WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantify developmental delay

  1. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  2. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  3. Menstrual management in developmentally delayed adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2017-06-01

    Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Neuropsychological Testing of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Problems and Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nancy W.; Levin, Harvey S.

    1979-01-01

    The study involving 13 developmentally delayed children (36-66 months old) was conducted to determine the applicability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Motor Impersistence Test, Graphesthesia Test, and Stereognosis-Tactile Test with developmentally delayed infants and preschoolers. (SBH)

  5. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R.; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports. PMID:27879626

  6. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  7. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc. to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  8. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had...

  9. [Neuropsychomotor developmental delay: conceptual map, term definitions, uses and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Duarte, Neuza Maria de Castro; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2015-01-01

    To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD), its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE), Pubmed (Medline), Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global developmental delay. A total of 71 articles were selected, which were used to build the conceptual map of the term. Of the 71 references, 55 were international and 16 national. The terms developmental delay and global developmental delay were the most frequently used in the international literature and, in Brazil, delayed NPMD was the most often used. The term developmental delay emerged in the mid 1940s, gaining momentum in the 1990 s. In Brazil, the term delayed NPMD started to be used in the 1980s, and has been frequently cited and published in the literature. Delayed development was a characteristic of 13 morbidities described in 23 references. Regarding the type of use, 19 references were found, with seven forms of use. Among the references, 34 had definitions of the term, and 16 different concepts were identified. Developmental delay is addressed in the international and national literature under different names, various applications, and heterogeneous concepts. Internationally, ways to improve communication between professionals have been indicated, with standardized definition of the term and use in very specific situations up to the fifth year of life, which was not found in Brazilian publications. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anthoney Lim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to lifethreatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair.

  11. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  12. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  13. Developmental screening and detection of developmental delays in infants and toddlers with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Penny L; Bailey, Donald B; Roberts, Jane E; Hatton, Deborah D

    2004-02-01

    Three developmental screening tests (the Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, and Early Language Milestone Scale-2) were administered to 18 infants and toddlers (13 boys and 5 girls) with confirmed diagnoses of fragile X syndrome as part of a comprehensive developmental assessment at 9, 12, and 18 months of age. The Denver-II identified delays for 10 of 11 boys at 9 months of age and the Denver-II and the Early Language Milestone Scale-2 identified delays in 100% of the boys at 12 and 18 months. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test identified delays in 75% of the children at 12 and 18 months. When compared with more comprehensive developmental tests (Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale-2), the screening tests concurred at least 76% of the time at the 12- and 18-month assessments. These results indicate that developmental delays could be detected in most children with fragile X syndrome through routine developmental screening by the age of 9 to 12 months.

  14. Developmentally Delayed Musical Savant's Sensitivity to Tonal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leon K.

    1987-01-01

    A five-year-old developmentally delayed, musically gifted child with no formal musical training was asked to repeat passages on the piano. Analysis of responses to melodies in each of the 24 major and minor keys indicated sensitivity to aspects of diatonic structure exhibited by mature listeners. (Author)

  15. Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed.

  16. Developmental and functional outcomes at school age of preschool children with global developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Webster, Richard; Birnbaum, Rena

    2005-08-01

    The later developmental trajectory of young children diagnosed early with global developmental delay was determined. Using a prospective study, preschool children diagnosed with global developmental delay were systematically reassessed during the early school years with standardized developmental and functional outcome measures (Battelle Developmental Inventory and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale). Of an original cohort of 99 children assessed and diagnosed at a mean age of 3.4 +/- 1.1 years, 48 were reassessed at a mean age of 7.3 +/- 0.9 years. Group performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory overall was 66.4 +/- 4.3 (mean 100 +/- 15). Between 75% and 100% of the cohort performed at least 1.5 SD below the normative mean on the individual domains of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Similarly, the group mean on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale overall was 63.5 +/- 20.8 (mean 100 +/- 15), with between 61% and 76% of the cohort scoring more than 1.5 SD below the mean on each of the domains. Univariate and multivariate analyses on potential predictor variables identified a lack of an underlying etiology as predictive of poorer performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory fine motor and motor domains and increasing severity of initial delay as predictive of poorer performance on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication domain and overall score. Similarly, maternal employment and paternal postsecondary education improved Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication scores, whereas paternal postsecondary education alone predicted better socialization and total scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Children with early global developmental delay demonstrate persistent and consistently poor performance across all developmental and functional domains. Few variables are apparent at intake to predict later performance.

  17. Behavior Problems in Toddlers with and without Developmental Delays: Comparison of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Casey A.; Carrasco, Jennifer M.; Mattek, Ryan J.; Fox, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an in-home parent management program for toddlers with behavior problems and developmental delays by comparing outcomes for a group of toddlers with developmental delays (n = 27) and a group of toddlers without developmental delays (n = 27). The majority of children lived in single…

  18. Approach to Mental Retardation and Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMental Retardation (MR or Intellectual Disability is one of three chronic and disabling neurological disorders of children and adolescents. Its prevalence is estimated 1-3% of the population. MR is defined as significant sub-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that become detectable before the age of 18. MR may come into view before 5 years as delay in at least two developmental domains which is called Global Developmental Delay (GDD.The causes of mental retardation can be considered under the titles of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prenatal causes account for approximately 60 -80 % of the etiological factors. All patients with GDD / MR should undergo a stepwise diagnostic approach, because a specific diagnosis leads to opportunity for treatment, future planning and genetic counseling. History, physical examination and neurodevelopmental examinations are the most important parts of the approach. Recent advances in cytogenetic investigations and neuroimaging studies have led to recognition of new disorders and improvement of the diagnostic yield.Keywords: Mental retardation ; global developmental delay; diagnostic yield.

  19. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Developmentally Delayed Children

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    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Developmental disorders are failure or inability to acquire various age-specific skills at expected maturational age, which affects about 5–10% of preschool children. One of the most important methods for evaluation of developmentally delayed children is neuroimaging, especially, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that provides useful information regarding brain tissue structures and anomalies. Method and Material. In this study, hospital records of 580 developmentally delayed children (aged 2 months to 15 years who admitted in pediatric ward of Golestan Hospital from 1997 to 2009 were selected. Information such as age, MRI findings were collected in the questionnaire and statistically analyzed. Results. Total, 580 children including 333 males (57.4% and 247 females (42.6% were studied. Abnormal brain MRI was observed in 340 (58.6% cases (204 Males, 136 females. The finding includes nonspecific in 38 (6.6%, congenital and developmental anomalies of brain in 39 (6.7%, recognizable syndromes in 3 (0.5%, neurovascular diseases or trauma in 218 (37.6%, and metabolic or neurodegenerative diseases in 42 (7.2% cases. Conclusion. Because 60% of all study groups showed abnormal brain MRI, using this method could be effective in diagnosis, management, and almost prognosis determination processes.

  20. Parent Concern and Enrollment in Intervention Services for Young Children with Developmental Delays: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer; Kirby, Russell S.; Gorski, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to address underenrollment and late entry to early intervention by identifying factors associated with parental concern and services for developmental delays. The authors analyzed responses from 27,566 parents of children from birth to age 5 from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to quantify and to identify factors…

  1. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

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    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  2. Genetics and the investigation of developmental delay/intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Myriam; Shevell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Global developmental delay and intellectual disabilities are common reasons for diagnostic assessment by paediatricians. There are a multiplicity of possible causes many of which have genetic, management and treatment implications for the child and family. Genetic causes are estimated to be responsible for approximately a quarter to one-half of identified cases. The multiplicity of individually rare genetic causes challenges the practitioner with respect to the selection of diagnostic tests and accurate diagnosis. To assist the practitioner practice guidelines have been formulated and these are reviewed and summarised in this particular article.

  3. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza ZAMANI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Zamani GH, Shervin Badv R, Niksirat A, Alizadeh H. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:25-28. ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies. References1. Fenichel M. Clinical Pediatric Neurology: A Signs and Symptoms Approach. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. p. 119-52.2. A guide to investigation of children with developmental delay in East Anglia 2005Available from:http://www. phgfoundation.org/file/2366.3. Williams J. Global developmental

  4. Developmental delays in preschool children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Erkan; Soylu, Nusret; Polat, Cahit; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Uçur, Ömer; Bozdoğan, Gökçe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on general development, as well as fine and gross motor capabilities, social communication, and language development in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy by applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II. The study included 30 patients (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 53.3±12.2 months; range 32 to 72 months) who were indicated for adenotonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy between February 2013 and July 2013. The control group comprised 30 children participants (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 53.1±12.8 months; range 32 to 72 months) with no adenotonsillectomy indication. All participants included in the study were performed routine physical examination, flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy, and tympanometry. Brodsky scale and fiberendoscopic findings were used to categorize tonsil and adenoid sizes, respectively. Following ear, nose, and throat evaluation, a psychologist conducted Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in all participants blindly. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients had higher abnormal levels of general development (c2=7.13, p=0.028). Although patients and controls had similar levels of fine motor, gross motor, and personal-social development levels, there was a statistically borderline difference between them in terms of language development (t=1.82, p=0.074). The possibility of adenotonsillar hypertrophy should definitely be considered in children with delayed general and language developments.

  5. Child Care Providers' Competence and Confidence in Referring Children at Risk for Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Diane; Bingham, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study…

  6. Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, J.M.; Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; de Winter, A.F.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children born moderately preterm (32-35(6/7) weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of both neonatal morbidities and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the increased risk of developmental delay. The objective o

  7. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

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    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  8. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  9. Developmental profiles from the Battelle developmental inventory: a comparison of toddlers diagnosed with Down Syndrome, global developmental delay and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Hess, Julie A; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max

    2010-01-01

    Developmental profiles and milestone attainment have been examined for children suffering from various developmental disabilities. However, research comparing the same across numerous developmental disabilities is scant. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the developmental profiles of toddlers (i.e. aged 17-34 months) who were premature, diagnosed with Down Syndrome, or diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay. A total of 28 toddlers met inclusion criteria for the study. Those diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay or Down Syndrome scored significantly lower on the Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-2), compared to those who were born premature. More specifically, differences emerged on the BDI-2 domains of personal-social and motor. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Visual abilities in students with severe developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  11. Local observability of state variables and parameters in nonlinear modeling quantified by delay reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Parlitz, Ulrich; Luther, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Features of the Jacobian matrix of the delay coordinates map are exploited for quantifying the robustness and reliability of state and parameter estimations for a given dynamical model using an observed time series. Relevant concepts of this approach are introduced and illustrated for discrete and continuous time systems employing a filtered H\\'enon map and a R\\"ossler system.

  12. The Association between EEG Abnormality and Behavioral Disorder: Developmental Delay in Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh; Hadi Zarafshan; Mohammad Reza Alaee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Brain defect leading to developmental delay is one of the clinical manifestations of phenylketonuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EEG abnormality and developmental delay/behavioral disorders in phenylketonuria. Patients and Methods. 105 phenylketonuria patients, who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or during follow-up evaluation, were enrolled. Patients who were seizure-free for at least six months before the study were included. The...

  13. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure.

  14. Discrimination Acquisition in Children with Developmental Disabilities under Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement

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    Sy, Jolene R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the discrimination acquisition of individuals with developmental disabilities under immediate and delayed reinforcement. In Experiment 1, discrimination between two alternatives was examined when reinforcement was immediate or delayed by 20 s, 30 s, or 40 s. In Experiment 2, discrimination between 2 alternatives was compared across an…

  15. Using Time Delay to Teach Literacy to Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Spooner, Fred; Mims, Pamela J.; Baker, Joshua N.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1975 and 2007 on the application of time delay as an instructional procedure to teach word and picture recognition to students with severe developmental disabilities in an effort to evaluate time delay as an evidence-based practice. A total of 30 experiments were analyzed…

  16. Discrimination Acquisition in Children with Developmental Disabilities under Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the discrimination acquisition of individuals with developmental disabilities under immediate and delayed reinforcement. In Experiment 1, discrimination between two alternatives was examined when reinforcement was immediate or delayed by 20 s, 30 s, or 40 s. In Experiment 2, discrimination between 2 alternatives was compared across an…

  17. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  18. Radiological findings in autistic and developmentally delayed children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.; Grond, J. van der; Durston, S.; Nievelstein, R.J.; Witkamp, T.; Daalen, E. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a group of young children with developmental disorders, specifically including children that came to the attention of a child psychiatrist before the age of 3 years. METHODS: Forty-five children participated in a

  19. Pretend Play in High-Risk and Developmentally Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Sena, Rhonda

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of pretend play as a cognitive assessment tool. Examines the failure of developmental progression of play in preterm, drug-exposed, malnourished, Down's syndrome, mentally retarded, and autistic children. Examines individual differences in play, and the relationship between language and play, in these groups. (AC)

  20. Perinatal reduction of functional serotonin transporters results in developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, Y.L.; Dirven, B.; Janssen, S.; Krohnke, M.; Barte, R.M.; Middelman, A.; Bokhoven, H. van; Zhou, H.; Homberg, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    While there is strong evidence from rodent and human studies that a reduction in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) function in early-life can increase the risk for several neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood, the effects of reduced 5-HTT function on behavior across developmental stages are

  1. The Consequences of Delayed Enrollment in Developmental Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David S.; Fike, Renea

    2012-01-01

    Though a large percentage of U.S. students enter higher education with mathematics deficiencies, many institutions allow these students to decide the timing of their enrollment in developmental mathematics courses. This study of 3476 first-time-in-college students entailed the review of student outcomes (Fall GPA, Fall-to-Spring retention,…

  2. A comparison of the korean-ages and stages questionnaires and denver developmental delay screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga, Hyo-Yun; Kwon, Jeong Yi

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate concurrent validity between the Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaires (K-ASQ) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II), and to evaluate the validity of the K-ASQ as a screening tool for detecting developmental delay of Korean children. A retrospective chart review was done to examine concurrent validity of the screening potentials for developmental delay between the K-ASQ and the DDST II (n=226). We examined validity of the K-ASQ compared with Capute scale (n=141) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=69) as a gold standard of developmental delay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests. A fair to good strength relationship (k=0.442, ptest characteristics of the K-ASQ were sensitivity 76.3-90.2%, specificity 62.5-76.5%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 2.41-3.40, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.16-0.32. Evidence of concurrent validity of the K-ASQ with DDST II was found. K-ASQ can be used for screening of developmental delay.

  3. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:24232451

  4. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  5. School-teachers awareness of developmental co-ordination delay (DCD) in children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: Developmental Co-ordination Delay (DCD) is estimated to affect 5-6% of school children (1). School-teachers play an integral role in noting delayed signs of motor development in children (2). Limited research has been carried out investigating the awareness that Irish school-teachers demonstrate of DCD. Objectives: To determine the awareness that Irish primary school-teachers have of DCD, in children. Methods: Qualitative methodology involving three focus grou...

  6. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  7. Movement Exploration as a Technique for Teaching Pre-Swimming Skills to Students with Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Joyce M.; Schane, Catherine S.

    1980-01-01

    Background, rationale, and techniques for using movement exploration to teach preswimming skills to developmentally delayed persons are given. Objectives (beyond the primary one of safety) of such a program include body awareness, spatial awareness, movement, and perceptual motor functions. Guidelins for activity selection and adaptation are…

  8. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors associated with developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Sollie, Krystyna M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F; Potijk, Marieke R; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between preexisting maternal and pregnancy-related factors and developmental delay in early childhood in moderately preterm-born children. METHODS: We measured development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 43-49 months in 834 moderately preterm-born

  9. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  10. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results Abn

  11. Effects of Parent-based Video Home Training in children with developmental language delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Stoep, J.M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    An efficacy study of an indirect or Parent-based intervention programme involving Video Home Training (PVHT) was conducted with a focus on parental strategies to (re-)establish coherence in conversations between young children with Developmental Language Delay (DLD) and their parents or caregivers.

  12. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  13. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  14. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  15. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  16. Randomized Comparison of Augmented and Nonaugmented Language Interventions for Toddlers with Developmental Delays and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Cheslock, Melissa; Smith, Ashlyn; Barker, R. Michael; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the language performance of young children with developmental delays who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 parent-coached language interventions. Differences in performance on augmented and spoken word size and use, vocabulary size, and communication interaction skills were examined. Method: Sixty-eight toddlers with…

  17. Maternal Sensitivity and Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Alison; Feldman, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental delay are at increased risk for behaviour problems, but little is known about risk and resilience factors. Previous research has established links between maternal sensitivity and behaviour problems in typically developing children, but no studies have examined maternal sensitivity in the development of behaviour…

  18. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results

  19. The Negative Effects of Positive Reinforcement in Teaching Children with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…

  20. Ring Chromosome 9 in a Girl With Developmental Delay and Dysmorphic Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibbesen, Else la Cour; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Alosi, Daniela;

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a female child with dysmorphic features and developmental delay. Chromosome microarray analysis followed by conventional karyotyping revealed a ring chromosome 9 with a 12 Mb deletion at 9pter-p23 and a 540 kb deletion at 9q34.3-qter. Four percent of the analyzed cells...

  1. Oral Health Characteristics and Dental Rehabilitation of Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global developmental delay (GDD is a chronic neurological disturbance which includes defects in one or more developmental domains. The developmental domain can be motor, cognitive, daily activities, speech or language, and social or personal development. The etiology for GDD can be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. It can be diagnosed early in childhood as the delay or absence of one or more developmental milestones. Hence the role of pedodontist and pediatricians becomes more crucial in identifying this condition. The diagnosis of GDD requires a detailed history including family history and environmental risk factors followed by physical and neurological examinations. Investigations for GDD include diagnostic laboratory tests, brain imaging, and other evidence-based evaluations. GDD affects multiple developmental domains that not only have direct bearing on maintenance of oral health, but also require additional behavior management techniques to deliver optimal dental care. This paper describes two different spectra of children with GDD. Since the severity of GDD can vary, this paper also discusses the different behavior management techniques that were applied to provide dental treatment in such children.

  2. Association of Arsenic Methylation Capacity with Developmental Delays and Health Status in Children: A Prospective Case-Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chih-Ying; Chien, Ssu-Ning; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I.; Mu, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ru-Lan

    2016-11-01

    This case-control study identified the association between the arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delays and explored the association of this capacity with the health status of children. We recruited 120 children with developmental delays and 120 age- and sex-matched children without developmental delays. The health status of the children was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI). The arsenic methylation capacity was determined by the percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV%), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV%) through liquid chromatography and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Developmental delays were significantly positively associated with the total urinary arsenic concentration, InAs%, and MMAV%, and was significantly negatively associated with DMAV% in a dose-dependent manner. MMAV% was negatively associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL; -1.19 to -1.46, P children and in those with developmental delays. The arsenic methylation capacity is dose-dependently associated with developmental delays and with the health status of children, particularly those with developmental delays.

  3. A social skills training program for preschoolers with developmental delays. Generalization and social validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, L A; Matson, J L

    1995-04-01

    This investigation was designed to assess a social skills training program with 32 developmentally delayed preschoolers. Subjects were evaluated in an unstructured play session, matched for levels of appropriate and inappropriate social behaviors, and assigned to either a treatment or control condition. The treatment group (N = 16) was presented with a 6-week protocol involving positive reinforcement, modeling, rehearsal, feedback, and time out. Controls (N = 16) received no instruction beyond regular classroom activities during the 6 weeks. The two groups were reevaluated in a posttest session and again in a generalization setting where two peers with developmental delays (not included in either experimental condition) were included. Prosocial behaviors were successfully taught and maintained in generalization settings. Efforts to reduce inappropriate behaviors were less successful. A test of social validity via teachers' ratings of videotapes of pretest and posttest assessments was also conducted. Implications for generalization and social validity research are discussed.

  4. Subtelomeric FISH analysis in 76 patients with syndromic developmental delay/intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faravelli Francesca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intellectual disability affects approximately 1 to 3% of the general population. The etiology is still poorly understood and it is estimated that one-half of the cases are due to genetic factors. Cryptic subtelomeric aberrations have been found in roughly 5 to 7% of all cases. Methods We performed a subtelomeric FISH analysis on 76 unrelated children with normal standard karyotype ascertained by developmental delay or intellectual disability, associated with congenital malformations, and/or facial dysmorphisms. Results Ten cryptic chromosomal anomalies have been identified in the whole cohort (13,16%, 8 in the group of patients characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability associated with congenital malformations and facial dysmorphisms, 2 in patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability and facial dysmorphisms only. Conclusion We demonstrate that a careful clinical examination is a very useful tool for pre-selection of patients for genomic analysis, clearly enhancing the chromosomal anomaly detection rate. Clinical features of most of these patients are consistent with the corresponding emerging chromosome phenotypes, pointing out these new clinical syndromes associated with specific genomic imbalances.

  5. [The pathophysiological analysis of cerebrolysin therapy of children with mental developmental delay caused by ecological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorin, N V; Zlova, T P; Akhmetova, V V; Tarasova, O A

    2008-01-01

    The treatment with cerebrolysin combined with psychological correction was conducted in 24 children, aged 4-6 years, with mental developmental delay. The effect of this drug was compared to placebo (20 patients with mental development delay) and control groups (35 healthy children). After cerebrolysin therapy effect of cerebrolysin (0,1 mg/1kg of body mass during 42 day) was assessed using neuropsychological data and a set of different pathophysiological indices which reflected the biochemical, immunological and neurophysiological status of patients. After cerebrolysin therapy significant improvement of the mental state, including preconditions of intellect, and motor functions specific for mental development delay was found. These changes were correlated with the positive dynamics of some indices - lipid peroxidation, immune status, hormonal shifts and parameters of neurodegeneration-neuroprotection processes.

  6. Iron deficiency in children with global developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrak, Samuel; Yoong, Terence; Woolfenden, Susan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for iron deficiency in children with global developmental delay and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A retrospective review was conducted of the files of children referred to community paediatric clinics in South West Sydney from May 2009 to July 2011 who were diagnosed with global developmental delay and/or ASD. Data were extracted on iron studies and potential risk factors. Data were analysed using Pearson's ÷(2) -test and Fisher's exact test. Subjects included 122 children. The prevalence of iron depletion was 2.5% (95% CI 0.5-7.0%); that of iron deficiency was 6.6% (95% CI 2.9-12.5%), and that of iron deficiency anaemia was 4.1% (95% CI 1.3-9.3%). In children with global developmental delay without ASD, the prevalence of iron depletion was 1.8% (95% CI 0-9.7%), that of iron deficiency 5.5% (95% CI 1.1-15.1%) and that of iron deficiency anaemia 5.5% (95% CI 1.1-15.1%). In children with ASD with or without global developmental delay, the prevalence of iron depletion was 3.0% (95% CI 0.4-10.4%), that of iron deficiency 7.5% (95% CI 2.5-16.6%) and that of iron deficiency anaemia 3.0% (95% CI 0.4-10.4%). Univariate analysis demonstrated three significant potential risk factors for iron depletion, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia: problems sucking, swallowing or chewing (P = 0.002); poor eating behaviour (P = 0.008); and inadequate amounts of meat, chicken, eggs or fish (P = 0.002). Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia were more common in this clinical sample of children with global developmental delay and/or ASD than in the general population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessah Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

  8. Quantifying delayed-onset muscle soreness: a comparison of unidimensional and multidimensional instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel J; Guthrie, Sharon R

    2007-06-01

    Unidimensional pain instrumentation, whereby participants simply rate the intensity of their pain on one evaluative level, has been the most common method of assessing delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). However, pain has been shown to be a multidimensional phenomenon including sensory, affective, and evaluative aspects. The aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to compare the DOMS pain responses derived from a multidimensional instrument (i.e. the McGill Pain Questionnaire--MPQ) with those using a unidimensional measure (i.e. a visual analogue scale), and (2) to identify the MPQ descriptors most commonly used to characterize DOMS among a sample of 14 male (mean age = 24.7 years, s = 4.4) and 9 female participants (mean age = 24.6 years, s = 3.5). Although the results demonstrated no significant differences between the pain ratings of the two instruments (mean values of the pain rating indices had a Spearman rank correlation coefficient of r = 1.00), suggesting no significant advantage to be gained in using the MPQ, a clearer description of DOMS emerged. The most frequently selected DOMS descriptors were "tight" (95% of participants chose this descriptor at least once), "sore" (86%), "tender" (86%), "annoying" (86%), and "pulling" (68%). These findings may be of use to researchers and sports medicine professionals in their deliberations about which instrumentation to use in quantifying DOMS and in distinguishing such pain from other, potentially more serious, musculoskeletal damage.

  9. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Lan Hsieh; Wen-Chung Lee; Jui-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children p...

  10. Optimism and positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Nelson, E; McIntyre, L L

    2017-07-01

    Parents' positive and negative feelings about their young children influence both parenting behaviour and child problem behaviour. Research has not previously examined factors that contribute to positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay (DD). The present study sought to examine whether optimism, a known protective factor for parents of children with DD, was predictive of positive and negative feelings for these parents. Data were collected from 119 parents of preschool-aged children with developmental delay. Two separate hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if optimism significantly predicted positive feelings and negative feelings and whether optimism moderated relations between parenting stress and parent feelings. Increased optimism was found to predict increased positive feelings and decreased negative feelings after controlling for child problem behaviour and parenting stress. In addition, optimism was found to moderate the relation between parenting stress and positive feelings. Results suggest that optimism may impact how parents perceive their children with DD. Future research should examine how positive and negative feelings impact positive parenting behaviour and the trajectory of problem behaviour specifically for children with DD. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relation of polymorphism of arsenic metabolism genes to arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ying-Chin; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chen, Ray-Jade; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2017-04-15

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with developmental delay in children. The present study was designed to explore whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-S-transferase omegas (GSTOs), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) affect arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay. A case-control study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2014. All participants were recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In total, 179 children with developmental delay and 88 children without delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphisms of AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP were performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform with iPLEX Gold chemistry. Polymorphisms of AS3MT genes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay in children, but GSTO and PNP polymorphisms were not. Participants with AS3MT rs3740392 A/G+G/G genotype, compared with AS3MT rs3740392 A/A genotype, had a significantly lower secondary methylation index. This may result in an increased OR for developmental delay. Participants with the AS3MT high-risk haplotype had a significantly higher OR than those with AS3MT low-risk haplotypes [OR and 95% CI, 1.59 (1.08-2.34)]. This is the first study to show a joint dose-response effect of this AS3MT high-risk haplotype and inefficient arsenic methylation capacity on developmental delay. Our data provide evidence that AS3MT genes are related to developmental delay and may partially influence arsenic methylation capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social determinants of state variation in special education participation among preschoolers with developmental delays and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Carle, Adam C; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny; McCormick, Marie C

    2011-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at risk for secondary complications and lower academic performance, which contributes to lower health and well-being and may be ameliorated by access to special education services. This paper examines state variability in preschool special education participation among a United States population-based cohort with parent-reported developmental delays and disabilities. Analyses explore the extent to which observed variability can be explained by state socio-economic attributes and special education policy and funding. Rates of special education varied significantly across states and were highest in states with least income inequality and lowest in states with most income inequality. Place variation in preschool special education participation stems, in part, from child characteristics, but to a larger extent, from state socio-economic attributes.

  13. Oddity learning in developmentally delayed children: facilitation by means of familiar stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J T; Deckner, C W; Soraci, S A; Baumeister, A A; Blanton, R L

    1988-09-01

    Four of 8 low-functioning, developmentally delayed children initially failed to demonstrate oddity responding under conditions in which ostensibly similar children did show oddity responding (e.g., Soraci et al., 1987). In the context of a multiple baseline across-subjects design, each of the 4 previously unsuccessful children demonstrated statistically significant increases in the percentage of correct oddity responses immediately upon introduction of familiar stimuli. These results indicate that perceptual differentiation enhances relational learning of the type required by the oddity task.

  14. Proximal trisomy 1q in a girl with developmental delay and minor anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furforo, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]|[Instituto Nacional de Genetica Medica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rittler, M. [Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Slavutsky, I.R. [Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-09-06

    We report on a girl with developmental delay, macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, small downturned palpebral fissures, high and narrow palate, micrognathia, short neck, a heart defect, and unilateral renal agenesis. Cytogenetic analysis showed a proximal tandem duplication of the long arm of chromosome one (1q12{r_arrow}q21.3). This abnormality was suggested by G-and C-banding but it was specifically characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinical findings in our patient are compared with those of the literature in an attempt to delineate the phenotype in patients with proximal 1q duplication. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Developmental delays in offspring of rats undernourished or zinc deprived during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, M J; Halas, E S

    1987-01-01

    Offspring of rats who were zinc or calorie deprived during lactation were administered a battery of reflex and motor tests from postnatal Day 4 to Day 21. Compared to offspring of ad lib-fed control rats, both zinc deprived and undernourished offspring exhibited developmental delays in reflexes which appeared after the first postnatal week (auditory startle, air righting, and rope descent). As the deficiencies continued the delays appeared to be more pronounced. The zinc deficiency did not add to the deficits associated with calorie restriction alone because there were no significant differences between the zinc deficient and undernourished pups on any of the measures except eye opening. When rehabilitated offspring were tested at 45 and 60 days of age for motor deficits there were no significant impairments resulting from preweaning dietary conditions. However, the growth retardation of zinc deprived and undernourished rats persisted long after dietary rehabilitation was implemented.

