WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantify cloud property

  1. Quantifying the Climate-Scale Accuracy of Satellite Cloud Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Liang, L.; Di Girolamo, L.

    2014-12-01

    Instrument calibration and cloud retrieval algorithms have been developed to minimize retrieval errors on small scales. However, measurement uncertainties and assumptions within retrieval algorithms at the pixel level may alias into decadal-scale trends of cloud properties. We first, therefore, quantify how instrument calibration changes could alias into cloud property trends. For a perfect observing system the climate trend accuracy is limited only by the natural variability of the climate variable. Alternatively, for an actual observing system, the climate trend accuracy is additionally limited by the measurement uncertainty. Drifts in calibration over time may therefore be disguised as a true climate trend. We impose absolute calibration changes to MODIS spectral reflectance used as input to the CERES Cloud Property Retrieval System (CPRS) and run the modified MODIS reflectance through the CPRS to determine the sensitivity of cloud properties to calibration changes. We then use these changes to determine the impact of instrument calibration changes on trend uncertainty in reflected solar cloud properties. Secondly, we quantify how much cloud retrieval algorithm assumptions alias into cloud optical retrieval trends by starting with the largest of these biases: the plane-parallel assumption in cloud optical thickness (τC) retrievals. First, we collect liquid water cloud fields obtained from Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) measurements to construct realistic probability distribution functions (PDFs) of 3D cloud anisotropy (a measure of the degree to which clouds depart from plane-parallel) for different ISCCP cloud types. Next, we will conduct a theoretical study with dynamically simulated cloud fields and a 3D radiative transfer model to determine the relationship between 3D cloud anisotropy and 3D τC bias for each cloud type. Combining these results provides distributions of 3D τC bias by cloud type. Finally, we will estimate the change in

  2. Radiative properties of clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1993-01-01

    The climatic effects of condensation nuclei in the formation of cloud droplets and the subsequent role of the cloud droplets as contributors to the planetary short-wave albedo is emphasized. Microphysical properties of clouds, which can be greatly modified by the degree of mixing with cloud-free air from outside, are discussed. The effect of clouds on visible radiation is assessed through multiple scattering of the radiation. Cloudwater or ice absorbs more with increasing wavelength in the near-infrared region, with water vapor providing the stronger absorption over narrower wavelength bands. Cloud thermal infrared absorption can be solely related to liquid water content at least for shallow clouds and clouds in the early development state. Three-dimensional general circulation models have been used to study the climatic effect of clouds. It was found for such studies (which did not consider variations in cloud albedo) that the cooling effects due to the increase in planetary short-wave albedo from clouds were offset by heating effects due to thermal infrared absorption by the cloud. Two permanent direct effects of increased pollution are discussed in this chapter: (a) an increase of absorption in the visible and near infrared because of increased amounts of elemental carbon, which gives rise to a warming effect climatically, and (b) an increased optical thickness of clouds due to increasing cloud droplet number concentration caused by increasing cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, which gives rise to a cooling effect climatically. An increase in cloud albedo from 0.7 to 0.87 produces an appreciable climatic perturbation of cooling up to 2.5 K at the ground, using a hemispheric general circulation model. Effects of pollution on cloud thermal infrared absorption are negligible

  3. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  4. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  5. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions and Cloud Microphysical Properties in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, P. A.; Axisa, D.; Burger, R. P.; Li, R.; Collins, D. R.; Freney, E. J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    In recent advertent and inadvertent weather modification studies, a considerable effort has been made to understand the impact of varying aerosol properties and concentration on cloud properties. Significant uncertainties exist with aerosol-cloud interactions for which complex microphysical processes link the aerosol and cloud properties. Under almost all environmental conditions, increased aerosol concentrations within polluted air masses will enhance cloud droplet concentration relative to that in unperturbed regions. The interaction between dust particles and clouds are significant, yet the conditions in which dust particles become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are uncertain. In order to quantify this aerosol effect on clouds and precipitation, a field campaign was launched in the Asir region, located adjacent to the Red Sea in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia. Ground measurements of aerosol size distributions, hygroscopic growth factors, CCN concentrations as well as aircraft measurements of cloud hydrometeor size distributions were observed in the Asir region in August 2009. The presentation will include a summary of the analysis and results with a focus on aerosol-cloud interactions and cloud microphysical properties observed during the convective season in the Asir region.

  6. Measurement errors in cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Larsen

    Full Text Available The limited accuracy of current cloud microphysics sensors used in cirrus cloud studies imposes limitations on the use of the data to examine the cloud's broadband radiative behaviour, an important element of the global energy balance. We review the limitations of the instruments, PMS probes, most widely used for measuring the microphysical structure of cirrus clouds and show the effect of these limitations on descriptions of the cloud radiative properties. The analysis is applied to measurements made as part of the European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX to determine mid-latitude cirrus microphysical and radiative properties.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Radiative processes · Instruments and techniques

  7. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  8. Quantifying Sediment Transport in a Premontane Transitional Cloud Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, E. R.; Brumbelow, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying sediment transport is a difficult task in any watershed, and relatively little direct measurement has occurred in tropical, mountainous watersheds. The Howler Monkey Watershed (2.2 hectares) is located in a premontane transitional cloud forest in San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. In June 2012, a V-notch stream-gaging weir was built in the catchment with a 8 ft by 6 ft by 4 ft concrete stilling basin. Sediment captured by the weir was left untouched for an 11 month time period. To collect the contents of the weir, the stream was rerouted and the weir was drained. The stilling basin contents were systematically sampled, and samples were taken to a lab and characterized using sieve and hydrometer tests. The wet volume of the remaining sediment was obtained, and dry mass was estimated. Particle size distribution of samples were obtained from lab tests, with 96% of sediment trapped by the weir being sand or coarser. The efficiency of the weir as a sediment collector was evaluated by comparing particle fall velocities to residence time of water in the weir under baseflow conditions. Under these assumptions, only two to three percent of the total mass of soil transported in the stream is thought to have been suspended in the water and lost over the V-notch. Data were compared to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), a widely accepted method for predicting soil loss in agricultural watersheds. As expected, application of the USLE to a tropical rainforest was problematic with uncertainty in parameters yielding a soil loss estimate varying by a factor of 50. Continued monitoring of sediment transport should yield data for improved methods of soil loss estimation applicable to tropical mountainous forests.

  9. Global distributions of cloud properties for CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.; Young, D.

    2003-04-01

    The microphysical and macrophysical properties of clouds play a crucial role in the earth's radiation budget. Simultaneous measurement of the radiation and cloud fields on a global basis has long been recognized as a key component in understanding and modeling the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. With the implementation of the NASA Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in 1998, this need is being met. Broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements taken by the CERES scanners at resolutions between 10 and 20 km on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Terra, and Aqua satellites are matched to simultaneous retrievals of cloud height, phase, particle size, water path, and optical depth from the TRMM Visible Infrared Scanner and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. The combined cloud-radiation product has already been used for developing new, highly accurate anisotropic directional models for converting broadband radiances to flux. They also provide a consistent measure of cloud properties at different times of day over the globe since January 1998. These data will be valuable for determining the indirect effects of aerosols and for linking cloud water to cloud radiation. This paper provides an overview of the CERES cloud products from the three satellites including the retrieval methodology, validation, and global distributions. Availability and access to the datasets will also be discussed.

  10. Quantifying Uncertainties in Mass-Dimensional Relationships Through a Comparison Between CloudSat and SPartICus Reflectivity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, J.; Mace, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    CloudSat and CALIPSO, two of the satellites in the A-Train constellation, use algorithms to calculate the scattering properties of small cloud particles, such as the T-matrix method. Ice clouds (i.e. cirrus) cause problems with these cloud property retrieval algorithms because of their variability in ice mass as a function of particle size. Assumptions regarding the microphysical properties, such as mass-dimensional (m-D) relationships, are often necessary in retrieval algorithms for simplification, but these assumptions create uncertainties of their own. Therefore, ice cloud property retrieval uncertainties can be substantial and are often not well known. To investigate these uncertainties, reflectivity factors measured by CloudSat are compared to those calculated from particle size distributions (PSDs) to which different m-D relationships are applied. These PSDs are from data collected in situ during three flights of the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) campaign. We find that no specific habit emerges as preferred and instead we conclude that the microphysical characteristics of ice crystal populations tend to be distributed over a continuum and, therefore, cannot be categorized easily. To quantify the uncertainties in the mass-dimensional relationships, an optimal estimation inversion was run to retrieve the m-D relationship per SPartICus flight, as well as to calculate uncertainties of the m-D power law.

  11. Examination of Regional Trends in Cloud Properties over Surface Sites Derived from MODIS and AVHRR using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Doelling, D. R.; Kato, S.; Rutan, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies analyzing long-term measurements of surface insolation at ground sites suggest that decadal-scale trends of increasing (brightening) and decreasing (dimming) downward solar flux have occurred at various times over the last century. Regional variations have been reported that range from near 0 Wm-2/decade to as large as 9 Wm-2/decade depending on the location and time period analyzed. The more significant trends have been attributed to changes in overhead clouds and aerosols, although quantifying their relative impacts using independent observations has been difficult, owing in part to a lack of consistent long-term measurements of cloud properties. This paper examines new satellite based records of cloud properties derived from MODIS (2000-present) and AVHRR (1981- present) data to infer cloud property trends over a number of surface radiation sites across the globe. The MODIS cloud algorithm was developed for the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project to provide a consistent record of cloud properties to help improve broadband radiation measurements and to better understand cloud radiative effects. The CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm has been modified to analyze other satellites including the AVHRR on the NOAA satellites. Compared to MODIS, obtaining consistent cloud properties over a long period from AVHRR is a much more significant challenge owing to the number of different satellites, instrument calibration uncertainties, orbital drift and other factors. Nevertheless, both the MODIS and AVHRR cloud properties will be analyzed to determine trends, and their level of consistency and correspondence with surface radiation trends derived from the ground-based radiometer data. It is anticipated that this initial study will contribute to an improved understanding of surface solar radiation trends and their relationship to clouds.

  12. Aerosol and Cloud Microphysical Properties in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; Kucera, Paul; Burger, Roelof; Li, Runjun; Collins, Don; Freney, Evelyn; Posada, Rafael; Buseck, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In recent advertent and inadvertent weather modification studies, a considerable effort has been made to understand the impact of varying aerosol properties and concentration on cloud properties. Significant uncertainties exist with aerosol-cloud interactions for which complex microphysical processes link the aerosol and cloud properties. Under almost all environmental conditions, increased aerosol concentrations within polluted air masses will enhance cloud droplet concentration relative to that in unperturbed regions. The interaction between dust particles and clouds are significant, yet the conditions in which dust particles become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are uncertain. In order to quantify this aerosol effect on clouds and precipitation, a field campaign was launched in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia as part of a Precipitation Enhancement Feasibility Study. Ground measurements of aerosol size distributions, hygroscopic growth factor, CCN concentrations as well as aircraft measurements of cloud hydrometeor size distributions were done in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia in August 2009. Research aircraft operations focused primarily on conducting measurements in clouds that are targeted for cloud top-seeding, on their microphysical characterization, especially the preconditions necessary for precipitation; understanding the evolution of droplet coalescence, supercooled liquid water, cloud ice and precipitation hydrometeors is necessary if advances are to be made in the study of cloud modification by cloud seeding. Non-precipitating mixed-phase clouds less than 3km in diameter that developed on top of the stable inversion were characterized by flying at the convective cloud top just above the inversion. Aerosol measurements were also done during the climb to cloud base height. The presentation will include a summary of the analysis and results with a focus on the unique features of the Asir region in producing convective clouds, characterization of the

  13. Quantifying Uncertainty in Satellite-Retrieved Land Surface Temperature from Cloud Detection Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Bulgin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clouds remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in remote sensing of surface temperature in the infrared, but this uncertainty has not generally been quantified. We present a new approach to do so, applied here to the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR. We use an ensemble of cloud masks based on independent methodologies to investigate the magnitude of cloud detection uncertainties in area-average Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval. We find that at a grid resolution of 625 km 2 (commensurate with a 0.25 ∘ grid size at the tropics, cloud detection uncertainties are positively correlated with cloud-cover fraction in the cell and are larger during the day than at night. Daytime cloud detection uncertainties range between 2.5 K for clear-sky fractions of 10–20% and 1.03 K for clear-sky fractions of 90–100%. Corresponding night-time uncertainties are 1.6 K and 0.38 K, respectively. Cloud detection uncertainty shows a weaker positive correlation with the number of biomes present within a grid cell, used as a measure of heterogeneity in the background against which the cloud detection must operate (e.g., surface temperature, emissivity and reflectance. Uncertainty due to cloud detection errors is strongly dependent on the dominant land cover classification. We find cloud detection uncertainties of a magnitude of 1.95 K over permanent snow and ice, 1.2 K over open forest, 0.9–1 K over bare soils and 0.09 K over mosaic cropland, for a standardised clear-sky fraction of 74.2%. As the uncertainties arising from cloud detection errors are of a significant magnitude for many surface types and spatially heterogeneous where land classification varies rapidly, LST data producers are encouraged to quantify cloud-related uncertainties in gridded products.

  14. New approaches to quantifying aerosol influence on the cloud radiative effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Graham; McComiskey, Allison; Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Johnson, Jill S; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Schmidt, K Sebastian

    2016-05-24

    The topic of cloud radiative forcing associated with the atmospheric aerosol has been the focus of intense scrutiny for decades. The enormity of the problem is reflected in the need to understand aspects such as aerosol composition, optical properties, cloud condensation, and ice nucleation potential, along with the global distribution of these properties, controlled by emissions, transport, transformation, and sinks. Equally daunting is that clouds themselves are complex, turbulent, microphysical entities and, by their very nature, ephemeral and hard to predict. Atmospheric general circulation models represent aerosol-cloud interactions at ever-increasing levels of detail, but these models lack the resolution to represent clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions adequately. There is a dearth of observational constraints on aerosol-cloud interactions. We develop a conceptual approach to systematically constrain the aerosol-cloud radiative effect in shallow clouds through a combination of routine process modeling and satellite and surface-based shortwave radiation measurements. We heed the call to merge Darwinian and Newtonian strategies by balancing microphysical detail with scaling and emergent properties of the aerosol-cloud radiation system.

  15. Comparisons of Satellite-Deduced Overlapping Cloud Properties and CALIPSO CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.

  16. The Dependence of Cloud Property Trend Detection on Absolute Calibration Accuracy of Passive Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting trends in climate variables on global, decadal scales requires highly accurate, stable measurements and retrieval algorithms. Trend uncertainty depends on its magnitude, natural variability, and instrument and retrieval algorithm accuracy and stability. We applied a climate accuracy framework to quantify the impact of absolute calibration on cloud property trend uncertainty. The cloud properties studied were cloud fraction, effective temperature, optical thickness, and effective radius retrieved using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Cloud Property Retrieval System, which uses Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements (MODIS). Modeling experiments from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) agree that net cloud feedback is likely positive but disagree regarding its magnitude, mainly due to uncertainty in shortwave cloud feedback. With the climate accuracy framework we determined the time to detect trends for instruments with various calibration accuracies. We estimated a relationship between cloud property trend uncertainty, cloud feedback, and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity and also between effective radius trend uncertainty and aerosol indirect effect trends. The direct relationship between instrument accuracy requirements and climate model output provides the level of instrument absolute accuracy needed to reduce climate model projection uncertainty. Different cloud types have varied radiative impacts on the climate system depending on several attributes, such as their thermodynamic phase, altitude, and optical thickness. Therefore, we also conducted these studies by cloud types for a clearer understanding of instrument accuracy requirements needed to detect changes in their cloud properties. Combining this information with the radiative impact of different cloud types helps to prioritize among requirements for future satellite sensors and understanding the climate detection

  17. Comparison of Cloud Properties from CALIPSO-CloudSat and Geostationary Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Chang, F.; Winker, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Spangenberg, D.; Austin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud properties are being derived in near-real time from geostationary satellite imager data for a variety of weather and climate applications and research. Assessment of the uncertainties in each of the derived cloud parameters is essential for confident use of the products. Determination of cloud amount, cloud top height, and cloud layering is especially important for using these real -time products for applications such as aircraft icing condition diagnosis and numerical weather prediction model assimilation. Furthermore, the distribution of clouds as a function of altitude has become a central component of efforts to evaluate climate model cloud simulations. Validation of those parameters has been difficult except over limited areas where ground-based active sensors, such as cloud radars or lidars, have been available on a regular basis. Retrievals of cloud properties are sensitive to the surface background, time of day, and the clouds themselves. Thus, it is essential to assess the geostationary satellite retrievals over a variety of locations. The availability of cloud radar data from CloudSat and lidar data from CALIPSO make it possible to perform those assessments over each geostationary domain at 0130 and 1330 LT. In this paper, CloudSat and CALIPSO data are matched with contemporaneous Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), and Meteosat-8 data. Unlike comparisons with cloud products derived from A-Train imagers, this study considers comparisons of nadir active sensor data with off-nadir retrievals. These matched data are used to determine the uncertainties in cloud-top heights and cloud amounts derived from the geostationary satellite data using the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud retrieval algorithms. The CERES multi-layer cloud detection method is also evaluated to determine its accuracy and limitations in the off-nadir mode. The results will be useful for

  18. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  19. Clouds vertical properties over the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions from CloudSat-CALIPSO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subrata Kumar; Golhait, R. B.; Uma, K. N.

    2017-01-01

    The CloudSat spaceborne radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) space-borne lidar measurements, provide opportunities to understand the intriguing behavior of the vertical structure of monsoon clouds. The combined CloudSat-CALIPSO data products have been used for the summer season (June-August) of 2006-2010 to present the statistics of cloud macrophysical (such as cloud occurrence frequency, distribution of cloud top and base heights, geometrical thickness and cloud types base on occurrence height), and microphysical (such as ice water content, ice water path, and ice effective radius) properties of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) monsoon region. The monsoon regions considered in this work are the North American (NAM), North African (NAF), Indian (IND), East Asian (EAS), and Western North Pacific (WNP). The total cloud fraction over the IND (mostly multiple-layered cloud) appeared to be more frequent as compared to the other monsoon regions. Three distinctive modes of cloud top height distribution are observed over all the monsoon regions. The high-level cloud fraction is comparatively high over the WNP and IND. The ice water content and ice water path over the IND are maximum compared to the other monsoon regions. We found that the ice water content has little variations over the NAM, NAF, IND, and WNP as compared to their macrophysical properties and thus give an impression that the regional differences in dynamics and thermodynamics properties primarily cause changes in the cloud frequency or coverage and only secondary in the cloud ice properties. The background atmospheric dynamics using wind and relative humidity from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data have also been investigated which helps in understanding the variability of the cloud properties over the different monsoon regions.

  20. Study of cloud properties using airborne and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Stefan, Sabina; Vajaiac, Sorin Nicolae

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cloud microphysics properties using aircraft and satellite measurements. Cloud properties were drawn from data acquired both from in situ measurements with state of the art airborne instrumentation and from satellite products of the MODIS06 System. The used aircraft was ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research, property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania, which is specially equipped for this kind of research. The main tool of the airborne laboratory is a Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer - CAPS (30 bins, 0.51- 50 μm). The data was recorded during two flights during the winter 2013-2014, over a flat region in the south-eastern part of Romania (between Bucharest and Constanta). The analysis of cloud particle size variations and cloud liquid water content provided by CAPS can explain cloud processes, and can also indicate the extent of aerosols effects on clouds. The results, such as cloud coverage and/or cloud types, microphysical parameters of aerosols on the one side and the cloud microphysics parameters obtained from aircraft flights on the other side, was used to illustrate the importance of microphysics cloud properties for including the radiative effects of clouds in the regional climate models.

  1. Overview of the CERES Edition-4 Multilayer Cloud Property Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. L.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Smith, R. A.; Brown, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the cloud vertical distribution is important for understanding the role of clouds on earth's radiation budget and climate change. Since high-level cirrus clouds with low emission temperatures and small optical depths can provide a positive feedback to a climate system and low-level stratus clouds with high emission temperatures and large optical depths can provide a negative feedback effect, the retrieval of multilayer cloud properties using satellite observations, like Terra and Aqua MODIS, is critically important for a variety of cloud and climate applications. For the objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), new algorithms have been developed using Terra and Aqua MODIS data to allow separate retrievals of cirrus and stratus cloud properties when the two dominant cloud types are simultaneously present in a multilayer system. In this paper, we will present an overview of the new CERES Edition-4 multilayer cloud property datasets derived from Terra as well as Aqua. Assessment of the new CERES multilayer cloud datasets will include high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud heights, pressures, and temperatures as well as their optical depths, emissivities, and microphysical properties.

  2. Depolarization Lidar Determination of Cloud-Base Microphysical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, D.P.; Klein Baltink, H; Henzing, J. S.; de Roode, S.R.; Siebesma, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The links between multiple-scattering induced depolarization and cloud microphysical properties (e.g. cloud particle number density, effective radius, water content) have long been recognised. Previous efforts to use depolarization information in a quantitative manner to retrieve cloud

  3. Validation of Cloud Properties From Multiple Satellites Using CALIOP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Heck, Patrick W.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Langley Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is routinely applied to multispectral imagery from several geostationary and polar-orbiting imagers to retrieve cloud properties for weather and climate applications. Validation of the retrievals with independent datasets is continuously ongoing in order to understand differences caused by calibration, spatial resolution, viewing geometry, and other factors. The CALIOP instrument provides a decade of detailed cloud observations which can be used to evaluate passive imager retrievals of cloud boundaries, thermodynamic phase, cloud optical depth, and water path on a global scale. This paper focuses on comparisons of CALIOP retrievals to retrievals from MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, GOES, SEVIRI, and MTSAT. CALIOP is particularly skilled at detecting weakly-scattering cirrus clouds with optical depths less than approx. 0.5. These clouds are often undetected by passive imagers and the effect this has on the property retrievals is discussed.

