26, 9477-9506. DOI:10

  20. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group......, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk...... pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood...

  1. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols.

  2. Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2010-06-01

    We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters.

  3. Visual Attention and Quantifier-Spreading in Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Sauermann, Antje

    2015-01-01

    It is well established in language acquisition research that monolingual children and adult second language learners misinterpret sentences with the universal quantifier "every" and make quantifier-spreading errors that are attributed to a preference for a match in number between two sets of objects. The present Visual World eye-tracking…

  4. Gender Differences in Knee Joint Congruity Quantified from MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Schiphof, Dieuwke; Byrjalsen, Inger

    2018-01-01

    was located and quantified using Euclidean distance transform. Furthermore, the CI was quantified over the contact area by assessing agreement of the first- and second-order general surface features. Then, the gender differences between CA and CI values were evaluated at different stages of radiographic OA...

  5. Anatomy of Alternating Quantifier Satisfiability (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Bjørner, Nikolaj; Monniaux, David

    We report on work in progress to generalize an algorithm recently introduced in [10] for checking satisfiability of formulas with quantifier alternation. The algorithm uses two auxiliary procedures: a procedure for producing a candidate formula for quantifier elimination and a procedure for elimi...

  6. The Role of Quantifier Alternations in Cut Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Extending previous results on the complexity of cut elimination for the sequent calculus LK, we discuss the role of quantifier alternations and develop a measure to describe the complexity of cut elimination in terms of quantifier alternations in cut formulas and contractions on such formulas...

  7. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  8. The Dynamics of Plasma Membrane, Metabolism and Respiration (PM-M-R in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123824 in Response to Different Nutrient Limitations—A Multi-level Approach to Study Organic Acid Excretion in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Vrabl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are important cell factories. In contrast, we do not understand well even basic physiological behavior in these organisms. This includes the widespread phenomenon of organic acid excretion. One strong hurdle to fully exploit the metabolic capacity of these organisms is the enormous, highly environment sensitive phenotypic plasticity. In this work we explored organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron from a new point of view by simultaneously investigating three essential metabolic levels: the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM; energy metabolism, in particular adenine and pyridine nucleotides (M; and respiration, in particular the alternative oxidase (R. This was done in strictly standardized chemostat culture with different nutrient limitations (glucose, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate. These different nutrient limitations led to various quantitative phenotypes (as represented by organic acid excretion, oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, and biomass formation. Glucose-limited grown mycelia were used as the reference point (very low organic acid excretion. Both ammonium and phosphate grown mycelia showed increased organic acid excretion, although the patterns of excreted acids were different. In ammonium-limited grown mycelia amount and activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was increased, nucleotide concentrations were decreased, energy charge (EC and catabolic reduction charge (CRC were unchanged and alternative respiration was present but not quantifiable. In phosphate-limited grown mycelia (no data on the H+-ATPase nucleotide concentrations were still lower, EC was slightly decreased, CRC was distinctly decreased and alternative respiration was present and quantifiable. Main conclusions are: (i the phenotypic plasticity of filamentous fungi demands adaptation of sample preparation and analytical methods at the phenotype level; (ii each nutrient condition is unique and its metabolic situation must be considered

  9. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  10. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  12. The metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begon, F.; Gaci, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the authors recall the principles of the metabolic radiotherapy and present these main applications in the treatment of thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism, polycythemia, arthritis, bone metastases, adrenergic neoplasms. They also present the radioimmunotherapy

  13. Engineering of metabolic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.

    2004-03-16

    The invention features a method of producing heterologous molecules in cells under the regulatory control of a metabolite and metabolic flux. The method can enhance the synthesis of heterologous polypeptides and metabolites.

  14. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  15. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  16. Ca-48 metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    Calcium metabolism has been studied in depth physiologically and is a relatively well-understood element in biochemistry and medicine. There is still only restricted knowledge of the metabolic fate of calcium in normal and abnormal paediatric subjects. The latter is partially owing to inadequate techniques for tracing and modelling calcium pathways in children. The advent of radioactive tracers has unquestionably enhanced medical research and improved the quality of many metabolic studies. The present study was aimed at the development, promotion and justification of a new tracer technique using the stable isotope, calcium-48. The obvious advantages of such a technique are its harmlessness tothe subject, its applicability to both short- and long-term studies as well as its usefulness to the study for which it was originally motivated, viz research defining the actual relationship between a calcium-deficient diet and the occurrence of rickets in rural Black children in South Africa. Exploratory instrumental analyses were performed specifically with serum samples. This proved successful enough to develop a less specific pre-concentration technique which improved the sensitivity and reduces the cost of doing calcium-48 metabolism studies. The results of a simple metabolic study are presented whereby the scope of the technique is demonstrated in a real situation. The possibilities and limitations of double-isotope metabolic studies are discussed, particularly with regard to strontium as the second tracer

  17. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  18. Treatment, Therapy and Management of Metabolic Epilepsy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lin Lin Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic epilepsy is a metabolic abnormality which is associated with an increased risk of epilepsy development in affected individuals. Commonly used antiepileptic drugs are typically ineffective against metabolic epilepsy as they do not address its root cause. Presently, there is no review available which summarizes all the treatment options for metabolic epilepsy. Thus, we systematically reviewed literature which reported on the treatment, therapy and management of metabolic epilepsy from four databases, namely PubMed, Springer, Scopus and ScienceDirect. After applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed a total of 43 articles. Based on the reviewed articles, we summarized the methods used for the treatment, therapy and management of metabolic epilepsy. These methods were tailored to address the root causes of the metabolic disturbances rather than targeting the epilepsy phenotype alone. Diet modification and dietary supplementation, alone or in combination with antiepileptic drugs, are used in tackling the different types of metabolic epilepsy. Identification, treatment, therapy and management of the underlying metabolic derangements can improve behavior, cognitive function and reduce seizure frequency and/or severity in patients.