  16. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly.

  17. Vibrio cholerae hemolysin is required for lethality, developmental delay, and intestinal vacuolation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Hediye Nese Cinar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin (CT and toxin-co-regulated pili (TCP are the major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains that contribute to the pathogenesis of disease during devastating cholera pandemics. However, CT and TCP negative V. cholerae strains are still able to cause severe diarrheal disease in humans through mechanisms that are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the role of other virulence factors in V. cholerae pathogenesis, we used a CT and TCP independent infection model in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and identified the hemolysin A (hlyA gene as a factor responsible for animal death and developmental delay. We demonstrated a correlation between the severity of infection in the nematode and the level of hemolytic activity in the V. cholerae biotypes. At the cellular level, V. cholerae infection induces formation of vacuoles in the intestinal cells in a hlyA dependent manner, consistent with the previous in vitro observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that HlyA is a virulence factor in C. elegans infection leading to lethality and developmental delay presumably through intestinal cytopathic changes.

  18. Diagnostic outcome following routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic yield following a routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay. Detailed retrospective review of 119 complete consecutive case notes of patients referred to one single clinical geneticist over a 14 month time period was undertaken (n = 119; 54 males, 65 females). The age at initial review ranged from 2 months to 37 years 3 months (mean 8 y 3 mo [SD 7 y 10 mo]). We made a diagnosis in 36\\/119 (30%); 21\\/36 were new diagnoses and 15\\/36 were confirmations of diagnoses. We removed a wrong diagnostic label in 8\\/119 (7%). In 3\\/8 we were able to achieve a diagnosis but in 5\\/8 no alternative diagnosis was reached. We had a better diagnostic rate where the patients were dysmorphic (odds ratio [OR] 1.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.065 to 3.128, p = 0.044). In the majority, the diagnosis was made by clinical examination only. Molecular diagnosis was reached in seven cases. Five cases were confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diagnosis in three cases. This study confirms the importance of a clinical genetics assessment in the investigation of global developmental delay.

  19. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: Mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Avina, Daniel Alejandro Hernández

    2014-09-01

    The Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a very rare and severe genetic disease characterized by mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism. It was first described in 1978 in patients with mental retardation and crisis of intermittent hyperventilation. The genetic cause is haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene that affects the neurodevelopment in both sexes; the majority of patients have spontaneous molecular defects by point mutations or deletions in chromosome 18 at the region 18q21. The syndrome is characterized by neurological abnormalities that affect the motor coordination and balance, in patients with mental and developmental delays. The phenotype includes a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: prominent square forehead, deep-set eyes with ocular hypertelorism; prominent large nose beaked and broad flat nasal bridge; mouth wide and large, thick fleshy lips, tented bow-shaped upper lip and everted lower lip; cup-shaped ears with dysplastic broad overfolded helix. We review the literature and the photographs of 44 published patients from 2007 to 2012, to resume the principal features of craniofacial anomalies, attempting to delineate the syndrome phenotype and score the specific dysmorphism than help to achieve the early clinical diagnosis.

  20. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay--Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong-Lin; Chow, Julie Chi; Lai, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Kuo, Mei-Chin; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2015-08-01

    This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  1. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: Mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Avina, Daniel Alejandro Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a very rare and severe genetic disease characterized by mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism. It was first described in 1978 in patients with mental retardation and crisis of intermittent hyperventilation. The genetic cause is haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene that affects the neurodevelopment in both sexes; the majority of patients have spontaneous molecular defects by point mutations or deletions in chromosome 18 at the region 18q21. The syndrome is characterized by neurological abnormalities that affect the motor coordination and balance, in patients with mental and developmental delays. The phenotype includes a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: prominent square forehead, deep-set eyes with ocular hypertelorism; prominent large nose beaked and broad flat nasal bridge; mouth wide and large, thick fleshy lips, tented bow-shaped upper lip and everted lower lip; cup-shaped ears with dysplastic broad overfolded helix. We review the literature and the photographs of 44 published patients from 2007 to 2012, to resume the principal features of craniofacial anomalies, attempting to delineate the syndrome phenotype and score the specific dysmorphism than help to achieve the early clinical diagnosis. PMID:27625870

  2. Fragile X astrocytes induce developmental delays in dendrite maturation and synaptic protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering Laurie C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental impairment characterized by cognitive impairment, attention deficit and autistic behaviours. The mouse model of Fragile X is used to study the underlying neurobiology associated with behavioral deficiencies. The effect of Fragile X glial cells on the development of neurons has not been studied. We used a co-culture technique in combination with morphometrics on immunostained neurons to investigate the role of astrocytes in the development delays associated with hippocampal neuron development. Results We found that hippocampal neurons grown on Fragile X astrocytes exhibited a significant difference from the neurons grown with normal astrocytes after 7 days in vitro for many parameters including increases in dendritic branching and in area of the cell body. However, after 21 days in culture, the neurons grown on Fragile X astrocytes exhibited morphological characteristics that did not differ significantly from the neurons grown on normal astrocytes. With antibodies to the pre-synaptic protein, synapsin, and to the excitatory post-synaptic protein, PSD-95, we quantified the number of developing excitatory synapses on the dendrites. In addition to the delays in dendritic patterning, the development of excitatory synapses was also delayed in the hippocampal neurons. Conclusions These experiments are the first to establish a role for astrocytes in the delayed growth characteristics and abnormal morphological features in dendrites and synapses that characterize the Fragile X syndrome.

  3. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S.; Caudle, Susan E.; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Objective The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) are often unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Study Design Retrospective review Setting Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals Patients 204 children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and >1 year after implantation Main Outcome Measures The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index (PSI), and Preschool Language Scale (PLS). Results We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD and 144 children did not. Prior to implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p0.1) compared to children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL, age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between two cohorts were reduced. Conclusions These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. While children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD, their

  4. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S; Caudle, Susan E; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) often are unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Retrospective review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Two hundred four children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and more than 1 year after implantation. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), vineland adaptive behavior scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index, and Preschool Language Scale. We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD, and 144 children did not. Before implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p 0.1) compared with children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL and age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between the 2 cohorts were reduced. These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. Although children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower, and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD

  5. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

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    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  6. Cognitive development in children with language impairment, and correlation between language and intelligence development in kindergarten children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Fen; Liu, Jui-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Ling; Chang, Ming-Yuh; Chang, Tung-Ming; Cheng, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 65 children with developmental delay. The male-to-female ratio was 2.25 : 1, and the mean age was 5.8 years; performance IQ was 94.8, verbal IQ was 83, and full-scale IQ was 87.4. Twenty-three (35%) children had normal language development, 13 (20%) had below average language development, and 29 (45%) had developmental language disorder. Performance IQ was significantly better than verbal IQ in all children (P children with developmental language disorder and specific language impairment was significantly lower than that of children with normal language development. Performance IQ was found to be correlated with language score (r = .309, P = .012). The children with language impairment were associated with lower IQ scores. The discrepancy between performance IQ and verbal IQ persisted in children with developmental delay, not only in children with language disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Feasibility of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Neece, Cameron L

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) interventions are popular as a treatment strategy for myriad diagnoses in various settings, and may be beneficial for parents of children with developmental delays (DD). However, prior research suggests extreme levels of stress and extraordinary demands on time among these parents, making the feasibility of effectively implementing MBSR with this population questionable. This study examined the feasibility of administering standard MBSR to a diverse community-based sample of parents of young children with DD. The potential impact of MBSR interventions includes improvement in parents' mental health, and collateral benefits for the family environment, including improved child behavior. Nurses may have an integral role in interdisciplinary teams providing MBSR.

  8. Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills.

  9. De novo MEIS2 mutation causes syndromic developmental delay with persistent gastro-esophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Atsushi; Isidor, Bertrand; Piloquet, Hugues; Corre, Pierre; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-09-01

    MEIS2 aberrations are considered to be the cause of intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect, as MEIS2 copy number variation is often observed with these phenotypes. To our knowledge, only one nucleotide-level change-specifically, an in-frame MEIS2 deletion-has so far been reported. Here, we report a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation (c.611C>G, p.Ser204*) in MEIS2. She showed severe intellectual disability, moderate motor/verbal developmental delay, cleft palate, cardiac septal defect, hypermetropia, severe feeding difficulties with gastro-esophageal reflux and constipation. By reviewing this patient and previous patients with MEIS2 point mutations, we found that feeding difficulty with gastro-esophageal reflux appears to be one of the core clinical features of MEIS2 haploinsufficiency, in addition to intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect.

  10. Application of Array-based Comparative Genome Hybridization in Children with Developmental Delay or Mental Retardation

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    Jao-Shwann Liang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental delay or mental retardation (DD/MR are commonly en countered in child neurology clinics, and establishing an etiologic diagnosis is a challenge for child neurologists. Among the etiologies, chromosomal imbalance is one of the most important causes. However, many of these chromosomal imbalances are submicroscopic and cannot be detected by conventional cytogenetic methods. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is considered to be superior in the investigation of chromosomal deletions or duplications in children with DD/MR, and has been demonstrated to improve the diagnostic detection rate for these small chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we review the recent studies of array CGH in the evaluation of patients with idiopathic DD/MR.

  11. During Drosophila disc regeneration, JAK/STAT coordinates cell proliferation with Dilp8-mediated developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Tomonori; Comoglio, Federico; Seimiya, Makiko; Cabuy, Erik; Paro, Renato

    2015-05-05

    Regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs occurs in an epimorphic manner involving local cell proliferation at the wound site. After disc fragmentation, cells at the wound site activate a restoration program through wound healing, regenerative cell proliferation, and repatterning of the tissue. However, the interplay of signaling cascades driving these early reprogramming steps is not well-understood. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of regenerating cells in the early phase within 24 h after wounding. We found that JAK/STAT signaling becomes activated at the wound site and promotes regenerative cell proliferation in cooperation with Wingless (Wg) signaling. In addition, we showed that the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8), which encodes a paracrine peptide to delay the onset of pupariation, is controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in early regenerating discs. Our findings suggest that JAK/STAT signaling plays a pivotal role in coordinating regenerative disc growth with organismal developmental timing.

  12. CLTC as a clinically novel gene associated with multiple malformations and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMari, Joseph; Mroske, Cameron; Tang, Sha; Nimeh, Joseph; Miller, Ryan; Lebel, Robert R

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic exome sequencing has recently emerged as an invaluable tool in determining the molecular etiology of cases involving dysmorphism and developmental delay that are otherwise unexplained by more traditional methods of genetic testing. Our patient was large for gestational age at 35 weeks, delivered to a 27-year-old primigravid Caucasian whose pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia. Neonatal period was notable for hypoglycemia, apnea, bradycardia, hyperbilirubinemia, grade I intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, laryngomalacia, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties. The patient had numerous minor dysmorphic features. At three and a half years of age, she has global developmental delays and nystagmus, and is being followed for a mediastinal neuroblastoma that is currently in remission. Karyotype and oligo-microarray were normal. Whole-exome, next generation sequencing (NGS) coupled to bioinformatic filtering and expert medical review at Ambry Genetics revealed 14 mutations in 9 genes, and these genes underwent medical review. A heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation, c.2737_2738dupGA p.D913Efs*59, in which two nucleotides are duplicated in exon 17 of the CLTC gene, results in substitution of glutamic acid for aspartic acid at position 913 of the protein, as well as a frame shift that results in a premature termination codon situated 58 amino acids downstream. Clathrin Heavy Chain 1 (CHC1) has been shown to play an important role in the brain for vesicle recycling and neurotransmitter release at pre-synaptic nerve terminals. There is also evidence implicating it in the proper development of the placenta during the early stages of pregnancy. The CLTC alteration identified herein is likely to provide an explanation for the patient's adverse phenotype. Ongoing functional studies will further define the impact of this alteration on CHC1 function and consequently, human disease.

  13. Correlates of directiveness in the interactions of fathers and mothers of children with developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolametto, L; Tannock, R

    1994-10-01

    Twenty preschool-age children with developmental delays and language impairment participated in this study, which compared fathers' and mothers' directiveness and parental stress. Similarities between fathers and mothers were found for turntaking control, response referents, and responses to the child's participation. However, fathers differed from mothers in two of the dimensions of directiveness examined: fathers used more response control and topic control than mothers. Both parents reported similarly low levels of child-related and parenting stress, but mothers perceived more stress than fathers related to the responsibilities associated with parenting a child with a handicap. Correlations between directiveness, child characteristics, and stress revealed that fathers used greater turntaking control and topic control with children who were developmentally less mature, whereas mothers used greater topic control with children who were less involved in interaction. Both fathers' and mothers' use of response control was positively related to stress. Implications for involving fathers in parent-focused intervention include screening father-child interactions before intervention, interpreting parent-child interaction styles in terms of their role in enhancing the child's social participation, and acknowledging the role of familial factors (such as stress) on interaction styles.

  14. Longitudinal change in parenting associated with developmental delay and catch-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, C; O'Connor, T G; Keaveney, L; Groothues, C; Rutter, M

    2001-07-01

    The current study examined the predictors of parent-child relationship quality and developmental change in a sample of children adopted into the U.K. following severe early privation, and in a comparison sample of nondeprived, within-country adoptees. One hundred and fifty-eight children adopted from Romania and 52 U.K. adoptees were assessed at age 6 years; longitudinal data (age 4 and 6 years) were available on the 110 Romanian adoptees placed into U.K. homes before 24 months of age and all U.K. adoptees. Ratings of parent-child positivity and negativity during a semistructured interaction task were obtained from coders who were blind to the child's background. Results indicated that adoptive parent-child relationship quality was related to duration of deprivation and that cognitive/developmental delay mediated this association. The magnitude of this effect was modest and diminished over time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that positive change in parent-child relationship quality was most marked among children who exhibited cognitive catch-up between assessments. The direction of effects appeared to be primarily child to parent. The findings underscore the need for further research on the long-term impact of early experiences on psychosocial development.

  15. Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bergen B; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Coker, Tumaini R; Barnert, Elizabeth S; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Szilagyi, Peter G; Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Chung, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We developed models for 2-year-olds without DD that predict, at kindergarten entry, poor academic performance and high problem behaviors. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), were used for this study. The analytic sample excluded children likely eligible for EI because of DDs or very low birth weight. Dependent variables included low academic scores and high problem behaviors at the kindergarten wave. Regression models were developed by using candidate predictors feasibly obtainable during typical 2-year well-child visits. Models were cross-validated internally on randomly selected subsamples. Approximately 24% of all 2-year-old children were ineligible for EI at 2 years of age but still had poor academic or behavioral outcomes at school entry. Prediction models each contain 9 variables, almost entirely parental, social, or economic. Four variables were associated with both academic and behavioral risk: parental education below bachelor's degree, little/no shared reading at home, food insecurity, and fair/poor parental health. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.76 for academic risk and 0.71 for behavioral risk. Adding the mental scale score from the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition did not improve areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for either model. Among children ineligible for EI services, a small set of clinically available variables at age 2 years predicted academic and behavioral outcomes at school entry. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Exposure of children with developmental delay to social determinants of poor health: cross-sectional case record review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2015-03-01

    Research on child development in general has highlighted the importance that the family environment plays in mediating the pathway between exposure to low socio-economic position (SEP) and child well-being. While child developmental models in intellectual disability have highlighted the interplay between social context, family environment and child development, little empirical work has attempted to formally evaluate the evidence in support of specific mediating pathways between low SEP and child outcomes. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England covering a total population of 1.25 million people. Case record reviews were undertaken for 46 023 households, 2236 (4.9%) of which contained a child in the target age range with developmental delay. Children with developmental delay, when compared with their non-disabled peers, were at significantly increased risk of poorer health outcomes and of being exposed to a wide range of social determinants of poor health. Controlling for between-group differences in exposure to social determinants of poor health reduced the risk of developmental delay being associated with poorer health outcomes by 45% for behaviour problems and 89% for risk of significant harm. For children with developmental delay, parenting difficulties appears to play a particularly significant role in partially mediating the effects of low SEP. The findings of the present study point to the potential effectiveness of family-focused early intervention to prevent the emergence and escalation of behavioural difficulties and health problems in children with developmental delay. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: prediction from child and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed.

  18. Global Developmental Delay in a Mexican Patient With Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy With Subcortical Cysts

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    Cesar Misael Cerecedo Zapata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is a neurologic disorder characterized by macrocephaly within the first year of life and the delayed onset of motor function deterioration with ataxia and spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is diagnostic and shows diffusely abnormal, mildly swollen cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts. MLC exhibits an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two genes have been associated with MLC. The first and most important gene is MLC1, The other gene involved is HEPACAM. Case Presentation: We studied a Mexican patient with a compatible diagnosis of MLC. The patient exhibited the c.353C > T, p.Thr118Met mutation, and both parents were carriers for the same mutation. To the best of our knowledge, no other cases of MLC have been reported in Mexican patient. This patient exhibited rapid deterioration of motor function. Conclusions: A diagnosis of MLC, which can be facilitated by imaging studies, should be considered in all patients who exhibit global developmental delay.

  19. The effectiveness of multimedia visual perceptual training groups for the preschool children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The

  20. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Primary Caregivers of Young Children with or at Risk for Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M.; McDonald, L.; Serbin, L.; Stack, D.; Secco, M. L.; Yu, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research with families raising children with or at risk for developmental delay (DD), it is not clear whether primary caregivers of these children are at increased risk for depressive symptoms. Discrepant findings in the literature may be owing to heterogeneity of child problems. More research is needed on child,…

  1. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  2. De novo interstitial deletion of 9q32-34.1 with mental retardation, developmental delay, epilepsy, and cortical dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial......). Combination of epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings are not reported before....

  3. Effectiveness of Contrasting Approaches to Response-Contingent Learning among Children with Significant Developmental Delays and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from a randomized controlled design study of an ability-based versus needs-based approach to response-contingent learning among children with significant developmental delays and disabilities who did not use instrumental behavior to produce reinforcing consequences are reported. The ability-based intervention and needs-based intervention…

  4. OJKO-project : Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  5. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Charabi, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    months the patient's main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus....

  6. Trisomy 1q43 syndrome: a consistent phenotype with macrocephaly, characteristic face, developmental delay and cardiac anomalies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Jackson, K.E.; Tsien, F.; Marble, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Trisomy 1q43 syndrome: a consistent phenotype with macrocephaly, characteristic face, developmental delay and cardiac anomalies: Patients with trisomy (1)(q42-qter) present with psychomotor retardation, macrocephaly, occasional presence of facial capillary naevi, cardio-vascular anomalies and small

  7. Using Animation in Microsoft PowerPoint to Enhance Engagement and Learning in Young Learners with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Hourcade, Jack; Blum, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, a wide array of instructional technology applications have found their way into early intervention settings. Of particular importance to young learners who evidence developmental delays or are at risk for school failure are those technologies with the potential to more effectively teach basic emergent literacy skills: (1)…

  8. Review of Recent Research Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Chained Tasks to Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogoe, Maud; Banda, Devender R.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed twelve studies that used the constant time delay (CTD) procedure to teach chained tasks to individuals with developmental disabilities from years 1996-2006. Variables analyzed include types of tasks that have been taught with the procedure, how effective CTD has been in teaching participants, and whether researchers have investigated…

  9. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  10. Transfer function models to quantify the delay between air and ground temperatures in thawed active layers

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    E. Zenklusen Mutter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Air temperatures influence ground temperatures with a certain delay, which increases with depth. Borehole temperatures measured at 0.5 m depth in Alpine permafrost and air temperatures measured at or near the boreholes have been used to model this dependency. Statistical transfer function models have been fitted to the daily difference series of air and ground temperatures measured at seven different permafrost sites in the Swiss Alps.

    The relation between air and ground temperature is influenced by various factors such as ground surface cover, snow depth, water or ground ice content. To avoid complications induced by the insulating properties of the snow cover and by phase changes in the ground, only the mostly snow-free summer period when the ground at 0.5 m depth is thawed has been considered here. All summers from 2006 to 2009 have been analysed, with the main focus on summer 2006.

    The results reveal that in summer 2006 daily air temperature changes influence ground temperatures at 0.5 m depth with a delay ranging from one to six days, depending on the site. The fastest response times are found for a very coarse grained, blocky rock glacier site whereas slower response times are found for blocky scree slopes with smaller grain sizes.

  11. Lethality and developmental delay in Drosophila melanogaster larvae after ingestion of selected Pseudomonas fluorescens strains.

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    Marika H Olcott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a well-established model organism for probing the molecular and cellular basis of physiological and immune system responses of adults or late stage larvae to bacterial challenge. However, very little is known about the consequences of bacterial infections that occur in earlier stages of development. We have infected mid-second instar larvae with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens to determine how infection alters the ability of larvae to survive and complete development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mimicked natural routes of infection using a non-invasive feeding procedure to study the toxicity of the three sequenced P. fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae fed with the three strains of P. fluorescens showed distinct differences in developmental trajectory and survival. Treatment with SBW25 caused a subset of insects to die concomitant with a systemic melanization reaction at larval, pupal or adult stages. Larvae fed with Pf-5 died in a dose-dependent manner with adult survivors showing eye and wing morphological defects. In addition, larvae in the Pf-5 treatment groups showed a dose-dependent delay in the onset of metamorphosis relative to control-, Pf0-1-, and SBW25-treated larvae. A functional gacA gene is required for the toxic properties of wild-type Pf-5 bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments are the first to demonstrate that ingestion of P. fluorescens bacteria by D. melanogaster larvae causes both lethal and non-lethal phenotypes, including delay in the onset of metamorphosis and morphological defects in surviving adult flies, which can be decoupled.

  12. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  13. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  14. The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, A N; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Emotion regulation has been identified as a robust predictor of adaptive functioning across a variety of domains (Aldao et al. ). Furthermore, research examining early predictors of competence and deficits in ER suggests that factors internal to the individual (e.g. neuroregulatory reactivity, behavioural traits and cognitive ability) and external to the individual (e.g. caregiving styles and explicit ER training) contribute to the development of ER (Calkins ). Many studies have focused on internal sources or external sources; however, few have studied them simultaneously within one model, especially in studies examining children with developmental delays (DD). Here, we addressed this specific research gap and examined the contributions of one internal factor and one external factor on emotion dysregulation outcomes in middle childhood. Specifically, our current study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine prospective, predictive relationships between DD status, positive parenting at age 4 years and child emotion dysregulation at age 7 years. Participants were 151 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with and without DD. A positive parenting factor was composed of sensitivity and scaffolding scores from mother-child interactions at home and in the research centre at child age 4 years. A child dysregulation factor was composed of a dysregulation code from mother-child interactions and a parent-report measure of ER and lability/negativity at age 7 years. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that positive parenting would mediate the relationship between DD and child dysregulation. Mothers of children with DD exhibited fewer sensitive and scaffolding behaviours compared with mothers of typically developing children, and children with DD were more dysregulated on all measures of ER. SEM revealed that both DD status and early positive parenting predicted emotion dysregulation in middle childhood. Furthermore

  15. Reduced cortical complexity in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay.

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    Akvile Lukoshe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no quantitative neuroimaging studies of cortical morphology in PWS and no studies to date in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate and quantify cortical complexity in children with PWS compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated differences between genetic subtypes of PWS and the relationship between cortical complexity and intelligence within the PWS group. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 24 children with genetically confirmed PWS (12 carrying a deletion (DEL, 12 with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD and 11 age- and sex-matched typically developing siblings as healthy controls. Local gyrification index (lGI was obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. RESULTS: Four large clusters, two in each hemisphere, comprising frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, had lower lGI in children with PWS, compared to healthy controls. Clusters with lower lGI also had significantly lower cortical surface area in children with PWS. No differences in cortical thickness of the clusters were found between the PWS and healthy controls. lGI correlated significantly with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness. Within the PWS group, lGI in both hemispheres correlated with Total IQ and Verbal IQ, but not with Performance IQ. Children with mUPD, compared to children with DEL, had two small clusters with lower lGI in the right hemisphere. lGI of these clusters correlated with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness or IQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lower cortical complexity in children with PWS partially underlies cognitive impairment and developmental delay, probably due to

  16. Comparative study of occupational performance in children with global developmental delay at 3 and 5 years old

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    Patrícia Isabel Candeias Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to compare the occupational performance of children with global developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI, and children with typical development, at 3 and 5 years of age, and to verify what functional areas children with global developmental delay feature more difficulties. Method: This is a comparative descriptive study including a sample of 40 participants, and 20 show Typical Development with 20 presenting diagnosis of Global Development Delay. These two groups were divided into two age subgroups of 10 children (aged 3 to 5 years. Results: The Inventory Pediatric Evaluation of Disability was filled out by parents and the results show that occupational performance of children with developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI is lower than those with typical development, with 3 and 5 years old, in the areas personal, mobility and socialization autonomy. Conclusion: The publication of more studies related to the practice of occupational therapy in Portugal is crucial, thus contributing to the knowledge of professionals and students in this scientific area. In addition, more and more evidence-based practice is an approach adopted by health professionals, including occupational therapists, and to this end it is extremely important to carry out newer studies locally in Portugal.

  17. Low Rates of Genetic Testing in Children With Developmental Delays, Intellectual Disability, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Peabody MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the routine and effective use of genetic testing for patients with intellectual disability and developmental delay (ID/DD, we conducted a prospective, randomized observational study of 231 general pediatricians (40% and specialists (60%, using simulated patients with 9 rare pediatric genetic illnesses. Participants cared for 3 randomly assigned simulated patients, and care responses were scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. Scores were calculated as a percentage of criteria completed. Care varied widely, with a median overall score of 44.7% and interquartile range of 36.6% to 53.7%. Diagnostic accuracy was low: 27.4% of physicians identified the correct primary diagnosis. Physicians ordered chromosomal microarray analysis in 55.7% of cases. Specific gene sequence testing was used in 1.4% to 30.3% of cases. This study demonstrates that genetic testing is underutilized, even for widely available tests. Further efforts to educate physicians on the clinical utility of genetic testing may improve diagnosis and care in these patients.

  18. [Association between neontal morbidity, gestational age and developmental delays in moderate to late preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut, Luisa; Pérez, Marcela; Muñoz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of the full moon on a sample of developmentally delayed, institutionalized women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks-Caskey, W E; Potter, D R

    1991-06-01

    Over 19 lunar months reports of all aggressive acting-out misbehaviors as recorded by direct-care staff were evaluated and recorded on a day-by-day basis for a randomly selected sample of 20 developmentally delayed women, CA 18 to 50; MA, 9 to 18 months. All had been in continuous residence in a residential treatment center for a minimum of 31 months. A grid representing the 24-hr. period of the full moon (a), the three days prior to the day of the full moon (b), the three days after the full moon (c), and the balance of the lunar period (d) was placed over the record. Comparisons using the Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the mean number of misbehaviors on the day of the full moon was significantly higher than the mean number on any other day of the lunar period (the next highest was for the three days prior to the day of the full moon).

  1. Current Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy: Fetal Outcome, Congenital Malformations, and Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey M.; Pacia, Steven V.; Devinsky, Orrin

    2001-04-01

    Purpose. Women with epilepsy (WWE) reportedly have increased rates of pregnancy complications and poor fetal outcomes related to both their epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These results influence decisions about conceiving. Most published studies evaluate WWE treated before 1990. We sought to better define risks to pregnant WWE at a tertiary care center, which used current epilepsy guidelines.Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 100 consecutive pregnancies in WWE from 1990 to 2000. Maternal data: epilepsy syndrome, duration, AEDs used, seizure occurrence and frequency, delivery type and complications. Fetal outcomes: fetal birth weight (FBW), gestational age, incidence of prematurity, major and minor congenital malformations, developmental delay.Results. Maternal factors: 37% generalized and 63% partial epilepsies, 59% seizure-free throughout pregnancy, 30% increased and 22% decreased seizure frequency, 90% used AEDs, 21% required polytherapy, 98% took folate, and 48% with gestational seizures delivered by cesarean section, compared with 18% without seizures (P WWE treated with current epilepsy management, the majority had excellent outcomes. Future large studies must confirm this.