  4. The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance for the radiation budget, liquid-containing clouds are a key component of the Arctic climate system. Depending on season, they can cool or warm the near-surface air. The radiative properties of these clouds depend strongly on cloud drop sizes, which are governed in part by the availability of cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we investigate how cloud drop sizes are modified in the presence of local emissions from industrial facilities at the North Slope of Alaska. For this, we use aircraft in situ observations of clouds and aerosols from the 5th Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM Program's Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V campaign obtained in summer 2015. Comparison of observations from an area with petroleum extraction facilities (Oliktok Point with data from a reference area relatively free of anthropogenic sources (Utqiaġvik/Barrow represents an opportunity to quantify the impact of local industrial emissions on cloud properties. In the presence of local industrial emissions, the mean effective radii of cloud droplets are reduced from 12.2 to 9.4 µm, which leads to suppressed drizzle production and precipitation. At the same time, concentrations of refractory black carbon and condensation nuclei are enhanced below the clouds. These results demonstrate that the effects of anthropogenic pollution on local climate need to be considered when planning Arctic industrial infrastructure in a warming environment.

  5. The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahn, Maximilian; de Boer, Gijs; Creamean, Jessie M.; Feingold, Graham; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Wu, Wei; Mei, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Due to their importance for the radiation budget, liquid-containing clouds are a key component of the Arctic climate system. Depending on season, they can cool or warm the near-surface air. The radiative properties of these clouds depend strongly on cloud drop sizes, which are governed in part by the availability of cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we investigate how cloud drop sizes are modified in the presence of local emissions from industrial facilities at the North Slope of Alaska. For this, we use aircraft in situ observations of clouds and aerosols from the 5th Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) Program's Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) campaign obtained in summer 2015. Comparison of observations from an area with petroleum extraction facilities (Oliktok Point) with data from a reference area relatively free of anthropogenic sources (Utqiaġvik/Barrow) represents an opportunity to quantify the impact of local industrial emissions on cloud properties. In the presence of local industrial emissions, the mean effective radii of cloud droplets are reduced from 12.2 to 9.4 µm, which leads to suppressed drizzle production and precipitation. At the same time, concentrations of refractory black carbon and condensation nuclei are enhanced below the clouds. These results demonstrate that the effects of anthropogenic pollution on local climate need to be considered when planning Arctic industrial infrastructure in a warming environment.

  6. Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Morille, Y.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Newsom, Rob K.

    2011-02-16

    [1] Active remote sensors such as lidars or radars can be used with other data to quantify the cloud properties at regional scale and at global scale (Dupont et al., 2009). Relative to radar, lidar remote sensing is sensitive to very thin and high clouds but has a significant limitation due to signal attenuation in the ability to precisely quantify the properties of clouds with a 20 cloud optical thickness larger than 3. In this study, 10-years of backscatter lidar signal data are analysed by a unique algorithm called STRucture of ATmosphere (STRAT, Morille et al., 2007). We apply the STRAT algorithm to data from both the collocated Micropulse lidar (MPL) and a Raman lidar (RL) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site between 1998 and 2009. Raw backscatter lidar signal is processed and 25 corrections for detector deadtime, afterpulse, and overlap are applied. (Campbell et al.) The cloud properties for all levels of clouds are derived and distributions of cloud base height (CBH), top height (CTH), physical cloud thickness (CT), and optical thickness (COT) from local statistics are compared. The goal of this study is (1) to establish a climatology of macrophysical and optical properties for all levels of clouds observed over the ARM SGP site 30 and (2) to estimate the discrepancies induced by the two remote sensing systems (pulse energy, sampling, resolution, etc.). Our first results tend to show that the MPLs, which are the primary ARM lidars, have a distinctly limited range where all of these cloud properties are detectable, especially cloud top and cloud thickness, but even actual cloud base especially during summer daytime period. According to the comparisons between RL and MPL, almost 50% of situations show a signal to noise ratio too low (smaller than 3) for the MPL in order to detect clouds higher than 7km during daytime period in summer. Consequently, the MPLderived annual cycle of cirrus cloud base (top) altitude is

  7. Black carbon mixing state impacts on cloud microphysical properties: effects of aerosol plume and environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Ping Pui; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew

    2016-05-27

    Black carbon (BC) is usually mixed with other aerosol species within individual aerosol particles. This mixture, along with the particles' size and morphology, determines the particles' optical and cloud condensation nuclei properties, and hence black carbon's climate impacts. In this study the particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC was used to quantify the importance of black carbon mixing state for predicting cloud microphysical quantities. Based on a set of about 100 cloud parcel simulations a process level analysis framework was developed to attribute the response in cloud microphysical properties to changes in the underlying aerosol population ("plume effect") and the cloud parcel cooling rate ("parcel effect"). It shows that the response of cloud droplet number concentration to changes in BC emissions depends on the BC mixing state. When the aerosol population contains mainly aged BC particles an increase in BC emission results in increasing cloud droplet number concentrations ("additive effect"). In contrast, when the aerosol population contains mainly fresh BC particles they act as sinks for condensable gaseous species, resulting in a decrease in cloud droplet number concentration as BC emissions are increased ("competition effect"). Additionally, we quantified the error in cloud microphysical quantities when neglecting the information on BC mixing state, which is often done in aerosol models. The errors ranged from -12% to +45% for the cloud droplet number fraction, from 0% to +1022% for the nucleation-scavenged black carbon (BC) mass fraction, from -12% to +4% for the effective radius, and from -30% to +60% for the relative dispersion.

  8. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  9. Long Term Cloud Property Datasets From MODIS and AVHRR Using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Doelling, David R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Yost, Christopher R.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Bedka, Sarah T.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Chen, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cloud properties play a critical role in climate change. Monitoring cloud properties over long time periods is needed to detect changes and to validate and constrain models. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has developed several cloud datasets from Aqua and Terra MODIS data to better interpret broadband radiation measurements and improve understanding of the role of clouds in the radiation budget. The algorithms applied to MODIS data have been adapted to utilize various combinations of channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the long-term time series of NOAA and MetOp satellites to provide a new cloud climate data record. These datasets can be useful for a variety of studies. This paper presents results of the MODIS and AVHRR analyses covering the period from 1980-2014. Validation and comparisons with other datasets are also given.

  10. Some Technical Aspects of a CALIOP and MODIS Data Analysis that Examines Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties as a Function of Cloud Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    CALIOP shows stronger near-cloud changes in aerosol properties at higher cloud fractions. Cloud fraction variations explain a third of near-cloud changes in overall aerosol statistics. Cloud fraction and aerosol particle size distribution have a complex relationship.

  11. A CERES-like Cloud Property Climatology Using AVHRR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q.; Bedka, S. T.; Sun-Mack, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds affect the climate system by modulating the radiation budget and distributing precipitation. Variations in cloud patterns and properties are expected to accompany changes in climate. The NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project developed an end-to-end analysis system to measure broadband radiances from a radiometer and retrieve cloud properties from collocated high-resolution MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate a long-term climate data record of clouds and clear-sky properties and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. The first MODIS was not launched until 2000, so the current CERES record is only 15 years long at this point. The core of the algorithms used to retrieve the cloud properties from MODIS is based on the spectral complement of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which has been aboard a string of satellites since 1978. The CERES cloud algorithms were adapted for application to AVHRR data and have been used to produce an ongoing CERES-like cloud property and surface temperature product that includes an initial narrowband-based radiation budget. This presentation will summarize this new product, which covers nearly 37 years, and its comparability with cloud parameters from CERES, CALIPSO, and other satellites. Examples of some applications of this dataset are given and the potential for generating a long-term radiation budget CDR is also discussed.

  12. CLAAS: the CM SAF cloud property data set using SEVIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, M. S.; Kniffka, A. K.; Meirink, J. F. M.; Lockhoff, M. L.; Tan, J. T.; Hollmann, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year record of satellite-based cloud properties named CLAAS (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI) is presented, which was derived within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring. The data set is based on SEVIRI measurements of the Meteosat Second Generation satellites, of which the visible and near-infrared channels were intercalibrated with MODIS. Applying two state-of-the-art retrieval schemes ensures high accuracy in cloud detection, cloud vertical placement and microphysical cloud properties. These properties were further processed to provide daily to monthly averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms. In particular, the per-month histogram information enhances the insight in spatio-temporal variability of clouds and their properties. Due to the underlying intercalibrated measurement record, the stability of the derived cloud properties is ensured, which is exemplarily demonstrated for three selected cloud variables for the entire SEVIRI disc and a European subregion. All data products and processing levels are introduced and validation results indicated. The sampling uncertainty of the averaged products in CLAAS is minimized due to the high temporal resolution of SEVIRI. This is emphasized by studying the impact of reduced temporal sampling rates taken at typical overpass times of polar-orbiting instruments. In particular, cloud optical thickness and cloud water path are very sensitive to the sampling rate, which in our study amounted to systematic deviations of over 10% if only sampled once a day. The CLAAS data set facilitates many cloud related applications at small spatial scales of a few kilometres and short temporal scales of a~few hours. Beyond this, the spatiotemporal characteristics of clouds on diurnal to seasonal, but also on multi-annual scales, can be studied.

  13. Cloud Computing Services: Benefits, Risks and Intellectual Property Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BĂLŢĂTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Major software players of the global market, such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft are developing cloud computing solutions, providing cloud services on demand: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS and Software as a service (SaaS. In software industry and also in ICT services market, cloud computing is playing an increasingly important role. Moreover, the expansion of cloud services indirectly contributed to the development and improvement of other types of services on the market – financial and accounting services, human resources services, educational services etc. – in terms of quality and affordability. Given the fact that cloud computing applications proved to be more affordable for small and medium enterprises (SME, an increasing number of companies in almost all the fields of activity have chosen cloud based solutions, such as Enterprise Resource Management (ERP software and Customer Relationship Management (CRM software. However, cloud computing services involve also some risks concerning privacy, security of data and lack of interoperability between cloud platforms. Patent strategy of certain proprietary software companies leaded to a veritable “patent war” and “patent arm race” endangering the process of standardization in software industry, especially in cloud computing. Intellectual property (IP legislation and court ruling in patent litigations is likely to have a significant impact on the development of cloud computing industry and cloud services.

  14. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh; Svensmark

    2000-12-04

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (climate on Earth.

  15. The role of cloud-scale resolution on radiative properties of oceanic cumulus clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Ackerman, Thomas; Kollias, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    Both individual and combined effects of the horizontal and vertical variability of cumulus clouds on solar radiative transfer are investigated using a two-dimensional (x- and z-directions) cloud radar dataset. This high-resolution dataset of typical fair-weather marine cumulus is derived from ground-based 94GHz cloud radar observations. The domain-averaged (along x-direction) radiative properties are computed by a Monte Carlo method. It is shown that (i) different cloud-scale resolutions can be used for accurate calculations of the mean absorption, upward and downward fluxes; (ii) the resolution effects can depend strongly on the solar zenith angle; and (iii) a few cloud statistics can be successfully applied for calculating the averaged radiative properties

  16. Quantifying Biomass from Point Clouds by Connecting Representations of Ecosystem Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, S. M.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem biomass is an essential part of monitoring carbon stocks and fluxes within the global carbon cycle and optimizing natural resource management. Point cloud data such as from lidar and structure from motion can be effective for quantifying biomass over large areas, but significant challenges remain in developing effective models that allow for such predictions. Inference models that estimate biomass from point clouds are established in many environments, yet, are often scale-dependent, needing to be fitted and applied at the same spatial scale and grid size at which they were developed. Furthermore, training such models typically requires large in situ datasets that are often prohibitively costly or time-consuming to obtain. We present here a scale- and sensor-invariant framework for efficiently estimating biomass from point clouds. Central to this framework, we present a new algorithm, assignPointsToExistingClusters, that has been developed for finding matches between in situ data and clusters in remotely-sensed point clouds. The algorithm can be used for assessing canopy segmentation accuracy and for training and validating machine learning models for predicting biophysical variables. We demonstrate the algorithm's efficacy by using it to train a random forest model of above ground biomass in a shrubland environment in Southern Arizona. We show that by learning a nonlinear function to estimate biomass from segmented canopy features we can reduce error, especially in the presence of inaccurate clusterings, when compared to a traditional, deterministic technique to estimate biomass from remotely measured canopies. Our random forest on cluster features model extends established methods of training random forest regressions to predict biomass of subplots but requires significantly less training data and is scale invariant. The random forest on cluster features model reduced mean absolute error, when evaluated on all test data in leave

  17. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Saponaro, Giulia; Virtanen, Timo; Rodriguez, Edith; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Atlaskina, Ksenia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides the spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud properties over a wide area. In our studies large data sets are used for statistical studies on aerosol and cloud interaction in an area over Fennoscandia, the Baltic Sea and adjacent regions over the European mainland. This area spans several regimes with different influences on aerosol cloud interaction such as a the transition from relative clean air over Fennoscandia to more anthropogenically polluted air further south, and the influence maritime air over the Baltic and oceanic air advected from the North Atlantic. Anthropogenic pollution occurs in several parts of the study area, and in particular near densely populated areas and megacities, but also in industrialized areas and areas with dense traffic. The aerosol in such areas is quite different from that produced over the boreal forest and has different effects on air quality and climate. Studies have been made on the effects of aerosols on air quality and on the radiation balance in China. The aim of the study is to study the effect of these different regimes on aerosol-cloud interaction using a large aerosol and cloud data set retrieved with the (Advanced) Along Track Scanning Radiometer (A)ATSR Dual View algorithm (ADV) further developed at Finnish Meteorological Institute and aerosol and cloud data provided by MODIS. Retrieval algorithms for aerosol and clouds have been developed for the (A)ATSR, consisting of a series of instruments of which we use the second and third one: ATSR-2 which flew on the ERS-2 satellite (1995-2003) and AATSR which flew on the ENVISAT satellite (2002-2012) (both from the European Space Agency, ESA). The ADV algorithm provides aerosol data on a global scale with a default resolution of 10x10km2 (L2) and an aggregate product on 1x1 degree (L3). Optional, a 1x1 km2 retrieval products is available over smaller areas for specific studies. Since for the retrieval of AOD no prior knowledge is needed on

  18. A Characterization of Cirrus Cloud Properties That Affect Laser Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norquist, Donald C; Desrochers, Paul R; McNicholl, Patrick J; Roadcap, John R

    2008-01-01

    Future high-altitude laser systems may be affected by cirrus clouds. Laser transmission models were applied to measured and retrieved cirrus properties to determine cirrus impact on power incident on a target or receiver...

  19. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  20. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Nigel; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (less than or equal to3 km......), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionization due to cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the heliosphere is important for climate on Earth....

  1. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  2. Quantifying the climatological cloud-free direct radiative forcing of aerosol over the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brindley, Helen

    2015-04-01

    A combination of ground-based and satellite observations are used, in conjunction with column radiative transfer modelling, to assess the climatological aerosol loading and quantify its corresponding cloud-free direct radiative forcing (DRF) over the Red Sea. While there have been campaigns designed to probe aerosol-climate interactions over much of the world, relatively little attention has been paid to this region. Because of the remoteness of the area, satellite retrievals provide a crucial tool for assessing aerosol loading over the Sea. However, agreement between aerosol properties inferred from measurements from different instruments, and even in some cases from the same measurements using different retrieval algorithms can be poor, particularly in the case of mineral dust. Ground based measurements which can be used to evaluate retrievals are thus highly desirable. Here we take advantage of ship-based sun-photometer micro-tops observations gathered from a series of cruises which took place across the Red Sea during 2011 and 2013. To our knowledge these data represent the first set of detailed aerosol measurements from the Sea. They thus provide a unique opportunity to assess the performance of satellite retrieval algorithms in this region. Initially two aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms developed for the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments are evaluated via comparison with the co-located cruise observations. These show excellent agreement, with correlations typically better than 0.9 and very small root-mean-square and bias differences. Calculations of radiative fluxes and DRF along one of the cruises using the observed aerosol and meteorological conditions also show good agreement with co-located estimates from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument if the aerosol asymmetry parameter is adjusted to account for the presence of large

  3. Retrieval of Cloud Properties for Partially Cloud-Filled Pixels During CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Heck, P. W.; Sun-Mack, S.; Uttal, T.; Comstock, J.

    2003-12-01

    Partially cloud-filled pixels can be a significant problem for remote sensing of cloud properties. Generally, the optical depth and effective particle sizes are often too small or too large, respectively, when derived from radiances that are assumed to be overcast but contain radiation from both clear and cloud areas within the satellite imager field of view. This study presents a method for reducing the impact of such partially cloud field pixels by estimating the cloud fraction within each pixel using higher resolution visible (VIS, 0.65mm) imager data. Although the nominal resolution for most channels on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra are 4 and 1 km, respectively, both instruments also take VIS channel data at 1 km and 0.25 km, respectively. Thus, it may be possible to obtain an improved estimate of cloud fraction within the lower resolution pixels by using the information contained in the higher resolution VIS data. GOES and MODIS multi-spectral data, taken during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), are analyzed with the algorithm used for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to derive cloud amount, temperature, height, phase, effective particle size, optical depth, and water path. Normally, the algorithm assumes that each pixel is either entirely clear or cloudy. In this study, a threshold method is applied to the higher resolution VIS data to estimate the partial cloud fraction within each low-resolution pixel. The cloud properties are then derived from the observed low-resolution radiances using the cloud cover estimate to properly extract the radiances due only to the cloudy part of the scene. This approach is applied to both GOES and MODIS data to estimate the improvement in the retrievals for each

  4. Validation of Satellite Derived Cloud Properties Over the Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J.; Minnis, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Fairall, C.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and the radiation budget are essential for understanding meso- and large-scale processes that determine the variability in climate over the southeastern Pacific. Of particular interest in this region is the prevalent stratocumulus cloud deck. The stratocumulus albedos are directly related to cloud microphysical properties that need to be accurately characterized in Global Climate Models (GCMs) to properly estimate the Earth's radiation budget. Meteorological observations in this region are sparse causing large uncertainties in initialized model fields. Remote sensing from satellites can provide a wealth of information about the clouds in this region, but it is vital to validate the remotely sensed parameters and to understand their relationship to other parameters that are not directly observed by the satellites. The variety of measurements from the R/V Roger Revelle during the 2003 STRATUS cruise and from the R/V Ron Brown during EPIC 2001 and the 2004 STRATUS cruises are suitable for validating and improving the interpretation of the satellite derived cloud properties. In this study, satellite-derived cloud properties including coverage, height, optical depth, and liquid water path are compared with in situ measurements taken during the EPIC and STRATUS cruises. The remotely sensed values are derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellites, and from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The products from this study will include regional monthly cloud climatologies derived from the GOES data for the 2003 and 2004 cruises as well as micro and macro physical cloud property retrievals centered over the ship tracks from MODIS and VIRS.

  5. Observations of Co-variation in Cloud Properties and their Relationships with Atmospheric State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Arnold, T. G.; Yorks, J. E.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Um, J.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative properties of upper tropospheric ice clouds are generally not well represented in global and cloud models. Cloud top height, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud water path, particle size and ice crystal shape all serve as observational targets for models to constrain cloud properties. Trends or biases in these cloud properties could have profound effects on the climate since they affect cloud radiative properties. Better understanding of co-variation between these cloud properties and linkages with atmospheric state variables can lead to better representation of clouds in models by reducing biases in their micro- and macro-physical properties as well as their radiative properties. This will also enhance our general understanding of cloud processes. In this analysis we look at remote sensing, in situ and reanalysis data from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), Cloud Radar System (CRS), GEOS-5 reanalysis data and GOES imagery obtained during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) airborne campaign. The MAS, CPL and CRS were mounted on the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during this campaign. In situ observations of ice size and shape were made aboard the DC8 and WB57 aircrafts. We explore how thermodynamic phase, ice effective radius, particle shape and radar reflectivity vary with altitude and also investigate how these observed cloud properties vary with cloud type, cloud top temperature, relative humidity and wind profiles. Observed systematic relationships are supported by physical interpretations of cloud processes and any unexpected differences are examined.

  6. Southeast Atlantic Cloud Properties in a Multivariate Statistical Model - How Relevant is Air Mass History for Local Cloud Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at untangling the impacts of external dynamics and local conditions on cloud properties in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) by combining satellite and reanalysis data using multivariate statistics. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget, and thus prominent in climate-system research. In this study, SEA stratocumulus cloud properties are observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as affected by external dynamics and spatial origins of air masses entering the study area. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a multivariate approach is conducted using satellite observations of aerosol and cloud properties (MODIS, SEVIRI), information on aerosol species composition (MACC) and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis). To account for the often-neglected but important role of air mass origin, information on air mass history based on HYSPLIT modeling is included in the statistical model. This multivariate approach is intended to lead to a better understanding of the physical processes behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA.

  7. Development and Validation of Improved Techniques for Cloud Property Retrieval from Environmental Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustafson, Gary

    2000-01-01

    ...) develop extensible cloud property retrieval algorithms suitable for expanding existing cloud analysis capabilities to utilize data from new and future environmental satellite sensing systems; (2...

  8. Quantifying the impact of cloud cover on ground radiation flux measurements using hemispherical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roupioz, L.; Colin, J.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Linking observed or estimated ground incoming solar radiation with cloud coverage is difficult since the latter is usually poorly described in standard meteorological observation protocols. To investigate the benefits of detailed observation and characterization of cloud coverage and

  9. Airborne observations of cloud properties on HALO during NARVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Heike; Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation processes is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate and weather predictions. To validate model predictions of convective processes over the Atlantic ocean, usually satellite data are used. However, satellite products provide just a coarse view with poor temporal resolution of convective maritime clouds. Aircraft-based observations offer a more detailed insight due to lower altitude and high sampling rates. The research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range Research Aircraft) is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). With a ceiling of 15 km, and a range of 10,000 km and more than 10 hours it is able to reach remote regions and operate from higher altitudes than most other research aircraft. Thus, it provides the unique opportunity to exploit regions of the atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed otherwise. Measurements conducted on HALO provide more detailed insights than achievable from satellite data. Therefore, this measurement platform bridges the gap between previous airborne measurements and satellites. The payload used for this study consists of, amongst others, a suite of passive microwave radiometers, a cloud radar, and a water vapor DIAL. To investigate cloud and precipitation properties of convective maritime clouds, the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) campaign was conducted in winter 2013/2014 out of Barbados and Keflavik (Iceland). This campaign was one of the first that took place on the HALO aircraft. During the experiment's two parts 15 research flights were conducted (8 flights during NARVAL-South out of Barbados to investigate trade-wind cumuli and 7 flights out of Keflavik with focus on mid-latitude cyclonic systems). Flight durations were between five and nine hours, amounting to roughly 118 flight hours overall. 121 dropsondes were deployed. In fall 2016 two additional aircraft campaigns with the same payload will take place: The

  10. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Masiello

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of the Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment.

    The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements, only at one wavelength, which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds.

    A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer.

    The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud.

    Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicate that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is

  11. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  12. Ice nucleation and cloud microphysical properties in tropical tropopause layer cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Jensen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In past modeling studies, it has generally been assumed that the predominant mechanism for nucleation of ice in the uppermost troposphere is homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols. However, recent in situ and remote-sensing measurements of the properties of cirrus clouds at very low temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL are broadly inconsistent with theoretial predictions based on the homogeneous freezing assumption. The nearly ubiquitous occurence of gravity waves in the TTL makes the predictions from homogeneous nucleation theory particularly difficult to reconcile with measurements. These measured properties include ice number concentrations, which are much lower than theory predicts; ice crystal size distributions, which are much broader than theory predicts; and cloud extinctions, which are much lower than theory predicts. Although other explanations are possible, one way to limit ice concentrations is to have on the order of 50 L−1 effective ice nuclei (IN that could nucleate ice at relatively low supersaturations. We suggest that ammonium sulfate particles, which would be dry much of the time in the cold TTL, are a potential IN candidate for TTL cirrus. However, this mechanism remains to be fully quantified for the size distribution of ammonium sulfate (possibly internally mixed with organics actually present in the upper troposphere. Possible implications of the observed cloud microphysical properties for ice sedimentation, dehydration, and cloud persistence are also discussed.

  13. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  14. Properties of subvisible cirrus clouds formed by homogeneous freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations and mean sizes of ice crystals and derived microphysical and optical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds (SVCs formed by homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols are investigated as a function of temperature and updraft speed of adiabatically ascending air parcels. The properties of such clouds are insensitive to variations of the aerosol number and size distribution. Based on criteria constraining the optical extinction, sedimentation time, and existence time of SVCs, longer-lived (>10min clouds, capable of exerting a measurable radiative or chemical impact, are generated within a narrow range of updraft speeds below 1-2cm s-1 at temperatures below about 215K, with concentrations of ice crystals not exceeding 0.1cm-3. The clouds do not reach an equilibrium state because the ice crystals sediment out of the formation layer typically before the supersaturation is removed. Two important conclusions emerge from this work. First, the above characteristics of SVCs may provide an explanation for why SVCs are more common in the cold tropical than in the warmer midlatitude tropopause region. Second, it seems likely that a limited number (-3 of effective heterogeneous freezing nuclei that nucleate ice below the homogeneous freezing threshold can control the formation and properties of SVCs, although homogeneous freezing nuclei are far more abundant.

  15. Investigation of Cloud Properties and Atmospheric Profiles with MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steve; Moeller, Chris; Gumley, Liam; Strabala, Kathy; Frey, Richard; Prins, Elaine; LaPorte, Dan; Wolf, Walter

    1997-01-01

    The WINter Cloud Experiment (WINCE) was directed and supported by personnel from the University of Wisconsin in January and February. Data sets of good quality were collected by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and other instruments on the NASA ER2; they will be used to develop and validate cloud detection and cloud property retrievals over winter scenes (especially over snow). Software development focused on utilities needed for all of the UW product executables; preparations for Version 2 software deliveries were almost completed. A significant effort was made, in cooperation with SBRS and MCST, in characterizing and understanding MODIS PFM thermal infrared performance; crosstalk in the longwave infrared channels continues to get considerable attention.

  16. Quantifying spatial variability of AgI cloud seeding benefits and Ag enrichments in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J.; Benner, S. G.; Lytle, M. L.; Kunkel, M. L.; Blestrud, D.; Holbrook, V. P.; Parkinson, S.; Edwards, R.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciogenic cloud seeding is an important scientific technology for enhancing water resources across in the Western United States. Cloud seeding enriches super cooled liquid water layers with plumes of silver iodide (AgI), an artificial ice nuclei. Recent studies using target-control regression analysis and modeling estimate glaciogenic cloud seeding increases snow precipitation between 3-15% annually. However, the efficacy of cloud seeding programs is difficult to assess using weather models and statistics alone. This study will supplement precipitation enhancement statistics and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model outputs with ultra-trace chemistry. Combining precipitation enhancement estimates with trace chemistry data (to estimate AgI plume targeting accuracy) may provide a more robust analysis. Precipitation enhancement from the 2016 water year will be modeled two ways. First, by using double-mass curve. Annual SNOTEL data of the cumulative SWE in unseeded areas and cumulative SWE in seeded areas will be compared before, and after, the cloud seeding program's initiation in 2003. Any change in the double-mass curve's slope after 2003 may be attributed to cloud seeding. Second, WRF model estimates of precipitation will be compared to the observed precipitation at SNOTEL sites. The difference between observed and modeled precipitation in AgI seeded regions may also be attributed to cloud seeding (assuming modeled and observed data are comparable at unseeded SNOTEL stations). Ultra-trace snow chemistry data from the 2016 winter season will be used to validate whether estimated precipitation increases are positively correlated with the mass of silver in the snowpack.

  17. First Transmitted Hyperspectral Light Measurements and Cloud Properties from Recent Field Campaign Sampling Clouds Under Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, S.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe Shenandoah; Pistone, Kristina Marie Myers; Schmidt, Sebastian; Cochrane, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We present a first view of data collected during a recent field campaign aimed at measuring biomass burning aerosol above clouds from airborne platforms. The NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign recently concluded its first deployment sampling clouds and overlying aerosol layer from the airborne platform NASA P3. We present results from the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), in conjunction with the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR). During this deployment, 4STAR sampled transmitted solar light either via direct solar beam measurements and scattered light measurements, enabling the measurement of aerosol optical thickness and the retrieval of information on aerosol particles in addition to overlying cloud properties. We focus on the zenith-viewing scattered light measurements, which are used to retrieve cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase of clouds under a biomass burning layer. The biomass burning aerosol layer present above the clouds is the cause of potential bias in retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius from satellites. We contrast the typical reflection based approach used by satellites to the transmission based approach used by 4STAR during ORACLES for retrieving cloud properties. It is suspected that these differing approaches will yield a change in retrieved properties since light transmitted through clouds is sensitive to a different cloud volume than reflected light at cloud top. We offer a preliminary view of the implications of these differences in sampling volumes to the calculation of cloud radiative effects (CRE).

  18. Web-based CERES Clouds QC Property Viewing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Chu, C.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Heckert, E.; Minnis, P.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will display the capabilities of a web-based CERES cloud property viewer. Terra data will be chosen for examples. It will demonstrate viewing of cloud properties in gridded global maps, histograms, time series displays, latitudinal zonal images, binned data charts, data frequency graphs, and ISCCP plots. Images can be manipulated by the user to narrow boundaries of the map as well as color bars and value ranges, compare datasets, view data values, and more. Other atmospheric studies groups will be encouraged to put their data into the underlying NetCDF data format and view their data with the tool. A laptop will hopefully be available to allow conference attendees to try navigating the tool.

  19. The dependence of stellar properties on initial cloud density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael O.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the dependence of stellar properties on the initial mean density of the molecular cloud in which stellar clusters form using radiation hydrodynamical simulations that resolve the opacity limit for fragmentation. We have simulated the formation of three star clusters from the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds whose densities vary by a factor of a hundred. As with previous calculations including radiative feedback, we find that the dependence of the characteristic stellar mass, Mc, on the initial mean density of the cloud, ρ, is weaker than the dependence of the thermal Jeans mass. However, unlike previous calculations, which found no statistically significant variation in the median mass with density, we find a weak dependence approximately of the form Mc∝ρ-1/5. The distributions of properties of multiple systems do not vary significantly between the calculations. We compare our results to the result of observational surveys of star-forming regions, and suggest that the similarities between the properties of our lowest density calculation and the nearby Taurus-Auriga region indicate that the apparent excess of solar-type stars observed may be due to the region's low density.

  20. Global analysis of cloud field coverage and radiative properties, using morphological methods and MODIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Bar-Or

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently recognized continuous transition zone between detectable clouds and cloud-free atmosphere ("the twilight zone" is affected by undetectable clouds and humidified aerosol. In this study, we suggest to distinguish cloud fields (including the detectable clouds and the surrounding twilight zone from cloud-free areas, which are not affected by clouds. For this classification, a robust and simple-to-implement cloud field masking algorithm which uses only the spatial distribution of clouds, is presented in detail. A global analysis, estimating Earth's cloud field coverage (50° S–50° N for 28 July 2008, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, finds that while the declared cloud fraction is 51%, the global cloud field coverage reaches 88%. The results reveal the low likelihood for finding a cloud-free pixel and suggest that this likelihood may decrease as the pixel size becomes larger. A global latitudinal analysis of cloud fields finds that unlike oceans, which are more uniformly covered by cloud fields, land areas located under the subsidence zones of the Hadley cell (the desert belts, contain proper areas for investigating cloud-free atmosphere as there is 40–80% probability to detect clear sky over them. Usually these golden-pixels, with higher likelihood to be free of clouds, are over deserts. Independent global statistical analysis, using MODIS aerosol and cloud products, reveals a sharp exponential decay of the global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD as a function of the distance from the nearest detectable cloud, both above ocean and land. Similar statistical analysis finds an exponential growth of mean aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF over oceans when the distance from the nearest cloud increases. A 30 km scale break clearly appears in several analyses here, suggesting this is a typical natural scale of cloud fields. This work shows different microphysical and optical properties of cloud fields

  1. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  2. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  3. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  4. A CloudSat-CALIPSO View of Cloud and Precipitation Properties Across Cold Fronts over the Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cloud and precipitation properties across oceanic extratropical cyclone cold fronts is examined using four years of combined CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar retrievals. The global annual mean cloud and precipitation distributions show that low-level clouds are ubiquitous in the post frontal zone while higher-level cloud frequency and precipitation peak in the warm sector along the surface front. Increases in temperature and moisture within the cold front region are associated with larger high-level but lower mid-/low level cloud frequencies and precipitation decreases in the cold sector. This behavior seems to be related to a shift from stratiform to convective clouds and precipitation. Stronger ascent in the warm conveyor belt tends to enhance cloudiness and precipitation across the cold front. A strong temperature contrast between the warm and cold sectors also encourages greater post-cold-frontal cloud occurrence. While the seasonal contrasts in environmental temperature, moisture, and ascent strength are enough to explain most of the variations in cloud and precipitation across cold fronts in both hemispheres, they do not fully explain the differences between Northern and Southern Hemisphere cold fronts. These differences are better explained when the impact of the contrast in temperature across the cold front is also considered. In addition, these large-scale parameters do not explain the relatively large frequency in springtime post frontal precipitation.

  5. Retrieval of Boundary Layer 3D Cloud Properties Using Scanning Cloud Radar and 3D Radiative Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties for boundary layer clouds, including those widely used by ASR investigators, frequently assume that clouds are sufficiently horizontally homogeneous that scattering and absorption (at all wavelengths) can be treated using one dimensional (1D) radiative transfer, and that differences in the field-of-view of different sensors are unimportant. Unfortunately, most boundary layer clouds are far from horizontally homogeneous, and numerous theoretical and observational studies show that the assumption of horizontal homogeneity leads to significant errors. The introduction of scanning cloud and precipitation radars at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sites presents opportunities to move beyond the horizontally homogeneous assumption. The primary objective of this project was to develop a 3D retrieval for warm-phase (liquid only) boundary layer cloud microphysical properties, and to assess errors in current 1D (non-scanning) approaches. Specific research activities also involved examination of the diurnal cycle of hydrometeors as viewed by ARM cloud radar, and continued assessment of precipitation impacts on retrievals of cloud liquid water path using passive microwaves.

  6. Polarimetric radar convective cell tracking reveals large sensitivity of cloud precipitation and electrification properties to CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Zhang, P.; Snyder, J.; Orville, R. E.; Ryzhkov, A.; Zrnic, D.; Williams, E. R.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply the cell tracking methodology, shown in our companion poster, to quantifying factors affecting the vigor and the time-height evolution of hydrometeors and electrification properties of convective cells. Benefitting from the Dual-polarimetric NEXRAD radar network, we composite more than 5000 well-tracked cells among three radars (at Houston, Lubbock and Oklahoma City), stratified by CCN, CAPE and land/sea locations. The analyzed cell properties include Z, ZDR, Kdp, and ρhv, Dm (raindrop diameter) and Nw (raindrop concentration) by the algorithm of Bringi et al. (2003). Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data is also included in the analysis, which provides a 3D structure of lightning occurrence and RF power. The contrasting CCN conditions over marine, land, pristine and polluted areas are identified based on the satellite retrieval technique described in Rosenfeld et al. (2016). The results show that more CCN are associated with: Increased echo top height, manifesting the invigoration effect. Enhanced reflectivities, especially above the freezing level at around 4.5 km. Raindrop sizes at the initial stage increase at the expense of their concentrations, due to the smaller cloud droplets and suppressed coalescence. Larger propensity for hail. Lightning sources increase with greater CCN concentration and is likely due to the delayed warm rain process and enhanced mixed phase process under more CCN condition, when activated CCN into cloud droplets is too high (> 1000 cm-3) the glaciation is delayed too much and leave little ice at lower levels and thus decrease lightning activity. Land pristine clouds have fewer lightning sources than polluted clouds. Marine pristine clouds seldom have lightning Increased CAPE had a similar effect to the effect of added CCN. The cloud tracking and properties are obtained by a new methodology of Multi-Cell Identification and Tracking (MCIT) algorithm (Hu et al, 2017), with details about the algorithm to be found in the author

  7. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Carbajal Henken

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm, FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud, is presented. Synergistic observations from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, both mounted on the polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (Envisat, are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two cloud top height products are retrieved based on independent techniques. For cloud top temperature, measurements in the AATSR infrared channels are used, while for cloud top pressure, measurements in the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel are used. Results from the cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced here are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method, which provides uncertainty estimates of the retrieved property on a pixel basis, is presented. Within the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project, the first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007–2009. For this time period, verification efforts are presented, comparing, for four selected regions around the globe, FAME-C cloud optical and microphysical properties to cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from measurements of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on the Terra satellite. The results show a reasonable agreement between the cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds: −0.28, 0.41 μm and

  8. Quantifying Time Dependent Moisture Storage and Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut H

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental and numerical approach to quantify the time dependence of sorption mechanisms for some hygroscopic building - mostly insulation - materials. Some investigations of retarded sorption and non-Fickian phenomena, mostly on wood, have given inspiration to the present...

  9. Validation of quasi-invariant ice cloud radiative quantities with MODIS satellite-based cloud property retrievals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jiachen; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.

    2017-01-01

    Similarity relations applied to ice cloud radiance calculations are theoretically analyzed and numerically validated. If τ(1–ϖ) and τ(1–ϖg) are conserved where τ is optical thickness, ϖ the single-scattering albedo, and g the asymmetry factor, it is possible that substantially different phase functions may give rise to similar radiances in both conservative and non-conservative scattering cases, particularly in the case of large optical thicknesses. In addition to theoretical analysis, this study uses operational ice cloud optical thickness retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 2 Collection 5 (C5) and Collection 6 (C6) cloud property products to verify radiative similarity relations. It is found that, if the MODIS C5 and C6 ice cloud optical thickness values are multiplied by their respective (1–ϖg) factors, the resultant products referred to as the effective optical thicknesses become similar with their ratio values around unity. Furthermore, the ratios of the C5 and C6 ice cloud effective optical thicknesses display an angular variation pattern similar to that of the corresponding ice cloud phase function ratios. The MODIS C5 and C6 values of ice cloud similarity parameter, defined as [(1–ϖ)/(1–ϖg)]"1"/"2, also tend to be similar. - Highlights: • Similarity relations are theoretically analyzed and validated. • Similarity relations are verified with the MODIS Level 2 Collection 5 and 6 ice cloud property products. • The product of ice cloud optical thickness and (1–ϖg) is approximately invariant. • The similarity parameter derived from the MODIS ice cloud effective radius retrieval tends to be invariant.

  10. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Istomina, Larysa; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow). Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C. In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S) and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S), λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ), and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C) are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice edge are analysed. The retrieved values of τ, reff

  11. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow. Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C.In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S, λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ, and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012 were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice

  12. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  13. Quantifying the climatological cloud-free direct radiative forcing of aerosol over the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brindley, Helen; Osipov, Serega; Bantges, Richard; Smirnov, Alexander; Banks, Jamie; Levy, Robert; Prakash, P.-Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    for assessing aerosol loading over the Sea. However, agreement between aerosol properties inferred from measurements from different instruments, and even in some cases from the same measurements using different retrieval algorithms can be poor, particularly

  14. Simultaneous and synergistic profiling of cloud and drizzle properties using ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Stephanie P.; Donovan, David P.; Russchenberg, Herman W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of radar reflectivity (Z) measurements in the retrieval of liquid water cloud properties, it remains nontrivial to interpret Z due to the possible presence of drizzle droplets within the clouds. So far, there has been no published work that utilizes Z to identify the presence of drizzle above the cloud base in an optimized and a physically consistent manner. In this work, we develop a retrieval technique that exploits the synergy of different remote sensing systems to carry out this task and to subsequently profile the microphysical properties of the cloud and drizzle in a unified framework. This is accomplished by using ground-based measurements of Z, lidar attenuated backscatter below as well as above the cloud base, and microwave brightness temperatures. Fast physical forward models coupled to cloud and drizzle structure parameterization are used in an optimal-estimation-type framework in order to retrieve the best estimate for the cloud and drizzle property profiles. The cloud retrieval is first evaluated using synthetic signals generated from large-eddy simulation (LES) output to verify the forward models used in the retrieval procedure and the vertical parameterization of the liquid water content (LWC). From this exercise it is found that, on average, the cloud properties can be retrieved within 5 % of the mean truth. The full cloud-drizzle retrieval method is then applied to a selected ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) campaign dataset collected in Cabauw, the Netherlands. An assessment of the retrieval products is performed using three independent methods from the literature; each was specifically developed to retrieve only the cloud properties, the drizzle properties below the cloud base, or the drizzle fraction within the cloud. One-to-one comparisons, taking into account the uncertainties or limitations of each retrieval, show that our results are consistent with what is derived

  15. Cloud Properties of CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and CERES-VIIRS Edition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chang, Fu-Lung; Hong, Gang; Arduini, Robert; Chen, Yan; Trepte, Qing; Yost, Chris; Smith, Rita; Brown, Ricky; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) analyzes MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to derive cloud properties that are combine with aerosol and CERES broadband flux data to create a multi-parameter data set for climate study. CERES has produced over 15 years of data from Terra and over 13 years of data from Aqua using the CERES-MODIS Edition-2 cloud retrieval algorithm. A recently revised algorithm, CERESMODIS Edition 4, has been developed and is now generating enhanced cloud data for climate research (over 10 years for Terra and 8 years for Aqua). New multispectral retrievals of properties are included along with a multilayer cloud retrieval system. Cloud microphysical properties are reported at 3 wavelengths, 0.65, 1.24, and 2.1 microns to enable better estimates of the vertical profiles of cloud water contents. Cloud properties over snow are retrieved using the 1.24-micron channel. A new CERES-VIIRS cloud retrieval package was developed for the VIIRS spectral complement and is currently producing the CERES-VIIRS Edition 1 cloud dataset. The results from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and CERES-VIIRS Edition 1 are presented and compared with each other and other datasets, including CALIPSO, CloudSat and the CERES-MODIS Edition-2 results.