  2. 7p22.1 microdeletions involving ACTB associated with developmental delay, short stature, and microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Keiko; Narai, Satoshi; Togawa, Masami; Doumoto, Tomotsune; Sangu, Noriko; Vanakker, Olivier M; de Paepe, Anne; Edwards, Matthew; Whitehall, John; Brescianini, Sally; Petit, Florence; Andrieux, Joris; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    There are no published reports of patients harboring microdeletions involving the 7p22.1 region. Although 7p22.1 microdeletions are rare, some reports have shown microduplications encompassing this region. In this study, we report five patients with overlapping deletions of the 7p22.1 region. The patients exhibited clinical similarities including non-specific developmental delay, short stature, microcephaly, and other distinctive features. The shortest region of overlap within the 7p22.1 region includes five genes, FBXL18, ACTB, FSCN1, RNF216, and ZNF815P. Of these genes, only ACTB is known to be associated with an autosomal dominant trait. Dominant negative mutations in ACTB are responsible for Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1. We analyzed ACTB expression in immortalized lymphocytes derived from one of the patients and found that it was reduced to approximately half that observed in controls. This indicates that ACTB expression is linearly correlated with the gene copy number. We suggest that haploinsufficiency of ACTB may be responsible for the clinical features of patients with 7p22.1 microdeletions.

  3. The transactional relationship between parenting and emotion regulation in children with or without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, Amanda N; Baker, Bruce L

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have identified numerous internal and external factors that contribute to individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) abilities. To extend these findings, we examined the longitudinal effects of a significant external predictor (parenting) on children's ER abilities in the context of an internal predictor (intellectual functioning). We used cross-lagged panel modeling to investigate the transactional relationship between parenting and ER in children with or without developmental delays (DD) across three time points in early and middle childhood (age 3, 5, and 8). Participants were 225 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with or without DD. Child ER ability and maternal scaffolding skills were coded from mother-child interactions at ages 3, 5, and 8. Compared to children with typical development (TD), children with DD were significantly more dysregulated at all time points, and their mothers exhibited fewer scaffolding behaviors in early childhood. In addition, cross-lagged panel models revealed a significant bidirectional relationship between maternal scaffolding and ER from ages 3 to 5 in the DD group but not the TD group. These findings suggest that scaffolding may be a crucial parenting skill to target in the early treatment of children with ER difficulties.

  4. Interventions for children at risk of developmental delay in Low- and Middle income countries : A systematic litterature review

    OpenAIRE

    Glasberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Due to poverty and a lack of stimulation, many children living in Low- and Middle income countries suffer from developmental delay and do not develop to their full potential. Yet, remarkable recovery is often possible given that early interventions are available. The aim of this systematic literature review was to find out what could be done to decrease the gap between the current development and the developmental potential among children aged 0-8 years, living in Low –and Middle income count...

  5. Quantifying the line-of-sight mass distributions for time-delay lenses with stellar masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Cristian; Fassnacht, Chris; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry; Auger, Matt; Koopmans, Leon; Marshall, Phil; Wong, Kenneth; Collett, Thomas; Agnello, Adriano; Blandford, Roger; Courbin, Frederic; Hilbert, Stefan; Meylan, Georges; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with a realistic account of systematic uncertainties is currently one of the principal challenges of physical cosmology. Building on our recent successes with two gravitationally lensed systems, we have started a program to achieve accurate cosmographic measurements from five gravitationally lensed quasars. We aim at measuring H_0 with an accuracy better than 4%, comparable to but independent from measurements by current BAO, SN or Cepheid programs. The largest current contributor to the error budget in our sample is uncertainty about the line-of-sight mass distribution and environment of the lens systems. In this proposal, we request wide-field u-band imaging of the only lens in our sample without already available Spitzer/IRCA observations, B1608+656. The proposed observations are critical for reducing these uncertainties by providing accurate redshifts and in particular stellar masses for galaxies in the light cones of the target lens system. This will establish lensing as a powerful and independent tool for determining cosmography, in preparation for the hundreds of time-delay lenses that will be discovered by future surveys.

  6. Acute Retinal Necrosis Presenting in Developmentally-delayed Patients with Neonatal Encephalitis: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Kingsley; Lu, Jonathan; Thinda, Sumeer; Schwab, Ivan; Morse, Lawrence S; Park, Susanna S; Moshiri, Ala

    2016-05-18

    We report three cases of patients with developmental-delay from neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis who presented years later with acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to the patients' inability to verbalize their ocular complaints and cooperate with eye examinations. This case series documents the clinical course, pathophysiologic mechanism, and treatment of acute retinal necrosis in this patient population. Clinicians should understand the importance of prudent consideration of acute retinal necrosis in patients with a history of neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis presenting with a red eye.

  7. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-02-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ syndrome and then Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Developmental delay and connective tissue disorder in four patients sharing a common microdeletion at 6q13-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Janssens, Sandra; Van Ingelghem, Ingrid; Loeys, Bart; Menten, Bjorn

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare, and most reported cases represent large, cytogenetically detectable deletions. The implementation of array comparative genome hybridisation in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with congenital disorders, including developmental delay, has enabled identification of many patients with smaller chromosomal imbalances. In this report, the cases are presented of four patients with a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 6q13-14, resulting in a common microdeletion of 3.7 Mb. All presented with developmental delay, mild dysmorphism and signs of lax connective tissue. Interestingly, the common deleted region harbours 16 genes, of which COL12A1 is a good candidate for the connective tissue pathology.

  9. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. PMID:26507407

  10. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL; and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009 during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  11. The effects of bispectral index monitoring on hemodynamics and recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet; Uluer, Mehmet Selcuk; Ozmen, Sadık

    2015-09-01

    General anesthesia is often preferred for dental surgery or rehabilitation in developmentally delayed pediatric patients. Bispectral index monitoring is used to monitor the depth of anesthesia and to ensure early recovery. However, studies on the topic in developmentally delayed pediatric patients are limited. To evaluate the effects of Bispectral Index Scale (BIS) on hemodynamics and recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery. Forty children between the ages of 6-16 years were studied in this prospective and randomized study. The children were randomized into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 20), general anesthesia was maintained with 1-2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in oxygen by standard practice. In Group 2 (n = 20), the depth of anesthesia was monitored by BIS. BIS values were continuously recorded from awake status to tracheal extubation. The duration of the surgical procedure, anesthesia, postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay was noted. To evaluate recovery profile, time to spontaneous ventilation, extubation, open eyes, and PACU discharge were also noted. There were significant differences between recovery times and Non-communicating Children's Pain Checklist - Postoperative Version (NCCPC-PV) scores of two groups. Time to spontaneous ventilation [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.17 (1.79-4.54) P < 0.001], extubation [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.13 (1.66-4.60) P < 0.001], open eyes [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.97 (2.34-5.59) P < 0.001], and PACU stay time [Difference in means (95% CI); 23.55 (18.08-29.01) P < 0.001] were significantly shorter in Group 2. In conclusion, results suggest that routine BIS monitoring may be beneficial due to its favorable effects on the recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A novel 5q11.2 microdeletion in a child with mild developmental delay and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Paolo; Tortora, Cristina; Petillo, Roberta; Falco, Mariateresa; Miniero, Martina; De Brasi, Davide; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta

    2016-09-01

    5q11.2 Deletion is a very rare genomic disorder, and its clinical phenotype has not yet been characterized. This report describes a patient with an 8.6 Mb deletion, showing hypotonia, mild developmental delay, short stature, and distinctive dysmorphic features (frontal bossing, square face, deep-set eyes, prominent columella, long philtrum, thin lips). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  14. Diapause: delaying the developmental clock in response to a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luca; O'Connor, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal changes can induce organisms to modify their developmental growth. Many holometabolous insects, especially Lepidoptera, trigger diapause, an "actively induced" dormancy, for overwintering. Diapause is an alternative developmental pathway that reversibly blocks developmental growth during specific transitions and enhances the hibernating potential of the organism. Changes in environmental cues, such as light and temperature, trigger modifications in the levels, or in the timing, of developmental hormones. These in turn switch the developmental trajectory (diapause or direct development), strongly altering larval/pupal growth and inducing the appearance of diapause-bound seasonal morphs (polyphenism). We also discuss an example of vertebrate diapause using the killifish embryo as an example where diapause is an environmentally determined developmental switch analogous to that observed in lepidopteran dormancy. Based on the examples discussed here, we propose that the complex physiological responses leading to diapause might evolve quickly by relatively limited genetic changes in the regulation of hormonal signals that program normal developmental transitions.

  15. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  16. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  17. Our experience with the aetiological diagnosis of global developmental delay and intellectual disability: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pisón, J; García-Jiménez, M C; Monge-Galindo, L; Lafuente-Hidalgo, M; Pérez-Delgado, R; García-Oguiza, A; Peña-Segura, J L

    2014-09-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) are common reasons for consultation in paediatric neurology. Results from aetiological evaluations of children with GDD/ID vary greatly, and consequently, there is no universal consensus regarding which studies should be performed. We review our experience with determining aetiological diagnoses for children with GDD/ID who were monitored by the paediatric neurology unit over the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. During the study period, 995 children with GDD/ID were monitored. An aetiological diagnosis was established for 309 patients (31%), but not in 686 (69%), despite completing numerous tests. A genetic cause was identified in 142 cases (46% of the total aetiologies established), broken down as 118 cases of genetic encephalopathy and 24 of metabolic hereditary diseases. Our data seem to indicate that diagnosis is easier when GDD/ID is associated with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, infantile spasms/West syndrome, or visual deficit, but more difficult in cases of autism spectrum disorders. Genetic studies provide an increasing number of aetiological diagnoses, and they are also becoming the first step in diagnostic studies. Array CGH (microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation) is the genetic test with the highest diagnostic yield in children with unexplained GDD/ID. The cost-effectiveness of complementary studies seems to be low if there are no clinically suspected entities. However, even in the absence of treatment, aetiological diagnosis is always important in order to provide genetic counselling and possible prenatal diagnosis, resolve family (and doctors') queries, and halt further diagnostic studies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  20. Correlation between hyperbilirubinemia in term infants and developmental delay in 2-4 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Wilar

    2010-06-01

    medical record of infants born between 2006-2007 in Division of Neonatology Prof. R.D. Kandoll General Hospital, Manado. Data from the medical record consisted of weeks of gestation, birth weight, Apgar scores, diagnosis of sepsis, congenital anomalies. Tenn infants with appropriate weight for gestational age were visited at their home to undergo developmental screening by Denver II and Vineland Social Maturity Scale test. Results Fifty one children enrolled in this study (26 children with hyperbilirubinemia and 25 without  hyperbilirubinemia consisted of 27 boys and 24 girls. Most children were 24 - 29 months old (24/51. The results of Vineland Social Maturity Scale test showed 14 children had delayed social maturation (10 Mth history of  hyperbilirubinemia. Denver II screening found 11 children had delayed language skill (10 Mth history of hyperbilirubinemia, 1 child Mth hyperbilirubinemia had delayed fine motoric and language skill. Conclusions T here is a relationship between moderate hyperbilirubinemia in tenn infants and developmental delay in 2 - 4 year old children.

  1. Delayed Language Onset as a Predictor of Clinical Symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmajer, Richard; Prior, Margot; Leekam, Sue; Wing, Lorna; Ong, Ben; Gould, Judith; Welham, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of 46 language-delayed and 62 normal language onset children examined whether early language delay would predict autistic symptomatology in children diagnosed with autism when young and at an older age. Results found that early language delays predicted more autistic symptomatology when young, but not at an older age. (Author/CR)

  2. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  3. Reduced Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 causes developmental delay, hypotonia, and cranial abnormalities associated with increased bone gene expression in Kleefstra syndrome mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, M.C.M.; Ansar, M.; Oudakker, A.R.; Caam, A.P.M. van; Bakker, B.; Vitters, E.L.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Bruijn, D.R.H. de; Janssen, S.M.; Kuipers, A.J.; Huibers, M.M.; Maliepaard, Eliza M.; Walboomers, X.F.; Benevento, M.; Nadif Kasri, N.; Kleefstra, T.; Zhou, H.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Bokhoven, H. van

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), a chromatin modifying enzyme, is the cause of Kleefstra syndrome (KS). KS is an intellectual disability (ID) syndrome, with general developmental delay, hypotonia, and craniofacial dysmorphisms as additional core features. Recent

  4. WDR45 mutations in Rett (-like) syndrome and developmental delay: Case report and an appraisal of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Ibisler, Aysegül; Tschentscher, Anne; Dekomien, Gabriele; Bidinost, Carla; Rosa, Alberto L

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the WDR45 gene have been identified as causative for the only X-linked type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), clinically characterized by global developmental delay in childhood, followed by a secondary neurological decline with parkinsonism and/or dementia in adolescence or early adulthood. Recent reports suggest that WDR45 mutations are associated with a broader phenotypic spectrum. We identified a novel splice site mutation (c.440-2 A > G) in a 5-year-old Argentinian patient with Rett-like syndrome, exhibiting developmental delay, microcephaly, seizures and stereotypic hand movements, and discuss this finding, together with a review of the literature. Additional patients with a clinical diagnosis of Rett (-like) syndrome were also found to carry WDR45 mutations before (or without) clinical decline or signs of iron accumulation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This information indicates that WDR45 mutations should be added to the growing list of genetic alterations linked to Rett-like syndrome. Further, clinical symptoms associated with WDR45 mutations ranged from early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in a male patient with a deletion of WDR45 to only mild cognitive delay in a female patient, suggesting that analysis of this gene should be considered more often in patients with developmental delay, regardless of severity. The increasing use of next generation sequencing technologies as well as longitudinal follow-up of patients with an early diagnosis will help to gain additional insight into the phenotypic spectrum associated with WDR45 mutations.

  5. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  6. The Efficacy of Arabic Version of the Developmental Assessment of Young Children Second Edition (DAYC-2) Scale in Detecting Developmental Delay among Jordanian Children Aged Birth to 71 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rawan M. Abu; Smadi, Jamil M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the developmental assessment of young children second edition (DAYC-2) Scale in detecting Developmental Delay among Jordanian children aged birth to 71 months. Firstly, the scale was translated and reviewed for language and cultural appropriateness. Secondly, the Arabic Jordanian version of the scale was…

  7. De novo loss-of-function variants in STAG2 are associated with developmental delay, microcephaly, and congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Klein, Steven D; Mulatinho, Milene V; Senaratne, Tharanga Niroshini; Singh, Kathryn; Nguyen, Dzung C; Gallant, Natalie M; Strom, Samuel P; Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Rao, Nagesh P; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2017-05-01

    The cohesin complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex which regulates sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Additionally, the cohesin complex regulates DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. The core of the complex consists of four subunits: SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and STAG1/2. Loss-of-function mutations in many of these proteins have been implicated in human developmental disorders collectively termed "cohesinopathies." Through clinical exome sequencing (CES) of an 8-year-old girl with a clinical history of global developmental delay, microcephaly, microtia with hearing loss, language delay, ADHD, and dysmorphic features, we describe a heterozygous de novo variant (c.205C>T; p.(Arg69*)) in the integral cohesin structural protein, STAG2. This variant is associated with decreased STAG2 protein expression. The analyses of metaphase spreads did not exhibit premature sister chromatid separation; however, delayed sister chromatid cohesion was observed. To further support the pathogenicity of STAG2 variants, we identified two additional female cases from the DECIPHER research database with mutations in STAG2 and phenotypes similar to our patient. Interestingly, the clinical features of these three cases are remarkably similar to those observed in other well-established cohesinopathies. Herein, we suggest that STAG2 is a dosage-sensitive gene and that heterozygous loss-of-function variants lead to a cohesinopathy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Fragile X syndrome and an isodicentric X chromosome in a woman with multiple anomalies, developmental delay, and normal pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedenberg, D L; Gane, L W; Richards, C S; Lampe, M; Hills, J; O'Connor, R; Manchester, D; Taylor, A; Tassone, F; Hulseberg, D; Hagerman, R J; Patil, S R

    1999-07-30

    We report on an individual with developmental delays, short stature, skeletal abnormalities, normal pubertal development, expansion of the fragile X triplet repeat, as well as an isodicentric X chromosome. S is a 19-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of developmental delay. Pregnancy was complicated by a threatened miscarriage. She was a healthy child with intellectual impairment noted in infancy. Although she had global delays, speech was noted to be disproportionately delayed with few words until age 3.5 years. Facial appearance was consistent with fragile X syndrome. Age of onset of menses was 11 years with normal breast development. A maternal male second cousin had been identified with fragile X syndrome based on DNA studies. The mother of this child (S's maternal first cousin) and the grandfather (S's maternal uncle) were both intellectually normal but were identified as carrying triplet expansions in the premutation range. S's mother had some school difficulties but was not identified as having global delays. Molecular analysis of S's fragile X alleles noted an expansion of more than 400 CGG repeats in one allele. Routine cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood noted the presence of an isodicentric X in 81of 86 cells scored. Five of 86 cells were noted to be 45,X. Cytogenetic fra(X) studies from peripheral blood showed that the structurally normal chromosome had the fragile site in approximately 16% of the cells. Analysis of maternal fragile X alleles identified an allele with an expansion to approximately 110 repeats. FMRP studies detected the expression of the protein in 24% of cells studied. To our knowledge, this is the first patient reported with an isodicentric X and fragile X syndrome. Whereas her clinical phenotype is suggestive of fragile X syndrome, her skeletal abnormalities may represent the presence of the isodicentric X. Treatment of S with 20 mg/day of Prozac improved her behavior. In the climate of cost con trol, this individual

  9. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  10. The prevalence of chromosomal deletions relating to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability in human euploid blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin He

    Full Text Available Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy and structural (deletion, duplication or others anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34-149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision.

  11. The prevalence of chromosomal deletions relating to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability in human euploid blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34-149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision.

  12. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Yuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Ohata, Yoshihisa [Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Mori, Shoko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Matsukawa, Shinya [Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Michiue, Tatsuo [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Research Center for Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Baien, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kuroda, Hiroki, E-mail: ehkurod@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. {yields} This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. {yields} In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  13. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) when...

  14. Effectiveness of Emotion Recognition Training for Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Andrew; Strand, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a basic skill that is thought to facilitate development of social and emotional competence. There is little research available examining whether therapeutic or instructional interventions can improve the emotion recognition skill of young children with various developmental disabilities. Sixteen preschool children with…

  15. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  16. Effects of an App Incorporating Systematic Instruction to Teach Spelling to Students with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Melinda Jones; Baggerman, Melanie A.; Horn, Channon K.

    2017-01-01

    This study used a multiple probe (conditions) design across behaviors to investigate the effects of an app for the tablet computer to teach spelling of academic content words to four students with developmental disabilities. The app delivered instruction using a model-lead-test format and students typed on the on-screen keyboard. The study also…

  17. Maternal supportive and interfering control as predictors of adaptive and social development in children with and without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S; Caplan, B; Baker, B

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) have been found to use more controlling behaviour with their children than parents of children with typical development (TD). While controlling behaviour is related to poorer developmental outcomes in TD children, there is little research on how it predicts outcomes in DD children. Furthermore, existing research tends to use inconsistent or non-specific definitions of controlling behaviour, often combining parent control which follows the child's goal (e.g. supportive direction) and that which interferes with the child's goal (e.g. interference). Participants were 200 mother-child dyads observed at child age 3, with follow-up assessments of adaptive behaviour and social skills administered at child ages 5 and 6, respectively. We coded the frequency of both types of controlling behaviour based on mothers' interactions with their children with TD (n = 113) or DD (n = 87) at age 3. Mothers in the DD group used more interfering but not more supportive directive acts compared to mothers in the TD group. Adaptive behaviour was assessed at child age 5 and social skills were assessed at age 6. Higher frequency of supportive directive acts predicted better adaptive functioning for the TD group and better social skills for the DD group. Higher frequency of interfering acts predicted lower adaptive and social skills for children with DD but not with TD. Results are discussed in terms of the differential developmental needs of children with and without DD as well as implications for early intervention. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Simple Mindreading Abilities Predict Complex Theory of Mind: Developmental Delay in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Franco, Fabia

    2017-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the developmental trajectories of ToM abilities in two different mentalizing tasks in children with ASD compared to TD children; and (ii) to assess if a ToM simple test known as eyes-test could predict performance on…

  19. Comparability of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale--survey form with infants evaluated for developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W

    1990-10-01

    The Vineland Social Maturity Scale and its revision, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Survey Form, were evaluated with infants referred for suspected developmental delay. Since the latter is being used more often by psychologists in evaluation and placement of children in the age group of birth to two years, comparative studies must ensure appropriate placement of children observed to have developmental delays. The present study indicated significantly higher over-all adaptive functioning on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Survey Form for 33 black and 11 white infants of mean age 12 mo. than on the original Vineland scales. Substituting the Survey Form for the original Vineland scales when evaluating developmentally delayed infants is questionable. These results are also noteworthy in that children whose Vineland Social Maturity scaled scores make them eligible for special services would be excluded if the revised form were used in the evaluation process.

  20. Pallister-Killian syndrome in a girl with mild developmental delay and mosaicism for hexasomy 12p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ida; Lyngbye, Troels; Nielsen, Alice; Pedersen, Søren; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2009-03-01

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome (OMIM #601803) due to mosaicism of two supernumerary isochromosomes (hexasomy 12p). Hexasomy 12p was found in 20% of the cells by chromosome analysis of cultured skin fibroblasts and confirmed by FISH- and arrayCGH analysis. The girl has woolly and sparse hair, absence of lateral eyebrows, dry skin, brittle nails, hypopigmented patches, frontal bossing, hearing loss, hypertrophic dilated cardiomyopathy, polydactyly, and mild developmental delay. This is the second live case of mosaicism for hexasomy 12p to be reported. A gene-dosage hypothesis has previously suggested that cases with hexasomy 12p would have a worse phenotype than cases with tetrasomy 12p. The relatively mild symptoms found in the current girl with hexasomy 12p may to contradict this hypothesis.

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications.

  2. Novel 14q11.2 microduplication including the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes associated with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Marta; Poluha, Anna; Jaszczuk, Ilona; Bartnik, Magdalena; Bernaciak, Joanna; Nowakowska, Beata

    2016-05-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders have long been associated with chromosomal abnormalities, including microdeletions and microduplications. Submicroscopic 14q11.2 deletions involving the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes have been reported in patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or macrocephaly. Recently, disruptive CHD8 mutations were described in patients with similar phenotypes further showing pivotal role of CHD8 gene in the pathogenesis of DD/ID or ASDs. We report here the first case of ~445 kb de novo microduplication, encompassing the minimal critical 14q11.2 deletion region, in 8-year-old boy showing DD, cognitive impairment and facial dysmorphism. Our results suggest that gain of the chromosomal region 14q11.2 is causative for clinical findings present in the patient.

  3. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yaoqian [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Balazs, Louisa [Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Tigyi, Gabor [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Yue, Junming, E-mail: yue@uthsc.edu [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.

  4. Endocannabinoid signals in the developmental programming of delayed-onset neuropsychiatric and metabolic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keimpema, Erik; Calvigioni, Daniela; Harkany, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that maternal exposure to metabolic (nutritional) stimuli, infections, illicit or prescription drugs and environmental stressors during pregnancy can predispose affected offspring to developing devastating postnatal illnesses. If detrimental maternal stimuli coincide with critical periods of tissue production and organogenesis then they can permanently derail key cellular differentiation programs. Maternal programming can thus either provoke developmental failure directly ('direct hit') or introduce latent developmental errors that enable otherwise sub-threshold secondary stressors to manifest as disease ('double hit') postnatally. Accumulating evidence suggests that nervous system development is tightly controlled by maternal metabolic stimuli, and whose synaptic wiring and integrative capacity are adversely affected by dietary and hormonal challenges, infections or episodes of illicit drug use. Endocannabinoids, a family of signal lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been implicated in neuronal fate determination, the control of axonal growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic neurotransmission. Therefore the continuum and interdependence of endocannabinoid actions during the formation and function of synapses together with dynamic changes in focal and circulating endocannabinoid levels upon maternal nutritional imbalance suggest that endocannabinoids can execute the 'reprogramming' of specific neuronal networks. In the present paper, we review molecular evidence suggesting that maternal nutrition and metabolism during pregnancy can affect the formation and function of the hippocampus and hypothalamus by altering endocannabinoid signalling such that neuropsychiatric diseases and obesity respectively ensue in affected offspring. Moreover, we propose that the placenta, fetal adipose and nervous tissues interact via endocannabinoid signals. Thus endocannabinoids are hypothesized to act as a molecular substrate of maternal

  5. Screening for developmental delay in the setting of a community pediatric clinic: a prospective assessment of parent-report questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, David; Srour, Myriam; Oskoui, Maryam; Marget, Nancy; Shiller, Mitchell; Birnbaum, Rena; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael I

    2006-10-01

    Our goal for this study was to prospectively test whether parent-completed questionnaires can be effectively used in the setting of a busy ambulatory pediatric clinic to accurately screen for developmental impairments. Specific objectives included (1) assessing the feasibility of using parent-report instruments in the setting of a community pediatric clinic, (2) evaluating the accuracy of 2 available screening tests (the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Child Development Inventory), and (3) ascertaining if the pediatrician's clinical judgment could be used as a potential modifier. Subjects were recruited from the patient population of a community clinic providing primary ambulatory pediatric care. Subjects without previous developmental delay or concerns noted were contacted at the time of their routine 18-month-old visit. Those subjects who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups and completed either the Ages and Stages Questionnaire or Child Development Inventory. The child's pediatrician also completed a brief questionnaire regarding his or her opinion of the child's development. Those children for whom concerns were identified by either questionnaire underwent additional detailed testing by the Battelle Development Inventory, the "gold standard" for the purposes of this study. An equal number of children scoring within the norms of the screening measures also underwent testing with the Battelle Development Inventory. Of the 356 parents contacted, 317 parents (90%) agreed to participate. Most parents correctly completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (81%) and the Child Development Inventory (75%). Predictive values were calculated for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Child Development Inventory (sensitivity: 0.67 and 0.50; specificity: 0.39 and 0.86; positive predictive value: 34% and 50%; negative predictive value: 71% and 86%, respectively). Incorporating the physician's opinion regarding the developmental status of the

  6. Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Walker, Cheryl; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though…

  7. The Effects of Constant Time Delay Embedded into Teaching Activities for Teaching the Names of Clothes for Preschool Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odluyurt, Serhat

    2011-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of constant time delay embedded in activities for teaching clothes name for preschool children with developmental disabilities. This study included four participants having Down syndrome with an age range of 43-46 months. All experimental sessions were conducted in one to one…

  8. Modeling Skills, Signs and Lettering for Children with Down Syndrome, Autism and Other Severe Developmental Delays by Video Instruction in Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…

  9. Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Walker, Cheryl; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though…

  10. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  11. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  12. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  13. Prenatal and postnatal presentation of severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN) due to the FGFR3 Lys650Met mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zankl, A.; Elakis, G.; Susman, R.D.; Inglis, G.; Gardener, G.; Buckley, M.F.; Roscioli, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present prenatal and postnatal features of a patient with severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN). Mutation analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis by detecting the FGFR3 Lys650Met mutation. This case, one of only six with molecular analysis reported in

  14. Mitigating the Effects of Poverty and Crime: The Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Programme for Children Who Were Developmentally Delayed and Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Gonzalez, Antonio; Katz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the long-term impact on participation in the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) for children (n = 54) who were developmentally delayed and prenatally exposed to cocaine. By identifying a group of programme graduates from a high crime/high poverty neighbourhood in Miami-Dade County using ArcGIS 10.2 software, a…

  15. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  16. Linkage of ICF-CY codes with environmental factors in studies of developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers with or at risk for motor delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Granlund, Mats; Simeonsson, Rune J; Kang, Lin-Ju; Pan, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Environmental variables have been explored in studies of the development of young children with motor delays. Linking environmental variables to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY), environmental factors (EFs) categories can provide a common language for documenting their contribution to developmental outcomes. This review of studies aimed to (1) link EFs for developmental outcomes in infants with or at risk for motor delays to ICF-CY categories and (2) synthesize the influences of EFs (with ICF-CY linkage) on developmental outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed of multiple databases. After applying selection criteria, environmental variables in 28 articles were linked to ICF-CY categories and underwent qualitative synthesis. Results indicated that physical environmental variables could be linked successfully to ICF-CY EFs categories, but not social environmental variables. Multiple environmental variables were associated with motor and other developmental outcomes. Difficulties in linking social factors to ICF-CY categories indicate that additional EFs codes may need to be considered in the ICF-CY revision processes. The review provides empirical data on relationships between EFs and developmental outcomes in children with or at risk for motor delay.