  16. Study of the relations between cloud properties and atmospheric conditions using ground-based digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Kalinka

    The aerosol constituents of the earth atmosphere are of great significance for the radiation budget and global climate of the planet. They are the precursors of clouds that in turn play an essential role in these processes and in the hydrological cycle of the Earth. Understanding the complex aerosol-cloud interactions requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamical processes moving the water vapor through the atmosphere, and of the physical mechanisms involved in the formation and growth of cloud particles. Ground-based observations on regional and short time scale provide valuable detailed information about atmospheric dynamics and cloud properties, and are used as a complementary tool to the global satellite observations. The objective of the present paper is to study the physical properties of clouds as displayed in ground-based visible images, and juxtapose them to the specific surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions. The observations are being carried out over the urban area of the city of Sofia, Bulgaria. The data obtained from visible images of clouds enable a quantitative description of texture and morphological features of clouds such as shape, thickness, motion, etc. These characteristics are related to cloud microphysical properties. The changes of relative humidity and the horizontal visibility are considered to be representative of the variations of the type (natural/manmade) and amount of the atmospheric aerosols near the earth surface, and potentially, the cloud drop number concentration. The atmospheric dynamics is accounted for by means of the values of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind velocity, etc., observed at the earth's surface. The advantage of ground-based observations of clouds compared to satellite ones is in the high spatial and temporal resolution of the obtained data about the lowermost cloud layer, which in turn is sensitive to the meteorological regimes that determine cloud formation and evolution. It turns out

  17. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  18. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  19. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  20. A Multi-Year Data Set of Cloud Properties Derived for CERES from Aqua, Terra, and TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Sunny Sun-Mack; Trepte, Quinz Z.; Yan Chen; Brown, Richard R.; Gibson, Sharon C.; Heck, Michael L.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

    2007-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project is producing a suite of cloud properties from high-resolution imagers on several satellites and matching them precisely with broadband radiance data to study the influence of clouds and radiation on climate. The cloud properties generally compare well with independent validation sources. Distinct differences are found between the CERES cloud properties and those derived with other algorithms from the same imager data. CERES products will be updated beginning in late 2006.

  1. Properties of CIRRUS Overlapping Clouds as Deduced from the GOES-12 Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Khaiyer, Mandana

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cirrus clouds on modifying both the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiations is crucial for climate studies. Unlike most boundary layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds that have a net cooling effect on the climate, high-level thin cirrus clouds can have a warming effect on our climate. Many research efforts have been devoted to retrieving cirrus cloud properties due to their ubiquitous presence. However, using satellite observations to detect and/or retrieve cirrus cloud properties faces two major challenges. First, they are often semitransparent at visible to infrared wavelengths; and secondly, they often occur over a lower cloud system. The overlapping of high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud poses a difficulty in determining the individual cloud top altitudes and optical properties, especially when the signals from cirrus clouds are overwhelmed by the signals of stratus clouds. Moreover, the operational satellite retrieval algorithms, which often assume only single layer cloud in the development of cloud retrieval techniques, cannot resolve the cloud overlapping situation properly. The new geostationary satellites, starting with the Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12), are providing a new suite of imager bands that have replaced the conventional 12-micron channel with a 13.3-micron CO2 absorption channel. The replacement of the 13.3-micron channel allows for the application of a CO2-slicing retrieval technique (Chahine et al. 1974; Smith and Platt 1978), which is one of the important passive satellite methods for remote sensing the altitudes of mid to high-level clouds. Using the CO2- slicing technique is more effective in detecting semitransparent cirrus clouds than using the conventional infrared-window method.

  2. Evaluation of cloud properties in the NOAA/NCEP global forecast system using multiple satellite products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyelim [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Li, Zhanqing [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, GCESS, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    Knowledge of cloud properties and their vertical structure is important for meteorological studies due to their impact on both the Earth's radiation budget and adiabatic heating within the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to evaluate bulk cloud properties and vertical distribution simulated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) using three global satellite products. Cloud variables evaluated include the occurrence and fraction of clouds in up to three layers, cloud optical depth, liquid water path, and ice water path. Cloud vertical structure data are retrieved from both active (CloudSat/CALIPSO) and passive sensors and are subsequently compared with GFS model results. In general, the GFS model captures the spatial patterns of hydrometeors reasonably well and follows the general features seen in satellite measurements, but large discrepancies exist in low-level cloud properties. More boundary layer clouds over the interior continents were generated by the GFS model whereas satellite retrievals showed more low-level clouds over oceans. Although the frequencies of global multi-layer clouds from observations are similar to those from the model, latitudinal variations show discrepancies in terms of structure and pattern. The modeled cloud optical depth over storm track region and subtropical region is less than that from the passive sensor and is overestimated for deep convective clouds. The distributions of ice water path (IWP) agree better with satellite observations than do liquid water path (LWP) distributions. Discrepancies in LWP/IWP distributions between observations and the model are attributed to differences in cloud water mixing ratio and mean relative humidity fields, which are major control variables determining the formation of clouds. (orig.)

  3. Fractal properties and denoising of lidar signals from cirrus clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Driesenaar, M.L.; Lerou, R.J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar signals of cirrus clouds are analyzed to determine the cloud structure. Climate modeling and numerical weather prediction benefit from accurate modeling of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements of the European Lidar in Space Technology Experiment (ELITE) campaign were analyzed by

  4. Comparison of CERES Cloud Properties Derived from Aqua and Terra MODIS Data and TRMM VIRS Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Young, D. F.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Chen, Y.; Heck, P. W.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project is obtaining Earth radiation budget measurements of unprecedented accuracy as a result of improved instruments and an analysis system that combines simultaneous, high-resolution cloud property retrievals with the broadband radiance data. The cloud properties are derived from three different satellite imagers: the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on the Aqua and Terra satellites. A single set of consistent algorithms using the 0.65, 1.6 or 2.1, 3.7, 10.8, and 12.0-æm channels are applied to all three imagers. The cloud properties include, cloud coverage, height, thickness, temperature, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and liquid or ice water path. Because each satellite is in a different orbit, the results provide information on the diurnal cycle of cloud properties. Initial intercalibrations show excellent consistency between the three images except for some differences of ~ 1K between the 3.7-æm channel on Terra and those on VIRS and Aqua. The derived cloud properties are consistent with the known diurnal characteristics of clouds in different areas. These datasets should be valuable for exploring the role of clouds in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle.

  5. Quantifying uncertainties in radar forward models through a comparison between CloudSat and SPartICus reflectivity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, Jeana; Mace, Gerald G.

    2017-02-01

    Interpretations of remote sensing measurements collected in sample volumes containing ice-phase hydrometeors are very sensitive to assumptions regarding the distributions of mass with ice crystal dimension, otherwise known as mass-dimensional or m-D relationships. How these microphysical characteristics vary in nature is highly uncertain, resulting in significant uncertainty in algorithms that attempt to derive bulk microphysical properties from remote sensing measurements. This uncertainty extends to radar reflectivity factors forward calculated from model output because the statistics of the actual m-D in nature is not known. To investigate the variability in m-D relationships in cirrus clouds, reflectivity factors measured by CloudSat are combined with particle size distributions (PSDs) collected by coincident in situ aircraft by using an optimal estimation-based (OE) retrieval of the m-D power law. The PSDs were collected by 12 flights of the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet during the Small Particles in Cirrus campaign. We find that no specific habit emerges as preferred, and instead, we find that the microphysical characteristics of ice crystal populations tend to be distributed over a continuum-defying simple categorization. With the uncertainties derived from the OE algorithm, the uncertainties in forward-modeled backscatter cross section and, in turn, radar reflectivity is calculated by using a bootstrapping technique, allowing us to infer the uncertainties in forward-modeled radar reflectivity that would be appropriately applied to remote sensing simulator algorithms.

  6. Properties of Arctic Aerosol Particles and Residuals of Warm Clouds: Cloud Activation Efficiency and the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D. G.; Leaitch, R.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Liu, P.; Macdonald, A.; Strapp, W.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II, was used to characterize the size, composition, number concentration, density, and shape of individual Arctic spring aerosol. Background particles, particles above and below the cloud, cloud droplet residuals, and interstitial particles were characterized with goal to identify the properties that separate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from background aerosol particles. The analysis offers a comparison between warm clouds formed on clean and polluted days, with clean days having maximum particle concentrations (Na) lower than ~250 cm-3, as compared with polluted days, in which maximum concentration was tenfold higher. On clean days, particles were composed of organics, organics mixed with sulfates, biomass burning (BB), sea salt (SS), and few soot and dust particles. On polluted days, BB, organics associated with BB, and their mixtures with sulfate dominated particle compositions. Based on the measured compositions and size distributions of cloud droplet residuals, background aerosols, and interstitial particles, we conclude that these three particle types had virtually the same compositions, which means that cloud activation probabilities were surprisingly nearly composition independent. Moreover, these conclusions hold in cases in which less than 20% or more than 90% of background particles got activated. We concluded that for the warm clouds interrogated in this study particle size played a more important factor on aerosol CCN activity. Comparative analysis of all studied clouds reveals that aerosol activation efficiency strongly depends on the aerosol concentrations, such that at Na <200 cm-3, nearly all particles activate, and at higher concentrations the activation efficiency is lower. For example, when Na was greater than 1500 cm-3, less than ~30% of particles activated. The data suggest that as the number of nucleated droplets increases, condensation on existing droplets effectively competes with particle

  7. Three-dimensional laser scanning technique to quantify aggregate and ballast shape properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available methods towards a more accurate and automated techniques to quantify aggregate shape properties. This paper validates a new flakiness index equation using three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning data of aggregate and ballast materials obtained from...

  8. PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC CIRRUS CLOUDS OBSERVED BY BOOMERANG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Bock, J. J.; Crill, B. P.; Lange, A. E.; Boscaleri, A.; De Gasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Natoli, P.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Stefano, G. Di; Ganga, K. M.; Jones, W. C.; Kisner, T. S.; Montroy, T. E.; MacTavish, C. J.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of galactic cirrus emission are not well characterized. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background at high angular resolution in the millimeter range. The BOOMERANG 245 and 345 GHz channels are sensitive to interstellar signals, in a spectral range intermediate between FIR and microwave frequencies. We look for physical characteristics of cirrus structures in a region at high galactic latitudes (b ∼ -40 deg.) where BOOMERANG performed its deepest integration, combining the BOOMERANG data with other available data sets at different wavelengths. We have detected eight emission patches in the 345 GHz map, consistent with cirrus dust in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite maps. The analysis technique we have developed allows us to identify the location and the shape of cirrus clouds, and to extract the flux from observations with different instruments at different wavelengths and angular resolutions. We study the integrated flux emitted from these cirrus clouds using data from Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), DIRBE, BOOMERANG and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe in the frequency range 23-3000 GHz (13 mm-100 μm wavelength). We fit the measured spectral energy distributions with a combination of a gray body and a power-law spectra considering two models for the thermal emission. The temperature of the thermal dust component varies in the 7-20 K range and its emissivity spectral index is in the 1-5 range. We identified a physical relation between temperature and spectral index as had been proposed in previous works. This technique can be proficiently used for the forthcoming Planck and Herschel missions data.

  9. Statistical properties of the ice particle distribution in stratiform clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoe, J.; Tinel, C.; Testud, J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of several microphysical data bases CEPEX, EUCREX, CLARE and CARL to determine statistical properties of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The data base covers different type of stratiform clouds : tropical cirrus (CEPEX), mid-latitude cirrus (EUCREX) and mid-latitude cirrus and stratus (CARL,CLARE) The approach for analysis uses the concept of normalisation of the PSD developed by Testud et al. (2001). The normalization aims at isolating three independent characteristics of the PSD : its "intrinsic" shape, the "average size" of the spectrum and the ice water content IWC, "average size" is meant the mean mass weighted diameter. It is shown that concentration should be normalized by N_0^* proportional to IWC/D_m^4. The "intrinsic" shape is defined as F(Deq/D_m)=N(Deq)/N_0^* where Deq is the equivalent melted diameter. The "intrinsic" shape is found to be very stable in the range 001.5, more scatter is observed, but future analysis should decide if it is representative of real physical variation or statistical "error" due to counting problem. Considering an overall statistics over the full data base, a large scatter of the N_0^* against Dm plot is found. But in the case of a particular event or a particular leg of a flight, the N_0^* vs. Dm plot is much less scattered and shows a systematic trend for decaying of N_0^* when Dm increases. This trend is interpreted as the manifestation of the predominance of the aggregation process. Finally an important point for cloud remote sensing is investigated : the normalised relationships IWC/N_0^* against Z/N_0^* is much less scattered that the classical IWC against Z the radar reflectivity factor.

  10. Galactic cosmic ray and El Nino Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    [1] The recently reported correlation between clouds and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) implies the existence of a previously unknown process linking solar variability and climate. An analysis of the interannual variability of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 (ISCCP-D2) low-cloud...... a strong correlation with GCR, which suggests that low-cloud properties observed in these regions are less likely to be contaminated from overlying cloud. The GCR-low cloud correlation cannot easily be explained by internal climate processes, changes in direct solar forcing, or UV-ozone interactions...... properties over the period July 1983 to August 1994 suggests that low clouds are statistically related to two processes, (1) GCR and (2) El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with GCR explaining a greater percentage of the total variance. Areas where satellites have an unobstructed view of low cloud possess...

  11. Theoretical studies of radiative properties of broken clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the three goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve the quality of radiation models under clear sky, homogeneous cloud, and broken cloud conditions. This report is concerned with the development of the theory of radiation transfer in the broken clouds. Our approach is based on a stochastic description of the interaction between the radiation and cloud field with stochastic geometry; In the following, we discuss (1) the mean radiation fluxes in the near IR spectral range 2.7 to 3.2 μm; (2) the influence of random geometry of individual cumulus clouds on the mean fluxes of visible solar radiation; (3) the equations of the mean radiance in the statistically inhomogeneous cloud fields

  12. Retrieval of Ice Cloud Properties Using Variable Phase Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Patrick W.; Minnis, Patrick; Yang, Ping; Chang, Fu-Lung; Palikonda, Rabindra; Arduini, Robert F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2009-03-01

    An enhancement to NASA Langley's Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split-window Technique (VISST) is developed to identify and account for situations when errors are induced by using smooth ice crystals. The retrieval scheme incorporates new ice cloud phase functions that utilize hexagonal crystals with roughened surfaces. In some situations, cloud optical depths are reduced, hence, cloud height is increased. Cloud effective particle size also changes with the roughened ice crystal models which results in varied effects on the calculation of ice water path. Once validated and expanded, the new approach will be integrated in the CERES MODIS algorithm and real-time retrievals at Langley.

  13. Ground-based SMART-COMMIT Measurements for Studying Aerosol and Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2008-01-01

    From radiometric principles, it is expected that the retrieved properties of extensive aerosols and clouds from reflected/emitted measurements by satellite (and/or aircraft) should be consistent with those retrieved from transmitted/emitted radiance observed at the surface. Although space-borne remote sensing observations cover large spatial domain, they are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite data sets. The development and deployment of SMARTCOMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile facilities are aimed for the optimal utilization of collocated ground-based observations as constraints to yield higher fidelity satellite retrievals and to determine any sampling bias due to target conditions. To quantify the energetics of the surface-atmosphere system and the atmospheric processes, SMART-COMMIT instruments fall into three categories: flux radiometer, radiance sensor and in-situ probe. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of SMART-COMMIT in recent field campaigns (e.g., CRYSTAL-FACE, UAE 2, BASEASIA, NAMMA) that were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in temporal scale of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols (e.g., biomass-burning smoke, airborne dust) and cirrus clouds. We envision robust approaches in which well-collocated ground-based measurements and space-borne observations will greatly advance our knowledge of extensive aerosols and clouds.

  14. Evaluation results of the optimal estimation based, multi-sensor cloud property data sets derived from AVHRR heritage measurements in the Cloud_cci project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelberg, S.; Jerg, M.; Stengel, M.; Hollmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started with the objectives of generating a long-term coherent data set of cloud properties. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top estimates, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. During the first phase of the project 3 years of data spanning 2007 to 2009 have been produced on a global gridded daily and monthly mean basis. Next to the processing an extended evaluation study was started in order to gain a first understanding of the quality of the retrieved data. The critical discussion of the results of the evaluation holds a key role for the further development and improvement of the dataset's quality. The presentation will give a short overview of the evaluation study undertaken in the Cloud_cci project. The focus will be on the evaluation of gridded, monthly mean cloud fraction and cloud top data from the Cloud_cci AVHRR-heritage dataset with CLARA-A1, MODIS-Coll5, PATMOS-X and ISCCP data. Exemplary results will be shown. Strengths and shortcomings of the retrieval scheme as well as possible impacts of averaging approaches on the evaluation will be discussed. An Overview of Cloud_cci Phase 2 will be given.

  15. Considering polarization in MODIS-based cloud property retrievals by using a vector radiative transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Bingqi; Huang, Xin; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; Kattawar, George W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a full-vector, adding–doubling radiative transfer model is used to investigate the influence of the polarization state on cloud property retrievals from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. Two sets of lookup tables (LUTs) are developed for the retrieval purposes, both of which provide water cloud and ice cloud reflectivity functions at two wavelengths in various sun-satellite viewing geometries. However, only one of the LUTs considers polarization. The MODIS reflectivity observations at 0.65 μm (band 1) and 2.13 μm (band 7) are used to infer the cloud optical thickness and particle effective diameter, respectively. Results indicate that the retrievals for both water cloud and ice cloud show considerable sensitivity to polarization. The retrieved water and ice cloud effective diameter and optical thickness differences can vary by as much as ±15% due to polarization state considerations. In particular, the polarization state has more influence on completely smooth ice particles than on severely roughened ice particles. - Highlights: • Impact of polarization on satellite-based retrieval of water/ice cloud properties is studied. • Inclusion of polarization can change water/ice optical thickness and effective diameter values by up to ±15%. • Influence of polarization on cloud property retrievals depends on sun-satellite viewing geometries

  16. Detection and retrieval of multi-layered cloud properties using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Yi, Helen; Huang, Jianping; Nguyen, Louis; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2005-10-01

    Four techniques for detecting multilayered clouds and retrieving the cloud properties using satellite data are explored to help address the need for better quantification of cloud vertical structure. A new technique was developed using multispectral imager data with secondary imager products (infrared brightness temperature differences, BTD). The other methods examined here use atmospheric sounding data (CO2-slicing, CO2), BTD, or microwave data. The CO2 and BTD methods are limited to optically thin cirrus over low clouds, while the MWR methods are limited to ocean areas only. This paper explores the use of the BTD and CO2 methods as applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer EOS (AMSR-E) data taken from the Aqua satellite over ocean surfaces. Cloud properties derived from MODIS data for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project are used to classify cloud phase and optical properties. The preliminary results focus on a MODIS image taken off the Uruguayan coast. The combined MW visible infrared (MVI) method is assumed to be the reference for detecting multilayered ice-over-water clouds. The BTD and CO2 techniques accurately match the MVI classifications in only 51 and 41% of the cases, respectively. Much additional study is need to determine the uncertainties in the MVI method and to analyze many more overlapped cloud scenes.

  17. Properties of molecular clouds containing Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren, R.B.; Evans, N.J. II; Knapp, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have studied the physical conditions in the molecular clouds associated with a large number of Herbig-Haro and related objects. Formaldehyde emission at 2 mm was detected in the direction of approx.15 out of 30 objects observed. Using the 2 mm H 2 CO emission and observations of 2 cm H 2 CO absorption, along the the 2.6 mm CO line, we calculate core densities of these molecular clouds. Dense cores are found near but not necessarily coincident with the HH objects. Known embedded infrared sources are more likely to be at the position of greatest density than are the HH objects themselves. The densities determined for the cloud cores are intermediate between the densities of cold, dark clouds such as L134 N and the hot clouds associated with H II regions. Thus, a continuous spectrum of densities is observed in molecular clouds. The temperature and density of the clouds in this study are not well correlated. The cores associated with HH 29 IR and T Tau are very dense (6 x 10 4 and 9 x 10 4 cm -3 ), yet have temperatures typical of cold dark clouds.The strong inverse correlation between X (H 2 CO) and density found by Wootten et al. is also found in the clouds associated with HH objects. This correlation also holds within a single cloud, indicating that the correlation is not due to differences in cloud age and evolution toward gas-phase chemical equilibrium. The decrease of X (H 2 CO) with density is more rapid than predicted by steady state ion-molecule chemistry and may be the result of increased depletion of molecules onto grain surfaces at higher density

  18. Properties of submicron particles in Atmospheric Brown Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Chen, B. B.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Friedrich, F.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Weidler, P. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC) is an important problem of this century. Investigations of last years and satellite data show that the ABC (or brown gas, smog, fog) cover extensive territories including the whole continents and oceans. The brown gas consists of a mixture of particles of anthropogenic sulfates, nitrates, organic origin, black carbon, dust, ashes, and also natural aerosols such as sea salt and mineral dust. The brown color is a result of absorption and scattering of solar radiation by the anthropogenic black carbon, ashes, the particles of salt dust, and nitrogen dioxide. The investigation of the ABC is a fundamental problem for prevention of degradation of the environment. At present in the CIS in-situ investigations of the ABC are carried out on Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Kyrgyz Republic). Here, we present the results of experimental investigation of submicron (nanoscale) particles originating from the ABC and the properties of the particles. Samples of dust precipitating from the ABC were obtained at the area of Lidar Station Teplokluchenka as well as scientific station of the Russian Academy of Sciences near Bishkek. The data for determination of the grain composition were obtained with the aid of the scanning electron microscopes JEOL 6460 LV and Philips XL 30 FEG. Analysis of the properties of the particles was performed by means of the X-ray diffraction using diffractometer Siemens D5000. The images of the grains were mapped. The investigation allows us to get (after the image processing) the grain composition within the dust particle size range of 60 nm to 700 μm. Distributions of nano- and microscale particles in sizes were constructed using Rozin-Rammler coordinates. Analysis of the distributions shows that the ABC contain submicron (nanoscale) particles; 2) at higher altitudes the concentration of the submicron (nanoscale) particles in the ABC is higher than at lower altitudes. The chemical compositions of the particles are shown to

  19. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  20. Information content of OCO-2 oxygen A-band channels for retrieving marine liquid cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2018-03-01

    Information content analysis is used to select channels for a marine liquid cloud retrieval using the high-spectral-resolution oxygen A-band instrument on NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). Desired retrieval properties are cloud optical depth, cloud-top pressure and cloud pressure thickness, which is the geometric thickness expressed in hectopascals. Based on information content criteria we select a micro-window of 75 of the 853 functioning OCO-2 channels spanning 763.5-764.6 nm and perform a series of synthetic retrievals with perturbed initial conditions. We estimate posterior errors from the sample standard deviations and obtain ±0.75 in optical depth and ±12.9 hPa in both cloud-top pressure and cloud pressure thickness, although removing the 10 % of samples with the highest χ2 reduces posterior error in cloud-top pressure to ±2.9 hPa and cloud pressure thickness to ±2.5 hPa. The application of this retrieval to real OCO-2 measurements is briefly discussed, along with limitations and the greatest caution is urged regarding the assumption of a single homogeneous cloud layer, which is often, but not always, a reasonable approximation for marine boundary layer clouds.