  17. Depressive and anxiety symptom trajectories from school age through young adulthood in samples with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Katherine; Brunwasser, Steven M; Lord, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to model growth in anxiety and depressive symptoms from late school age through young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls with developmental delay (DD), and to assess relationships among internalizing growth patterns, participant characteristics, baseline predictors, and distal outcomes. Data were collected between ages 6 and 24 years in 165 participants (n = 109 with ASD; n = 56 with nonspectrum DD), most of whom received diagnostic evaluations in both childhood and early adulthood. Questionnaires were collected approximately every 3 to 6 months between ages 9 and 24 years. Parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL), and Developmental Behaviour Checklist anxiety- and depression-related subscale distributions were modeled with mixed-effects Poisson models, covarying diagnosis, age, verbal IQ (VIQ), gender, and significant 2- and 3-way interactions. Anxiety was positively associated with VIQ, and controlling for VIQ, both anxiety and depressive symptoms were greater in ASD than nonspectrum participants. Female gender predicted greater increases over time in anxiety and depressive symptoms for both diagnostic groups. Lower maternal education was associated with increasing internalizing symptoms in a subset of less verbal individuals with ASD. In exploratory post hoc analyses, internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer emotional regulation in school age, and with lower life satisfaction and greater social difficulties in early adulthood. Findings support previous claims that individuals with ASD are at particular risk for affect- and anxiety-specific problems. Although symptom levels in females increase at a faster rate throughout adolescence, males with ASD appear to have elevated levels of depressive symptoms in school age that are maintained into young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by

  18. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  19. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children.Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (PConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.Keywords: Baby walker, Motor skills, Infants.   

  20. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children. Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (P<0.001.ConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.

  1. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  2. Acetabuloplasties at Open Reduction Prevent Acetabular Dysplasia in Intentionally Delayed Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsi, M Belen; Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2016-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) and residual acetabular dysplasia are the two main complications of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treatment. Although early reduction of the hip may decrease the incidence of residual dysplasia, it may increase the incidence of AVN and vice versa. However, we do not know if changes in surgical technique may lead to a modification in these outcomes. Does an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty, as an added step to delayed open reduction, (1) diminish the risk of developing acetabular dysplasia; or (2) increase the rate of AVN compared with patients treated with open reduction alone? We conducted a retrospective matched case-control study comparing 22 patients (27 hips) with early isolated DDH who underwent intentionally delayed open reduction and acetabuloplasty from 2004 to 2010 and followed up > 4 years (88% of the cohort) with early historic controls treated with delayed open reduction alone. Of 53 patients available for matching, 45 (85%) had enough followup (> 10 years) to be considered. They were matched one to one for age at presentation and bilaterality (fuzz 45, 0). This generated a control group of 25 patients (27 hips). The mean followup was different between the groups (p dysplasia considered when center-edge angle 30° and pelvic osteotomies were used as our primary outcomes. The proportion of patients with AVN was also compared. Patients treated with open reduction and an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty were less likely to develop acetabular dysplasia and undergo pelvic osteotomies than were patients in the control group (0% [zero of 27] versus 37% [10 of 27]; odds ratio [OR], 11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2-80; p = 0.02 and 0% [zero of 27] versus 26% [seven of 27]; OR, 8; 95% CI, 1-60; p = 0.025, respectively). With the available numbers, there was no difference in terms of the proportion of patients who developed AVN (11 of 27 [41%] both groups; OR, 1; 95% CI, 1-2; p = 1). The addition of an

  3. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with severe developmental delay associated with deletion of chromosomic region 7p15 --> pter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatou, V; Mavrou, A; Kolialexi, A; Kanavakis, E; Kitsiou-Tzeli, S

    2007-01-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome represents one of the most common types of craniosynostosis inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder while sporadic cases have also been reported. It is characterized by high penetrance and variable expressivity, leading to difficulties in clinical diagnosis. Some patients, who exhibit most of the diagnostic criteria of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, have structural abnormalities of chromosome 7. The case of a 4 year old boy with notable dysmorphic features compatible with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and severe developmental delay is described. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood samples from the patient and his parents revealed partial monosomy of chromosomal region 7p15 --> pter de novo. The TWIST gene, located on chromosome 7p21.1, is thought to be a negative transcriptional regulator involved in osteoblast differentiation and maturation and it is thought that haploinsufficiency of the gene can cause the disorder. The diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and the identification of the chromosomal abnormality in the patient facilitated genetic counseling of the family.

  4. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Hunter, Jill V; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Saleh, Mohammed A; LeDuc, Charles A; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Chung, Wendy K; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W; Lupski, James R

    2016-03-03

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum.

  5. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  6. A boy with developmental delay, malformations, and evidence of a connective tissue disorder: possibly a new type of cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jimenez, Carmencita; Hunter, Alasdair G W

    2003-05-15

    We report a 7.5-year-old boy with loose translucent skin, aortic dilatation, hyperextensible veins, recurrent respiratory problems, pectus excavatum, arthralgias, lax joints, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and umbilical and inguinal hernias. He also has developmental delay, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, an unusual facial appearance, terminal digit hypoplasia with unusual radiographic changes in some of the phalanges, glandular hypospadias, shawl scrotum, and undescended testes. Biochemical investigations, including electrophoresis of Types 1 and 3 procollagens and collagens, and quantification of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, are normal. Relative to age-matched control patients the electron micrographs of the boy's dermis show elastin fibers to be decreased in number, and abnormal in appearance, with a low matrix to microfibril ratio. The organ distribution of abnormalities and the nature of the findings suggest a connective tissue disorder. We contrast and compare this boy's phenotype to those of the classic connective tissue disorders. We conclude that he has cutis laxa with features that distinguish him from previously described types of cutis laxa.

  7. Cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay, wrinkly skin syndrome and gerodermia osteodysplastica: a report of two unrelated patients and a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Steiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two unrelated patients of different sexes are described, both presenting with congenital redundant skin (cutis laxa, growth deficiency, mental retardation and bone dystrophy. Parental consanguinity in both families and a more pronounced severity of the neurological disease in the male patient were present. Both patients were diagnosed in infancy as having De Barsy syndrome, but clinical follow-up revealed that the clinical picture was compatible with the diagnosis of cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay (CLGDD, gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO and wrinkly-skin syndrome (WWS. It has recently been suggested that cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay, gerodermia osteodysplastica and wrinkly skin syndrome are the same condition. A review concerning this diagnosis is also presented.

  8. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J.; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E.; Dick, James R.; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M.; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by ...

  9. 儿童发育迟缓监测研究进展%Advance in Surveillance of Developmental Delay of Children(review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱民

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental delay is a subset of developmental disabilities defined as significant delay in 2 or more of the following developmental domains: gross/fine motor, speech/language, cognition, social/personal, and activities of daily living, it was estimated to affect 1% to 3% of children. It is an important public health and social problem. Developmental surveillance is an important approach to early identification of developmental delay, early intervention and prevention of disability. In order to improve the effective of surveillance, 3 aspects were implemented including: laying down policies, improving screening tool and increasing rate of referrals.%儿童发育迟缓是发育性残疾的一种,特指6岁以下儿童在粗大运动/精细运动、语言/言语、认知、社会/个人、日常活动能力等发育领域中存在2个或2个以上的明显落后,现患率约为1%~3%,是重要的公共卫生和社会问题.发育监测是早期发现儿童发育迟缓、早期干预与预防儿童发育残疾的重要途径,为提高监测有效性,目前主要从政策推动、筛查方法、转诊等方面开展相关工作.

  10. Haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 causes brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome, with brachydactyly type E, developmental delays, and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen R; Aldred, Micheala A; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Halal, Fahed; Gowans, Gordon; McLeod, D Ross; Zondag, Sara; Toriello, Helga V; Magenis, R Ellen; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-08-13

    Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) is associated with a deletion involving chromosome 2q37. BDMR presents with a range of features, including intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities (including brachydactyly type E), and autism spectrum disorder. To date, only large deletions of 2q37 have been reported, making delineation of a critical region and subsequent identification of candidate genes difficult. We present clinical and molecular analysis of six individuals with overlapping deletions involving 2q37.3 that refine the critical region, reducing the candidate genes from >20 to a single gene, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Driven by the distinct hand and foot anomalies and similar cognitive features, we identified other cases with clinical findings consistent with BDMR but without a 2q37 deletion, and sequencing of HDAC4 identified de novo mutations, including one intragenic deletion probably disrupting normal splicing and one intragenic insertion that results in a frameshift and premature stop codon. HDAC4 is a histone deacetylase that regulates genes important in bone, muscle, neurological, and cardiac development. Reportedly, Hdac4(-/-) mice have severe bone malformations resulting from premature ossification of developing bones. Data presented here show that deletion or mutation of HDAC4 results in reduced expression of RAI1, which causes Smith-Magenis syndrome when haploinsufficient, providing a link to the overlapping findings in these disorders. Considering the known molecular function of HDAC4 and the mouse knockout phenotype, taken together with deletion or mutation of HDAC4 in multiple subjects with BDMR, we conclude that haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 results in brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome.

  11. Quantifying full phenological event distributions reveals simultaneous advances, temporal stability and delays in spring and autumn migration timing in long-distance migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Will T S; Bolton, Mark; Davis, Peter; Dennis, Roy; Broad, Roger; Robertson, Iain; Riddiford, Nick J; Harvey, Paul V; Riddington, Roger; Shaw, Deryk N; Parnaby, David; Reid, Jane M

    2017-04-01

    Phenological changes in key seasonally expressed life-history traits occurring across periods of climatic and environmental change can cause temporal mismatches between interacting species, and thereby impact population and community dynamics. However, studies quantifying long-term phenological changes have commonly only measured variation occurring in spring, measured as the first or mean dates on which focal traits or events were observed. Few studies have considered seasonally paired events spanning spring and autumn or tested the key assumption that single convenient metrics accurately capture entire event distributions. We used 60 years (1955-2014) of daily bird migration census data from Fair Isle, Scotland, to comprehensively quantify the degree to which the full distributions of spring and autumn migration timing of 13 species of long-distance migratory bird changed across a period of substantial climatic and environmental change. In most species, mean spring and autumn migration dates changed little. However, the early migration phase (≤10th percentile date) commonly got earlier, while the late migration phase (≥90th percentile date) commonly got later. Consequently, species' total migration durations typically lengthened across years. Spring and autumn migration phenologies were not consistently correlated within or between years within species and hence were not tightly coupled. Furthermore, different metrics quantifying different aspects of migration phenology within seasons were not strongly cross-correlated, meaning that no single metric adequately described the full pattern of phenological change. These analyses therefore reveal complex patterns of simultaneous advancement, temporal stability and delay in spring and autumn migration phenologies, altering species' life-history structures. Additionally, they demonstrate that this complexity is only revealed if multiple metrics encompassing entire seasonal event distributions, rather than single

  12. Effects of Choice of Reinforcement on the On-­‐Task Behavior of Kindergarten Students with Developmental Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Binette, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A high degree of external control is maintained in classrooms serving students with behavioral and developmental disabilities. However, decision making is an important developmental objective related to personal control and dignity. Choice making and discriminating preferred over less preferred outcomes is an important skill that is seldom taught to students with developmental disabilities. Previous research includes studies conducted in clinical settings or with populations with severe disab...

  13. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  14. Pathogenic Variant in ACTB, p.Arg183Trp, Causes Juvenile-Onset Dystonia, Hearing Loss, and Developmental Delay without Midline Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Conboy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ACTB encodes the β-actin, and pathogenic variations in this gene have typically been associated with Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome, a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by short stature, craniofacial anomalies, and cerebral anomalies. Here, we describe the third case with the p.Arg183Trp variant in ACTB causing juvenile-onset dystonia. Our patient has severe, intractable dystonia, developmental delay, and sensorineural hearing loss, besides hyperintensities in the caudate nuclei and putamen on the brain MRI, which is a distinct but overlapping phenotype with the previously reported case of identical twins with the same alteration in ACTB.

  15. Deletion of SNURF / SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a child with developmental delay and excessive weight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    COSTAS KOUFARIS; ANGELOS ALEXANDROU; IOANNIS PAPAEVRIPIDOU; IOANNA ALEXANDROU; VIOLETTA CHRISTOPHIDOU- ANASTASIADOU; CAROLINA SISMANI

    2016-09-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay and excessive appetite. This syndrome is caused by the loss of function of paternally-expressed genes located in an imprinting centre in 15q11-q13. Here, we report the case of a patient who was referred to us with Prader–Willi syndrome-like symptoms including obesity and developmental delay. Examination of this patient revealed that he was a carrier of a paternally inherited deletion that affected the U1B and U1B* upstream exons of the SNURF–SNRNP gene within the 15q11-q13 imprinted region. Mutations localized within this genomic region have not been previously reported in Prader–Willi syndrome patients. It is possible that disruption of upstream exons of SNURF–SNRNP could contribute to Prader–Willi phenotype by disrupting brain-specific alternative transcripts, although, case reports from further patients with a comparable phenotype are required

  16. The Parental Concerns Questionnaire: A Brief Screening Instrument for Potentially Severe Behavior Problems in Infants and Toddlers At-Risk for Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stephen R; Rojahn, Johannes; An, Xiaozhu; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; Leblanc, Judith

    2014-04-01

    The Parental Concerns Questionnaire (PCQ) was designed as a parent-interview screening instrument for young children with developmental concerns at risk for potentially severe behavior problems (SBDs). Parents of 262 young children (4 to 48 months) answered to the 15 dichotomous PCQ items interviewed by trained staff. Cluster analysis for items revealed three item clusters, which we labeled Developmental/Social (8 items), Biomedical (3 items), and Behavior Problems (3 items). This paper discussed primarily the Behavior Problems cluster, with items referring to self-injurious, aggressive, and destructive behaviors. Parents' concerns about behavior problems were high, with item-endorsements of the Behavior Problems cluster ranging from 41.8 % to 68.8 %. The Behavior Problems cluster was significantly correlated with all three subscales of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), with select subscales of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and with the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) providing some evidence for concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity data were computed for the three PCQ items as well as for the cluster score in comparison with the BPI-01, ABC, and RBS-R showing strong sensitivity. The PCQ Behavior Problems cluster is a useful screening checklist with high sensitivity for potential SBDs in young children at-risk for developmental delays.

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  18. Impairments in Monkey and Human Face Recognition in 2-Year-Old Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in…

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a Family Quality of Life Scale for Taiwanese Families of Children With Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Yu; Seo, Hyojeong; Turnbull, Ann P; Summers, Jean Ann

    2017-04-01

    The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale is an internationally validated instrument for measuring family outcomes. To revise the scale for better alignment with the Family Quality of Life theory, the authors excluded non-outcome items in this revision. In this study, we examined reliability and validity of the revised scale (i.e., the FQoL Scale-21) and its scores for Taiwanese families of children and youth with intellectual disability and developmental delay (age 0-18). Results from 400 Taiwanese respondents suggested that the FQoL Scale-21 has the potential to be used as an indicator of positive outcomes in intervention evaluation, policy making, and service delivery.

  20. A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highly prevalent risk factors influencing growth and development among pre-school children in rural population of developing countries. A child′s brain during the first 3 years of life is rapidly developing through generation of neurons, synaptogenesis, axonal, and dendric growth and synaptic pruning each of which build upon each other. Any interruption in this process, such as trauma, stress, under-nutrition or lack of nutrients can have long-term effects on the brain′s structure and on the child′s socio-emotional development. Children′s development is essentially cumulative in nature and hence, the early years of life are the foundation for later development. A Med-line search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of risk factors influencing child development. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Influences upon children′s development tend to be specific in nature and developmental influences rarely operate in isolation from each other. Developmental risk factors tend to cluster together thereby, interventions designed to facilitate development must be multifocal in nature, integrating influences from different domains.

  1. Social skills and developmental delay: importance in predicting the auditory and speech outcomes after cochlear implantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Soo; Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Ahn, Jungmin; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-02-01

    Preoperative evaluation of social interaction and global development levels using the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd edition (BSID-II) may be beneficial in predicting the postoperative outcome in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. In particular, cautious preoperative counseling regarding the poor postoperative prognosis may be necessary in children with low social skills and developmental status. To determine the clinical benefit of preoperative evaluation of social interaction and global development levels using VSMS and BSID-II in predicting the postoperative outcome in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. A total of 65 deaf children who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) were included in this study. Age at the time of implantation ranged from 12 to 76 months. All of the children underwent a comprehensive preimplant psychological assessment by a clinical psychologist. The VSMS and BSID-II were used for evaluating social skills and a child's development preoperatively. A social quotient (SQ) was calculated by using the VSMS for each subject using the following formula: (social age/chronological age) × 100. The auditory perception and speech production abilities were evaluated using the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scale and the Korean version of the Ling's stage (K-Ling), respectively, at 1 year after CI. The associations between the preoperative SQ/developmental levels and the postoperative auditory/speech outcomes were evaluated. The mean SQ was significantly decreased in the enrolled children (90.6 ± 26.1). The improvement in CAP score at 1 year after CI was correlated with preoperative SQ. The improvements in phonemic and phonologic levels of K-Ling were correlated with preoperative VSMS and BSID-II scores.

  2. How do children with autism spectrum disorders express pain? A comparison with developmentally delayed and typically developing children.

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    Rattaz, Cécile; Dubois, Amandine; Michelon, Cécile; Viellard, Marine; Poinso, François; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about pain reactions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who have often been considered as insensitive to pain. The objective of this study was to describe the facial, behavioral and physiological reactions of children with ASD during venipuncture and to compare them to the reactions of children with an intellectual disability and nonimpaired control children. We also examined the relation between developmental age and pain reactions. The sample included 35 children with ASD, 32 children with an intellectual disability, and 36 nonimpaired children. The children were videotaped during venipuncture and their heart rate was recorded. Facial reactions were assessed using the Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) and behavioral reactions were scored using the Noncommunicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC). A linear mixed-effects model showed that children's reactions increased between baseline and venipuncture and decreased between the end of venipuncture and the recovery period. There was no significant difference between groups regarding the amount of facial, behavioral and physiological reactions. However, behavioral reactions seemed to remain high in children with ASD after the end of the venipuncture, in contrast with children in the 2 other groups. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in pain expression with age in nonimpaired children, but no such effect was found regarding children with ASD. The data reveal that children with ASD displayed a significant pain reaction in this situation and tend to recover more slowly after the painful experience. Improvement in pain assessment and management in this population is necessary.

  3. A de novo interstitial deletion of 8p11.2 including ANK1 identified in a patient with spherocytosis, psychomotor developmental delay, and distinctive facial features.

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    Miya, Kazushi; Shimojima, Keiko; Sugawara, Midori; Shimada, Shino; Tsuri, Hiroyuki; Harai-Tanaka, Tomomi; Nakaoka, Sachiko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Miyawaki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-09-10

    The contiguous gene syndrome involving 8p11.2 is recognized as a combined phenotype of both Kallmann syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis, because the genes responsible for these 2 clinical entities, the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ankyrin 1 (ANK1) genes, respectively, are located in this region within a distance of 3.2Mb. We identified a 3.7Mb deletion of 8p11.2 in a 19-month-old female patient with hereditary spherocytosis. The identified deletion included ANK1, but not FGFR1, which is consistent with the absence of any phenotype or laboratory findings of Kallmann syndrome. Compared with the previous studies, the deletion identified in this study was located on the proximal end of 8p, indicating a pure interstitial deletion of 8p11.21. This patient exhibited mild developmental delay and distinctive facial findings in addition to hereditary spherocytosis. Thus, some of the genes included in the deleted region would be related to these symptoms.

  4. Increased risk for developmental delay in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is associated with TWIST deletions: an improved strategy for TWIST mutation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Juanliang; Goodman, Barbara K; Patel, Ankita S; Mulliken, John B; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Hoganson, George E; Paznekas, William A; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Sheffer, Ruth; Cunningham, Michael L; Daentl, Donna L; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2003-12-01

    The majority of patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have mutations in the TWIST gene, which codes for a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Of the genetic alterations identified in TWIST, nonsense mutations, frameshifts secondary to small deletions or insertions, and large deletions implicate haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism. We identified three novel intragenic mutations and six deletions in our patients by using a new strategy to screen for TWIST mutations. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with subsequent sequencing to identify point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the coding region, and real-time PCR-based gene dosage analysis to identify large deletions encompassing the gene, with confirmation by microsatellite and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. The size of the deletions can also be analyzed by using the gene dosage assay with "PCR walking" across the critical region. In 55 patients with features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, 11% were detected to have deletions by real-time gene dosage analysis. Two patients had a translocation or inversion at least 260 kb 3' of the gene, suggesting they had position-effect mutations. Of the 37 patients with classic features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, the overall detection rate for TWIST mutations was 68%. The risk for developmental delay in patients with deletions involving the TWIST gene is approximately 90% or eight times more common than in patients with intragenic mutations.

  5. A Case of 17q21.31 Microduplication and 7q31.33 Microdeletion, Associated with Developmental Delay, Microcephaly, and Mild Dysmorphic Features

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    Adrian Mc Cormack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent cryptic microdeletion and microduplication syndromes have recently started to reveal themselves with the advent of microarray technology. Analysis has shown that low-copy repeats (LCRs have allowed chromosome regions throughout the genome to become hotspots for nonallelic homologous recombination to take place. Here, we report a case of a 7.5-year-old girl who manifests microcephaly, developmental delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Microarray analysis identified a microduplication in chromosome 17q21.31, which encompasses the CRHR1, MAPT, and KANSL1 genes, as well as a microdeletion in chromosome 7q31.33 that is localised within the GRM8 gene. To our knowledge this is one of only a few cases of 17q21.31 microduplication. The clinical phenotype of patients with this microduplication is milder than of those carrying the reciprocal microdeletions, and suggests that the lower incidence of the former compared to the latter may be due to underascertainment.

  6. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  7. A complex background in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders: developmental delay, dyslexia, heredity, slow cognitive processing and adverse social factors in a multifactorial entirety.

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    Frisk, M

    1999-09-01

    A consecutive cohort of 112 children, 42 girls and 70 boys, aged 5-17 years, receiving child psychiatric inpatient care, was investigated regarding the probability of a complex background of concomitant biological and social factors. Most of the subjects showed maladjustment and depressive states, school problems, problems with peers, psychosomatic complaints and anxiety. A very high rate of factors indicating neurodevelopmental dysfunctions was found particularly in boys, who exhibited developmental delay, dyslexia, heredity for dyslexia, and a slow complex reaction time (CRT) - suggesting slow cognitive processing - considered an impairment in itself. Further, many children obtained errors on the CRT task, indicating attention deficit and deterioration during the test, pointing toward exhaustion. The social background displayed frequent problems such as broken homes, care outside the biological home, and disordered and/or abusing parents. The biological and social factors created a complex web, predisposing the child to primary, secondary and/or comorbidity problems, and leading to an interactive process reducing the child's psychosocial capacity and competence. A pattern was developed of an impaired child, living in an inadequate/insufficient family milieu in a modern society, with increasing demands on children.

  8. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shruthi; Koshy, Teena; Vekatachalam, Perumal; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Yesodharan, Dhanya; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Kumar, Jeevan; Ravichandran, Latha; Joseph, Santhosh; Chandrasekaran, Anupama; Paul, Solomon F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD). We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH. PMID:27934799

  9. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD. We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH.

  10. Comparison of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--survey form, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development with infants evaluated for developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W

    1993-12-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales is an extensive revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; however, research comparing the two scales with different populations and measures of intelligence is limited. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--Survey Form, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and the mental scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to 44 infants referred for evaluation of developmental delay. The differences between means were compared and shared variance examined. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--Survey Form scores were significantly higher than those of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Bayley Mental Development Index. No significant differences were found between the means of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Development Index. Correlations were .59 between the Bayley Index and scores on the Vineland--Survey Form and .72 between the Bayley Index and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Between versions of the Vineland scale r = .39. Implications for diagnosis and educational classification are discussed.

  11. Obesity with associated developmental delay and/or learning disability in patients exhibiting additional features: report of novel pathogenic copy number variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Kohl, Ilana; Varela, Monica Castro; de Castro, Cláudia Irene Emílio; Kim, Chong Ae; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Perez, Ana Beatriz Alvarez; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a major threat to public health worldwide, and there is now mounting evidence favoring a role for the central nervous system (CNS) in weight control. A causal relationship has been recognized in both monogenic (e.g., BDNF, TRKB, and SIM1 deficiencies) and syndromic forms of obesity [e.g., Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)]. Syndromic obesity arising from chromosomal abnormalities, that typically also affect learning and development, are often associated with congenital malformations and behavioral characteristics. We report on nine unrelated patients with a diagnosis of learning disability and/or developmental delay (DD) in addition to obesity that were found to have copy number variants (CNVs) by single nucleotide polymorphism array-based analysis. Each patient also had a distinct and complex phenotype, and most had hypotonia and other neuroendocrine issues, such as hyperphagia and hypogonadism. Molecular and clinical characterization of these patients enabled us to determine with confidence that the CNVs we observed were pathogenic or likely to be pathogenic. Overall, the CNVs reported here encompassed a candidate gene or region (e.g., SIM1) that has been reported in patients associating obesity and DD and/or intellectual disability (ID) and novel candidate genes and regions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Molecular Delineation of Partial Trisomy 14q and Partial Trisomy 12p in a Patient with Dysmorphic Features, Heart Defect and Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Divya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Venkatesh, K S; Aiyaz, Mohamed; Shetty, Mitesh; Rao, Sudha N; Kutty, A V M

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a molecular analysis of partial trisomy 14q and partial trisomy 12p in a 5-year-old male child presenting with dysmorphic features, congenital heart disease and global developmental delay. Chromosomal analysis of the patient with GTG bands revealed a 47,XY,+der(14)t(12;14)(p13;q22)mat karyotype; the mother's karyotype was 46,XX,t(12;14)(p13;q22). Further, oligonucleotide array- CGH studies revealed an amplification of 32.3 Mb in the 14q11.1q22.1 region, substantiating partial trisomy 14q and additionally displaying an amplification of ∼1 Mb in the 12p13.3pter region for partial trisomy 12p. This is the first study to demonstrate a novel association of partial trisomies of 14q and 12p due to a 3:1 segregation of a maternal balanced translocation involving chromosomes 12 and 14. Gene ontology studies indicated 5 potential candidate genes in the amplified regions for the observed congenital anomalies.

  13. Ring Chromosome 9 and Chromosome 9p Deletion Syndrome in a Patient Associated with Developmental Delay: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, Aswini; Kanakavalli, Murthy K; Anuradha, Deenadayalu; Samuel, Chandra R; Kandukuri, Lakshmi R

    2016-01-01

    Ring chromosomes have been described for all human chromosomes and are typically associated with physical and/or mental abnormalities resulting from a deletion of the terminal ends of both chromosome arms. This report describes the presence of a ring chromosome 9 in a 2-year-old male child associated with developmental delay. The proband manifested a severe phenotype comprising facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects, and seizures. The child also exhibited multiple cell lines with mosaic patterns of double rings, a dicentric ring and loss of the ring associated with mitotic instability and dynamic tissue-specific mosaicism. His karyotype was 46,XY,r(9)(p22q34)[89]/46,XY,dic r(9; 9)(p22q34;p22q34)[6]/45, XY,-9[4]/47,XY,r(9),+r(9)[1]. However, the karyotypes of his parents and elder brother were normal. FISH using mBAND probe and subtelomeric probes specific for p and q arms for chromosome 9 showed no deletion in any of the regions. Chromosomal microarray analysis led to the identification of a heterozygous deletion of 15.7 Mb from 9p22.3 to 9p24.3. The probable role of the deleted genes in the manifestation of the phenotype of the proband is discussed.

  14. Spermine either delays or promotes cell death in Nicotiana tabacum L. corolla depending on the floral developmental stage and affects the distribution of transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Giampiero; Della Mea, Massimiliano; Faleri, Claudia; Fattorini, Laura; Aloisi, Iris; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    The role of spermine (SM) was studied to verify if SM supplied to Nicotiana tabacum flower can modulate programmed cell death (PCD) of the corolla. SM has strong effects on the development and senescence of excised flowers despite its low physiological levels. The timing and duration of SM treatment is a key factor; SM counteracts PCD (verified by morphological observations, pigment contents and DNA laddering) only in the narrow developmental window of corolla expansion. Before and after, SM promotes PCD. SM exerts its pro-survival role by delaying fresh weight loss, by inhibiting reduction of pigments and finally by preventing DNA degradation. Moreover, SM deeply alters the distribution of the PA-conjugating enzyme transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is present in the epidermis during development, but it sprays also in the cell walls of inner parenchyma at senescence. After SM treatment, parenchyma cells accumulate TGase, increase in size and their cell walls do not undergo stiffening contrarily to control cells. The subcellular localization of TGase has been validated by biolistic-transformation of onion epidermal cells. Results indicated that SM is a critical factor in the senescence of N. tabacum corolla by controlling biochemical and morphological parameters; the lasts are probably interconnected with the action of TGase.