  1. On the Influence of Air Mass Origin on Low-Cloud Properties in the Southeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik; Hollmann, Rainer; Schwarz, Katharina

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the impact of air mass origin and dynamics on cloud property changes in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) during the biomass burning season. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget and thus prominent in climate system research. In this study, the thermodynamically stable SEA stratocumulus cover is observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as connected to large-scale meteorology by the often neglected but important role of spatial origins of air masses entering this region. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory cluster analysis is conducted linking satellite observations of cloud properties (Spinning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager), information on aerosol species (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate), and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis) to air mass clusters. It is found that a characteristic pattern of air mass origins connected to distinct synoptical conditions leads to marked cloud property changes in the southern part of the study area. Long-distance air masses are related to midlatitude weather disturbances that affect the cloud microphysics, especially in the southwestern subdomain of the study area. Changes in cloud effective radius are consistent with a boundary layer deepening and changes in lower tropospheric stability (LTS). In the southeastern subdomain cloud cover is controlled by a generally higher LTS, while air mass origin plays a minor role. This study leads to a better understanding of the dynamical drivers behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA and frames potentially interesting conditions for aerosol-cloud interactions.

  2. Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol-cloud interaction in different parts of the globe is examined here using multi-year statistics of remotely sensed data from two MODIS sensors aboard NASA's Terra (morning and Aqua (afternoon satellites. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol loadings and cloud properties by the MODIS sensor allowed us to explore morning-to-afternoon variation of liquid cloud fraction (CF and optical thickness (COT for clean, moderately polluted and heavily polluted clouds in different seasons. Data analysis for seven-years of MODIS retrievals revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud fraction and optical thickness over different parts of the global oceans and the land. For the vast areas of stratocumulus cloud regions, the data shows that the days with elevated aerosol abundance were also associated with enhanced afternoon reduction of CF and COT pointing to the possible reduction of the indirect climate forcing. A positive correlation between aerosol optical depth and morning-to-afternoon variation of trade wind cumulus cloud cover was also found over the northern Indian Ocean, though no clear relationship between the concentration of Indo-Asian haze and morning-to-afternoon variation of COT was established. Over the Amazon region during wet conditions, aerosols are associated with an enhanced convective process in which morning shallow warm clouds are organized into afternoon deep convection with greater ice cloud coverage. Analysis presented here demonstrates that the new technique for exploring morning-to-afternoon variability in cloud properties by using the differences in data products from the two daily MODIS overpasses is capable of capturing some of the major features of diurnal variations in cloud properties and can be used for better understanding of aerosol radiative effects.

  3. A 19-Month Climatology of Marine Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived From DOE ARM AMF Deployment at the Azores: Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.

  4. Progress towards NASA MODIS and Suomi NPP Cloud Property Data Record Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, S.; Meyer, K.; Holz, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Heidinger, A.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S. E.; Wang, C.; Marchant, B.; Frey, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Suomi NPP VIIRS imager provides an opportunity to extend the 17+ year EOS MODIS climate data record into the next generation operational era. Similar to MODIS, VIIRS provides visible through IR observations at moderate spatial resolution with a 1330 LT equatorial crossing consistent with the MODIS on the Aqua platform. However, unlike MODIS, VIIRS lacks key water vapor and CO2 absorbing channels used for high cloud detection and cloud-top property retrievals. In addition, there is a significant mismatch in the spectral location of the 2.2 μm shortwave-infrared channels used for cloud optical/microphysical retrievals and cloud thermodynamic phase. Given these instrument differences between MODIS EOS and VIIRS S-NPP/JPSS, a merged MODIS-VIIRS cloud record to serve the science community in the coming decades requires different algorithm approaches than those used for MODIS alone. This new approach includes two parallel efforts: (1) Imager-only algorithms with only spectral channels common to VIIRS and MODIS (i.e., eliminate use of MODIS CO2 and NIR/IR water vapor channels). Since the algorithms are run with similar spectral observations, they provide a basis for establishing a continuous cloud data record across the two imagers. (2) Merged imager and sounder measurements (i.e.., MODIS-AIRS, VIIRS-CrIS) in lieu of higher-spatial resolution MODIS absorption channels absent on VIIRS. The MODIS-VIIRS continuity algorithm for cloud optical property retrievals leverages heritage algorithms that produce the existing MODIS cloud mask (MOD35), optical and microphysical properties product (MOD06), and the NOAA AWG Cloud Height Algorithm (ACHA). We discuss our progress towards merging the MODIS observational record with VIIRS in order to generate cloud optical property climate data record continuity across the observing systems. In addition, we summarize efforts to reconcile apparent radiometric biases between analogous imager channels, a critical consideration for

  5. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  6. Diurnal, Seasonal, and Interannual Variations of Cloud Properties Derived for CERES From Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chen, Yan; Brown, Richard R.; Gibson, Sharon; Heck, Patrick W.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the radiation and cloud fields on a global basis is a key component in the effort to understand and model the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. The NASA Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project, begun in 1998, is meeting this need. Broadband shortwave (SW) and longwave radiance measurements taken by the CERES scanners at resolutions between 10 and 20 km on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Terra, and Aqua satellites are matched to simultaneous retrievals of cloud height, phase, particle size, water path, and optical depth OD from the TRMM Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Besides aiding the interpretation of the broadband radiances, the CERES cloud properties are valuable for understanding cloud variations at a variety of scales. In this paper, the resulting CERES cloud data taken to date are averaged at several temporal scales to examine the temporal and spatial variability of the cloud properties on a global scale at a 1 resolution.

  7. CERES cloud property retrievals from imagers on TRMM, Terra, and Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Heck, Patrick W.; Doelling, David R.; Trepte, Qing Z.

    2004-02-01

    The micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds play a crucial role in Earth"s radiation budget. The NASA Clouds and Earth"s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is providing simultaneous measurements of the radiation and cloud fields on a global basis to improve the understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. Cloud properties derived for CERES from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites are compared to ensure consistency between the products to ensure the reliability of the retrievals from multiple platforms at different times of day. Comparisons of cloud fraction, height, optical depth, phase, effective particle size, and ice and liquid water paths from the two satellites show excellent consistency. Initial calibration comparisons are also very favorable. Differences between the Aqua and Terra results are generally due to diurnally dependent changes in the clouds. Additional algorithm refinement is needed over the polar regions for Aqua and at night over those same areas for Terra. The results should be extremely valuable for model validation and improvement and for improving our understanding of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget.

  8. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  9. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part I; Low-Level Cloud Macrophysical, Microphysical, and Radiative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Xi, Baike

    2005-01-01

    A record of single-layer and overcast low cloud (stratus) properties has been generated using approximately 4000 hours of data collected from January 1997 to December 2002 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SCF). The cloud properties include liquid-phase and liquid-dominant, mixed-phase, low cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties including cloud-base and -top heights and temperatures, and cloud physical thickness derived from a ground-based radar and lidar pair, and rawinsonde sounding; cloud liquid water path (LWP) and content (LWC), and cloud-droplet effective radius (r(sub e)) and number concentration (N) derived from the macrophysical properties and radiometer data; and cloud optical depth (tau), effective solar transmission (gamma), and cloud/top-of-atmosphere albedos (R(sub cldy)/R(sub TOA)) derived from Eppley precision spectral pyranometer measurements. The cloud properties were analyzed in terms of their seasonal, monthly, and hourly variations. In general, more stratus clouds occur during winter and spring than in summer. Cloud-layer altitudes and physical thicknesses were higher and greater in summer than in winter with averaged physical thicknesses of 0.85 km and 0.73 km for day and night, respectively. The seasonal variations of LWP, LWC, N. tau, R(sub cldy), and R(sub TOA) basically follow the same pattern with maxima and minima during winter and summer, respectively. There is no significant variation in mean r(sub e), however, despite a summertime peak in aerosol loading, Although a considerable degree of variability exists, the 6-yr average values of LWP, LWC, r(sub e), N, tau, gamma, R(sub cldy) and R(sub TOA) are 150 gm(exp -2) (138), 0.245 gm(exp -3) (0.268), 8.7 micrometers (8.5), 213 cm(exp -3) (238), 26.8 (24.8), 0.331, 0.672, 0.563 for daytime (nighttime). A new conceptual model of midlatitude continental low clouds at the ARM SGP site has been developed from this study

  10. Validating Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Properties for Weather and Climate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Smith, W., Jr.; Yost, C. R.; Bedka, S. T.; Palikonda, R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances are increasingly used in weather and climate applications, particularly in nowcasting, model assimilation and validation, trend monitoring, and precipitation and radiation analyses. The value of using the satellite-derived cloud parameters is determined by the accuracy of the particular parameter for a given set of conditions, such as viewing and illumination angles, surface background, and cloud type and structure. Because of the great variety of those conditions and of the sensors used to monitor clouds, determining the accuracy or uncertainties in the retrieved cloud parameters is a daunting task. Sensitivity studies of the retrieved parameters to the various inputs for a particular cloud type are helpful for understanding the errors associated with the retrieval algorithm relative to the plane-parallel world assumed in most of the model clouds that serve as the basis for the retrievals. Real world clouds, however, rarely fit the plane-parallel mold and generate radiances that likely produce much greater errors in the retrieved parameter than can be inferred from sensitivity analyses. Thus, independent, empirical methods are used to provide a more reliable uncertainty analysis. At NASA Langley, cloud properties are being retrieved from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for climate monitoring and model validation as part of the NASA CERES project since 2000 and from AVHRR data since 1978 as part of the NOAA CDR program. Cloud properties are also being retrieved in near-real time globally from both GEO and LEO satellites for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. This paper discusses the various independent datasets and approaches that are used to assessing the imager-based satellite cloud retrievals. These include, but are not limited to data from ARM sites, CloudSat, and CALIPSO. This paper discusses the use of the various

  11. Satellite Cloud and Radiative Property Processing and Distribution System on the NASA Langley ASDC OpenStack and OpenShift Cloud Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Spangenberg, D.; Vakhnin, A.; Lutz, N. E.; Walter, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud Computing offers new opportunities for large-scale scientific data producers to utilize Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) IT resources to process and deliver data products in an operational environment where timely delivery, reliability, and availability are critical. The NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is building and testing a private and public facing cloud for users in the Science Directorate to utilize as an everyday production environment. The NASA SatCORPS (Satellite ClOud and Radiation Property Retrieval System) team processes and derives near real-time (NRT) global cloud products from operational geostationary (GEO) satellite imager datasets. To deliver these products, we will utilize the public facing cloud and OpenShift to deploy a load-balanced webserver for data storage, access, and dissemination. The OpenStack private cloud will host data ingest and computational capabilities for SatCORPS processing. This paper will discuss the SatCORPS migration towards, and usage of, the ASDC Cloud Services in an operational environment. Detailed lessons learned from use of prior cloud providers, specifically the Amazon Web Services (AWS) GovCloud and the Government Cloud administered by the Langley Managed Cloud Environment (LMCE) will also be discussed.

  12. Seasonal Bias of Retrieved Ice Cloud Optical Properties Based on MISR and MODIS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Hioki, S.; Yang, P.; Di Girolamo, L.; Fu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The precise estimation of two important cloud optical and microphysical properties, cloud particle optical thickness and cloud particle effective radius, is fundamental in the study of radiative energy budget and hydrological cycle. In retrieving these two properties, an appropriate selection of ice particle surface roughness is important because it substantially affects the single-scattering properties. At present, using a predetermined ice particle shape without spatial and temporal variations is a common practice in satellite-based retrieval. This approach leads to substantial uncertainties in retrievals. The cloud radiances measured by each of the cameras of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument are used to estimate spherical albedo values at different scattering angles. By analyzing the directional distribution of estimated spherical albedo values, the degree of ice particle surface roughness is estimated. With an optimal degree of ice particle roughness, cloud optical thickness and effective radius are retrieved based on a bi-spectral shortwave technique in conjunction with two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bands centered at 0.86 and 2.13 μm. The seasonal biases of retrieved cloud optical and microphysical properties, caused by the uncertainties in ice particle roughness, are investigated by using one year of MISR-MODIS fused data.

  13. Improvements of top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiance computations with CALIPSO-, CloudSat-, and MODIS-derived cloud and aerosol properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan; Rutan, David A.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Winker, David M.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Collins, William D.

    2011-10-01

    One year of instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface shortwave and longwave irradiances are computed using cloud and aerosol properties derived from instruments on the A-Train Constellation: the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). When modeled irradiances are compared with those computed with cloud properties derived from MODIS radiances by a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud algorithm, the global and annual mean of modeled instantaneous TOA irradiances decreases by 12.5 W m-2 (5.0%) for reflected shortwave and 2.5 W m-2 (1.1%) for longwave irradiances. As a result, the global annual mean of instantaneous TOA irradiances agrees better with CERES-derived irradiances to within 0.5W m-2 (out of 237.8 W m-2) for reflected shortwave and 2.6W m-2 (out of 240.1 W m-2) for longwave irradiances. In addition, the global annual mean of instantaneous surface downward longwave irradiances increases by 3.6 W m-2 (1.0%) when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. The global annual mean of instantaneous surface downward shortwave irradiances also increases by 8.6 W m-2 (1.6%), indicating that the net surface irradiance increases when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. Increasing the surface downward longwave irradiance is caused by larger cloud fractions (the global annual mean by 0.11, 0.04 excluding clouds with optical thickness less than 0.3) and lower cloud base heights (the global annual mean by 1.6 km). The increase of the surface downward longwave irradiance in the Arctic exceeds 10 W m-2 (˜4%) in winter because CALIOP and CPR detect more clouds in comparison with the cloud detection by the CERES cloud algorithm during polar night. The global annual mean surface downward longwave irradiance of

  14. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements for the time frame 2004–2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2 data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002. In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  15. Investigation of tropical cirrus cloud properties using ground based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Raghunath, K.; Venkat Ratnam, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play a significant role in the Earths radiation budget. Therefore, knowledge of geometrical and optical properties of cirrus cloud is essential for the climate modeling. In this paper, the cirrus clouds microphysical and optical properties are made by using a ground based lidar measurements over an inland tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The variation of cirrus microphysical and optical properties with mid cloud temperature is also studied. The cirrus clouds mean height is generally observed in the range of 9-17km with a peak occurrence at 13- 14km. The cirrus mid cloud temperature ranges from -81°C to -46°C. The cirrus geometrical thickness ranges from 0.9- 4.5km. During the cirrus occurrence days sub-visual, thin and dense cirrus were at 37.5%, 50% and 12.5% respectively. The monthly cirrus optical depth ranges from 0.01-0.47, but most (<80%) of the cirrus have values less than 0.1. Optical depth shows a strong dependence with cirrus geometrical thickness and mid-cloud height. The monthly mean cirrus extinction ranges from 2.8E-06 to 8E-05 and depolarization ratio and lidar ratio varies from 0.13 to 0.77 and 2 to 52 sr respectively. A positive correlation exists for both optical depth and extinction with the mid-cloud temperature. The lidar ratio shows a scattered behavior with mid-cloud temperature.

  16. Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkay, K.C.; Rosenberg, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in a positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.

  17. The Effect of Asian Dust Aerosols on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing from MODIS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Wang, Tianhe; Yi, Yuhong; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    The effects of dust storms on cloud properties and radiative forcing are analyzed over northwestern China from April 2001 to June 2004 using data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Aqua and Terra satellites. On average, ice cloud effective particle diameter, optical depth and ice water path of the cirrus clouds under dust polluted conditions are 11%, 32.8%, and 42% less, respectively, than those derived from ice clouds in dust-free atmospheric environments. The humidity differences are larger in the dusty region than in the dust-free region, and may be caused by removal of moisture by wet dust precipitation. Due to changes in cloud microphysics, the instantaneous net radiative forcing is reduced from -71.2 W/m2 for dust contaminated clouds to -182.7 W/m2 for dust-free clouds. The reduced cooling effects of dusts may lead to a net warming of 1 W/m2, which, if confirmed, would be the strongest aerosol forcing during later winter and early spring dust storm seasons over the studied region.

  18. Modeling Optical and Radiative Properties of Clouds Constrained with CARDEX Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Praveen, P. S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) have important effects on climate by directly absorbing solar radiation and indirectly changing cloud properties. These particles tend to be a complex mixture of graphitic carbon and organic compounds. The graphitic component, called as elemental carbon (EC), is characterized by significant absorption of solar radiation. Recent studies showed that organic carbon (OC) aerosols absorb strongly near UV region, and this faction is known as Brown Carbon (BrC). The indirect effect of CA can occur in two ways, first by changing the thermal structure of the atmosphere which further affects dynamical processes governing cloud life cycle; secondly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that can change cloud radiative properties. In this work, cloud optical properties have been numerically estimated by accounting for CAEDEX (Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment) observed cloud parameters and the physico-chemical and optical properties of aerosols. The aerosol inclusions in the cloud drop have been considered as core shell structure with core as EC and shell comprising of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sea salt and organic carbon (organic acids, OA and brown carbon, BrC). The EC/OC ratio of the inclusion particles have been constrained based on observations. Moderate and heavy pollution events have been decided based on the aerosol number and BC concentration. Cloud drop's co-albedo at 550nm was found nearly identical for pure EC sphere inclusions and core-shell inclusions with all non-absorbing organics in the shell. However, co-albedo was found to increase for the drop having all BrC in the shell. The co-albedo of a cloud drop was found to be the maximum for all aerosol present as interstitial compare to 50% and 0% inclusions existing as interstitial aerosols. The co-albedo was found to be ~ 9.87e-4 for the drop with 100% inclusions existing as interstitial aerosols externally mixed with micron size mineral dust with 2

  19. The Relationship Between Infrared Dark Cloud and Stellar Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahan, Jenny; Hora, Joseph L.

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars are known to form within infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), but many details about how molecular clouds collapse and form stars remain poorly understood.We determine the relationship between the dark cloud mass and the population of young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the cloud to shed light on the physical processes occurring within these star forming regions. We chose to use a sample of IRDCs and YSOs within the Cygnus-X region, a close-by giant star formation complex that has every stage of star formation represented. Using observations from IRAC, MIPS, PACS, and SPIRE on Spitzer and Herschel we identified a sample of 30,903 YSOs and 167 IRDCs. We derived the class of each YSO as well as the mass of YSO and IRDCs from the flux information. Using these parameters, as well as their locations in the cloud, we were sorted IRDC fragments into larger filaments and associate a set of YSOs with each IRDC. By measuring and comparing parameters such as YSO total mass, number of YSOs, Class 0, Class I, and Class II populations, distance from host filament, and filament mass we tested for correlations between the YSO and IRDC parameters. Using this treasure trove of information, we find that Class 0 and I objects are located more closely to their host IRDC than their Class II counterparts. We also find that high-density IRDCs are better environments for star formation than low-density IRDCs. However, we find no correlation between the total mass of the IRDC and the largest YSO mass in the IRDC, suggesting that IRDCs of any mass can have massive YSOs associated with them.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  20. Uncertainty Estimate of Surface Irradiances Computed with MODIS-, CALIPSO-, and CloudSat-Derived Cloud and Aerosol Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan

    2012-07-01

    Differences of modeled surface upward and downward longwave and shortwave irradiances are calculated using modeled irradiance computed with active sensor-derived and passive sensor-derived cloud and aerosol properties. The irradiance differences are calculated for various temporal and spatial scales, monthly gridded, monthly zonal, monthly global, and annual global. Using the irradiance differences, the uncertainty of surface irradiances is estimated. The uncertainty (1σ) of the annual global surface downward longwave and shortwave is, respectively, 7 W m-2 (out of 345 W m-2) and 4 W m-2 (out of 192 W m-2), after known bias errors are removed. Similarly, the uncertainty of the annual global surface upward longwave and shortwave is, respectively, 3 W m-2 (out of 398 W m-2) and 3 W m-2 (out of 23 W m-2). The uncertainty is for modeled irradiances computed using cloud properties derived from imagers on a sun-synchronous orbit that covers the globe every day (e.g., moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer) or modeled irradiances computed for nadir view only active sensors on a sun-synchronous orbit such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation and CloudSat. If we assume that longwave and shortwave uncertainties are independent of each other, but up- and downward components are correlated with each other, the uncertainty in global annual mean net surface irradiance is 12 W m-2. One-sigma uncertainty bounds of the satellite-based net surface irradiance are 106 W m-2 and 130 W m-2.

  1. Quantifying and Modelling the Effect of Cloud Shadows on the Surface Irradiance at Tropical and Midlatitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivalov, Sergey N.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2018-02-01

    Cloud shadows lead to alternating light and dark periods at the surface, with the most abrupt changes occurring in the presence of low-level forced cumulus clouds. We examine multiyear irradiance time series observed at a research tower in a midlatitude mixed deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA: 42.53{°}N, 72.17{°}W) and one made at a similar tower in a tropical rain forest (Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil: 2.86{°}S, 54.96{°}W). We link the durations of these periods statistically to conventional meteorological reports of sky type and cloud height at the two forests and present a method to synthesize the surface irradiance time series from sky-type information. Four classes of events describing distinct sequential irradiance changes at the transition from cloud shadow and direct sunlight are identified: sharp-to-sharp, slow-to-slow, sharp-to-slow, and slow-to-sharp. Lognormal and the Weibull statistical distributions distinguish among cloudy-sky types. Observers' qualitative reports of `scattered' and `broken' clouds are quantitatively distinguished by a threshold value of the ratio of mean clear to cloudy period durations. Generated synthetic time series based on these statistics adequately simulate the temporal "radiative forcing" linked to sky type. Our results offer a quantitative way to connect the conventional meteorological sky type to the time series of irradiance experienced at the surface.

  2. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in situ image cloud particles in a well-defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  3. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in-situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in-situ image cloud particles in a well defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  4. Low cloud investigations for project FIRE: Island studies of cloud properties, surface radiation, and boundary layer dynamics. A simulation of the reflectivity over a stratocumulus cloud deck by the Monte Carlo method. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    1993-01-01

    The radiation field over a broken stratocumulus cloud deck is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. We conducted four experiments to investigate the main factor for the observed shortwave reflectively over the FIRE flight 2 leg 5, in which reflectivity decreases almost linearly from the cloud center to cloud edge while the cloud top height and the brightness temperature remain almost constant through out the clouds. From our results, the geometry effect, however, did not contribute significantly to what has been observed. We found that the variation of the volume extinction coefficient as a function of its relative position in the cloud affects the reflectivity efficiently. Additional check of the brightness temperature of each experiment also confirms this conclusion. The cloud microphysical data showed some interesting features. We found that the cloud droplet spectrum is nearly log-normal distributed when the clouds were solid. However, whether the shift of cloud droplet spectrum toward the larger end is not certain. The decrease of number density from cloud center to cloud edges seems to have more significant effects on the optical properties.

  5. Providing Access and Visualization to Global Cloud Properties from GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Ayers, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Providing public access to cloud macro and microphysical properties is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access cloud information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The core of the tool is an application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery as an input into their own work flows for both image generation and cloud product requisition. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite derived cloud product information available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider. Using the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service as our access method, we describe a system that uses a hybrid local and cloud based parallel processing system that can return both satellite imagery and cloud product imagery as well as the binary data used to generate them in multiple formats. The images and cloud products are sourced from multiple satellites and also "merged" datasets created by temporally and spatially matching satellite sensors. Finally, the tool and API allow users to access information that spans the time ranges that our group has information available. In the case of satellite imagery, the temporal range can span the entire lifetime of the sensor.

  6. A Comparison of Cloud Microphysical and Optical Properties during TOGA-COARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Pueschel, R. F.; Pilewskie, P.; Valero, F. P. J.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The impact of cirrus clouds on climate is an issue of research interest currently. Whether cirrus clouds heat or cool the Earth-atmosphere system depends on the cloud shortwave albedo and infrared reflectance and absorptance. These in turn are determined by the size distribution, phase, and composition of particles in the clouds. The TOGA-COARE campaign presented an excellent opportunity to study cirrus clouds and their influence on climate. In this campaign, a microphysics instrument package was flown aboard the DC-8 aircraft at medium altitudes in cirrus clouds. This package included a 2D Greyscale Cloud Particle Probe, a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Aerosol Probe, and an ice crystal replicator. At the same time the ER-2 equipped with a radiation measurement system flew coordinated flight tracks above the DC-8 at very high altitude. The radiation measurement made were short and long wave fluxes, as well as narrowband fluxes, both upwelling and downwelling. In addition LIDAR data is available. The existence of these data sets allows for a the comparison of radiation measurement with microphysical measurements. For example, the optical depth and effective radius retrieved from the ER-2 radiation measurements can be compared to the microphysical data. Conversely, the optical properties and fluxes produced by the clouds can be calculated from the microphysical measurements and compared to those measured aboard the ER-2. The assumptions required to make these comparisons are discussed. Typical microphysical results show a prevalence of micron-sized particles, in addition to the cloud particles that exceed 100 mm. The large number of small particles or "haze" cause the effective cloud radii to shift to smaller sizes, leading to changes in optical parameters.

  7. Estimation of time-series properties of gourd observed solar irradiance data using cloud properties derived from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Nohara, D.

    2017-12-01

    The shorter temporal scale variation in the downward solar irradiance at the ground level (DSI) is not understood well because researches in the shorter-scale variation in the DSI is based on the ground observation and ground observation stations are located coarsely. Use of dataset derived from satellite observation will overcome such defect. DSI data and MODIS cloud properties product are analyzed simultaneously. Three metrics: mean, standard deviation and sample entropy, are used to evaluate time-series properties of the DSI. Three metrics are computed from two-hours time-series centered at the observation time of MODIS over the ground observation stations. We apply the regression methods to design prediction models of each three metrics from cloud properties. The validation of the model accuracy show that mean and standard deviation are predicted with a higher degree of accuracy and that the accuracy of prediction of sample entropy, which represents the complexity of time-series, is not high. One of causes of lower prediction skill of sample entropy is the resolution of the MODIS cloud properties. Higher sample entropy is corresponding to the rapid fluctuation, which is caused by the small and unordered cloud. It seems that such clouds isn't retrieved well.

  8. Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Dupont

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical properties of low stratus and fog are analyzed here based on simultaneous measurement of an in situ sensor installed on board a tethered balloon and active remote-sensing instruments deployed at the Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research (SIRTA observatory (south of Paris, France. The study focuses on the analysis of 3 case studies where the tethered balloon is deployed for several hours in order to derive the relationship between liquid water content (LWC, effective radius (Re and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC measured by a light optical aerosol counter (LOAC in situ granulometer and Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA cloud radar reflectivity. The well-known relationship Z = α × (LWCβ has been optimized with α ϵ [0.02, 0.097] and β ϵ [1.91, 2.51]. Similar analysis is done to optimize the relationship Re = f(Z and CDNC = f(Z. Two methodologies have been applied to normalize the particle-size distribution measured by the LOAC granulometer with a visible extinction closure (R² ϵ [0.73, 0.93] and to validate the LWC profile with a liquid water closure using the Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO microwave radiometer (R² ϵ [0.83, 0.91]. In a second step, these relationships are used to derive spatial and temporal variability of the vertical profile of LWC, Re and CDNC starting from BASTA measurement. Finally, the synergistic remote sensing of clouds (SYRSOC algorithm has been tested on three tethered balloon flights. Generally, SYRSOC CDNC and Re profiles agreed well with LOAC in situ and BASTA profiles for the studied fog layers. A systematic overestimation of LWC by SYRSOC in the top half of the fog layer was found due to fog processes that are not accounted for in the cloud algorithm SYRSOC.

  9. Measurements of the relation between aerosol properties and microphysics and chemistry of low level liquid water clouds in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lihavainen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of boundary layer clouds, together with relevant aerosol properties, were investigated during the first Pallas Cloud Experiment (First Pace conducted in northern Finland between 20 October and 9 November 2004. Two stations located 6 km apart from each other at different altitudes were employed in measurements. The low-altitude station was always below the cloud layer, whereas the high-altitude station was inside clouds about 75% of the time during the campaign. Direct measurements of cloud droplet populations showed that our earlier approach of determining cloud droplet residual particle size distributions and corresponding activated fractions using continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements at the two stations is valid, as long as the cloud events are carefully screened to exclude precipitating clouds and to make sure the same air mass has been measured at both stations. We observed that a non-negligible fraction of cloud droplets originated from Aitken mode particles even at moderately-polluted air masses. We found clear evidence on first indirect aerosol effect on clouds but demonstrated also that no simple relation between the cloud droplet number concentration and aerosol particle number concentration exists for this type of clouds. The chemical composition of aerosol particles was dominated by particulate organic matter (POM and sulphate in continental air masses and POM, sodium and chlorine in marine air masses. The inorganic composition of cloud water behaved similarly to that of the aerosol phase and was not influenced by inorganic trace gases.

  10. Seven years of global retrieval of cloud properties using space-borne data of GOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a global and regional multi-annual (June 1996–May 2003 analysis of cloud properties (spherical cloud albedo – CA, cloud optical thickness – COT and cloud top height – CTH of optically thick (COT > 5 clouds, derived using measurements from the GOME instrument on board the ESA ERS-2 space platform. We focus on cloud top height, which is obtained from top-of-atmosphere backscattered solar light measurements in the O2 A-band using the Semi-Analytical CloUd Retrieval Algorithm SACURA. The physical framework relies on the asymptotic equations of radiative transfer. The dataset has been validated against independent ground- and satellite-based retrievals and is aimed to support trace-gases retrievals as well as to create a robust long-term climatology together with SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 ensuing retrievals. We observed the El Niño-Southern Oscillation anomaly in the 1997–1998 record through CTH values over the Pacific Ocean. The global average CTH as derived from GOME is 5.6 ± 3.2 km, for a corresponding average COT of 19.1 ± 13.9.

  11. The Impact of Cloud Properties on Young Sea Ice during Three Winter Storms at N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. Y.; Walden, V. P.; Cohen, L.; Hudson, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of clouds on sea ice varies significantly as cloud properties change. Instruments deployed during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice field campaign (N-ICE2015) are used to study how differing cloud properties influence the cloud radiative forcing at the sea ice surface. N-ICE2015 was the first campaign in the Arctic winter since SHEBA (1997/1998) to study the surface energy budget of sea ice and the associated effects of cloud properties. Cloud characteristics, surface radiative and turbulent fluxes, and meteorological properties were measured throughout the field campaign. Here we explore how cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties affect young, thin sea ice during three winter storms from 31 January to 15 February 2015. This time period is of interest due to the varying surface and atmospheric conditions, which showcase the variety of conditions the newly-formed sea ice can experience during the winter. This period was characterized by large variations in the ice surface and near-surface air temperatures, with highs near 0°C when warm, moist air was advected into the area and lows reaching -40°C during clear, calm periods between storms. The advection of warm, moist air into the area influenced the cloud properties and enhanced the downwelling longwave flux. For most of the period, downwelling longwave flux correlates closely with the air temperature. However, at the end of the first storm, a drop in downwelling longwave flux of about 50 Wm-2 was observed, independent of any change in surface or air temperature or cloud fraction, indicating a change in cloud properties. Lidar data show an increase in cloud height during this period and a potential shift in cloud phase from ice to mixed-phase. This study will describe the cloud properties during the three winter storms and discuss their impacts on surface energy budget.

  12. Quantifying the link between art and property prices in urban neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2016-04-01

    Is there an association between art and changes in the economic conditions of urban neighbourhoods? While the popular media and policymakers commonly believe this to be the case, quantitative evidence remains lacking. Here, we use metadata of geotagged photographs uploaded to the popular image-sharing platform Flickr to quantify the presence of art in London neighbourhoods. We estimate the presence of art in neighbourhoods by determining the proportion of Flickr photographs which have the word 'art' attached. We compare this with the relative gain in residential property prices for each Inner London neighbourhood. We find that neighbourhoods which have a higher proportion of 'art' photographs also have greater relative gains in property prices. Our findings demonstrate how online data can be used to quantify aspects of the visual environment at scale and reveal new connections between the visual environment and crucial socio-economic measurements.

  13. Coupled Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud and Above-Cloud Aerosol Properties Using the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; van Harten, Gerard; Diner, David J.; Davis, Anthony B.; Seidel, Felix C.; Rheingans, Brian; Tosca, Mika; Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Ferrare, Richard A.; Burton, Sharon P.; Fenn, Marta A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Wood, Robert; Redemann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    An optimization algorithm is developed to retrieve liquid water cloud properties including cloud optical depth (COD), droplet size distribution and cloud top height (CTH), and above-cloud aerosol properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo, and microphysical properties from sweep-mode observations by Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) instrument. The retrieval is composed of three major steps: (1) initial estimate of the mean droplet size distribution across the entire image of 80-100 km along track by 10-25 km across track from polarimetric cloudbow observations, (2) coupled retrieval of image-scale cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties by fitting the polarimetric data at all observation angles, and (3) iterative retrieval of 1-D radiative transfer-based COD and droplet size distribution at pixel scale (25 m) by establishing relationships between COD and droplet size and fitting the total radiance measurements. Our retrieval is tested using 134 AirMSPI data sets acquired during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS. The retrieved above-cloud AOD and CTH are compared to coincident HSRL-2 (HSRL-2, NASA Langley Research Center) data, and COD and droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius reff and effective variance veff) are compared to coincident Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies) data. Mean absolute differences between AirMSPI and HSRL-2 retrievals of above-cloud AOD at 532 nm and CTH are 0.03 and mean absolute differences between RSP and AirMSPI retrievals of COD, reff, and veff in the cloudbow area are 2.33, 0.69 μm, and 0.020, respectively. Neglect of smoke aerosols above cloud leads to an underestimate of image-averaged COD by 15%.

  14. Preliminary laboratory studies of the optical scattering properties of the crystal clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saunders

    Full Text Available Ice crystal clouds have an influence on the radiative budget of the earth; however, the exact size and nature of this influence has yet to be determined. A laboratory cloud chamber experiment has been set up to provide data on the optical scattering behaviour of ice crystals at a visible wavelength in order to gain information which can be used in climate models concerning the radiative characteristics of cirrus clouds. A PMS grey-scale probe is used to monitor simultaneously the cloud microphysical properties in order to correlate these closely with the observed radiative properties. Preliminary results show that ice crystals scatter considerably more at 90° than do water droplets, and that the halo effects are visible in a laboratory-generated cloud when the ice crystal concentration is sufficiently small to prevent masking from multiple scattering.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmosphere dynamics · Climatology · Radiative process · Atmospheric composition and structure · Cloud physics and chemistry

  15. O the Size Dependence of the Chemical Properties of Cloud Droplets: Exploratory Studies by Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohy, Cynthia H.

    1992-09-01

    Clouds play an important role in the climate of the earth and in the transport and transformation of chemical species, but many questions about clouds remain unanswered. In particular, the chemical properties of droplets may vary with droplet size, with potentially important consequences. The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) separates droplets from interstitial particles and gases in a cloud and also can collect droplets in discrete size ranges. As such, the CVI is a useful tool for investigating the chemical components present in droplets of different sizes and their potential interactions with cloud processes. The purpose of this work is twofold. First, the sampling characteristics of the airborne CVI are investigated, using data from a variety of experiments. A thorough understanding of CVI properties is necessary in order to utilize the acquired data judiciously and effectively. Although the impaction characteristics of the CVI seem to be predictable by theory, the airborne instrument is subject to influences that may result in a reduced transmission efficiency for droplets, particularly if the inlet is not properly aligned. Ways to alleviate this problem are being investigated, but currently the imperfect sampling efficiency must be taken into account during data interpretation. Relationships between the physical and chemical properties of residual particles from droplets collected by the CVI and droplet size are then explored in both stratiform and cumulus clouds. The effects of various cloud processes and measurement limitations upon these relationships are discussed. In one study, chemical analysis of different -sized droplets sampled in stratiform clouds showed a dependence of chemical composition on droplet size, with larger droplets containing higher proportions of sodium than non-sea-salt sulfate and ammonium. Larger droplets were also associated with larger residual particles, as expected from simple cloud nucleation theory. In a study of marine

  16. Investigation of Cloud Properties and Atmospheric Profiles with Modis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steve; Moeller, Chris; Gumley, Liam; Strabala, Kathy; Frey, Richard; Prins, Elaine; Laporte, Dan; Wolf, Walter

    1997-01-01

    A major milestone was accomplished with the delivery of all five University of Wisconsin MODIS Level 2 science production software packages to the Science Data Support Team (SDST) for integration. These deliveries were the culmination of months of design and testing, with most of the work focused on tasks peripheral to the actual science contained in the code. LTW hosted a MODIS infrared calibration workshop in September. Considerable progress has been made by MCST, with help from LTW, in refining the calibration algorithm, and in identifying and characterization outstanding problems. Work continues on characterizing the effects of non-blackbody earth surfaces on atmospheric profile retrievals and modeling radiative transfer through cirrus clouds.

  17. The Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Low Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is one of the most climatically sensitive regions of the Earth. Climate models robustly project the Arctic to warm 2-3 times faster than the global mean surface temperature, termed polar warming amplification (PWA), but also display the widest range of surface temperature projections in this region. The response of the Arctic to increased CO2 modulates the response in tropical and extra-tropical regions through teleconnections in the atmospheric circulation. An increased frequency of extreme precipitation events in the northern mid-latitudes, for example, has been linked to the change in the background equator-to-pole temperature gradient implied by PWA. Understanding the Arctic climate system is therefore important for predicting global climate change. The ice albedo feedback is the primary mechanism driving PWA, however cloud and dynamical feedbacks significantly contribute. These feedback mechanisms, however, do not operate independently. How do clouds respond to variations in sea ice? This critical question is addressed by combining sea ice, cloud, and radiation observations from satellites, including CERES, CloudSAT, CALIPSO, MODIS, and microwave radiometers, to investigate sea ice-cloud interactions at the interannual timescale in the Arctic. Cloud characteristics are strongly tied to the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic state. Therefore, the sensitivity of Arctic cloud characteristics, vertical distribution and optical properties, to sea ice anomalies is computed within atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic regimes. Results indicate that the cloud response to changes in sea ice concentration differs significantly between atmospheric state regimes. This suggests that (1) the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics and (2) the characteristics of the marginal ice zone are important for determining the seasonal forcing by cloud on sea ice variability.

  18. Can nudging be used to quantify model sensitivities in precipitation and cloud forcing?: NUDGING AND MODEL SENSITIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guangxing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Richland Washington USA; Wan, Hui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Richland Washington USA; Zhang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Richland Washington USA; Qian, Yun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Richland Washington USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Richland Washington USA

    2016-07-10

    Efficient simulation strategies are crucial for the development and evaluation of high resolution climate models. This paper evaluates simulations with constrained meteorology for the quantification of parametric sensitivities in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Two parameters are perturbed as illustrating examples: the convection relaxation time scale (TAU), and the threshold relative humidity for the formation of low-level stratiform clouds (rhminl). Results suggest that the fidelity and computational efficiency of the constrained simulations depend strongly on 3 factors: the detailed implementation of nudging, the mechanism through which the perturbed parameter affects precipitation and cloud, and the magnitude of the parameter perturbation. In the case of a strong perturbation in convection, temperature and/or wind nudging with a 6-hour relaxation time scale leads to non-negligible side effects due to the distorted interactions between resolved dynamics and parameterized convection, while a 1-year free running simulation can satisfactorily capture the annual mean precipitation sensitivity in terms of both global average and geographical distribution. In the case of a relatively weak perturbation the large-scale condensation scheme, results from 1-year free-running simulations are strongly affected by noise associated with internal variability, while nudging winds effectively reduces the noise, and reasonably reproduces the response of precipitation and cloud forcing to parameter perturbation. These results indicate that caution is needed when using nudged simulations to assess precipitation and cloud forcing sensitivities to parameter changes in general circulation models. We also demonstrate that ensembles of short simulations are useful for understanding the evolution of model sensitivities.

  19. Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Gianluca; Palchetti, Luca; Bianchini, Giovanni; Del Guasta, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The possibility separating the contributions of the atmospheric state and ice clouds by using spectral infrared measurements is a fundamental step to quantifying the cloud effect in climate models. A simultaneous retrieval of cloud and atmospheric parameters from infrared wideband spectra will allow the disentanglement of the spectral interference between these variables. In this paper, we describe the development of a code for the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric state and ice cloud parameters, and its application to the analysis of the spectral measurements acquired by the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared - Prototype for Applications and Development (REFIR-PAD) spectroradiometer, which has been in operation at Concordia Station on the Antarctic Plateau since 2012. The code performs the retrieval with a computational time that is comparable with the instrument acquisition time. Water vapour and temperature profiles and the cloud optical and microphysical properties, such as the generalised effective diameter and the ice water path, are retrieved by exploiting the 230-980 cm-1 spectral band. To simulate atmospheric radiative transfer, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) has been integrated with a specifically developed subroutine based on the δ-Eddington two-stream approximation, whereas the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds have been derived from a database for hexagonal column habits. In order to detect ice clouds, a backscattering and depolarisation lidar, co-located with REFIR-PAD has been used, allowing us to infer the position and the cloud thickness to be used in the retrieval. A climatology of the vertical profiles of water vapour and temperature has been performed by using the daily radiosounding available at the station at 12:00 UTC. The climatology has been used to build an a priori profile correlation to constrain the fitting procedure. An optimal estimation method with the Levenberg-Marquardt approach has been

  20. Comparison of CERES-MODIS cloud microphysical properties with surface observations over Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongru; Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Yi, Yuhong; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Wang, Tianhe; Nakajima, Takashi Y.

    2015-03-01

    To enhance the utility of satellite-derived cloud properties for studying the role of clouds in climate change and the hydrological cycle in semi-arid areas, it is necessary to know their uncertainties. This paper estimates the uncertainties of several cloud properties by comparing those derived over the China Loess Plateau from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua by the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) with surface observations at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL). The comparisons use data from January 2008 to June 2010 limited to single layer and overcast stratus conditions during daytime. Cloud optical depths (τ) and liquid water paths (LWP) from both Terra and Aqua generally track the variation of the surface counterparts with modest correlation, while cloud effective radius (re) is only weakly correlated with the surface retrievals. The mean differences between Terra and the SACOL retrievals are -4.7±12.9, 2.1±3.2 μm and 30.2±85.3 g m-2 for τ, re and LWP, respectively. The corresponding differences for Aqua are 2.1±8.4, 1.2±2.9 μm and 47.4±79.6 g m-2, respectively. Possible causes for biases of satellite retrievals are discussed through statistical analysis and case studies. Generally, the CERES-MODIS cloud properties have a bit larger biases over the Loess Plateau than those in previous studies over other locations.