  15. [17p13.3 duplication as a cause of psychomotor developmental delay in an infant - a further case of a new syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Kruszewska, Amanda; Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Krzywdzińska, Amanda; Smyk, Marta; Nowakowska, Beata; Gryglicka, Halina; Obersztyn, Ewa; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2016-04-01

    17p13.3 duplication is a rare and heterogeneous genetic syndrome. Microdeletions of this region are responsible for the symptoms of Miller-Dieker syndrome. We present a case of 17p13.3 duplication consisting of about 730kb in a patient with psychomotor developmental delay, concerning eye-hand coordination, posture, locomotion and speech. Among other symptoms, we found excessive physical development in relation to age, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features (high and prominent forehead, low-set ears, hypertelorism, short nose, small upturned nose, narrow lips and pointed chin) and discrete changes in the CNS - enhanced frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and quite narrow corpus callosum. These symptoms overlap with phenotype of previously described patients with 17p13.3 duplication. The aberration has been identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This publication presents a detailed, comparative characteristic of clinical fetures expression in discussed patient with 17p13.3 duplication and patients previously described in medical literature. Further cases with different variants of 17p13.3 duplication may contribute to characterise the specific genotypephenotype correlation.

  16. A clear bias in parental origin of de novo pathogenic CNVs related to intellectual disability, developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiyu; Deng, Linbei; Xia, Yan; Wei, Xianda; Cao, Yingxi; Guo, Ruolan; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is of great significance in human evolution and disorders. Through tracing the parent-of-origin of de novo pathogenic CNVs, we are expected to investigate the relative contributions of germline genomic stability on reproductive health. In our study, short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were used to determine the parent-of-origin of 87 de novo pathogenic CNVs found in unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID), developmental delay (DD) and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The results shown that there was a significant difference on the distribution of the parent-of-origin for different CNVs types (Chi-square test, p = 4.914 × 10−3). An apparently paternal bias existed in deletion CNVs and a maternal bias in duplication CNVs, indicating that the relative contribution of paternal germline variations is greater than that of maternal to the origin of deletions, and vice versa to the origin of duplications. By analyzing the sequences flanking the breakpoints, we also confirmed that non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) served as the major mechanism for the formation of recurrent CNVs whereas non-SDs-based mechanisms played a part in generating rare non-recurrent CNVs and might relate to the paternal germline bias in deletion CNVs.

  17. Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippat, Claire; Bennett, Deborah H; Krakowiak, Paula; Rose, Melissa; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-06-26

    Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that influence thyroid hormones and sex steroids, both critical for brain development. We studied phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to the risks of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Participants were a subset of children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) case-control study. ASD and DD cases were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services system or referrals; general population controls were randomly sampled from state birth files and frequency-matched on age, sex, and broad geographic region to ASD cases. All children (50 ASD, 27 DD, 68 typically developing (TD)) were assessed with Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. We measured 5 phthalates in dust collected in the child's home using a high volume small surface sampler. None of the phthalates measured in dust was associated with ASD. After adjustment, we observed greater di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) concentrations in indoor dust from homes of DD children: Odds ratios (OR) were 2.10 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.10; 4.09) and 1.40 (95% CI; 0.97; 2.04) for a one-unit increase in the ln-transformed DEHP and BBzP concentrations, respectively. Among TD children, VABS communication, daily living, and adaptive composite standard scores were lower, in association with increased diethyl phthalate (DEP) concentrations in dust. Participants with higher dibutyl phthalate (DBP) concentrations in house dust also trended toward reduced performance on these subscales. Among ASD and DD boys, higher indoor dust concentrations of DEP and DBP were associated with greater hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention. House dust levels of phthalates were not associated with ASD. The inability to distinguish past from recent exposures in house dust and the fact

  18. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E; Dick, James R; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.

  19. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

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    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  20. Dextrocardia, atrial septal defect, severe developmental delay, facial anomalies, and supernumerary ribs in a child with a complex unbalanced 8;22 translocation including partial 8p duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathleen; Samanich, Joy; Ramesh, K H; Cannizzaro, Linda; Pan, Qiulu; Babcock, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We report on a child with dextrocardia, atrial septal defect (ASD), severe developmental delay, hypotonia, 13 pairs of ribs, left preauricular choristoma, hirsutism, and craniofacial abnormalities. Prenatal cytogenetic evaluation showed karyotype 46,XY,?dup(8p)ish del(8)pter. Postnatal array CGH demonstrated a 6.8 Mb terminal deletion at 8p23.3-p23, an interstitial 31.1 Mb duplication within 8p23.1-p11, and a terminal duplication of 0.24 Mb at 22q13.33, refining the karyotype to 46,XY,der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1).ish der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1) (D8S504-,MS607 + ,ARSA + ,D8Z1 + , RP115713 + +). Previous reports of distal 8p deletion, 8p duplication, and distal 22q duplication have shown similar manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual impairment, and multiple minor anomalies. We correlate the patient's clinical findings with these particular areas of copy number. This case study supports the use of aCGH to identify subtle chromosomal rearrangement in infants with cardiac malformation as their most significant or only apparent birth defect. Additionally, it illustrates why aCGH is essential in the description of chromosome rearrangements, even those seemingly visible via routine karyotype. This method shows that there is often greater complexity submicroscopically, essential to an adequate understanding of a patient's genotype and phenotype.

  1. Quantifying lip-read-induced suppression and facilitation of the auditory N1 and P2 reveals peak enhancements and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    Lip-read speech suppresses and speeds up the auditory N1 and P2 peaks, but these effects are not always observed or reported. Here, the robustness of lip-read-induced N1/P2 suppression and facilitation in phonetically congruent audiovisual speech was assessed by analyzing peak values that were taken from published plots and individual data. To determine whether adhering to the additive model of AV integration (i.e., A+V ≠ AV, or AV-V ≠ A) is critical for correct characterization of lip-read-induced effects on the N1 and P2, auditory data was compared to AV and to AV-V. On average, the N1 and P2 were consistently suppressed and sped up by lip-read information, with no indication that AV integration effects were significantly modulated by whether or not V was subtracted from AV. To assess the possibility that variability in observed N1/P2 amplitudes and latencies may explain why N1/P2 suppression and facilitation are not always found, additional correlations between peak values and size of the AV integration effects were computed. These analyses showed that N1/P2 peak values correlated with the size of AV integration effects. However, it also became apparent that a portion of the AV integration effects was characterized by lip-read-induced peak enhancements and delays rather than suppressions and facilitations, which, for the individual data, seemed related to particularly small/early A-only peaks and large/late AV(-V) peaks.

  2. PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIA AMONG CHILDREN WITH NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY/INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY ATTENDING OPHTHALMOLOGY OPD AT KLES HOSPITAL, BELAGAVI- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha K. S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Global developmental delay/intellectual disability are on a rise in children in the present time. Ocular and visual anomalies are frequently associated with it of which refractive errors are the most frequent. This if goes unnoticed leads to strabismus and amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia among children with normal development or global developmental delay/intellectual disability attending ophthalmology OPD at KLES Hospital, Belagavi. Case records of all 200 new patients less than or equal to 12 years of age group who attended KLES, Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital between January 2015 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS The male:female ratio was 1.22:1. Out of the total evaluated 200 cases, 130 cases were with normal development and 70 with GDD/ID. Refractive errors were 85%, whereas the cases of amblyopia was 45.50% and strabismus 39.50%. Amblyopia with refractive error having GDD/ID was stastically significant as compared to amblyopia with refractive error having normal development (p=0.001. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the most common ocular disorder seen. Refractive error with amblyopia is more in children with GDD/ID as compared to normal children. Owing to the high percentage of visual anomalies, ophthalmological referral becomes essential in children with developmental anomalies.

  3. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-...... in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies....

  4. Sunshine School's S.O.P.: Sequenced Objectives for Preschoolers. An Evaluation and Instruction Guide for Working with the Developmentally Delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine School, Gainesville, FL.

    Developed by professional educational staff, the curriculum of developmentally sequenced objectives for preschoolers (SOP) is designed for use in infant stimulation programs, for preschool training for all levels of retardation, with severely and profoundly retarded school age children, and for trainable and educable children during the earlier…

  5. The Effectiveness of the Constant Time Delay Procedure in Teaching Pre-School Academic Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities in a Small Group Teaching Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…

  6. Critical comment on Hicks-Caskey and Potter, "Effect of the full moon on a sample of developmentally delayed, institutionalized women".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M

    1991-12-01

    Hicks-Caskey and Potter (1991) claim to have found a "full moon effect" on women in a developmental center. Further, they suggest the discrepancies in findings on lunar effects can be accounted for by (i) a lack of equivalent operational definitions and (ii) a person selection factor. It is argued that the Hicks-Caskey and Potter findings are undermined by weekday, holiday, season, weather, particular staff-subject interactions, and expectancy effects. In addition, the proposed explanations for differing outcomes in lunar studies do not explain both the negative findings and conflicting positive findings.

  7. Developmental delay and facial dysmorphism in a child with an 8.9 Mb de novo interstitial deletion of 3q25.1-q25.32: Genotype-phenotype correlations of chromosome 3q25 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Stephanie; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Maystadt, Isabelle; Parmentier, Benoit; Grisart, Bernard; Hennecker, Jean-Luc; Destree, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 3 are rare and detailed genotype-phenotype correlations are not well established. We report on the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of a 5-year-old patient with a de novo interstitial deletion from 3q25.1 to 3q25.32. Clinical features include relative microcephaly, developmental delay and facial dysmorphism with a coarse face, ptosis, synophrys, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, long philtrum, large mouth with full lips, dysplastic and low-set ears. Revealed by conventional banding techniques, the deleted region of 8.9 Mb was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). To our knowledge, this is the smallest interstitial deletion reported in the 3q25 region. The phenotype of our patient is compared with the 10 previously reported cases implicating the 3q25 region.

  8. 早期作业治疗对全面性发育迟缓患儿认知发育的影响%Effect of early cognitive occupational therapy on children with global developmental delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继红; 郭春光; 周平秋; 刘丽君; 陈建树; 张惠佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期作业疗法对全面性发育迟缓患儿智力发育的影响。方法:将62例全面性发育迟缓患儿分为观察组38例和对照组24例,对照组患儿接受运动训练、慢性小脑电刺激、水疗等康复训练治疗,观察组在此基础上进行早期作业治疗。2组治疗前和治疗12周后分别进行 Gesell 智力测试评估检查(GDS)和 Peabody 运动发育量表(PDMS)测试。结果:治疗12周后,2组 GDS 及 PDMS 各项评分均较治疗前明显提高(P <0.05),且观察组更高于对照组(P <0.05)。在不同年龄段,治疗前后观察组患儿的 GDS 各项评分差值有统计学差异(P <0.05),1岁以内的患儿治疗前后发育商差值最大。结论:早期作业训练治疗可有效的提高全面性发育迟缓患儿的智力各能区的发育水平,越早干预效果越好,值得临床推广。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of early occupational therapy on cognitive development of children withglobal developmental delay.Methods:Sixty-two children with global developmental delay were divided into observationgroup (n=38)and control group (n=24).Observation group accepted early occupational therapy and generalcomprehensive rehabilitation therapies,such as exercise training,low-frequency cerebellum electrical stimulation,hydrotherapy and so on,while the control group only accepted the comprehensive rehabilitation therapy.Each groupwas assessed with Gesell developmental scale (GDS)and Peabody developmental motor scale (PDMS)before and 12weeks after treatment.Results:The scores of GDS and PDMS in the observation group and the control group weresignificantly increased after 12-week treatment (P <0.05),more significantly in the observation group than in thecontrol group (P <0.05).At different age states,and before and after treatment,the GDS scores showed significantdifferences in the observation group (P <0.05).The difference in GDS scores was

  9. Chromosome 12q24.31-q24.33 deletion causes multiple dysmorphic features and developmental delay: First mosaic patient and overview of the phenotype related to 12q24qter defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakati Nadia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imbalances of the 12q telomere are rare; only a few patients having 12q24.31-q24.33 deletions were reported. Interestingly none of these were mosaic. Although some attempts have been made to establish phenotype/genotype interaction for the deletions in this region, no clear relationship has been established to date. Results We have clinically screened more than 100 patients with dysmorphic features, mental retardation and normal karyotype using high density oligo array-CGH (aCGH and identified a ~9.2 Mb hemizygous interstitial deletion at the 12q telomere (Chromosome 12: 46,XY,del(12(q24.31q24.33 in a severely developmentally retarded patient having dysmorphic features such as low set ears, microcephaly, undescended testicles, bent elbow, kyphoscoliosis, and micropenis. Parents were found to be not carriers. MLPA experiments confirmed the aCGH result. Interphase FISH revealed mosaicism in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusions Since conventional G-Banding technique missed the abnormality; this work re-confirms that any child with unexplained developmental delay and systemic involvement should be studied by aCGH techniques. The FISH technique, however, would still be useful to further delineate the research work and identify such rare mosaicism. Among the 52 deleted genes, P2RX2, ULK1, FZD10, RAN, NCOR2 STX2, TESC, FBXW8, and TBX3 are noteworthy since they may have a role in observed phenotype.

  10. Improved motor development and good long-term glycaemic control with sulfonylurea treatment in a patient with the syndrome of intermediate developmental delay, early-onset generalised epilepsy and neonatal diabetes associated with the V59M mutation in the KCNJ11 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, A. S.; Nuboer, R.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Hattersley, A. T.; Bruining, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the K-ATP channels in pancreatic beta cells are a common cause of neonatal diabetes. One-third of patients also have developmental delay, which probably results from mutated K-ATP channels in muscle, nerve and bra

  11. Quantifying Concordance

    CERN Document Server

    Seehars, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the concordance between different cosmological experiments is important for testing the validity of theoretical models and systematics in the observations. In earlier work, we thus proposed the Surprise, a concordance measure derived from the relative entropy between posterior distributions. We revisit the properties of the Surprise and describe how it provides a general, versatile, and robust measure for the agreement between datasets. We also compare it to other measures of concordance that have been proposed for cosmology. As an application, we extend our earlier analysis and use the Surprise to quantify the agreement between WMAP 9, Planck 13 and Planck 15 constraints on the $\\Lambda$CDM model. Using a principle component analysis in parameter space, we find that the large Surprise between WMAP 9 and Planck 13 (S = 17.6 bits, implying a deviation from consistency at 99.8% confidence) is due to a shift along a direction that is dominated by the amplitude of the power spectrum. The Surprise disa...

  12. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth...

  13. Effect of Early Cognitive and Speech Intervention on Developmental Delay%早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各发育能区的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继红; 周平秋; 郭春光; 刘丽君; 陈建树; 张惠佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各项发育能区的影响。方法2014年6月~2015年6月住院和门诊治疗的发育迟缓患儿58例,根据诊疗情况分为观察组(n=32)和对照组(n=26)。观察组接受早期认知语言康复训练和常规康复,对照组仅接受常规康复。两组患儿在治疗前和治疗3个月后,分别采用Gesell发育量表进行评定。结果两组治疗后,大运动、精细动作、语言、个人-社交能区发育商均有显著改善(t>2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P<0.01). Conclusion Early cognitive and speech intervention may improve development of many dimensions in children with developmental delay. The earlier the intervention, the better the outcome.

  14. Coarctation of the aorta and mild to moderate developmental delay in a child with a de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q21.1q22.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sarika U

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion of 15q21q22 is a rare chromosomal anomaly. To date, there have been nine reports describing ten individuals with different segmental losses involving 15q21 and 15q22. Many of these individuals have common features of growth retardation, hypotonia and moderate to severe mental retardation. Congenital heart disease has been described in three individuals with interstitial deletion involving this region of chromosome 15. Case presentation We report a child with coarctation of the aorta, partial agenesis of corpus callosum and mild to moderate developmental delay, with a de novo deletion of 15q21.1q22.2, detected by the array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH. We utilized chromosome 15-specific microarray-based CGH to define the chromosomal breakpoints in this patient. Conclusion This is the first description of mapping of an interstitial deletion involving the chromosome 15q21q22 segment using the chromosome 15-specific array-CGH. The report also expands the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with 15q21q22 deletion.

  15. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  16. 磁共振扩散张量成像在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值%Signiifcance of Applying DTI in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy in Infants with Developmental Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋; 刘鹏; 刘杰; 王颖; 高修成; 张见

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of applying DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants with developmental delays. Methods Thirty-three cases of cerebral palsy infants were selected as the cerebral palsy group, while 33 cases of healthy children as the control group. Then, DTI was performed on both the groups so as to observe the changes of the ifber tracts and research DTI features and its relevance with cerebral palsy. Additionally, the statistical method was applied to compare each FA (Fractional Anisotropy) value in the ROIs (Region-of-Interest) between the cerebral palsy group and the control group. Results Of 33 cerebral palsy infants, sparse and interrupted ifber tracts with abnormal orientation were revealed in different extent in 23 cases on different regions;no obvious changes of ifber tracts were revealed in 10 cases. The FA value in the ROIs of the cerebral palsy group was lower than that of the control group. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion Abnormalities revealed by DTI were correlated with cerebral palsy. As an useful method for diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants and young children with developmental delays, DTI can provide the basis for clinicians to make reasonable treatment plan.%目的:探讨磁共振张量成像(DTI)在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值。方法选取33例脑瘫婴幼儿作为脑瘫组,33例正常婴幼儿作为对照组,分别对其行DTI检查。观察神经纤维束的改变,研究DTI成像特点及其与脑瘫的相关性,并采用统计学方法比较脑瘫组和对照组感兴趣区的各向异性(FA)值。结果33例脑瘫患儿中,23例伴有不同部位和不同程度的神经纤维束稀疏、中断及走行异常,10例患儿神经纤维束改变不明显;脑瘫组患儿感兴趣区的FA值较低,与对照组相比有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论DTI异常表现与脑性瘫痪具有相关性,DTI

  17. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  18. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  19. Developmental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1994-01-01

    Developmental evaluation is proposed as a term to describe certain long-term partnering relationships with clients who are, themselves, engaged in ongoing program development. Rather than a model, developmental evaluation is a relationship founded on a shared purpose and is a way of being useful in innovative settings. (SLD)

  20. 遗传学新技术在发育迟缓患儿病因诊断中的应用价值%The application of new genetic technology in the children with developmental delay and mental retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎芳; 宇亚芬; 麻宏伟

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨遗传学新技术在儿童发育迟缓(DD)病因诊断中的应用价值。方法应用常规染色体核型分析、染色体微缺失检测、致病基因突变分析、串联质谱、气相色谱-质谱技术,对儿童保健门诊2013年9月至2014年9月就诊的180例DD患儿进行外周血或尿液分析。结果异常检出率为27.2%(49/180),其中49.0%(24/49)是应用常规染色体核型分析技术确诊:15例为21-三体综合征,9例为其他染色体异常;51.0%(25/49)是应用新近开展的遗传学新技术确诊:14例为染色体微缺失综合征,6例为遗传代谢病,5例为致病基因突变所致。14例染色体微缺失综合征中3例为Prader-Willi综合征,天使综合征、22q13缺失综合征、Williams综合征及Smith-Magenis综合征各2例,猫叫综合征、22q11微缺失综合征及1p36缺失综合征各1例;6例遗传代谢病中3例为甲基丙二酸血症;枫糖尿症、酪氨酸血症和戊二酸尿症各1例;5例基因突变中3例为脆性X综合征,2例为德朗热综合征。结论遗传学新技术提高了对DD患儿的病因学诊断;常规染色体检查正常的儿童不能排除染色体微缺失综合征和遗传代谢病。常规染色体核型分析、染色体微缺失检测、基因突变检测、串联质谱及气相色谱-质谱分析在临床应用中具有互补作用,彼此不能完全替代,临床上应根据不同的特殊面容和临床特征,选择相应的遗传学检测技术。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of new genetic technology inthe child with developmental delay and mental retardation.MethodThe peripheral blood and urine of 180 children with developmental retardation which were collected from the patients in the child care department from September 2013 to September 2014 were analyzed using chromosomal karyotype analysis, MLPA ,genetic mutation analysis, MS-MS and GC-MS.ResultsThe anomaly detection rate was 27.2% (49

  1. Delays in GABAergic interneuron development and behavioral inhibition after prenatal stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lussier, Stephanie J; Stevens, Hanna E

    2016-01-01

    .... Prenatal stress delays GABAergic progenitor migration, but the significance of these early developmental disruptions for the continued development of GABAergic cells in the juvenile brain is unclear...

  2. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... is eventually attained when the embryo acquires the capacity to impose a number of developmental constraints on its constituting parts in a top-down direction. The acquisition of this capacity allows a semiotic threshold to emerge between the living cellular world and the underlying nonliving molecular world...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  3. Quantifiers, Anaphora and Intensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F C N; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) {\\em functional structures} (f-structures) for sentences and their semantic interpretations can be expressed directly in a fragment of linear logic in a way that correctly explains the constrained interactions between quantifier scope ambiguity, bound anaphora and intensionality. This deductive approach to semantic interpretaion obviates the need for additional mechanisms, such as Cooper storage, to represent the possible scopes of a quantified NP, and explains the interactions between quantified NPs, anaphora and intensional verbs such as `seek'. A single specification in linear logic of the argument requirements of intensional verbs is sufficient to derive the correct reading predictions for intensional-verb clauses both with nonquantified and with quantified direct objects. In particular, both de dicto and de re readings are derived for quantified objects. The effects of type-raising or quantifying-in rules in other frameworks here just follow as li...

  4. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  5. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  6. Decomposing generalized quantifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerståhl, D.

    2008-01-01

    This note explains the circumstances under which a type <1> quantifier can be decomposed into a type <1, 1> quantifier and a set, by fixing the first argument of the former to the latter. The motivation comes from the semantics of Noun Phrases (also called Determiner Phrases) in natural languages, b

  7. Decomposing generalized quantifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerståhl, D.

    2008-01-01

    This note explains the circumstances under which a type <1> quantifier can be decomposed into a type <1, 1> quantifier and a set, by fixing the first argument of the former to the latter. The motivation comes from the semantics of Noun Phrases (also called Determiner Phrases) in natural languages,

  8. Understanding quantifiers in language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    We compare time needed for understanding different types of quantifiers. We show that the computational distinction between quantifiers recognized by finite-automata and push-down automata is psychologically relevant. Our research improves upon hypothesis and explanatory power of recent neuroimaging

  9. Identification of a rare de novo three-way complex t(5;20;8(q31;p11.2;p21 with microdeletions on 5q31.2, 5q31.3, and 8p23.2 in a patient with hearing loss and global developmental delay: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejjani Bassem A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which involve more than two breakpoints on two or more chromosomes, are uncommon occurrences. Although most CCRs appear balanced at the level of the light microscope, many demonstrate cryptic, submicroscopic imbalances at the translocation breakpoints. Results We report a female with hearing loss and global developmental delay with a complex three-way unbalanced translocation (5;20;8(q31;p11.2;p21 resulting in microdeletions on 5q31.2, 5q31.3, and 8p23.2 identified by karyotyping, microarray analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Discussion The microdeletion of bands 8p23.2 may be associated with the hearing impairment. Furthermore, the characterization of this patient's chromosomal abnormalities demonstrates the importance of integrated technologies within contemporary cytogenetics laboratories.

  10. Developmental modes and developmental mechanisms can channel brain evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Charvet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anseriform birds (ducks and geese as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own, parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents. We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  11. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  12. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  13. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    ). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities......Language has been defined as a social coordination device (Clark 1996) enabling innovative modalities of joint action. However, the exact coordinative dynamics over time and their effects are still insufficiently investigated and quantified. Relying on the data produced in a collective decision...

  14. Quantifying synergistic mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Virgil

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying cooperation among random variables in predicting a single target random variable is an important problem in many biological systems with 10s to 1000s of co-dependent variables. We review the prior literature of information theoretical measures of synergy and introduce a novel synergy measure, entitled *synergistic mutual information* and compare it against the three existing measures of cooperation. We apply all four measures against a suite of binary circuits to demonstrate our measure alone quantifies the intuitive concept of synergy across all examples.

  15. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    -case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only......Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  16. Delayed childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  17. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  18. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  19. Delay signatures in the chaotic intensity output of a quantum dot laser with optical feedback

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VARGHESE BEJOY; JOHN MANU P; NANDAKUMARAN V M

    2016-05-01

    Delay identification from the chaotic intensity output of a quantum dot laser with optical feedback is done using numerical and information theoretic techniques. Four quantifiers, namely autocorrelation function, delayed mutual information, permutation entropy and permutation statistical complexity, are employed in delay estimation. A detailed comparison of these quantifiers with different feedback rates and delay is undertaken. Permutation entropy and permutation statistical complexity are calculated with different dimensions of symbolic reconstruction to obtain the best results.

  20. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation.

  1. Psychosocial developmental milestones in men with classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Cynthia Sophia; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Berry, Gerard Thomas; Bosch, Annet Maria; Waisbren, Susan; Rubio-Gozalbo, Maria Estela; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2011-04-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia suffer from several long term effects of their disease. Research in a group of mainly female patients has shown that these patients may also have a developmental delay with regard to their social aptitude. To study if male galactosemia patients achieve psychosocial developmental milestones more slowly than male peers from the general Dutch population, we assessed their development with the Course of Life Questionnaire (CoLQ). A total of 18 male galactosemia patients participated in this study (response rate 69%): 11 Dutch patients and seven American patients. We found severe delays in the social and psychosexual scales of this questionnaire, but not on the autonomy axis. These results are comparable to an earlier study with a limited number of male patients. The observed delays could be secondary to less developed social skills, cognitive dysfunction, or disrupted language development. We strongly recommend screening of galactosemia patients for developmental delays, to ensure early intervention through social skills training.

  2. On Quantifying Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D’Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn from the literature and explored, with a focus on their applicability to semantic information quantification. Secondly, a similar but new approach to measure truthlikeness/information is presented and some supplementary points are made.

  3. The Right Delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datadien, A.H.R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Axonal conduction delays should not be ignored in simulations of spiking neural networks. Here it is shown that by using axonal conduction delays, neurons can display sensitivity to a specific spatio-temporal spike pattern. By using delays that complement the firing times in a pattern, spikes can ar

  4. Quantifying economic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.; Gabaix, Xavier; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Plerou, Vasiliki

    2001-12-01

    This manuscript is a brief summary of a talk designed to address the question of whether two of the pillars of the field of phase transitions and critical phenomena-scale invariance and universality-can be useful in guiding research on interpreting empirical data on economic fluctuations. Using this conceptual framework as a guide, we empirically quantify the relation between trading activity-measured by the number of transactions N-and the price change G( t) for a given stock, over a time interval [ t, t+Δ t]. We relate the time-dependent standard deviation of price changes-volatility-to two microscopic quantities: the number of transactions N( t) in Δ t and the variance W2( t) of the price changes for all transactions in Δ t. We find that the long-ranged volatility correlations are largely due to those of N. We then argue that the tail-exponent of the distribution of N is insufficient to account for the tail-exponent of P{ G> x}. Since N and W display only weak inter-dependency, our results show that the fat tails of the distribution P{ G> x} arises from W. Finally, we review recent work on quantifying collective behavior among stocks by applying the conceptual framework of random matrix theory (RMT). RMT makes predictions for “universal” properties that do not depend on the interactions between the elements comprising the system, and deviations from RMT provide clues regarding system-specific properties. We compare the statistics of the cross-correlation matrix C-whose elements Cij are the correlation coefficients of price fluctuations of stock i and j-against a random matrix having the same symmetry properties. It is found that RMT methods can distinguish random and non-random parts of C. The non-random part of C which deviates from RMT results, provides information regarding genuine collective behavior among stocks. We also discuss results that are reminiscent of phase transitions in spin systems, where the divergent behavior of the response function at

  5. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  6. Quantifying traffic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Parson, Kris; Shinoda, Naomi; Lindgren, Paula; Dunlap, Sara; Yawn, Barbara; Wollan, Peter; Johnson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Living near traffic adversely affects health outcomes. Traffic exposure metrics include distance to high-traffic roads, traffic volume on nearby roads, traffic within buffer distances, measured pollutant concentrations, land-use regression estimates of pollution concentrations, and others. We used Geographic Information System software to explore a new approach using traffic count data and a kernel density calculation to generate a traffic density surface with a resolution of 50 m. The density value in each cell reflects all the traffic on all the roads within the distance specified in the kernel density algorithm. The effect of a given roadway on the raster cell value depends on the amount of traffic on the road segment, its distance from the raster cell, and the form of the algorithm. We used a Gaussian algorithm in which traffic influence became insignificant beyond 300 m. This metric integrates the deleterious effects of traffic rather than focusing on one pollutant. The density surface can be used to impute exposure at any point, and it can be used to quantify integrated exposure along a global positioning system route. The traffic density calculation compares favorably with other metrics for assessing traffic exposure and can be used in a variety of applications.