  1. Possible influences of Asian dust aerosols on cloud properties and radiative forcing observed from MODIS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Wang, Tianhe; Yi, Yuhong; Hu, Yongxiang; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, Kirk

    2006-03-01

    The effects of dust storms on cloud properties and Radiative Forcing (RF) are analyzed over Northwestern China from April 2001 to June 2004 using data collected by the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Aqua and Terra satellites. On average, ice cloud effective particle diameter, optical depth and ice water path of cirrus clouds under dust polluted conditions are 11%, 32.8%, and 42% less, respectively, than those derived from ice clouds in dust-free atmospheric environments. Due to changes in cloud microphysics, the instantaneous net RF is increased from -161.6 W/m2 for dust-free clouds to -118.6 W/m2 for dust-contaminated clouds.

  2. Statistics of optical and geometrical properties of cirrus cloud over tibetan plateau measured by lidar and radiosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds affect the energy budget and hydrological cycle of the earth’s atmosphere. The Tibetan Plateau (TP plays a significant role in the global and regional climate. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in the TP were measured in July-August 2014 by lidar and radiosonde. The statistics and temperature dependences of the corresponding properties are analyzed. The cirrus cloud formations are discussed with respect to temperature deviation and dynamic processes.

  3. Overview of CERES Cloud Properties Derived From VIRS AND MODIS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minis, Patrick; Geier, Erika; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Trepte, Qing Z.; Dong, Xiquan; Doelling, David R.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of radiation and cloud fields on a global basis is recognized as a key component in understanding and modeling the interaction between clouds and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere. The NASA Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project (Wielicki et al., 1998) began addressing this issue in 1998 with its first broadband shortwave and longwave scanner on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). This was followed by the launch of two CERES scanners each on Terra and Aqua during late 1999 and early 2002, respectively. When combined, these satellites should provide the most comprehensive global characterization of clouds and radiation to date. Unfortunately, the TRMM scanner failed during late 1998. The Terra and Aqua scanners continue to operate, however, providing measurements at a minimum of 4 local times each day. CERES was designed to scan in tandem with high resolution imagers so that the cloud conditions could be evaluated for every CERES measurement. The cloud properties are essential for converting CERES radiances shortwave albedo and longwave fluxes needed to define the radiation budget (ERB). They are also needed to unravel the impact of clouds on the ERB. The 5-channel, 2-km Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the TRMM and the 36-channel 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua are analyzed to define the cloud properties for each CERES footprint. To minimize inter-satellite differences and aid the development of useful climate-scale measurements, it was necessary to ensure that each satellite imager is calibrated in a fashion consistent with its counterpart on the other CERES satellites (Minnis et al., 2006) and that the algorithms are as similar as possible for all of the imagers. Thus, a set of cloud detection and retrieval algorithms were developed that could be applied to all three imagers utilizing as few channels as possible

  4. A method for quantifying mechanical properties of tissue following viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Lam

    Full Text Available Viral infection and replication involves the reorganization of the actin network within the host cell. Actin plays a central role in the mechanical properties of cells. We have demonstrated a method to quantify changes in mechanical properties of fabricated model three-dimensional (3D connective tissue following viral infection. Using this method, we have characterized the impact of infection by the human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (HCMV. HCMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and infects a variety of cell types including fibroblasts. In the body, fibroblasts are necessary for maintaining connective tissue and function by creating mechanical force. Using this 3D connective tissue model, we observed that infection disrupted the cell's ability to generate force and reduced the cumulative contractile force of the tissue. The addition of HCMV viral particles in the absence of both viral gene expression and DNA replication was sufficient to disrupt tissue function. We observed that alterations of the mechanical properties are, in part, due to a disruption of the underlying complex actin microfilament network established by the embedded fibroblasts. Finally, we were able to prevent HCMV-mediated disruption of tissue function by the addition of human immune globulin against HCMV. This study demonstrates a method to quantify the impact of viral infection on mechanical properties which are not evident using conventional cell culture systems.

  5. Quantifying the Effects of Biofilm on the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, E.; Iden, S.; Furman, A.; Durner, W.; Rosenzweig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the effects of biofilms on hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils is necessary for predicting water and solute flow in soil with extensive microbial presence. This can be relevant to bioremediation processes, soil aquifer treatment and effluent irrigation. Previous works showed a reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and an increase in water content due to the addition of biofilm analogue materials. The objective of this research is to quantify soil hydraulic properties of unsaturated soil (water retention and hydraulic conductivity) using real soil biofilm. In this work, Hamra soil was incubated with Luria Broth (LB) and biofilm-producing bacteria (Pseudomonas Putida F1). Hydraulic conductivity and water retention were measured by the evaporation method, Dewpoint method and a constant head permeameter. Biofilm was quantified using viable counts and the deficit of TOC. The results show that the presence of biofilms increases soil retention in the `dry' range of the curve and reduces the hydraulic conductivity (see figure). This research shows that biofilms may have a non-negligible effect on flow and transport in unsaturated soils. These findings contribute to modeling water flow in biofilm amended soil.

  6. CCN and IN Effects on Cloud Properties and Precipitation - Case Studies from CalWater 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Leung, L.; Comstock, J. M.; Tomlinson, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to modify cloud microphysical processes, which could potentially change the location, intensity, and type of precipitation. Dust aerosols are often observed over California in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia. Although anthropogenic pollution has been postulated to contribute to reduction of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the effects of dust aerosols on the winter clouds and precipitation has not been examined in detail particularly with model simulations. We incorporate recent progress in ice nucleation parameterizations to link dust with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with WRF, to exclusively look into how dust can possibly affect cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cases under different environmental conditions with atmospheric river (AR) and Sierra barrier jet (SBJ) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. It is shown that increasing IN concentrations or adding a dust layer at 4-6 km as IN enhances surface rain and snow due to enhanced production of ice and snow in clouds. However, increasing CCN suppresses surface rain and snow, and significantly redistributes surface precipitation upwind and downwind of the mountains, with important implication to improving our understanding of the impacts of aerosols on orographic precipitation and water supply in the region.

  7. Do Cloud Properties in a Puerto Rican Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Depend on Occurrence of Long-Range Transported African Dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Johanna K.; Buchmann, Nina; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A.; Valle Díaz, Carlos J.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Mertes, Stephan; Eugster, Werner

    2014-09-01

    We investigated cloud properties of warm clouds in a tropical montane cloud forest at Pico del Este (1,051 m a.s.l.) in the northeastern part of Puerto Rico to address the question of whether cloud properties in the Caribbean could potentially be affected by African dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed data collected during 12 days in July 2011. Cloud droplet size spectra were measured using the FM-100 fog droplet spectrometer that measured droplet size distributions in the range from 2 to 49 µm, primarily during fog events. The droplet size spectra revealed a bimodal structure, with the first peak ( D < 6 µm) being more pronounced in terms of droplet number concentrations, whereas the second peak (10 µm < D < 20 µm) was found to be the one relevant for total liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. We identified three major clusters of characteristic droplet size spectra by means of hierarchical clustering. All clusters differed significantly from each other in droplet number concentration (), effective diameter (ED), and median volume diameter (MVD). For the cluster comprising the largest droplets and the lowest droplet number concentrations, we found evidence of inhomogeneous mixing in the cloud. Contrastingly, the other two clusters revealed microphysical behavior, which could be expected under homogeneous mixing conditions. For those conditions, an increase in cloud condensation nuclei—e.g., from processed African dust transported to the site—is supposed to lead to an increased droplet concentration. In fact, one of these two clusters showed a clear shift of cloud droplet size spectra towards smaller droplet diameters. Since this cluster occurred during periods with strong evidence for the presence of long-range transported African dust, we hypothesize a link between the observed dust episodes and cloud characteristics in the Caribbean at our site, which is similar to the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  8. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poix

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  9. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Poix

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  10. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the

  11. Validation of satellite-retrieved MBL cloud properties using DOE ARM AMF measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) cloud properties derived for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) AMF AZORES site from June 2009 through December 2010. Retrievals from ARM surface-based data were averaged over a 1-hour interval centered at the time of each satellite overpass, and the CERES-MODIS Ed4 cloud properties were averaged within a 30-km x 30-km box centered on the ARM AZORES site. Two datasets were analyzed: all of the single-layered unbroken decks (SL) and those cases without temperature inversions. The CERES-MODIS cloud top/base heights were determined from cloud top/base temperature by using a lapse rate method normalized to the 24-h mean surface air temperature. The preliminary results show: for all SL MBL at daytime, they are, on average, 0.148 km (cloud top) and 0.087 km (cloud base) higher than the ARM radar-lidar observed cloud top and base, respectively. At nighttime, they are 0.446 km (cloud top) and 0.334 km (cloud base). For those cases without temperature inversions, the comparisons are close to their SL counterparts. For cloud temperatures, the MODIS-derived cloud-top and -base temperatures are 1.6 K lower and 0.4 K higher than the surface values with correlations of 0.92 during daytime. At nighttime, the differences are slightly larger and correlations are lower than daytime comparisons. Variations in the height difference are mainly caused by uncertainties in the surface air temperatures and lapse rates. Based on a total of 61 daytime and 87 nighttime samples (ALL SL cases), the temperature inversion layers occur about 72% during daytime and 83% during nighttime. The difference of surface-observed lapse rate and the satellite derived lapse rate can be 1.6 K/km for daytime and 3.3K/km for nighttime. From these lapse rates, we can further analyze the surface

  12. Examining the Impact of Overlying Aerosols on the Retrieval of Cloud Optical Properties from Passive Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-01-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space ]based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below ]aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol ]induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 microns) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS ]retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 microns, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  13. Examining the impact of overlying aerosols on the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-05-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space-based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below-aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol-induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 μm) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 μm, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  14. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  15. A 3D clustering approach for point clouds to detect and quantify changes at a rock glacier front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Natan; Tonini, Marj; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are extensively used in geomorphology to remotely-sense landforms and surfaces of any type and to derive digital elevation models (DEMs). Modern devices are able to collect many millions of points, so that working on the resulting dataset is often troublesome in terms of computational efforts. Indeed, it is not unusual that raw point clouds are filtered prior to DEM creation, so that only a subset of points is retained and the interpolation process becomes less of a burden. Whilst this procedure is in many cases necessary, it implicates a considerable loss of valuable information. First, and even without eliminating points, the common interpolation of points to a regular grid causes a loss of potentially useful detail. Second, it inevitably causes the transition from 3D information to only 2.5D data where each (x,y) pair must have a unique z-value. Vector-based DEMs (e.g. triangulated irregular networks) partially mitigate these issues, but still require a set of parameters to be set and a considerable burden in terms of calculation and storage. Because of the reasons above, being able to perform geomorphological research directly on point clouds would be profitable. Here, we propose an approach to identify erosion and deposition patterns on a very active rock glacier front in the Swiss Alps to monitor sediment dynamics. The general aim is to set up a semiautomatic method to isolate mass movements using 3D-feature identification directly from LiDAR data. An ultra-long range LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner was employed to acquire point clouds during three consecutive summers. In order to isolate single clusters of erosion and deposition we applied the Density-Based Scan Algorithm with Noise (DBSCAN), previously successfully employed by Tonini and Abellan (2014) in a similar case for rockfall detection. DBSCAN requires two input parameters, strongly influencing the number, shape and size of the detected clusters: the minimum number of

  16. Property-Based Anonymous Attestation in Trusted Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hu Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the remote attestation on Trusted Computer (TC computing mode TCCP, the trusted computer TC has an excessive burden, and anonymity and platform configuration information security of computing nodes cannot be guaranteed. To overcome these defects, based on the research on and analysis of current schemes, we propose an anonymous proof protocol based on property certificate. The platform configuration information is converted by the matrix algorithm into the property certificate, and the remote attestation is implemented by trusted ring signature scheme based on Strong RSA Assumption. By the trusted ring signature scheme based on property certificate, we achieve the anonymity of computing nodes and prevent the leakage of platform configuration information. By simulation, we obtain the computational efficiency of the scheme. We also expand the protocol and obtain the anonymous attestation based on ECC. By scenario comparison, we obtain the trusted ring signature scheme based on RSA, which has advantages with the growth of the ring numbers.

  17. Leveraging comprehensive baseline datasets to quantify property variability in nuclear-grade graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C., E-mail: mark.carroll@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2213 (United States); Windes, William E.; Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2213 (United States); Strizak, Joseph P.; Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6088 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • An effort is underway to fully quantify the properties of nuclear-grade graphites. • Physical and mechanical properties of graphite are best characterized by distributions. • The Weibull distribution is most representative of graphite based on goodness-of-fit. • Fine-grained isomolded grades exhibit higher Weibull modulus values, indicative of more homogeneous properties. - Abstract: The full characterization of the physical and mechanical properties of candidate nuclear-grade graphites is highly dependent upon an understanding of the distribution of values that are inherent to graphite. Not only do the material properties of graphites vary considerably between grades owing to the raw materials sources, filler particle type and size, methods of compaction, and production process parameters, but variability is observed between billets of the same grade from a single batch and even across spatial positions within a single billet. Properly enveloping the expected properties of interest requires both a substantial amount of data to statistically capture this variability and a representative distribution capable of accurately describing the range of values. A two-parameter Weibull distribution is confirmed to be representative of the distribution of physical (density, modulus) and mechanical (compressive, flexure, and tensile strength) values in five different nuclear-grades of graphite. The fine-grained isomolded grades tend toward higher Weibull modulus and characteristic strength values, while the extruded grade being examined exhibits relatively large distributions in property values. With the number of candidate graphite specimens that can undergo full irradiation exposure and subsequent testing having limited feasibility with regard to economics and timely evaluations, a proper capture of the raw material variability in an unirradiated state can provide crucial supplementary resolution to the limited amount of available data on irradiated

  18. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  19. Aerosol and Cloud Properties during the Cloud Cheju ABC Plume -Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) 2008: Linking between Ground-based and UAV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Venkata Ramana, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Park, S.; Kim, M.

    2009-12-01

    Cheju Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Plume-Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX), comprehsensive ground-based measurements and a series of data-gathering flights by specially equipped autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for aerosol and cloud, had conducted at Jeju (formerly, Cheju), South Korea during August-September 2008, to improve our understanding of how the reduction of anthropogenic emissions in China (so-called “great shutdown” ) during and after the Summer Beijing Olympic Games 2008 effcts on the air quliaty and radiation budgets and how atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) influences solar radiation budget off Asian continent. Large numbers of in-situ and remote sensing instruments at the Gosan ABC observatory and miniaturized instruments on the aircraft measure a range of properties such as the quantity of soot, size-segregated aerosol particle numbers, total particle numbers, size-segregated cloud droplet numbers (only AUAV), aerosol scattering properties (only ground), aerosol vertical distribution, column-integrated aerosol properties, and meteorological variables. By integrating ground-level and high-elevation AUAV measurements with NASA-satellite observations (e.g., MODIS, CALIPSO), we investigate the long range transport of aerosols, the impact of ABCs on clouds, and the role of biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). In this talk, we will present the results from CAPMEX focusing on: (1) the characteristics of aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties at Gosan observatory, (2) aerosol solar heating calculated from the ground-based micro-pulse lidar and AERONET sun/sky radiometer synergy, and comparison with direct measurements from UAV, and (3) aerosol-cloud interactions in conjunction with measurements by satellites and Gosan observatory.

  20. Laboratory and Cloud Chamber Studies of Formation Processes and Properties of Atmospheric Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, T.; Abdelmonem, A.; Benz, S.; Brinkmann, M.; Möhler, O.; Rzesanke, D.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of ice in tropospheric clouds controls the evolution of precipitation and thereby influences climate and weather via a complex network of dynamical and microphysical processes. At higher altitudes, ice particles in cirrus clouds or contrails modify the radiative energy budget by direct interaction with the shortwave and longwave radiation. In order to improve the parameterisation of the complex microphysical and dynamical processes leading to and controlling the evolution of tropospheric ice, laboratory experiments are performed at the IMK Karlsruhe both on a single particle level and in the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA. Single particle experiments in electrodynamic levitation lend themselves to the study of the interaction between cloud droplets and aerosol particles under extremely well characterized and static conditions in order to obtain microphysical parameters as freezing nucleation rates for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation. They also allow the observation of the freezing dynamics and of secondary ice formation and multiplication processes under controlled conditions and with very high spatial and temporal resolution. The inherent droplet charge in these experiments can be varied over a wide range in order to assess the influence of the electrical state of the cloud on its microphysics. In the AIDA chamber on the other hand, these processes are observable under the realistic dynamic conditions of an expanding and cooling cloud- parcel with interacting particles and are probed simultaneously by a comprehensive set of analytical instruments. By this means, microphysical processes can be studied in their complex interplay with dynamical processes as for example coagulation or particle evaporation and growth via the Bergeron - Findeisen process. Shortwave scattering and longwave absorption properties of the nucleating and growing ice crystals are probed by in situ polarised laser light scattering measurements and infrared extinction

  1. Visualizing Cloud Properties and Satellite Imagery: A Tool for Visualization and Information Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Bedka, K. M.; Minnis, P.; Thieman, M. M.; Nordeen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Providing public access to research products including cloud macro and microphysical properties and satellite imagery are a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a web based visualization tool and API that allows end users to easily create customized cloud product and satellite imagery, ground site data and satellite ground track information that is generated dynamically. The tool has two uses, one to visualize the dynamically created imagery and the other to provide access to the dynamically generated imagery directly at a later time. Internally, we leverage our practical experience with large, scalable application practices to develop a system that has the largest potential for scalability as well as the ability to be deployed on the cloud to accommodate scalability issues. We build upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product information, satellite imagery, ground site data and satellite track information accessible and easily searchable. This tool is the culmination of our prior experience with dynamic imagery generation and provides a way to build a "mash-up" of dynamically generated imagery and related kinds of information that are visualized together to add value to disparate but related information. In support of NASA strategic goals, our group aims to make as much scientific knowledge, observations and products available to the citizen science, research and interested communities as well as for automated systems to acquire the same information for data mining or other analytic purposes. This tool and the underlying API's provide a valuable research tool to a wide audience both as a standalone research tool and also as an easily accessed data source that can easily be mined or used with existing tools.

  2. Studying the influence of temperature and pressure on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds using airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan; Sorin-Nicolae, Vajaiac; Mihai, Cimpuieru

    2015-04-01

    One cloud type for which the formation and evolution process is not well-understood is the mixed-phase type. In general mixed-phase clouds consist of liquid droplets and ice crystals. The temperature interval within both liquid droplets and ice crystals can potentially coexist is limited to 0 °C and - 40 °C. Mixed-phase clouds account for 20% to 30% of the global cloud coverage. The need to understand the microphysical characteristics of mixed-phase clouds to improve numerical forecast modeling and radiative transfer calculation is of major interest in the atmospheric community. In the past, studies of cloud phase composition have been significantly limited by a lack of aircraft instruments capable of discriminating between the ice and liquid phase for a wide range of particle sizes. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote-sensing techniques. The knowledge of the temperature and pressure variation during the airborne measurements is crucial in order to understand their influence on the cloud dynamics and also their role in the cloud formation processes like accretion and coalescence. Therefore, in this paper is presented a comprehensive study of cloud microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds in focus of the influence of temperature and pressure variation on both, cloud dynamics and the cloud formation processes, using measurements performed with the ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research in property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS). The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 µm) and a HAWKEYE cloud probe. The analyzed data in this

  3. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  4. Quantifying Parkinson's disease finger-tapping severity by extracting and synthesizing finger motion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel index of Parkinson's disease (PD) finger-tapping severity, called "PDFTsi," for quantifying the severity of symptoms related to the finger tapping of PD patients with high accuracy. To validate the efficacy of PDFTsi, the finger-tapping movements of normal controls and PD patients were measured by using magnetic sensors, and 21 characteristics were extracted from the finger-tapping waveforms. To distinguish motor deterioration due to PD from that due to aging, the aging effect on finger tapping was removed from these characteristics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the age-normalized characteristics, and principal components that represented the motion properties of finger tapping were calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR) with stepwise variable selection was applied to the principal components, and PDFTsi was calculated. The calculated PDFTsi indicates that PDFTsi has a high estimation ability, namely a mean square error of 0.45. The estimation ability of PDFTsi is higher than that of the alternative method, MLR with stepwise regression selection without PCA, namely a mean square error of 1.30. This result suggests that PDFTsi can quantify PD finger-tapping severity accurately. Furthermore, the result of interpreting a model for calculating PDFTsi indicated that motion wideness and rhythm disorder are important for estimating PD finger-tapping severity.

  5. Quantifying the effects of tempering on individual phase properties of DP980 steel with nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Zhang, F.; Ruimi, A.; Field, D. P.; Sun, X.

    2016-06-01

    We conduct a series of thermal and mechanical testing on a commercial dual phase (DP) 980 steel in order to quantify the effects of tempering on its individual phase properties. Tempering treatment is conducted at 250 °C and 400 °C for 60 minutes each. Ferrite and martensite grains are distinguished using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and the martensite volume fractions (MVF) are determined based on the image quality (IQ) map. Multi-scale indentation tests combined with a newly developed inverse method are used to obtain the individual phase flow properties in each tempered DP980 sample. The results show that, i) tempering significantly reduces martensite yield strength, while it only slightly reduces the ferrite yield strength; ii) tempering temperature has a more significant influence on the work hardening exponent of ferrite than that of martensite; iii) the elastic modulus of martensite is consistently higher than that of ferrite. As a validation, a simple rule of mixtures is used to verify the above-predicted individual phase flow stresses with the experimentally obtained overall true stress vs. true strain curves. The methodology and the corresponding results shown in this study can help guide the selection of tempering parameters in optimizing the mechanical properties of DP steels for their intended applications.