  7. Quantifying loopy network architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Katifori

    Full Text Available Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  8. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  9. Quantifying innovation in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Mayer, Erik K; Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Pratt, Philip J; Parston, Greg; Vale, Justin A; Darzi, Ara W

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the applicability of patents and publications as metrics of surgical technology and innovation; evaluate the historical relationship between patents and publications; develop a methodology that can be used to determine the rate of innovation growth in any given health care technology. The study of health care innovation represents an emerging academic field, yet it is limited by a lack of valid scientific methods for quantitative analysis. This article explores and cross-validates 2 innovation metrics using surgical technology as an exemplar. Electronic patenting databases and the MEDLINE database were searched between 1980 and 2010 for "surgeon" OR "surgical" OR "surgery." Resulting patent codes were grouped into technology clusters. Growth curves were plotted for these technology clusters to establish the rate and characteristics of growth. The initial search retrieved 52,046 patents and 1,801,075 publications. The top performing technology cluster of the last 30 years was minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery, surgical staplers, and image guidance were the most emergent technology clusters. When examining the growth curves for these clusters they were found to follow an S-shaped pattern of growth, with the emergent technologies lying on the exponential phases of their respective growth curves. In addition, publication and patent counts were closely correlated in areas of technology expansion. This article demonstrates the utility of publically available patent and publication data to quantify innovations within surgical technology and proposes a novel methodology for assessing and forecasting areas of technological innovation.

  10. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001533.htm Developmental coordination disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental coordination disorder is a childhood disorder. It leads to ...

  11. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  12. Refractory seizures with global developmental delay: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Vinoth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aicardi syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the triad of infantile spasm in flexion, callosal agenesis and ocular abnormalities (chorioretinal lacunae, coloboma of optic disc. We report a typical case of Aicardi syndrome with all the classical features.

  13. Memory Abilities in Williams Syndrome: Dissociation or Developmental Delay Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Adriana; Sousa, Nuno; Fernandez, Montse; Henriques, Margarida; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder often described as being characterized by a dissociative cognitive architecture, in which profound impairments of visuo-spatial cognition contrast with relative preservation of linguistic, face recognition and auditory short-memory abilities. This asymmetric and dissociative cognition…

  14. Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disability limiting their life opportunities.1 The most common ... 1Institute for Child, Youth and Family Studies, Hugenote College, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South .... women in surrounding rural areas deliver in De Aar and return.

  15. Leaf development and photosynthetic properties of three tropical tree species with delayed greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Slot, M.; Fan, Z.X.

    2005-01-01

    Leaf developmental patterns were characterized for three tropical tree species with delayed greening. Changes in the pigment contents, photosynthetic capacity, stomata development, photosystem 2 efficiency, rate of energy dissipation, and the activity of partial protective enzymes were followed in d

  16. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  17. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented.

  18. Maturational delay in ADHD: Evidence from CPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai eBerger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While data from behavioural, neuropsychological, and brain studies suggested that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is related to a developmental lag that reduces with age, other studies have proposed that ADHD represents a deviant brain function. The present study used a cross-sectional approach to examine whether ADHD children show a developmental delay in cognitive performance measured by continuous performance test (CPT. We thus compared six age groups of ADHD children (N=559 and their unaffected peers (N=365, aged 6-11, in four parameters of MOXO-CPT performance: Attention, Timing, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity. Results have shown that despite improvement in CPT performance with age, ADHD children continued to demonstrate impaired performance as compared to controls. In most parameters, CPT performance of ADHD children matched that of 1-3 years younger normal controls, with a delay most prominent in older children. However, in the Hyperactivity parameter, ADHD children’s performance resembled that of much younger healthy children, with almost no evidence for a developmental catch up. This study suggests that while some cognitive functions develop slower but normally, other functions (e.g., inhibitory control show a different sequel.

  19. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  20. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  1. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  2. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  3. Lung cancer diagnostic delay in a Havana hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Vega, Joan F; Pérez, Hayvin; Samper, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and in Cuba, where its incidence and mortality are on the rise. Diagnostic delay is a variable linked to survival and prognosis. Quantifying this delay and comparing it with data from other national and international sources may lead to planning actions to reduce its impact. Assess diagnostic delay of lung cancer in patients at the Joaquín Albarrán Clinical-Surgical Teaching Hospital, Havana, Cuba, from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted based on administrative data from patients diagnosed with lung cancer. The length of overall diagnostic delay was determined, as well delay between symptom onset and the patient's first contact with the health system, and delay at the primary and secondary levels of the national health system. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the different time intervals. The study comprised a total of 54 patients; 74.1% were men; the largest age group was 51-60 years. Of the total, 61.1% sought care first at the primary level. Total diagnostic delay for these patients was 67.4 days: 24.3 days due to patient delay (SD 32.8), 16.2 days due to primary care delay (SD 5.2), and 26.9 days due to secondary care delay (SD 20.1). The total delay for patients first seen at the secondary care level was 79.1 days (SD 81.8): 47.8 days due to patient delay (SD 25.6), and 31.3 days due to secondary level delay (SD 14.4). Diagnostic delay in lung cancer is high. Patients who went directly to hospital did not benefit from shorter delay in diagnosis.

  4. Using Time-Delay to Improve Social Play Skills with Peers for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Daniella B.; Frea, William D.; Symon, Jennifer B. G.

    2008-01-01

    Interventions that teach social communication and play skills are crucial for the development of children with autism. The time delay procedure is effective in teaching language acquisition, social use of language, discrete behaviors, and chained activities to individuals with autism and developmental delays. In this study, three boys with autism,…

  5. Live imaging of developmental processes in a living meristem of Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eJerominek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis in plants is usually reconstructed by scanning electron microscopy and histology of meristematic structures. These techniques are destructive and require many samples to obtain a consecutive series of states. Unfortunately, using this methodology the absolute timing of growth and complete relative initiation of organs remain obscure. To overcome this limitation, an in vivo observational method based on Epi-Illumination Light Microscopy (ELM was developed and tested with a male inflorescence meristem (floral unit of the handkerchief tree Davidia involucrata Baill. (Nyssaceae. We asked whether the most basal flowers of this floral unit arise in a basipetal sequence or, alternatively, are delayed in their development.The growing meristem was observed for 30 days, the longest live observation of a meristem achieved to date. The sequence of primordium initiation indicates a later initiation of the most basal flowers and not earlier or simultaneously as SEM images could suggest. D. involucrata exemplarily shows that live-ELM gives new insights into developmental processes of plants. In addition to morphogenetic questions such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive meristems or the absolute timing of ontogenetic processes, this method may also help to quantify cellular growth processes in the context of molecular physiology and developmental genetics studies.

  6. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  7. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  8. Developmental Prosopagnosia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kress

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the published literature on developmental prosopagnosia, a condition in which the ability to recognize other persons by facial information alone has never been acquired. Due to the very low incidence of this syndrome, case reports are sparse. We review the available data and suggest assessment strategies for patients suffering from developmental prosopagnosia. It is suggested that developmental prosopagnosia is not a unitary condition but rather consists of different subforms that can be dissociated on the grounds of functional impairments. On the basis of the available evidence, hypotheses about the aetiology of developmental prosopagnosia as well as about the selectivity of deficits related to face recognition are discussed.

  9. Parent-Completed Developmental Questionnaires: A Low-Cost Strategy for Child-Find and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jane

    1996-01-01

    The "Ages and Stages Questionnaires," a parent-completed developmental monitoring system, is described, and various strategies for using the system to identify young children with developmental delays are compared. Strategies include mail-out, home visit, on-site (completed by either parent with assistance from service provider),…

  10. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  11. The Economic Impact of Managing Late Presentation of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delayed presentation of Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH comes with challenges in treatment as well as high surgical cost. Therefore the objective of this study is to quantify the economic impact of management of late presentation of DDH during a last 3-year period. We conducted a retrospective study with analysis of DDH cases managed between years 2012 to 2014. Early and late presentations of DDH were identified and cost management for both was estimated. Out of twenty-four DDH cases, thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All were female with majority of them presenting with unilateral DDH predominantly of the left hip. Most patients presented after age of six months and the principal complaint was abnormal or limping gait. The grand total cost for managing DDH during the three years period was USD 12,385.51, with 86% of the amount having been used to manage late presentation of DDH that was mostly contributed by the cost of surgery. We concluded that delayed presentation of DDH contributes heavily to high national expenditure. Early detection of DDH cases with systematic neonatal screening may help to minimize the incidence of the late presenting DDH and subsequently reduce the economic burden to the government.

  12. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  13. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  14. Psychosocial developmental milestones in men with classic galactosemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, C.S.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Berry, G.T.; Bosch, A.M.; Waisbren, S.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia suffer from several long term effects of their disease. Research in a group of mainly female patients has shown that these patients may also have a developmental delay with regard to their social aptitude. To study if male galactosemia patients achieve psychosocial

  15. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…

  16. commensurate point delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2005-01-01

    nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  17. Time Delay Cosmography

    OpenAIRE

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector,...

  18. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  19. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  20. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2016-05-13

    Within the framework of 'Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems.

  1. Delay-correlation landscape reveals characteristic time delays of brain rhythms and heart interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijing; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of `Network Physiology', we ask a fundamental question of how modulations in cardiac dynamics emerge from networked brain-heart interactions. We propose a generalized time-delay approach to identify and quantify dynamical interactions between physiologically relevant brain rhythms and the heart rate. We perform empirical analysis of synchronized continuous EEG and ECG recordings from 34 healthy subjects during night-time sleep. For each pair of brain rhythm and heart interaction, we construct a delay-correlation landscape (DCL) that characterizes how individual brain rhythms are coupled to the heart rate, and how modulations in brain and cardiac dynamics are coordinated in time. We uncover characteristic time delays and an ensemble of specific profiles for the probability distribution of time delays that underly brain-heart interactions. These profiles are consistently observed in all subjects, indicating a universal pattern. Tracking the evolution of DCL across different sleep stages, we find that the ensemble of time-delay profiles changes from one physiologic state to another, indicating a strong association with physiologic state and function. The reported observations provide new insights on neurophysiological regulation of cardiac dynamics, with potential for broad clinical applications. The presented approach allows one to simultaneously capture key elements of dynamic interactions, including characteristic time delays and their time evolution, and can be applied to a range of coupled dynamical systems.

  2. 重庆地区1743例智力低下/发育迟缓儿童细胞遗传学分析及意义探讨%Cytogenetic analysis and its significance of 1 743 mental retardation /developmental delay children in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程; 程茜; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of the abnormal karyotype in mental retardation /developmental delay (MR/DD) children of Chongqing to provide the information for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Methods The samples of the peripheral blood lymphocytes from 1743 children were prepared with routine cytogenetic methods,G-banding was employed for karyotype analysis. Results A total of 742 patients(42. 57%) were identified to have abnormalities with 20 kinds of karyotypes. Down s syndrome was the most common in euchromosome malformation, and Klinefelter syndrome in sex chromosome malformation. 80. 69% were found abnormalities in Down s syndrome group, which were coincided with clinical diagnosis and the most of 870 cases were infants;2. 08% were detected in Fragile X syndrome group and major subjects were preschool children;57. 12% in Cri-du-chat syndrome group;4. 95% in MR/DD with non-dysmorphic group,major of 626 cases were 3-5 years old,respectively. Conclusion The most abnormal karyotypes of MR/DD children are Down's,Klinefelter and Fragile X syndrome in Chongqing. It is suggested that more chromosomal information of MR/DD should be acquired,it benefits for early management and intervention of genetic diseases.%目的 了解重庆地区智力低下/发育迟缓儿童染色体异常的主要分布情况,为疾病的病因诊断、遗传咨询提供理论依据.方法 对1743例儿童无菌外周血进行常规接种、培养、制片及G带分析.结果 1743例中检出基因异常共742例,异常检出率42.57%,异常核型共20种,常染色体异常以21-三体综合征为主,性染色体异常以Klinefelter综合征为主.按送检病因分类染色体检出异常相符情况为21-三体综合征80.69%,送检年龄集中在小于1岁组;脆性X综合征2.08%,送检年龄主要是3~5岁儿童;猫叫综合征57.12%(4/7);表型不易识别智力低下/发育迟缓4.95%,送检儿童年龄大部分为3~5岁.结论 重庆地区智力低下/发育迟缓儿童

  3. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  4. Patient ignorance is the main reason for treatment delay in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goezinne, F.; Heij, La E.C.; Berendschot, T.; Tahzib, N.G.; Koetsier, L.S.; Hoevenaars, J.; Liem, A.T.A.; Kijlstra, A.; Webers, C.A.B.; Hendrikse, F.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Treatment delay of progressive vision-threatening conditions should be minimal. In this study, the treatment delay of patients with a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) undergoing retinal detachment surgery was quantified, and causes for this delay were evaluated. Materials and methods Con

  5. Time Delay Cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  6. Prediction of delayed subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K.

    A predictive model of delayed subsidence is discussed. A numerical implementation is tested on one of the best-described study areas, Allegheny County in Pennsylvania. In planning insurance of restitution measures, a predictive model is of value in estimating the magnitude of the problem and the size of long-term budgetary commitments. Contrary to active subsidence, which occurs concurrently with mining operations, or is completed within a few days following coal extraction, delayed subsidence may take many years to appear at the surface after coal mines are abandoned. There are two principal morphological types of delayed subsidence: troughs, which are shallow depressions, and sinks, which are steep-sided crown pits. Both types are damaging to surface structures, and a variety of methods were introduced to deal with the problem, ranging from subsidence insurance to site restitution.

  7. Time delay cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  8. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sets MADDS Case Definitions Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & ... Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. These conditions begin during ...

  9. Socialization and Developmental Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    Considers the divergent paths taken by research in cognitive development and research in social-emotional development, arguing that studies of socialization need to become more developmental. Discusses meanings of development that may affect the socialization process. (Author/CI)

  10. Delayed Random Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We present here a system with collection of random walks relaying a signal in one dimension with a presence of a delay. We are interested in the time for a signal to travel from one end (start) to the other end (finish) of the lined group of random walkers. It is found that there is an optimal number of walkers for the signal to travel fastest if the delay is present. We discuss implications of this model and associated behaviors to physical and biological systems.

  11. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. Developmental Idealism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Xie, Yu

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the intersection of developmental idealism with China. It discusses how developmental idealism has been widely disseminated within China and has had enormous effects on public policy and programs, on social institutions, and on the lives of individuals and their families. This dissemination of developmental idealism to China began in the 19(th) century, when China met with several military defeats that led many in the country to question the place of China in the world. By the beginning of the 20(th) century, substantial numbers of Chinese had reacted to the country's defeats by exploring developmental idealism as a route to independence, international respect, and prosperity. Then, with important but brief aberrations, the country began to implement many of the elements of developmental idealism, a movement that became especially important following the assumption of power by the Communist Party of China in 1949. This movement has played a substantial role in politics, in the economy, and in family life. The beliefs and values of developmental idealism have also been directly disseminated to the grassroots in China, where substantial majorities of Chinese citizens have assimilated them. These ideas are both known and endorsed by very large numbers in China today.

  13. Quantifying resource use in computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, R.J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is currently not possible to quantify the resources needed to perform a computation. As a consequence, it is not possible to reliably evaluate the hardware resources needed for the application of algorithms or the running of programs. This is apparent in both computer science, for in- stance, in

  14. Quantifying resource use in computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, R.J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is currently not possible to quantify the resources needed to perform a computation. As a consequence, it is not possible to reliably evaluate the hardware resources needed for the application of algorithms or the running of programs. This is apparent in both computer science, for in- stance, in

  15. Delay Bounds for Multiclass FIFO

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuming; Misra, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    FIFO is perhaps the simplest scheduling discipline. For single-class FIFO, its delay guarantee performance has been extensively studied: The well-known results include a stochastic delay bound for $GI/GI/1$ by Kingman and a deterministic delay bound for $D/D/1$ by Cruz. However, for multiclass FIFO, few such results are available. To fill the gap, we prove delay bounds for multiclass FIFO in this work, considering both deterministic and stochastic cases. Specifically, delay bounds are present...

  16. Delay and resource analysis in MANETs in presence of throwboxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, Mouhamad; Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Nain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the delay analysis and resource consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) equipped with throwboxes. Throwboxes are stationary, wireless devices that act as relays, and that are deployed to increase the connectivity between mobile nodes. Our objective is to quantify the

  17. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  18. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  19. 'No delays achiever'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  20. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  1. Committee Opinion No. 684: Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Delayed umbilical cord clamping appears to be beneficial for term and preterm infants. In term infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping increases hemoglobin levels at birth and improves iron stores in the first several months of life, which may have a favorable effect on developmental outcomes. There is a small increase in jaundice that requires phototherapy in this group of infants. Consequently, health care providers adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants should ensure that mechanisms are in place to monitor for and treat neonatal jaundice. In preterm infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant neonatal benefits, including improved transitional circulation, better establishment of red blood cell volume, decreased need for blood transfusion, and lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage or increased blood loss at delivery, nor was it associated with a difference in postpartum hemoglobin levels or the need for blood transfusion. Given the benefits to most newborns and concordant with other professional organizations, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in vigorous term and preterm infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth. The ability to provide delayed umbilical cord clamping may vary among institutions and settings; decisions in those circumstances are best made by the team caring for the mother-infant dyad.

  2. Infantile-onset saccade initiation delay (congenital ocular motor apraxia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Infantile-onset saccade initiation delay, also known as congenital ocular motor apraxia, typically presents in early infancy with horizontal head thrusts once head control is achieved. Defective initiation of horizontal saccades and saccade hypometria with normal saccadic velocity are characteristic findings. Isolated impairment of vertical saccades is rare. Impaired smooth ocular pursuit may be seen. Other relatively common features include developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, or clumsiness. Brain MRI may be normal or show a diverse range of abnormalities, most commonly involving the cerebellum. Defective slow phases of the optokinetic response are commonly associated with brain MRI abnormalities. Isolated defect of vertical saccade initiation may indicate supratentorial brain abnormalities on MRI. Joubert syndrome, a developmental midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and ataxia telangiectasia are both commonly associated with defective volitional and reflexive saccade initiation, saccade hypometria, and head thrusts. Both horizontal and vertical saccades are impaired in these two disorders.

  3. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  4. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  5. Meditations on Quantified Constraint Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hubie

    2012-01-01

    The quantified constraint satisfaction problem (QCSP) is the problem of deciding, given a structure and a first-order prenex sentence whose quantifier-free part is the conjunction of atoms, whether or not the sentence holds on the structure. One obtains a family of problems by defining, for each structure B, the problem QCSP(B) to be the QCSP where the structure is fixed to be B. In this article, we offer a viewpoint on the research program of understanding the complexity of the problems QCSP(B) on finite structures. In particular, we propose and discuss a group of conjectures; throughout, we attempt to place the conjectures in relation to existing results and to emphasize open issues and potential research directions.

  6. Quantifier Elimination by Dependency Sequents

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of existential quantifier elimination for Boolean formulas in Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). We present a new method for solving this problem called Derivation of Dependency-Sequents (DDS). A Dependency-sequent (D-sequent) is used to record that a set of quantified variables is redundant under a partial assignment. We show that D-sequents can be resolved to obtain new, non-trivial D-sequents. We also show that DDS is compositional, i.e. if our input formula is a conjunction of independent formulas, DDS automatically recognizes and exploits this information. We introduce an algorithm based on DDS and present experimental results demonstrating its potential.

  7. Quantifying and measuring cyber resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    Cyber resliency has become an increasingly attractive research and operational concept in cyber security. While several metrics have been proposed for quantifying cyber resiliency, a considerable gap remains between those metrics and operationally measurable and meaningful concepts that can be empirically determined in a scientific manner. This paper describes a concrete notion of cyber resiliency that can be tailored to meet specific needs of organizations that seek to introduce resiliency into their assessment of their cyber security posture.

  8. Feature Analysis of Singleton Consonant Errors in Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study attempted to quantify diagnostic characteristics related to consonant production of developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) in 11 Dutch children (ages 6 and 7). The study was able to quantify diagnostic characteristics but found very few qualitative differences in error patterns between children with DVD and 11 age-matched children with…

  9. Phased-Array Antenna Beam Squinting Related to Frequency Dependency of Delay Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garakoui, S.K.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2011-01-01

    Practical time delay circuits do not have a perfectly linear phase-frequency characteristic. When these delay circuits are applied in a phased-array system, this frequency dependency shows up as a frequency dependent beam direction (“beam squinting”). This paper quantifies beam squinting for a linea

  10. Diagnostic delay of pulmonary embolism in primary and secondary care : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walen, Stefan; Damoiseaux, Roger Amj|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183925858; Uil, Steven M; van den Berg, Jan Wk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is common because symptoms can be non-specific. The few studies that have investigated diagnostic delay have not taken into account the role of primary care physicians in the diagnostic process. AIM: To document and quantify the stages of diag

  11. An Evaluation of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures in Skill Acquisition for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Julie A. Ackerlund; Weinkauf, Sara; Zeug, Nicole; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that various prompting procedures are effective in teaching skills to children and adults with developmental disabilities. Simultaneous prompting includes proving a prompt immediately following an instruction; whereas constant time-delay procedures include a set time delay (i.e., 5 s or 10 s) prior to delivering a…

  12. Delay-independent stabilization for teleoperation with time varying delay

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Namerikawa, Toru

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability for nonlinear teleoperation with time varying communication delays. The proposed method is passivity-based controllers with time varying gains which depend on the rate of change of time varying delay. In our proposed method, stability condition is independent of the magnitude of the communication delay and the damping of the system. The delay-independent stability is shown via Lyapunov stability methods. Several experimental results show the effectiveness o...

  13. [Striated and delayed nephrography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlois, O; Padovani, J; Faure, F; Devred, P; Grangier, M L; Panuel, M

    1985-10-01

    About a case of striated and delayed nephrogram seen on a diabetic child, authors come back to the different etiologies. Among them, the tubular precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall protein seems to be given like on the right possibilities. Whatever is its etiology, the mechanism of striated appearance is always the same, being founded on the radiated disposal of the collecting ducts and on a tubular stasis beeing with iodine concentration.

  14. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nelemans, Gijs; Bours, Madelon

    2012-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of the different research groups and conclude that although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this cannot explain all the differences.

  15. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  16. Geometric Time Delay Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using Time Delay Interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the inter-spacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new an...

  17. Time-Delay Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dhurandhar Sanjeev V.; Tinto Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (...

  18. An Examination of Specific Child Behavior Problems as Predictors of Parenting Stress among Families of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allyson L.; Neece, Cameron L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children or children with other types of developmental delays (DD). This relationship appears to be mediated by elevated levels of behavior problems observed in children with…

  19. Gesture Production in School vs. Clinical Samples of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinani, Charikleia; Sugden, David A.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspraxia, a difficulty in executing an operationalised act, has been associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). However, issues relating to the area such as comparisons across modalities, comparisons of school vs. clinical populations, and developmental delay vs. pathology have not been addressed in the same, comprehensive study.…

  20. Developmental disorders of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  1. Delay in atomic photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kheifets, A S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence $ns$ and $np$ sub-shells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. By solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and carefully examining the time evolution of the photoelectron wave packet, we establish the apparent "time zero" when the photoelectron leaves the atom. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the quantum phase of the dipole transition matrix element, the energy dependence of which defines the emission timing. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the $2s$ and $2p$ sub-shells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [{\\em Science} {\\bf 328}, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than a half of the measured time delay of $21\\pm5$~as. We argue that the XUV pulse alone cannot produce such a larg...

  2. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  3. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language Development ... child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and language ...

  4. QUANTIFIED COST-BALANCED ROUTING SCHEME FOR OVERLAY MULTICAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jun; Ruan Qiuqi

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis issue of the routing metrics tradeoff problem, and presents a Quantified Cost-Balanced overlay multicast routing scheme (QCost-Balanced) to the metric tradeoff problem between overlay path delay and access bandwidth at Multicast Server Nodes (MSN) for real-time applications over Internet. Besides implementing a dynamic priority to MSNs by weighing the size of its service clients for better efficiency, QCost-Balanced tradeoffs these two metrics by a unified tradeoff metric based on quantitative analysis. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the scheme achieves a better tradeoff gain in both two metrics, and effective performance in metric quantitative control.

  5. Infant overweight is associated with delayed motor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan; Adair, Linda S.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine how infant overweight and high subcutaneous fat relate to infant motor development. Study design Participants are from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Project, a prospective, longitudinal study of low-income African American mother-infant dyads assessed from 3 -18 months of age (836 observations on 217 infants). Exposures were overweight (weight-for-length z-score ≥90th percentile of 2000 CDC/NCHS growth reference) and high subcutaneous fat (sum of three skinfold measurements >90th percentile of our sample). Motor development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Developmental delay was characterized as a standardized Psychomotor Development Index score <85. Longitudinal models estimated developmental outcomes as functions of time-varying overweight and subcutaneous fat, controlling for age and sex. Alternate models tested concurrent and lagged relationships (prior weight or subcutaneous fat predicting current motor development). Results Motor delay was 1.80 times as likely in overweight compared with non-overweight infants (95% CI:1.09, 2.97), and 2.32 times as likely in infants with high subcutaneous fat compared with lower subcutaneous fat (95% CI:1.26, 4.29). High subcutaneous fat was also associated with delay in subsequent motor development (OR=2.27, 95% CI:1.08, 4.76). Conclusions Pediatric overweight and high subcutaneous fat are associated with delayed infant motor development. PMID:20227724

  6. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  7. Learning Developmental Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James M.; Weintraub, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an educational intervention designed to promote the ability and willingness of MBA students to lead through coaching. MBA leadership students are trained to serve as coaches for undergraduate business students in a developmental assessment center. In this compelling context, their main source of influence is the ability to…

  8. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  9. Quantifying mixing using equilibrium reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Philip M.; Posner, Jonathan D.

    2009-03-01

    A method of quantifying equilibrium reactions in a microchannel using a fluorometric reaction of Fluo-4 and Ca2+ ions is presented. Under the proper conditions, equilibrium reactions can be used to quantify fluid mixing without the challenges associated with constituent mixing measures such as limited imaging spatial resolution and viewing angle coupled with three-dimensional structure. Quantitative measurements of CaCl and calcium-indicating fluorescent dye Fluo-4 mixing are measured in Y-shaped microchannels. Reactant and product concentration distributions are modeled using Green's function solutions and a numerical solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Equilibrium reactions provide for an unambiguous, quantitative measure of mixing when the reactant concentrations are greater than 100 times their dissociation constant and the diffusivities are equal. At lower concentrations and for dissimilar diffusivities, the area averaged fluorescence signal reaches a maximum before the species have interdiffused, suggesting that reactant concentrations and diffusivities must be carefully selected to provide unambiguous, quantitative mixing measures. Fluorometric equilibrium reactions work over a wide range of pH and background concentrations such that they can be used for a wide variety of fluid mixing measures including industrial or microscale flows.

  10. A developmental perspective on neuroeconomic mechanisms of contingency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J; Bickel, Warren K

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a developmental overview of relevant theory and research on delay discounting and neuroeconomics, and their implications for contingency management (CM) approaches to treatment. Recent advances in the neuroscience of decision making have the potential to inform treatment development for adolescent substance use in general, and CM treatments in particular. CM interventions may be informed by research on delay discounting, a type of decision making that reflects how individuals value immediate versus delayed rewards. Delay discounting reliably distinguishes substance abusers from nonabusers and is a significant predictor of individual differences in response to substance use treatments. Discounting may also be important in predicting response to CM, as CM attempts to directly influence this decision-making process, shifting the preference from the immediate rewards of use to delayed rewards for choosing not to use. Multiple neural processes underlie decision making, and those processes have implications for adolescent substance abuse. There are significant neurodevelopmental processes that differentiate adolescents from adults. These processes are implicated in delay discounting, suggesting that adolescence may reflect a period of plasticity in temporal decision making. Understanding the neural mechanisms of delay discounting has led to promising working memory interventions directly targeting the executive functions that underlie individual choices. These interventions may be particularly helpful in combination with CM interventions that offer immediate rewards for brief periods of abstinence, and may show particular benefit in adolescence due to the heightened neural plasticity of systems that underlie temporal discounting in adolescence.

  11. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  12. Developmental Purposes of Commercial Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed are 45 table, target, manipulative, active, and creative games with such developmental purposes as associative learning, tactile discrimination, and visual motor integration. Information includes the name of the item, distributor, price, description, and developmental purpose. (JYC)

  13. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  14. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  15. Developmental and reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The majority of new preventative and therapeutic vaccines are now assessed for developmental toxicity according to guidelines issued by the FDA in 2006. Despite the absence of confirmed effects in humans, vaccines are frequently suspected of having adverse side-effects on the development of children. Such suspicions are perhaps unavoidable considering the extremely widespread use of vaccines. The preclinical developmental toxicology studies are designed to assess possible influences of each component of the vaccine formulation-and the induced antibodies-on the development of the conceptus, neonate and suckling organism. Immune modulation by a vaccine or an adjuvant could, for instance, affect the outcome of pregnancy by interfering with the natural shift in immune balance of the mother during gestation. Maternal immunoglobulins are transferred from the mother to the offspring in order to confer passive immunity during early life. This maternal antibody transport is prenatal in humans and monkeys, but tends to be delayed until after birth in other species. Therefore, a suitable model species needs to be chosen for preclinical studies in order to ensure exposure of the foetus to the induced maternal antibodies following vaccination. Rabbits are the best laboratory model for prenatal immunoglobulin transfer, but rodents are more practical for the necessary postnatal investigations. Non-human primates are the only appropriate models for the testing of vaccines that are not immunogenic in lower species. It is advisable to test new adjuvants separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guidelines. Preclinical paediatric investigations are not currently required for vaccines, even though most vaccines are given to children. Other areas of regulatory concern include developmental immunotoxicity and effects on the preimplantation embryo. Because of the limitations of the available animal models for developmental toxicity testing, pharmacovigilance is essential. Copyright © 2011

  16. Lexical NP and VP quantifiers in Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kalpakchieva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lexical NP and VP quantifiers in Bulgarian The paper focuses on uniqueness, existential and universal quantification within the Bulgarian noun and verb phrase. Quantifiers scope is considered with respect to whether the quantifiers are used alone or in a group with other expressions. Another factor that affects the strength of quantifiers is the expression’s containing additional specifying functions or setting some circumstance or condition. Quantifiers within the verb phrase are particularly strongly affected by other conditions, while quantifiers within the subject NP have a broad scope and are not affected by the additional conditions of the situation described.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in hyperoxia-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Veniamin; Starkov, Anatoly; Matsiukevich, Dzmitry; Polin, Richard A; Ten, Vadim S

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in a mouse model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To induce BPD, 3-day-old mice were exposed to 75% O2. Mice were studied at two time points of hyperoxia (72 h or 2 wk) and after 3 weeks of recovery in room air (RA). A separate cohort of mice was exposed to pyridaben, a complex-I (C-I) inhibitor, for 72 hours or 2 weeks. Alveolarization was quantified by radial alveolar count and mean linear intercept methods. Pulmonary mitochondrial function was defined by respiration rates, ATP-production rate, and C-I activity. At 72 hours, hyperoxic mice demonstrated significant inhibition of C-I activity, reduced respiration and ATP production rates, and significantly decreased radial alveolar count compared with controls. Exposure to pyridaben for 72 hours, as expected, caused significant inhibition of C-I and ADP-phosphorylating respiration. Similar to hyperoxic littermates, these pyridaben-exposed mice exhibited significantly delayed alveolarization compared with controls. At 2 weeks of exposure to hyperoxia or pyridaben, mitochondrial respiration was inhibited and associated with alveolar developmental arrest. However, after 3 weeks of recovery from hyperoxia or 2 weeks after 72 hours of exposure to pyridaben alveolarization significantly improved. In addition, there was marked normalization of C-I and mitochondrial respiration. The degree of hyperoxia-induced pulmonary simplification and recovery strongly (r(2) = 0.76) correlated with C-I activity in lung mitochondria. Thus, the arrest of alveolar development induced by either hyperoxia or direct inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation indicates that bioenergetic failure to maintain normal alveolar development is one of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for BPD.

  18. Quantifying Resource Use in Computations

    CERN Document Server

    van Son, R J J H

    2009-01-01

    It is currently not possible to quantify the resources needed to perform a computation. As a consequence, it is not possible to reliably evaluate the hardware resources needed for the application of algorithms or the running of programs. This is apparent in both computer science, for instance, in cryptanalysis, and in neuroscience, for instance, comparative neuro-anatomy. A System versus Environment game formalism is proposed based on Computability Logic that allows to define a computational work function that describes the theoretical and physical resources needed to perform any purely algorithmic computation. Within this formalism, the cost of a computation is defined as the sum of information storage over the steps of the computation. The size of the computational device, eg, the action table of a Universal Turing Machine, the number of transistors in silicon, or the number and complexity of synapses in a neural net, is explicitly included in the computational cost. The proposed cost function leads in a na...

  19. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... archival material related to Lund Madsen’s efforts are preserved at the Technical University of Denmark and I have used these artefacts as the point of departure for my investigation. In this paper I will examine which factors the researchers perceived as important for human indoor comfort and how...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  20. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France))

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  1. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  2. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PeBenito, R; Fisch, C B; Fisch, M L

    1988-09-01

    The tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and right-left disorientation make up Gerstmann's syndrome. The tetrad has been infrequently described in children with learning disability and has been called developmental Gerstmann's syndrome (DGS). Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome may occur in brain-damaged and apparently normal children. Five children in whom DGS occurred in association with brain abnormalities underwent long-term observation, which indicated persistence of the deficits. The identification of these cases suggests that DGS may not be as rare as previously thought and may often be unrecognized. Testing for the Gerstmann elements in learning-disabled children may identify otherwise undiagnosed cases of DGS and should be routinely employed in the neurologic examination. Until appropriate teaching methods for DGS are found, "bypassing" the deficits and utilizing the child's strengths, plus counseling, seem to offer an effective treatment approach.

  3. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  4. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  5. Both Maternal and Pup Genotype Influence Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Early Developmental Milestones in Tsc2+/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Greene-Colozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumor growth and neuropsychological symptoms such as autistic behavior, developmental delay, and epilepsy. While research has shed light on the biochemical and genetic etiology of TSC, the pathogenesis of the neurologic and behavioral manifestations remains poorly understood. TSC patients have a greatly increased risk of developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder, rendering the relationship between the two sets of symptoms an extremely pertinent issue for clinicians. We have expanded on previous observations of aberrant vocalizations in Tsc2+/− mice by testing vocalization output and developmental milestones systematically during the early postnatal period. In this study, we have demonstrated that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in either dams or their pups results in a pattern of developmental delay in sensorimotor milestones and ultrasonic vocalizations.

  6. Developmental Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Duteil, Nastassia Pouradier; Rossi, Francesco; Boscain, Ugo; Piccoli, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of Developmental Partial Differential Equation (DPDE), which consists of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) on a time-varying manifold with complete coupling between the PDE and the manifold's evolution. In other words, the manifold's evolution depends on the solution to the PDE, and vice versa the differential operator of the PDE depends on the manifold's geometry. DPDE is used to study a diffusion equation with source on a growing surface whose gro...

  7. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  8. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Patrick Quercia,1 Léonard Feiss,2 Carine Michel31Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Office of Ophthalmology, Beaune, France; 3University of Burgundy, Dijon, INSERM U1093, Cognition, Action et Plasticité Sensorimotrice, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combin...

  9. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  10. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  11. Synchronizing time delay systems using variable delay in coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411 021 (India); Amritkar, R.E., E-mail: amritkar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Delay and anticipation in coupling function varies with system dynamics. > Delay or anticipation of the synchronized state is independent of system delay. > Stability analysis developed is quite general. > We demonstrate enhanced security in communication. > Generalized synchronization possible over a wide range of parameter mismatch. - Abstract: We present a mechanism for synchronizing time delay systems using one way coupling with a variable delay in coupling that is reset at finite intervals. We present the analysis of the error dynamics that helps to isolate regions of stability of the synchronized state in the parameter space of interest for single and multiple delays. We supplement this by numerical simulations in a standard time delay system like Mackey Glass system. This method has the advantage that it can be adjusted to be delay or anticipatory in synchronization with a time which is independent of the system delay. We demonstrate the use of this method in communication using the bi channel scheme. We show that since the synchronizing channel carries information from transmitter only at intervals of reset time, it is not susceptible to an easy reconstruction.

  12. Small delay approximation of stochastic delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzic, Steve; L'heureux, Ivan; Longtin, André

    1999-04-01

    Delay differential equations evolve in an infinite-dimensional phase space. In this paper, we consider the effect of external fluctuations (noise) on delay differential equations involving one variable, thus leading to univariate stochastic delay differential equations (SDDE's). For small delays, a univariate nondelayed stochastic differential equation approximating such a SDDE is presented. Another approximation, complementary to the first, is also obtained using an average of the SDDE's drift term over the delayed dynamical variable, which defines a conditional average drift. This second approximation is characterized by the fact that the diffusion term is identical to that of the original SDDE. For small delays, our approach yields a steady-state probability density and a conditional average drift which are in close agreement with numerical simulations of the original SDDE. We illustrate this scheme with the delayed linear Langevin equation and a stochastic version of the delayed logistic equation. The technique can be used with any type of noise, and is easily generalized to multiple delays.

  13. Effects of Nonlinear Time-Delay on a Stochastic Asymmetric System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiu-Yun; ZHU Chun-Lian; JIA Ya; LI Jia-Rong

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the effects of nonlinear time-delay on the stochastic system. With the delay time increasing, it is found that the peak of probability distribution in low steady states is decreased, and the peak of probability distribution in high steady states is increased. The mean of state variable, the normalized variance, and the normalized autocorrelation function which quantifies the concentrated degree are slowly varied for small delay time. However, the mean of state variable is rapidly increased, and the normalized variance and the normalized autocorrelation function is rapidJy decreased for large delay time.

  14. Comparison of cochlear delay estimates using otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, James; Pigasse, Gilles; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    delay non-invasively in normal-hearing humans. Tone bursts at nine frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz served as stimuli, with care taken to quantify possible bias due to the use of tone bursts with different rise times. BM delays are estimated from the ABR latency estimates by subtracting the neural...... and synaptic delays. This allows a comparison between individual OAE and BM delays over a large frequency range in the same subjects, and offers support to the theory that OAEs are reflected from a tonotopic place and carried back to the cochlear base via a reverse traveling wave....

  15. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  16. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  17. Prepupal diapause and instar IV developmental rates of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E Matthew; Bentz, Barbara J; Powell, James A; Gray, David R; Vandygriff, James C

    2011-10-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is an important mortality agent of native spruces throughout North America. The life-cycle duration of this species varies from 1 to 3 years depending temperature. The univoltine cycle (one generation per year) is thought to maximize outbreak risk and accelerate host mortality in established outbreaks. Prepupal diapause is associated with the semivoltine cycle (one generation per 2 years) and we investigated thermal conditions that result in diapause induction. Preliminary experiments used respirometry in an attempt to distinguish the diapause state of experimental insects but the technique was apparently confounded by low respiration before and during pupation, regardless of diapause status. Therefore, diapause induction was deduced using developmental delays. The observed developmental response was not a "switch", with developmental delay either present or absent, but instead varied continuously. We found that temperatures 40 d cumulative exposure was associated with distinct developmental suppression. Intermediate exposure to cool temperatures resulted in minor developmental delays. We used our results to parameterize a maximum likelihood estimation model of temperature-dependent instar IV developmental rates, including the effect of diapause. This model can be included as part of a spruce beetle phenology model for predicting population dynamics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Quantifying the line-of-sight mass distributions for time-delay lenses with stellar masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, Cristian; Fassnacht, Chris; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry; Auger, Matt; Koopmans, Leon; Marshall, Phil; Wong, Kenneth; Collett, Thomas; Agnello, Adriano; Blandford, Roger; Courbin, Frederic; Hilbert, Stefan; Meylan, Georges; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with a realistic account of systematic uncertainties is currently one of the principal challenges of physical cosmology. Building on our recent successes with two gravitationally lensed systems, we have started a program to achieve accurate cosmographic measurements

  19. Quantifying the line-of-sight mass distributions to time-delay lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassnacht, Chris; Suyu, Sherry; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matt; Koopmans, Leon; Marshall, Phil

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single gravitational lens with high-quality data can place constraints on H_0, w, and Omega_k that are comparable to constraints from other cosmological probes. Furthermore, since each lens makes an independent measurement of these quantities, a significant improvement

  20. Quantifying groundwater’s role in delaying improvements to Chesapeake Bay water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to determine the time required for the effects of nitrogen-reducing best management practices (BMPs) implemented at the land surface to reach the Chesapeake Bay via groundwater transport to streams. To accomplish this, a nitrogen mass-balance regression (NMBR) model was developed and applied to seven watersheds on the Delmarva Peninsula. The model included the distribution of groundwater return times obtained from a regional groundwater-flow (GWF) model, the history of nitrogen application at the land surface over the last century, and parameters that account for denitrification. The model was (1) able to reproduce nitrate concentrations in streams and wells over time, including a recent decline in the rate at which concentrations have been increasing, and (2) used to forecast future nitrogen delivery from the Delmarva Peninsula to the Bay given different scenarios of nitrogen load reduction to the water table. The relatively deep porous aquifers of the Delmarva yield longer groundwater return times than those reported earlier for western parts of the Bay watershed. Accordingly, several decades will be required to see the full effects of current and future BMPs. The magnitude of this time lag is critical information for Chesapeake Bay watershed managers and stakeholders.

  1. Quantifying Cricket Fast Bowling Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feros, Simon A; Young, Warren B; O'Brien, Brendan J

    2017-09-27

    To evaluate the current evidence regarding the quantification of cricket fast bowling skill. Studies that assessed fast bowling skill (bowling speed and accuracy) were identified from searches in SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) in June 2017. The reference lists of identified papers were also examined for relevant investigations. Sixteen papers matched the inclusion criteria, and discrepancies in assessment procedures were evident. Differences in: test environment, pitch and cricket ball characteristics, the warm-up prior to test, test familiarisation procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling spell length, delivery sequence, test instructions, collection of bowling speed data, collection and reportage of bowling accuracy data were apparent throughout the literature. The reliability and sensitivity of fast bowling skill measures has rarely been reported across the literature. Only one study has attempted to assess the construct validity of their skill measures. There are several discrepancies in how fast bowling skill has been assessed and subsequently quantified in the literature to date. This is a problem, as comparisons between studies are often difficult. Therefore, a strong rationale exists for the creation of match-specific standardised fast bowling assessments that offer greater ecological validity while maintaining acceptable reliability and sensitivity of the skill measures. If prospective research can act on the proposed recommendations from this review, then coaches will be able to make more informed decisions surrounding player selection, talent identification, return to skill following injury, and the efficacy of short- and long-term training interventions for fast bowlers.

  2. Quantifying Periodicity in Omics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eAmariei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively.

  3. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy.

  4. On the Gravitomagnetic Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Ciufolini, I.; Kopeikin, S.; Mashhoon, B.; Ricci, F

    2002-01-01

    We study the gravitational time delay in ray propagation due to rotating masses in the linear approximation of general relativity. Simple expressions are given for the gravitomagnetic time delay that occurs when rays of radiation cross a slowly rotating shell and propagate in the field of a distant rotating source. Moreover, we calculate the local gravitational time delay in the Goedel universe. The observational consequences of these results in the case of weak gravitational lensing are disc...

  5. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.

  6. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  7. Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-McPeak, Susan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Cuevas, Elvis; Dumas, Melanie; Newport, Glenn D; Ali, Syed F; Paule, Merle G; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2015-03-01

    Typically, time-consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2 days post-fertilization. Here we describe an automated image-based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post-acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth-retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources.

  8. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...

  9. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  10. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...

  11. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  12. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  13. Atypical Lexical/Semantic Processing in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders without Early Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Robins, Diana; Kelley, Elizabeth; Swainson, Brook; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Although autism is associated with impaired language functions, the nature of semantic processing in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) without a history of early language delay has been debated. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the automatic lexical/semantic aspect of language is impaired or intact in these…

  14. A Comparison of Constant Time Delay Instruction with High and Low Treatment Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin Iftar, Elif; Kurt, Onur; Cetin, Ozlem

    2011-01-01

    Time delay (TD) procedure is an effective procedure in teaching various skills to children with developmental disabilities. Moreover, research has shown that it is used with high treatment integrity (HTI). However, there are several barriers which may prevent delivery instruction with HTI. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the…

  15. Why Screening Canadian Preschoolers for Language Delays Is More Difficult than It Should Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Virginia; Montgomery, Lorna; Boychyn, Ellen; Young, Roxanne; vanRyn, Elizabeth; McLachlan, Dorothy; Neufeld, Judi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the ability of four American screening tests to identify preschool-age Canadian children with language delays. At 54 months, 110 children from five Ontario infant and child development programs completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, Brigance Preschool Screen, and Early Screening…

  16. Can Early Years Professionals Determine Which Preschoolers Have Comprehension Delays? A Comparison of Two Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Emily; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension delays in pre-schoolers are predictive of difficulties in a range of developmental domains. In England, early years practitioners are required to assess the language comprehension of 2-year-olds in their care. Many use a format based on the Early Years Foundation Stage Unique Child Communication Sheet (EYFS:UCCS) in which…

  17. Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2009-09-01

    Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the

  18. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  19. Propofol effects on atrial fibrillation wavefront delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Millet, José; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2010-08-01

    Since the cardiac activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) may be influenced by autonomic modulations, in this study, a novel method to quantify the effects of the most common anesthetic agent (propofol) in AF ablation procedures is introduced. This study has two main objectives: first, to assess whether the sedation earlier to radio frequency ablation affects the arrhythmia itself, and second, to provide new information that contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the autonomic nervous system on AF. The methodology presented is based on the measurement of synchronization and delay indexes between two atrial activations at adjacent intracavitary electrodes. These parameters aim to estimate whether two activations at different sites may be caused by the same propagating wavefront, or otherwise, are the consequence of independent wavefronts. The results showed that the mentioned indexes have a different behavior at both atria: the right atrium becomes more synchronized with propofol administration, whereas the synchronization index decreases at the left atrium.

  20. Efeito da intervenção em esteira motorizada na aquisição da marcha independente e desenvolvimento motor em bebês de risco para atraso desenvolvimental Efecto de la intervención en caminadora automática en la adquisición de la marcha independiente y desarrollo motor en bebés de riesgo para retraso de desarrollo Treadmill training effects on walking acquisition and motor development in infants at risk of developmental delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Xavier C. Schlittler

    2011-03-01

    ática para el grupo experimental. Todos los bebés fueron evaluados mensualmente por la Alberta Infant Motor Scale y los del grupo experimental fueron filmados realizando los pasos en la caminadora. Comparaciones entre los grupos a lo largo del tiempo fueron realizadas utilizando análisis de variancia (ANOVA y de multivariancia (MANOVA. RESULTADOS: Los bebés del grupo experimental adquirieron la marcha independiente a los 12,8 y los del grupo control de riesgo a los 13,8 meses de edad corregida, siendo que la adquisición del grupo control de riesgo ocurrió más tarde que en el grupo control típico (1,1 meses; pOBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of motorized treadmill intervention on independent walking acquisition and other motor milestones in infants at risk of developmental delay. METHODS: Experimental study with 15 infants, observed since the 5th month of age: five infants at risk of developmental delay submitted to both physiotherapy sessions and intervention in motorized treadmill (Experimental Group; five infants at risk of developmental delay submitted to physiotherapy sessions only (Risk Control Group; and five infants without risks of developmental delay (Typical Control Group. Physiotherapy sessions occurred twice a week, followed by motorized treadmill intervention for the Experimental Group. Motorized treadmill intervention began when infants acquired cephalic control and was interrupted by independent walking or at 14 months post-conceptual age. All babies were monthly assessed with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Experimental Group was filmed during the exercise on the motorized treadmill. Comparisons among groups and months were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and multivariance (MANOVA. RESULTS: Experimental Group infants acquired independent walking at 12.8 months and the Risk Control Group infants at 13.8 months of corrected age, which was delayed compared to the Typical Control Group (1.1 months; p<0.05. Experimental Group of infants

  1. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in three fields:· well-timed application of adequate treatment may influence the essential characteristics of a disorder in the direction of adaptation to requirements of social environment, improvement of communication and enrichment of poor activity repertoire;· slowing down and delaying of unfavorable disorder evolution and· helping in understanding, accepting and adapting of child’s family to a pervasive developmental disorder.Value of early established diagnosis is not reflected only in foundation of organized adequate treatment. Early established diagnosis enables a well-timed giving of genetic advice to the family which is, as a rule, young, and without genetic load. On the other hand, well-timed diagnosis enables planning of life-long complete care for the patient with the disorder.

  2. Developmental malformation of the corpus callosum: a review of typical callosal development and examples of developmental disorders with callosal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K

    2011-03-01

    This review provides an overview of the involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) in a variety of developmental disorders that are currently defined exclusively by genetics, developmental insult, and/or behavior. I begin with a general review of CC development, connectivity, and function, followed by discussion of the research methods typically utilized to study the callosum. The bulk of the review concentrates on specific developmental disorders, beginning with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)-the only condition diagnosed exclusively by callosal anatomy. This is followed by a review of several genetic disorders that commonly result in social impairments and/or psychopathology similar to AgCC (neurofibromatosis-1, Turner syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams yndrome, and fragile X) and two forms of prenatal injury (premature birth, fetal alcohol syndrome) known to impact callosal development. Finally, I examine callosal involvement in several common developmental disorders defined exclusively by behavioral patterns (developmental language delay, dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and Tourette syndrome).

  3. Registration Delay and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefken, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Tracking the difference between the time a first-year student is allowed to register for a course and the time he or she does register for a course (a student's registration delay), we notice a negative correlation between registration delay and final grade in a course. The difference between a student who registers within the first two minutes…

  4. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous... applications delayed more than 180 days. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 5117(c), PHMSA is publishing the following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180...

  5. High resolution digital delay timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  6. Calibrating for Ionospheric Phase Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Technique determines ionospheric phase delay on real-time universally applicable basis in terms of electrons per meter squared by coherently modulating two L-band carrier frequencies received from two Global Positioning System satelites. Two pseudorandom number sequences cross-correlated to derive delay time.

  7. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  8. Imitation dynamics with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Chang; Yu, Jie-Ru; Kurokawa, Shun; Tao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    Based on the classic imitation dynamics (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998, Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics, Cambridge University Press), the imitation dynamics with time delay is investigated, where the probability that an individual will imitate its opponent's own strategy is assumed to depend on the comparison between the past expected payoff of this individual's own strategy and the past expected payoff of its opponent's own strategy, i.e. there is a time delay effect. For the two-phenotype model, we show that if the system has an interior equilibrium and this interior equilibrium is stable when there is no time delay, then there must be a critical value of time delay such that the system tends to a stable periodic solution when the time delay is larger than the critical value. On the other hand, for three-phenotype (rock-scissors-paper) model, the numerical analysis shows that for the stable periodic solution induced by the time delay, the amplitude and the period will increase with the increase of the time delay. These results should help to understand the evolution of behavior based on the imitation dynamics with time delay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic bearing optical delay line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task.

  10. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  12. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  13. Time-delay damping theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪峰

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, existing damping theories are briefly reviewed. On the basis of the existing damping theories, a new kind of damping theory, i.e., the time-delay damping theory, is developed. In the time-delay damping theory, the damping force is considered to be directly proportional to the increment of displacement. The response analysis of an SDOF time-delay damping system is carried out, and the methods for obtaining the solution for a time-delay damping system in the time domain as well as the frequency domain are given. The comparison between results from different damping theories shows that the time-delay damping theory is both reasonable and convenient.

  14. Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In contrast to ABD networks, ABE networks cannot be synchronised efficiently. At the example of an election algorithm, we show that the minimal assumptions of ABE networks are sufficient for the development of efficient algorithms. For anonymous, unidirectional ABE rings of known size N we devise a probabilistic leader election algorithm having average message and time complexity O(N).

  15. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  16. Developmental phenotype in Phelan-McDermid (22q13.3 deletion) syndrome : a systematic and prospective study in 34 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, Renée J; Ruiter, Selma A J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Flapper, Boudien C T; Van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phelan- McDermid syndrome (PMS) or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, cognitive deficits, and behaviour in the autism spectrum. Knowledge about developmental and behavioural characteristics of this rare chromosomal disorder is still limited despite

  17. Developmental phenotype in Phelan-McDermid (22q13.3 deletion) syndrome : a systematic and prospective study in 34 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, Renée J; Ruiter, Selma A J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Flapper, Boudien C T; Van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phelan- McDermid syndrome (PMS) or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, cognitive deficits, and behaviour in the autism spectrum. Knowledge about developmental and behavioural characteristics of this rare chromosomal disorder is still limited despite

  18. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  19. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  20. Psychomotor Delay, a Possible Rare Presentation of Moyamoya Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Ashrafi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare, chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by progressive stenosis of the arteries of the circle of Willis leading to ischemicstrokes in young people and cerebral hemorrhage, which is more frequent in adults. Secondarily,an abnormal network of fine collateral vessels arises at the base of the brain. The term moyamoyarefers to the angiographic appearance of the cerebral vasculature. We present such a disease in an 18-month-old Iranian girl with global developmental delay, which is a very rare presentationof moyamoya disease. She was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA.

  1. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  2. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  3. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  4. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  5. Co-occurrence of developmental and behavioural problems in moderate to late preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the occurrence of emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in moderate to late preterm (MLP) and full-term children with developmental delay. Design Participants were recruited from 13 randomly selected preventive child healthcare (PCH) centres in the Netherlands. We included

  6. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  7. An Evaluation of the EQUIP Treatment Programme with Men who have Intellectual or Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E.; Murphy, Glynis H.; Clare, Isabel C.H.; Palmer, Emma J.; Rees, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Equipping Youth to Help One Another Programme (EQUIP) was designed for young offenders to address a developmental delay in moral reasoning, distorted cognitions and social skills. Methods: The present authors undertook a single case series study and piloted an adapted version of the EQUIP programme with three men with intellectual…

  8. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  9. Co-occurrence of developmental and behavioural problems in moderate to late preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    Objective To determine the occurrence of emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in moderate to late preterm (MLP) and full-term children with developmental delay. Design Participants were recruited from 13 randomly selected preventive child healthcare (PCH) centres in the Netherlands. We included

  10. Thinking about Feelings: Emotion Focus in the Parenting of Children with Early Developmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. K.; Crnic, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental delays exhibit more difficulty with certain emotional processes than their typically developing peers, which seems to partially account for the increased risk for the development of social problems in this population. Despite considerable study with typically developing populations, research on parental…

  11. Chronic Overeating without Obesity in Children with Developmental Disabilities: Description of a New Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoob, Keith-Thomas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen children (ages 3.1 to 5.2 years) referred for developmental delay and excessive eating (without obesity) were evaluated. Commonalities included being in foster care, prenatal drug exposure, and abnormally withdrawn and/or aggressive behavior. (Author/DB)

  12. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  13. A Developmental and Genetic Classification for Malformations of Cortical Development: Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, A. James; Guerrini, Renzo; Kuzniecky, Ruben I.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Dobyns, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Malformations of cerebral cortical development include a wide range of developmental disorders that are common causes of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. In addition, study of these disorders contributes greatly to the understanding of normal brain development and its perturbations. The rapid recent evolution of molecular biology, genetics…

  14. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  16. Time Delay in Molecular Photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, P; Villeneuve, D M; Corkum, P B

    2015-01-01

    Time-delays in the photoionization of molecules are investigated. As compared to atomic ionization, the time-delays expected from molecular ionization present a much richer phenomenon, with a strong spatial dependence due to the anisotropic nature of the molecular scattering potential. We investigate this from a scattering theory perspective, and make use of molecular photoionization calculations to examine this effect in representative homonuclear and hetronuclear diatomic molecules, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. We present energy and angle-resolved maps of the Wigner delay time for single-photon valence ionization, and discuss the possibilities for experimental measurements.

  17. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  18. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to

  19. Developmental screening in context: adaptation and standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II) for Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, D

    2012-11-01

    Developmental problems in children can be alleviated to a great extent with early detection and intervention through periodic screening for developmental delays during pre-school ages. Currently, there is no established system for developmental screening of children in Sri Lanka. Although some developmental norms, which are similar to those of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II), have been introduced into the Sri Lankan Child Health Developmental Record (CHDR), those norms have not been standardized to the Sri Lankan child population. The aim of this research was to establish Sri Lankan norms for DDST-II and to test the universal and regional applicability of developmental screening tests by comparing the Sri Lankan norms with the norms of DDST-II and DDST-Singapore norms, the geographically nearest standardization of DDST-II. The norms were also compared with the milestones already available in the CHDR. DDST-II was adapted and standardized on a sample of 4251 Sri Lankan children aged 0-80 months. Thirteen public health nursing sisters were trained to collect the data as part of their routine work. The 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile ages of acquiring each developmental milestone were then calculated using logistic regression. The Denver Developmental Screening Test for Sri Lankan Children (DDST-SL) was created. Most of the established DDST-SL norms were different to the comparable norms in DDST-II, DDST-Singapore and the CHDR. In view of the results of the study, it is imperative that developmental screening tests are used in context and are adapted and standardized to the populations in question before utilization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Quantifying synergistic information remains an unsolved problem

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Virgil

    2011-01-01

    We review the prior literature of information theoretical measures of synergy or synergistic information. We draw the hereto unnamed conceptual distinction between synergistic and holistic information and analyze six prior measures based on whether they aim to quantify synergy or holism. We apply all measures against a suite of examples to demonstrate no existing measure correctly quantifies synergy under all circumstances.

  1. Leibniz Dynamics with Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, I. D.; Opris, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that several dynamical systems with time delay can be described as vector fields associated to smooth functions via a bracket of Leibniz structure. Some examples illustrate the theoretical considerations.

  2. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  3. A Kac CROW Delay Line

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2013-01-01

    A low-loss CROW delay line with a weak inter-resonator coupling determined by the Kac matrix is dispersionless and can be easily impedance-matched by adjusting the coupling to the input/output waveguide.

  4. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  5. Time Delay in Molecular Photoionization

    OpenAIRE

    Hockett, P.; Frumker, E.; Villeneuve, D M; Corkum, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Time-delays in the photoionization of molecules are investigated. As compared to atomic ionization, the time-delays expected from molecular ionization present a much richer phenomenon, with a strong spatial dependence due to the anisotropic nature of the molecular scattering potential. We investigate this from a scattering theory perspective, and make use of molecular photoionization calculations to examine this effect in representative homonuclear and hetronuclear diatomic molecules, nitroge...

  6. Measuring information-transfer delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wibral

    Full Text Available In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener's principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics.

  7. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  8. Elevational differences in developmental plasticity determine phenological responses of grasshoppers to recent climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lauren B; Nufio, César R; Kirk, Evan M; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2015-06-22

    Annual species may increase reproduction by increasing adult body size through extended development, but risk being unable to complete development in seasonally limited environments. Synthetic reviews indicate that most, but not all, species have responded to recent climate warming by advancing the seasonal timing of adult emergence or reproduction. Here, we show that 50 years of climate change have delayed development in high-elevation, season-limited grasshopper populations, but advanced development in populations at lower elevations. Developmental delays are most pronounced for early-season species, which might benefit most from delaying development when released from seasonal time constraints. Rearing experiments confirm that population, elevation and temperature interact to determine development time. Population differences in developmental plasticity may account for variability in phenological shifts among adults. An integrated consideration of the full life cycle that considers local adaptation and plasticity may be essential for understanding and predicting responses to climate change.

  9. Elevational differences in developmental plasticity determine phenological responses of grasshoppers to recent climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lauren B.; Nufio, César R.; Kirk, Evan M.; Kingsolver, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    Annual species may increase reproduction by increasing adult body size through extended development, but risk being unable to complete development in seasonally limited environments. Synthetic reviews indicate that most, but not all, species have responded to recent climate warming by advancing the seasonal timing of adult emergence or reproduction. Here, we show that 50 years of climate change have delayed development in high-elevation, season-limited grasshopper populations, but advanced development in populations at lower elevations. Developmental delays are most pronounced for early-season species, which might benefit most from delaying development when released from seasonal time constraints. Rearing experiments confirm that population, elevation and temperature interact to determine development time. Population differences in developmental plasticity may account for variability in phenological shifts among adults. An integrated consideration of the full life cycle that considers local adaptation and plasticity may be essential for understanding and predicting responses to climate change. PMID:26041342

  10. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  11. The usefulness of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P; Byrne, K E

    1993-05-01

    Recent research supporting the effectiveness of early intervention and laws expanding services have increased the demand for accurate developmental screening tests. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST), for children 6 months to 8 years old, has a number of desirable features, including subtests for fine and gross motor, adaptive, personal-social, receptive and expressive language, and cognitive skills; a range cutoff and age-equivalent scores; and national standardization. To assess its accuracy, the BDIST was administered to 104 children 7 to 83 months old, along with several other screening tests and a battery of criterion measures. Tied to 1.5 standard deviations below the mean, BDIST failing scores were moderately sensitive, detecting 75% of the children with developmental problems, such as mental retardation, borderline intelligence, language delays, and learning disabilities. Since 73% of the nonhandicapped children passed the BDIST, the test showed moderate specificity. Children within one month of their birthdays were likely to be over- or underreferred. Although the BDIST needs further research, it is a promising developmental screening instrument. The Receptive Language (RL) subtest, slightly more sensitive than the total BDIST but less specific, takes only a few minutes and thus is useful for prescreening in time-limited settings, such as pediatric practice.

  12. Psychometric Properties of a Standardized Observation Protocol to Quantify Pediatric Physical Therapy Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderer, Patrizia; Akhbari Ziegler, Schirin; Gressbach Oertle, Barbara; Meichtry, André; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric physical therapy (PPT) is characterized by heterogeneity. This blurs the evaluation of effective components of PPT. The Groningen Observation Protocol (GOP) was developed to quantify contents of PPT. This study assesses the reliability and completeness of the GOP. Sixty infant PPT sessions were video-taped. Two random samples of 10 videos were used to determine interrater and intrarater reliability using interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals. Completeness of GOP 2.0 was based on 60 videos. Interrater reliability of quantifying PPT actions was excellent (ICC, 0.75-1.0) in 71% and sufficient to good (ICC, 0.4-0.74) in 24% of PPT actions. Intrarater reliability was excellent in 94% and sufficient to good in 6% of PPT actions. Completeness was good for greater than 90% of PPT actions. GOP 2.0 has good reliability and completeness. After appropriate training, it is a useful tool to quantify PPT for children with developmental disorders.

  13. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  14. Timing in neural maturation: arrest, delay, precociousness, and temporal determination of malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Philippart, Michel; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Wei, Xing-Chang

    2015-05-01

    Timing is primordial in initiating and synchronizing each developmental process in tissue morphogenesis. Maturational arrest, delay, and precociousness all are conducive to neurological dysfunction and may determine different malformations depending on when in development the faulty timing occurred, regardless of the identification of a specific genetic mutation or an epigenetic teratogenic event. Delay and arrest are distinguished by whether further progressive development over time can be expected or the condition is static. In general, retardation of early developmental processes, such as neurulation, cellular proliferation, and migration, leads to maturational arrest. Retardation of late processes, such as synaptogenesis and myelination, are more likely to result in maturational delay. Faulty timing of neuronal maturation in relation to other developmental processes causes neurological dysfunction and abnormal electroencephalograph maturation in preterm neonates. Precocious synaptogenesis, including pruning to provide plasticity, may facilitate prenatal formation of epileptic circuitry leading to severe postnatal infantile epilepsies. The anterior commissure forms 3 weeks earlier than the corpus callosum; its presence or absence in callosal agenesis is a marker for the onset of the initial insult. An excessively thick corpus callosum may be due to delayed retraction of transitory collateral axons. Malformations that arise at different times can share a common pathogenesis with variations on the extent: timing of mitotic cycles in mosaic somatic mutations may distinguish hemimegalencephaly from focal cortical dysplasia type 2. Timing should always be considered in interpreting cerebral dysgeneses in both imaging and neuropathological diagnoses.

  15. Developmental toxicity evaluation of three hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers on zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Miaomiao [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang Dandan; Yan Changzhou [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhang Xian, E-mail: xzhang@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Structural dissimilarities of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers could raise substantial differences in physicochemical, biological and toxicological properties. In order to fully assess the environmental safety and health risk of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate the developmental toxicity of individual HBCD diastereoisomers ({alpha}-HBCD, {beta}-HBCD and {gamma}-HBCD). Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of HBCD diastereoisomers (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/l) until 120 hpf. The results showed that exposure to HBCDs can affect the development of zebrafish embryos/larvae in a dose-dependent and diastereoselective manner. The diastereoisomers {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD at 0.01 mg/l had little effect on the development of zebrafish embryos except that exposure to 0.01 mg/l {gamma}-HBCD significantly delayed hatching (P < 0.05). At 0.1 mg/l, {alpha}-HBCD resulted in depressed heart rate of larvae (96 hpf) and delayed hatching, whereas {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD both caused significant hatching delay and growth inhibition (P < 0.05). In addition, a remarkable and significant increase in mortality and malformation rate was noted at 0.1 mg/l {gamma}-HBCD exposure groups (P < 0.05). At 1.0 mg/l, {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD significantly affected all of the endpoints monitored (P < 0.05). Additionally, HBCD diastereoisomers could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicated that HBCD diastereoisomers could cause developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos through inducing apoptosis by ROS formation. The overall results showed a good agreement confirming that the order of developmental toxicity of HBCD diastereoisomers in zebrafish is {gamma}-HBCD > {beta}-HBCD > {alpha}-HBCD.

  16. Developmental dyslexia and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Patrick; Feiss, Léonard; Michel, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme-phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye's visual input.

  17. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quercia P

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Quercia,1 Léonard Feiss,2 Carine Michel31Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Office of Ophthalmology, Beaune, France; 3University of Burgundy, Dijon, INSERM U1093, Cognition, Action et Plasticité Sensorimotrice, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye's visual input.Keywords: reading, ocular motility, dyslexia, neglect, spatial representation

  18. Delay Independent Criterion for Multiple Time-delay Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. J.; Liu, K. F. R.; Yeh, K.; Chen, C. W.; Chung, P. Y.

    Based on the fuzzy Lyapunov method, this work addresses the stability conditions for nonlinear systems with multiple time delays to ensure the stability of building structure control systems. The delay independent conditions are derived via the traditional Lyapunov and fuzzy Lyapunov methods for multiple time-delay systems as approximated by the Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. The fuzzy Lyapunov function is defined as a fuzzy blending of quadratic Lyapunov functions. A parallel distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is utilized to construct a global fuzzy logic control (FLC) by blending all linear local state feedback controllers in the controller design procedure. Furthermore, the H infinity performance and robustness of the design for modeling errors also need to be considered in the stability conditions.

  19. Time Delay Effects on Coupled Limit Cycle Oscillators at Hopf Bifurcation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, D V R; Johnston, G L

    1998-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effect of time delay on the collective dynamics of coupled limit cycle oscillators at Hopf bifurcation. For a simple model consisting of just two oscillators with a time delayed coupling, the bifurcation diagram obtained by numerical and analytical solutions shows significant changes in the stability boundaries of the amplitude death, phase locked and incoherent regions. A novel result is the occurrence of amplitude death even in the absence of a frequency mismatch between the two oscillators. Similar results are obtained for an array of N oscillators with a delayed mean field coupling and the regions of such amplitude death in the parameter space of the coupling strength and time delay are quantified. Some general analytic results for the N tending to infinity (thermodynamic) limit are also obtained and the implications of the time delay effects for physical applications are discussed.

  20. Norms for developmental milestones using VABS-II and association with anthropometric measures among apparently healthy urban Indian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Zhu, Jianjun; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of developmental milestones based on locally developed norms is critical for accurate estimate of overall development of a child's cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional development. A cross-sectional study was done to develop age specific norms for developmental milestones using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005) for apparently healthy children from 2 to 5 years from urban Bangalore, India, and to examine its association with anthropometric measures. Mothers (or caregivers) of 412 children participated in the study. Age-specific norms using inferential norming method and adaptive levels for all domains and subdomains were derived. Low adaptive level, also called delayed developmental milestone, was observed in 2.3% of the children, specifically 2.7% in motor and daily living skills and 2.4% in communication skills. When these children were assessed on the existing U.S. norms, there was a significant overestimation of delayed development in socialization and motor skills, whereas delay in communication and daily living skills were underestimated (all p VABS-II in preschool children, the prevalence of developmental delay could either be under- or overestimated using Western norms. Thus, locally referenced norms are critical for reliable assessments of development in children. Stunted and underweight children are more likely to have poorer developmental scores compared with healthy children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis with distinct dental, skeletal and developmental abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Guelmann, Marcio; Barak, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old child with hereditary gingival fibromatosis, supernumerary tooth, chest deformities, auricular cartilage deformation, joint laxity and undescended testes is described. The exact mode of inheritance is unclear; a new mutation pattern is possible. These features resemble but differ from the previously reported Laband syndrome. The dental treatment consisted of surgical removal of the fibrous tissue and conservative restorative treatment under general anesthesia. The dental practitioner should be alert for developmental abnormalities such as supernumerary teeth and delayed tooth eruption. A comprehensive medical history and physical systemic evaluation is essential to rule out other systemic abnormalities. Genetic consultation is mandatory for future family planing.

  2. Early motor developmental milestones and level of neuroticism in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Revsbech, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are the first of their kind and suggest that delays in early motor development may not only characterize psychopathological disorders such as schizophrenia, but may also be associated with the personality dimension of neuroticism in adulthood.......BACKGROUND: Studies investigating early developmental factors in relation to psychopathology have mainly focused on schizophrenia. The personality dimension of neuroticism seems to be a general risk factor for psychopathology, but evidence on associations between early developmental precursors...... and personality traits is almost non-existent. This study is therefore the first to investigate associations between early motor developmental milestones and neuroticism in adulthood. Method Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first...

  3. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  4. PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    among children might even be higher, as medical and educational systems frequently fail to identify this ... A gender difference also occurs with regard to DCD. ..... developmental and physical disabilities, consecutively taught at the Movement ...

  5. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  6. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested...

  7. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  8. Epigenetic Patterns Modulate the Connection between Developmental Dynamics of Parenting and Offspring Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Oksana Yu.; Hein, Sascha; Suderman, Matthew; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Raefski, Adam; Dobrynin, Pavel V.; Brown, Pamela J.; Szyf, Moshe; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to establish and quantify the connections between parenting, offspring psychosocial adjustment, and the epigenome. The participants, 35 African American young adults (19 females and 16 males; age = 17-29.5 years), represented a subsample of a 3-wave longitudinal 15-year study on the developmental trajectories of low-income…

  9. Epigenetic Patterns Modulate the Connection between Developmental Dynamics of Parenting and Offspring Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Oksana Yu.; Hein, Sascha; Suderman, Matthew; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Raefski, Adam; Dobrynin, Pavel V.; Brown, Pamela J.; Szyf, Moshe; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to establish and quantify the connections between parenting, offspring psychosocial adjustment, and the epigenome. The participants, 35 African American young adults (19 females and 16 males; age = 17-29.5 years), represented a subsample of a 3-wave longitudinal 15-year study on the developmental trajectories of low-income…

  10. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...... recognition of the sociocultural embeddedness of human development, and of the importance to study individuals’ subjective experience, however, calls for adequate methodological procedures that allow for the study of processes of transformation across the life span. The wide range of established procedures...

  11. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches have been used to understand the origins of the functional traits that characterize the Andean high-altitude native. Based on the conceptual framework of developmental functional adaptation which postulates that environmental influences during the period of growth and development have long lasting effects that may be expressed during adulthood, we initiated a series of studies addressed at determining the pattern of physical growth and the contribution of growth and development to the attainment of full functional adaptation to high-altitude of low and high altitude natives living under rural and urban conditions. Current research indicate that: (a) the pattern of growth at high altitude due to limited nutritional resources, physical growth in body size is delayed but growth in lung volumes is accelerated because of hypoxic stress); (b) low-altitude male and female urban natives can attain a full functional adaptation to high altitude by exposure to high-altitude hypoxia during the period of growth and development; (c) both experimental studies on animals and comparative human studies indicate that exposure to high altitude during the period of growth and development results in the attainment of a large residual lung volume; (d) this developmentally acquired enlarged residual lung volume and its associated increase in alveolar area when combined with the increased tissue capillarization and moderate increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration contributes to the successful functional adaptation of the Andean high-altitude native to hypoxia; and (e) any specific genetic traits that are related to the successful functional adaptation of Andean high-altitude natives have yet to be identified.

  12. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  13. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  14. Stochastic modelling of train delays and delay propagation in stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.

    2006-01-01

    A trade-off exists between efficiently utilizing the capacity of railway networks and improving the reliability and punctuality of train operations. This dissertation presents a new analytical probability model based on blocking time theory which estimates the knock-on delays of trains caused by

  15. The developmental dynamics of the maize leaf transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pinghua; Ponnala, Lalit; Gandotra, Neeru; Wang, Lin; Si, Yaqing; Tausta, S Lori; Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Provart, Nicholas; Patel, Rohan; Myers, Christopher R; Reidel, Edwin J; Turgeon, Robert; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Nelson, Timothy; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2010-12-01

    We have analyzed the maize leaf transcriptome using Illumina sequencing. We mapped more than 120 million reads to define gene structure and alternative splicing events and to quantify transcript abundance along a leaf developmental gradient and in mature bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. We detected differential mRNA processing events for most maize genes. We found that 64% and 21% of genes were differentially expressed along the developmental gradient and between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells, respectively. We implemented Gbrowse, an electronic fluorescent pictograph browser, and created a two-cell biochemical pathway viewer to visualize datasets. Cluster analysis of the data revealed a dynamic transcriptome, with transcripts for primary cell wall and basic cellular metabolism at the leaf base transitioning to transcripts for secondary cell wall biosynthesis and C(4) photosynthetic development toward the tip. This dataset will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of photosynthetic development.

  16. Static postural control in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Thierry; Vernet, Paul; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Robichon, Fabrice; Bron, Alain; Quercia, Patrick

    2006-08-07

    The present investigation tries to better understand potential association and causal relationship between phonological and postural impairment due to developmental dyslexia. The study included 50 boys with developmental dyslexia and selected on the basis of their overall reading difficulties, and 42 control boys. Body sway during a quite standing posture eye open and eye closed on a force platform were tested in the two groups of subjects that were between 10 and 13 years of age. Analysis of classical parameters quantifying the centre of pressure (CP) displacements along antero-posterior and lateral axes showed a significant difference between the two groups. Dyslexic children showed on average greater instability, with greater length, variability and mean power frequency of CP displacements with or without vision. Our results demonstrate that postural parameters may discriminate between children with dyslexia and age-equivalent controls.

  17. Delaying vortex breakdown by waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M. F.; Jiang, L. B.; Wu, J. Z.; Ma, H. Y.; Pan, J. Y.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of spiral waves on delaying vortex breakdown in a tube is studied experimentally and theoretically. When a harmonic oscillation was imposed on one of guiding vanes in the tube, the breakdown was observed to be postponed appreciately. According to the generalized Lagrangian mean theory, proper forcing spiral waves may produce an additional streaming momentum, of which the effect is favorable and similar to an axial suction at downstream end. The delayed breakdown position is further predicted by using nonlinear wave theory. Qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, and experimental comparison of the effects due to forcing spiral wave and axial suction is made.

  18. Delay equations and radiation damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicone, C.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Mashhoon, B.; Retzloff, D. G.

    2001-06-01

    Starting from delay equations that model field retardation effects, we study the origin of runaway modes that appear in the solutions of the classical equations of motion involving the radiation reaction force. When retardation effects are small, we argue that the physically significant solutions belong to the so-called slow manifold of the system and we identify this invariant manifold with the attractor in the state space of the delay equation. We demonstrate via an example that when retardation effects are no longer small, the motion could exhibit bifurcation phenomena that are not contained in the local equations of motion.

  19. Time-domain nature of group delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建武; 冯正和

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of group delay is analyzed based on an electronic circuit, and its time-domain nature is studied with time-domain simulation and experiment. The time-domain simulations and experimental results show that group delay is the delay of the energy center of the amplitude-modulated pulse, rather than the propagation delay of the electromagnetic field. As group velocity originates from the definition of group delay and group delay is different from the propagation delay, the superluminality or negativity of group velocity does not mean the superluminal or negative propagation of the electromagnetic field.

  20. Delayed bet-hedging resilience strategies under environmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Masaki; Wakaiki, Masashi; Rubin, Harvey; Preciado, Victor M.

    2017-05-01

    Many biological populations, such as bacterial colonies, have developed through evolution a protection mechanism, called bet hedging, to increase their probability of survival under stressful environmental fluctuation. In this context, the concept of preadaptation refers to a common type of bet-hedging protection strategy in which a relatively small number of individuals in a population stochastically switch their phenotypes to a dormant metabolic state in which they increase their probability of survival against potential environmental shocks. Hence, if an environmental shock took place at some point in time, preadapted organisms would be better adapted to survive and proliferate once the shock is over. In many biological populations, the mechanisms of preadaptation and proliferation present delays whose influence in the fitness of the population are not well understood. In this paper, we propose a rigorous mathematical framework to analyze the role of delays in both preadaptation and proliferation mechanisms in the survival of biological populations, with an emphasis on bacterial colonies. Our theoretical framework allows us to analytically quantify the average growth rate of a bet-hedging bacterial colony with stochastically delayed reactions with arbitrary precision. We verify the accuracy of the proposed method by numerical simulations and conclude that the growth rate of a bet-hedging population shows a nontrivial dependency on their preadaptation and proliferation delays. Contrary to the current belief, our results show that faster reactions do not, in general, increase the overall fitness of a biological population.

  1. Twins and virtual twins: Do genetic (as well as experiential) factors affect developmental risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Tan, Tony Xing; Graham, Jamie L

    2015-08-01

    Factors underlying developmental delays and psychosocial risks are of interest to international adoption communities. The current study administered a Pre-Adoption Adversity (PAA) Questionnaire to mostly American parents raising (a) adopted Chinese twins or (b) same-age unrelated adopted siblings. A goal was to replicate earlier analyses of pre-adoption adversity/adjustment among adopted preschool-age Chinese girls. A second goal was to conduct genetic analyses of four content areas (Developmental Delays at Adoption, Initial Adaptation to Adoption, Crying/Clinging, and Refusal/Avoidance) derived from the PAA Questionnaire. A key finding was that age at adoption added less than other predictors to adoptees' externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Family factors (e.g., parental education) contributed significantly to behavioral outcomes among the adopted Chinese twins. Genetic effects were indicated for all four content areas, with shared environmental effects evident for Developmental Delays at Adoption and Crying/Clinging. Future investigators should consider incorporating genetically sensitive designs into developmental research programs.

  2. Delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage following functional hemispherotomy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in a hemimegalencephaly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Nagahama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shunt overdrainage represents a nebulous condition of variable clinical and imaging presentations, where the diagnosis is primarily clinical. The condition presents a diagnostic challenge particularly in patients with cognitive impairment and developmental delays. Here we present a 3-year-old boy with drug-resistant focal onset seizures due to hemimegalencephaly who previously underwent functional hemispherotomy followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for postoperative hydrocephalus. The subsequent clinical course was complicated by delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage in the absence of significant image findings. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for the possibility of shunt overdrainage is critical even in the face of unremarkable imaging findings.

  3. Delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage following functional hemispherotomy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in a hemimegalencephaly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; Peters, David; Kumonda, Sho; Vesole, Adam; Joshi, Charuta; J Dlouhy, Brian; Kawasaki, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Shunt overdrainage represents a nebulous condition of variable clinical and imaging presentations, where the diagnosis is primarily clinical. The condition presents a diagnostic challenge particularly in patients with cognitive impairment and developmental delays. Here we present a 3-year-old boy with drug-resistant focal onset seizures due to hemimegalencephaly who previously underwent functional hemispherotomy followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for postoperative hydrocephalus. The subsequent clinical course was complicated by delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage in the absence of significant image findings. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for the possibility of shunt overdrainage is critical even in the face of unremarkable imaging findings.

  4. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  5. The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) and Its Absence in Some Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sciullo, Anna Maria; Aguero-Bautista, Calixto

    2008-01-01

    The Delay of Principle B Effect (DPBE) has been discussed in various studies that show that children around age 5 seem to violate Principle B of Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1981, and related works), when the antecedent of the pronoun is a name, but not when the antecedent is a quantifier. The analysis we propose can explain the DPBE in languages of…

  6. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  7. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  8. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  9. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the prevale

  10. Advanced optical delay line demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has designed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in future ground based and space interferometry missions. The work is performed under NIVR contract in preparation for GENIE and DARWIN. Using the ESO PRIMA DDL requirements as

  11. Providing Delay Guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, Rachid; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network. I

  12. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  13. Codes Can Reduce Queueing Delay in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Zhang, Hao; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify how much codes can reduce the data retrieval latency in storage systems. By combining a simple linear code with a novel request scheduling algorithm, which we call Blocking-one Scheduling (BoS), we show analytically that it is possible to reduce data retrieval delay by up to 17% over currently popular replication-based strategies. Although in this work we focus on a simplified setting where the storage system stores a single content, the methodology developed can be applied to more general settings with multiple contents. The results also offer insightful guidance to the design of storage systems in data centers and content distribution networks.

  14. Quantifying reporting timeliness to improve outbreak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel; Swaan, Corien; van Steenbergen, Jim; Kretzschmar, MEE

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which reporting delays should be reduced to gain substantial improvement in outbreak control is unclear. We developed a model to quantitatively assess reporting timeliness. Using reporting speed data for 6 infectious diseases in the notification system in the Netherlands, we calculated

  15. Disorders of childhood growth and development: screening and evaluation of the child who misses developmental milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity). In the case of abnormal screening results, family physicians must determine the need for further medical evaluation (eg, by a developmental pediatric subspecialist or a pediatric neurology, genetics, or physiatry subspecialist) and/or further developmental evaluation (eg, by a physical therapy [PT], occupational therapy [OT], speech/language pathology, psychology, or audiology subspecialist). Knowledge of early intervention and early childhood programs is necessary for directing parents to evaluation and treatment sources. In treating patients with developmental delays, family physicians must possess knowledge regarding traditional modalities (eg, speech/language therapy, OT, PT) as well as newer treatments with less research support (eg, gluten-free/casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment) that families may consider.

  16. Committee Opinion No. 684 Summary: Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Delayed umbilical cord clamping appears to be beneficial for term and preterm infants. In term infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping increases hemoglobin levels at birth and improves iron stores in the first several months of life, which may have a favorable effect on developmental outcomes. There is a small increase in jaundice that requires phototherapy in this group of infants. Consequently, health care providers adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants should ensure that mechanisms are in place to monitor for and treat neonatal jaundice. In preterm infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant neonatal benefits, including improved transitional circulation, better establishment of red blood cell volume, decreased need for blood transfusion, and lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage or increased blood loss at delivery, nor was it associated with a difference in postpartum hemoglobin levels or the need for blood transfusion. Given the benefits to most newborns and concordant with other professional organizations, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in vigorous term and preterm infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth. The ability to provide delayed umbilical cord clamping may vary among institutions and settings; decisions in those circumstances are best made by the team caring for the mother-infant dyad.

  17. Time Delay Circuits: A Quality Criterion for Delay Variations versus Frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garakoui, Seyed Kasra; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Vliet, van Frank E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that the group delay of a delay circuit does not give sufficient information to predict the delay vs. frequency. A new criterion (fϕ=0) is proposed that characterizes the delay variations over a specified frequency range. The mathematical derivation of fϕ=0 for a single delay block

  18. THE ALL-DELAY STABILITY OF DEGENERATE DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the all-delay stability of degenerate differential systems with delay is discussed.We come up with some new criteria for evaluating the all-delay stability of degenerate differential systems with delay and degenerate neutral differential systems with delay.Also,we give an example to illustrate the main results.

  19. The Design and Validation of a Child Developmental e-Screening System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Huang, Po-Hsin; Ju, Yan-Ying; Chen, Li-Ying; Tseng, Kevin C

    2017-04-01

    An effective screening test could significantly impact identification of developmental delays at an early age. However, many studies have shown that delay screenings still use text-based screening survey questionnaires. Unfortunately, the traditional text-based screening method tends to be fairly passive. In addition, the advantages of using an interactive system and animation have been shown to lead to positive effects on learning in medical research. Therefore, a multimedia screening system is necessary. This study constructs a system architecture to develop an e-screening system for child developmental delays. To validate the system after development, this study conducted an experiment and employed a questionnaire to survey users. Five experts and 120 subjects participated in the experiment. After the experiment, the results of the system evaluation revealed excellent agreement between the text-based and multimedia version of Taipei II. A total of 118 (98%) participants preferred the multimedia version or had no preference, and only 2 (2%) preferred the paper version. Regular text-based screening sometimes excludes those with low literacy and those whose native language is different from the text. In addition, text-based screening tools lose users' attention easily. The current study successfully developed a multimedia text-based screening system. Feedback from the participants showed that the e-screening system was well accepted and more easily accessible than the original. In this study, a child developmental delays e-screening system was developed. After the experiment, the subjects indicated that the developmental delay e-screening system increased their comprehension and kept them interested in the screening.

  20. Quantifying robustness of biochemical network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Pablo A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robustness of mathematical models of biochemical networks is important for validation purposes and can be used as a means of selecting between different competing models. Tools for quantifying parametric robustness are needed. Results Two techniques for describing quantitatively the robustness of an oscillatory model were presented and contrasted. Single-parameter bifurcation analysis was used to evaluate the stability robustness of the limit cycle oscillation as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. A tool from control engineering – the structural singular value (SSV – was used to quantify robust stability of the limit cycle. Using SSV analysis, we find very poor robustness when the model's parameters are allowed to vary. Conclusion The results show the usefulness of incorporating SSV analysis to single parameter sensitivity analysis to quantify robustness.