  6. Appropriate Objective Functions for Quantifying Iris Mechanical Properties Using Inverse Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Anup D; Dorairaj, Syril K; Amini, Rouzbeh

    2018-07-01

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris is important, as it provides insight into the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Recent ex vivo studies have shown that the mechanical properties of the iris are different in glaucomatous eyes as compared to normal ones. Notwithstanding the importance of the ex vivo studies, such measurements are severely limited for diagnosis and preclude development of treatment strategies. With the advent of detailed imaging modalities, it is possible to determine the in vivo mechanical properties using inverse finite element (FE) modeling. An inverse modeling approach requires an appropriate objective function for reliable estimation of parameters. In the case of the iris, numerous measurements such as iris chord length (CL) and iris concavity (CV) are made routinely in clinical practice. In this study, we have evaluated five different objective functions chosen based on the iris biometrics (in the presence and absence of clinical measurement errors) to determine the appropriate criterion for inverse modeling. Our results showed that in the absence of experimental measurement error, a combination of iris CL and CV can be used as the objective function. However, with the addition of measurement errors, the objective functions that employ a large number of local displacement values provide more reliable outcomes.

  7. Comparing parameterized versus measured microphysical properties of tropical convective cloud bases during the ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to validate parameterizations that were recently developed for satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei supersaturation spectra, NCCN(S, at cloud base alongside more traditional parameterizations connecting NCCN(S with cloud base updrafts and drop concentrations. This was based on the HALO aircraft measurements during the ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaign over the Amazon region, which took place in September 2014. The properties of convective clouds were measured with a cloud combination probe (CCP, a cloud and aerosol spectrometer (CAS-DPOL, and a CCN counter onboard the HALO aircraft. An intercomparison of the cloud drop size distributions (DSDs and the cloud water content (CWC derived from the different instruments generally shows good agreement within the instrumental uncertainties. To this end, the directly measured cloud drop concentrations (Nd near cloud base were compared with inferred values based on the measured cloud base updraft velocity (Wb and NCCN(S spectra. The measurements of Nd at cloud base were also compared with drop concentrations (Na derived on the basis of an adiabatic assumption and obtained from the vertical evolution of cloud drop effective radius (re above cloud base. The measurements of NCCN(S and Wb reproduced the observed Nd within the measurements uncertainties when the old (1959 Twomey's parameterization was used. The agreement between the measured and calculated Nd was only within a factor of 2 with attempts to use cloud base S, as obtained from the measured Wb, Nd, and NCCN(S. This underscores the yet unresolved challenge of aircraft measurements of S in clouds. Importantly, the vertical evolution of re with height reproduced the observation-based nearly adiabatic cloud base drop concentrations, Na. The combination of these results provides aircraft observational support for the various components of the satellite-retrieved methodology that was recently developed to

  8. Optical properties of mixed phase boundary layer clouds observed from a tethered balloon platform in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikand, M.; Koskulics, J.; Stamnes, K.; Hamre, B.; Stamnes, J.J.; Lawson, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    A tethered balloon system was used to collect data on radiometric and cloud microphysical properties for mixed phase boundary layer clouds, consisting of ice crystals and liquid water droplets during a May-June 2008 experimental campaign in Ny-Alesund, Norway, located high in the Arctic at 78.9 o N, 11.9 o E. The balloon instrumentation was controlled and powered from the ground making it possible to fly for long durations and to profile clouds vertically in a systematic manner. We use a radiative transfer model to analyze the radiometric measurements and estimate the optical properties of mixed-phase clouds. The results demonstrate the ability of instruments deployed on a tethered balloon to provide information about optical properties of mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic. Our radiative transfer simulations show that cloud layering has little impact on the total downward irradiance measured at the ground as long as the total optical depth remains unchanged. In contrast, the mean intensity measured by an instrument deployed on a balloon depends on the vertical cloud structure and is thus sensitive to the altitude of the balloon. We use the total downward irradiance measured by a ground-based radiometer to estimate the total optical depth and the mean intensity measured at the balloon to estimate the vertical structure of the cloud optical depth.

  9. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Twohy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI, and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics, including their significance, from eight flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number that influence droplet concentration. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were smaller in regions of enhanced particles near shore. However, physically thinner clouds, and not just higher droplet number concentrations from pollution, both contributed to the smaller droplets. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500–1000 km offshore, and actually slightly lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower

  10. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Nighttime Cloud Optical Microphysical Properties (NCOMP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of nighttime cloud optical and microphysical properties (NCOMP) from the Visible Infrared...

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Cloud and Clear-Sky Radiation Properties, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA LaRC cloud and clear sky radiation properties dataset is generated using algorithms initially developed for application to TRMM and MODIS imagery within the...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Daytime Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties (DCOMP) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of daytime cloud optical and microphysical properties (DCOMP) from the Visible Infrared Imaging...

  13. Influences of cloud heterogeneity on cirrus optical properties retrieved from the visible and near-infrared channels of MODIS/SEVIRI for flat and optically thick cirrus clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Zhang, Riwei; Zhang, Chuanliang; Li, Haoran; Zhou, Junhao; Li, Shaohui

    2017-01-01

    The influences of three-dimensional radiative effects and horizontal heterogeneity effects on the retrieval of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective diameter (De) for cirrus clouds are explored by the SHDOM radiative transfer model. The stochastic cirrus clouds are generated by the Cloudgen model based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program data. Incorporating a new ice cloud spectral model, we evaluate the retrieval errors for two solar zenith angles (SZAs) (30° and 60°), four solar azimuth angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 180°), and two sensor settings (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard METEOSAT-8). The domain-averaged relative error of COT (μ) ranges from −24.1 % to -1.0 % (SZA = 30°) and from −11.6 % to 3.3 % (SZA = 60°), with the uncertainty within 7.5 % to –12.5 % (SZA = 30°) and 20.0 % - 27.5 % (SZA = 60°). For the SZA of 60° only, the relative error and uncertainty are parameterized by the retrieved COT by linear functions, providing bases to correct the retrieved COT and estimate their uncertainties. Besides, De is overestimated by 0.7–15.0 μm on the domain average, with the corresponding uncertainty within 6.7–26.5 μm. The retrieval errors show no discernible dependence on solar azimuth angle due to the flat tops and full coverage of the cirrus samples. The results are valid only for the two samples and for the specific spatial resolution of the radiative transfer simulations. - Highlights: • The retrieved cloud optical properties for 3-D cirrus clouds are evaluated. • The cloud optical thickness and uncertainty could be corrected and estimated. • On the domain average, the effective diameter of ice crystal is overestimated. • The optical properties show non-obvious dependence on the solar azimuth angle.

  14. Bacterial ice nuclei impact cloud lifetime and radiative properties and reduce atmospheric heat loss in the BRAMS simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Tassio S; Gonçalves, Fábio L T; Yamasoe, Marcia A; Martins, Jorge A; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae acting as ice nuclei (IN) on cloud properties to understand its impact on local radiative budget and heating rates. These bacteria may become active IN at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. Numerical simulations were developed using the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System (BRAMS). To investigate the isolated effect of bacterial IN, four scenarios were created considering only homogeneous and bacterial ice nucleation, with 1, 10 and 100 IN per cubic meter of cloud volume and one with no bacteria. Moreover, two other scenarios were generated: the BRAMS default parameterization and its combination with bacterial IN. The model reproduced a strong convective cell over São Paulo on 3 March 2003. Results showed that bacterial IN may change cloud evolution as well as its microphysical properties, which in turn influence cloud radiative properties. For example, the reflected shortwave irradiance over an averaged domain in a scenario considering bacterial IN added to the BRAMS default parameterization was 14% lower than if bacteria were not considered. Heating rates can also be impacted, especially due to differences in cloud lifetime. Results suggest that the omission of bacterial IN in numerical models, including global cloud models, could neglect relevant ice nucleation processes that potentially influence cloud radiative properties. (letter)

  15. Sensitivity of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum climate to cloud properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Shields, Christine A

    2013-10-28

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a significant global warming event in the Earth's history (approx. 55 Ma). The cause for this warming event has been linked to increases in greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide and methane. This rapid warming took place in the presence of the existing Early Eocene warm climate. Given that projected business-as-usual levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reach concentrations of 800-1100 ppmv by 2100, it is of interest to study past climates where atmospheric carbon dioxide was higher than present. This is especially the case given the difficulty of climate models in simulating past warm climates. This study explores the sensitivity of the simulated pre-PETM and PETM periods to change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and microphysical properties of liquid water clouds. Assuming lower levels of CCN for both of these periods leads to significant warming, especially at high latitudes. The study indicates that past differences in cloud properties may be an important factor in accurately simulating past warm climates. Importantly, additional shortwave warming from such a mechanism would imply lower required atmospheric CO2 concentrations for simulated surface temperatures to be in reasonable agreement with proxy data for the Eocene.

  16. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  17. New Satellite Estimates of Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties: A Synergistic Approach for Application to Global Satellite Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Fleeger, C.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Determining accurate cloud properties horizontally and vertically over a full range of time and space scales is currently next to impossible using data from either active or passive remote sensors or from modeling systems. Passive satellite imagers provide horizontal and temporal resolution of clouds, but little direct information on vertical structure. Active sensors provide vertical resolution but limited spatial and temporal coverage. Cloud models embedded in NWP can produce realistic clouds but often not at the right time or location. Thus, empirical techniques that integrate information from multiple observing and modeling systems are needed to more accurately characterize clouds and their impacts. Such a strategy is employed here in a new cloud water content profiling technique developed for application to satellite imager cloud retrievals based on VIS, IR and NIR radiances. Parameterizations are developed to relate imager retrievals of cloud top phase, optical depth, effective radius and temperature to ice and liquid water content profiles. The vertical structure information contained in the parameterizations is characterized climatologically from cloud model analyses, aircraft observations, ground-based remote sensing data, and from CloudSat and CALIPSO. Thus, realistic cloud-type dependent vertical structure information (including guidance on cloud phase partitioning) circumvents poor assumptions regarding vertical homogeneity that plague current passive satellite retrievals. This paper addresses mixed phase cloud conditions for clouds with glaciated tops including those associated with convection and mid-latitude storm systems. Novel outcomes of our approach include (1) simultaneous retrievals of ice and liquid water content and path, which are validated with active sensor, microwave and in-situ data, and yield improved global cloud climatologies, and (2) new estimates of super-cooled LWC, which are demonstrated in aviation safety applications and

  18. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  19. Type-Dependent Responses of Ice Cloud Properties to Aerosols From Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Gu, Yu; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in external forcings on our climate system. Compared with liquid clouds, the observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice clouds is much more limited and shows conflicting results, partly because the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types were seldom considered. Using 9-year satellite retrievals, we find that, for convection-generated (anvil) ice clouds, cloud optical thickness, cloud thickness, and cloud fraction increase with small-to-moderate aerosol loadings (types provide valuable constraints on the modeling assessment of aerosol-ice cloud radiative forcing.

  20. Retrievals of Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Systems using Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Wang, J.; Homeyer, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents innovative algorithms for retrieving ice cloud microphysical properties of Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) using Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) reflectivity and newly derived empirical relationships from aircraft in situ measurements in Wang et al. (2015) during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). With composite gridded NEXRAD radar reflectivity, four-dimensional (space-time) ice cloud microphysical properties of DCSs are retrieved, which is not possible from either in situ sampling at a single altitude or from vertical pointing radar measurements. For this study, aircraft in situ measurements provide the best-estimated ice cloud microphysical properties for validating the radar retrievals. Two statistical comparisons between retrieved and aircraft in situ measured ice microphysical properties are conducted from six selected cases during MC3E. For the temporal-averaged method, the averaged ice water content (IWC) and median mass diameter (Dm) from aircraft in situ measurements are 0.50 g m-3 and 1.51 mm, while the retrievals from radar reflectivity have negative biases of 0.12 g m-3 (24%) and 0.02 mm (1.3%) with correlations of 0.71 and 0.48, respectively. For the spatial-averaged method, the IWC retrievals are closer to the aircraft results (0.51 vs. 0.47 g m-3) with a positive bias of 8.5%, whereas the Dm retrievals are larger than the aircraft results (1.65 mm vs. 1.51 mm) with a positive bias of 9.3%. The retrieved IWCs decrease from ~0.6 g m-3 at 5 km to ~0.15 g m-3 at 13 km, and Dm values decrease from ~2 mm to ~0.7 mm at the same levels. In general, the aircraft in situ measured IWC and Dm values at each level are within one standard derivation of retrieved properties. Good agreements between microphysical properties measured from aircraft and retrieved from radar reflectivity measurements indicate the reasonable accuracy of our retrievals.

  1. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-01-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P_1_2 for scattering angles between 20°–120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P_1_2 slightly from 60°–120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered. - Highlights: • Surface roughness and air bubble inclusions affect optical properties of ice crystals significantly. • Including both factors improves simulations of ice cloud.• Cirrus cloud particle habit model of the MODIS collection 6 achieves better self-consistency and consistency with

  2. Narrowing the Gap in Quantification of Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, G.; McComiskey, A. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kazil, J.; Johnson, J. S.; Carslaw, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite large advances in our understanding of aerosol and cloud processes over the past years, uncertainty in the aerosol-cloud radiative effect/forcing is still of major concern. In this talk we will advocate a methodology for quantifying the aerosol-cloud radiative effect that considers the primacy of fundamental cloud properties such as cloud amount and albedo alongside the need for process level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. We will present a framework for quantifying the aerosol-cloud radiative effect, regime-by-regime, through process-based modelling and observations at the large eddy scale. We will argue that understanding the co-variability between meteorological and aerosol drivers of the radiative properties of the cloud system may be as important an endeavour as attempting to untangle these drivers.

  3. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W., E-mail: dawen.sun@ucd.ie [School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland); Drakakis, K. [Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-02-14

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  4. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W.; Drakakis, K.

    2014-01-01

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena

  5. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  6. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  7. CLOUD-BASED VS DESKTOP-BASED PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN HOTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa\tGULMEZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though keeping up with the modern developments in IT sector is crucial for the success and competitiveness of a hotel, it is usually very hard for new technologies to be accepted and implemented. This is the case with the cloud technology for which the opinions between hoteliers are divided on those who think that it is just another fashion trend, unnecessary to be taken into consideration and those that believe that it helps in performing daily operations more easily, leaving space for more interaction with guests both in virtual and real world. Usage of cloud technology in hotels is still in its beginning phase and hoteliers still have to learn more about its advantages and adequate usage for the benefit of overall hotel operating. On the example of hotel property management system (PMS and comparison between features of its older desktop-version and new web-based programs, this research aims at finding out at which stage and how effective is usage of cloud technology in hotels. For this, qualitative research with semi-structured interviews with hotel mangers that use one of these programs was conducted. Reasons for usage and advantages of each version are discussed.

  8. Cloud Properties Simulated by a Single-Column Model. Part II: Evaluation of Cumulus Detrainment and Ice-phase Microphysics Using a Cloud Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yali; Krueger, Steven K.; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series in which kilometer-scale-resolving observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and a cloud-resolving model (CRM) are used to evaluate the single-column model (SCM) version of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System model. Part I demonstrated that kilometer-scale cirrus properties simulated by the SCM significantly differ from the cloud radar observations while the CRM simulation reproduced most of the cirrus properties as revealed by the observations. The present study describes an evaluation, through a comparison with the CRM, of the SCM's representation of detrainment from deep cumulus and ice-phase microphysics in an effort to better understand the findings of Part I. It is found that detrainment occurs too infrequently at a single level at a time in the SCM, although the detrainment rate averaged over the entire simulation period is somewhat comparable to that of the CRM simulation. Relatively too much detrained ice is sublimated when first detrained. Snow falls over too deep of a layer due to the assumption that snow source and sink terms exactly balance within one time step in the SCM. These characteristics in the SCM parameterizations may explain many of the differences in the cirrus properties between the SCM and the observations (or between the SCM and the CRM). A possible improvement for the SCM consists of the inclusion of multiple cumulus cloud types as in the original Arakawa-Schubert scheme, prognostically determining the stratiform cloud fraction and snow mixing ratio. This would allow better representation of the detrainment from deep convection, better coupling of the volume of detrained air with cloud fraction, and better representation of snow field.

  9. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Helling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.

  10. A Framework for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, Galina; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    The so-called bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave-infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In this study, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval.

  11. A radiation closure study of Arctic stratus cloud microphysical properties using the collocated satellite-surface data and Fu-Liou radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Qiu, Shaoyue; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Rose, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Retrievals of cloud microphysical properties based on passive satellite imagery are especially difficult over snow-covered surfaces because of the bright and cold surface. To help quantify their uncertainties, single-layered overcast liquid-phase Arctic stratus cloud microphysical properties retrieved by using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Edition 2 and Edition 4 (CERES Ed2 and Ed4) algorithms are compared with ground-based retrievals at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope of Alaska (ARM NSA) site at Barrow, AK, during the period from March 2000 to December 2006. A total of 206 and 140 snow-free cases (Rsfc ≤ 0.3), and 108 and 106 snow cases (Rsfc > 0.3), respectively, were selected from Terra and Aqua satellite passes over the ARM NSA site. The CERES Ed4 and Ed2 optical depth (τ) and liquid water path (LWP) retrievals from both Terra and Aqua are almost identical and have excellent agreement with ARM retrievals under snow-free and snow conditions. In order to reach a radiation closure study for both the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budgets, the ARM precision spectral pyranometer-measured surface albedos were adjusted (63.6% and 80% of the ARM surface albedos for snow-free and snow cases, respectively) to account for the water and land components of the domain of 30 km × 30 km. Most of the radiative transfer model calculated SW↓sfc and SW↑TOA fluxes by using ARM and CERES cloud retrievals and the domain mean albedos as input agree with the ARM and CERES flux observations within 10 W m-2 for both snow-free and snow conditions. Sensitivity studies show that the ARM LWP and re retrievals are less dependent on solar zenith angle (SZA), but all retrieved optical depths increase with SZA.

  12. CloudSat observations of cloud-type distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional distribution of various cloud types over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM region using five years (2006–2010 of CloudSat observations during June-July-August-September months is discussed for the first time. As the radiative properties, latent heat released and microphysical properties of clouds differ largely depending on the cloud type, it becomes important to know what types of clouds occur over which region. In this regard, the present analysis establishes the three-dimensional distribution of frequency of occurrence of stratus (St, stratocumulus (Sc, nimbostratus (Ns, cumulus (Cu, altocumulus (Ac, altostratus (As, cirrus (Ci and deep convective (DC clouds over the ISM region. The results show that the various cloud types preferentially occur over some regions of the ISM, which are consistent during all the years of observations. It is found that the DC clouds frequently occur over northeast of Bay of Bengal (BoB, Ci clouds over a wide region of south BoB–Indian peninsula–equatorial Indian Ocean, and Sc clouds over the north Arabian Sea. Ac clouds preferentially occur over land, and a large amount of As clouds are found over BoB. The occurrence of both St and Ns clouds over the study region is much lower than all other cloud types.The interannual variability of all these clouds including their vertical distribution is discussed. It is envisaged that the present study opens up possibilities to quantify the feedback of individual cloud type in the maintenance of the ISM through radiative forcing and latent heat release.

  13. Quantifying in situ phenotypic variability in the hydraulic properties of four tree species across their distribution range in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Sterck, F.; Torres-Ruiz, J.M.; Petit, G.; Cochard, H.; Arx, von G.; Lintunen, A.; Caldeira, M.C.; Capdeville, G.; Copini, P.; Gebauer, R.; Grönlund, L.; Hölttä, T.; Lobo-do-Vale, R.; Peltoniemi, M.; Stritih, A.; Urban, J.; Delzon, S.

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism

  14. Quantifying the Elastic Property of Nine Thigh Muscles Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakouch, Mashhour K; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of the muscles can manifest different physiological and functional changes. To adapt treatment, it is necessary to characterize the elastic property (shear modulus) of single muscles. Previous studies have used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique based on MRI technology, to analyze the mechanical behavior of healthy and pathological muscles. The purpose of this study was to develop protocols using MRE to determine the shear modulus of nine thigh muscles at rest. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (mean age = 26 ± 3.41 years) with no muscle abnormalities underwent MRE tests (1.5 T MRI). Five MRE protocols were developed to quantify the shear moduli of the nine following thigh muscles at rest: rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL), sartorius (Sr), gracilis (Gr), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps (BC). In addition, the shear modulus of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was analyzed. The gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus muscles revealed a significantly higher shear modulus (μ_Gr = 6.15 ± 0.45 kPa, μ_ Sr = 5.15 ± 0.19 kPa, and μ_ ST = 5.32 ± 0.10 kPa, respectively) compared to other tissues (from μ_ RF = 3.91 ± 0.16 kPa to μ_VI = 4.23 ± 0.25 kPa). Subcutaneous adipose tissue had the lowest value (μ_adipose tissue = 3.04 ± 0.12 kPa) of all the tissues tested. The different elasticities measured between the tissues may be due to variations in the muscles' physiological and architectural compositions. Thus, the present protocol could be applied to injured muscles to identify their behavior of elastic property. Previous studies on muscle pathology found that quantification of the shear modulus could be used as a clinical protocol to identify pathological muscles and to follow-up effects of treatments and therapies. These data could also be used for modelling purposes.

  15. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  16. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  17. Comparisons of cirrus cloud microphysical properties between polluted and pristine air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Minghui; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Jensen, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds occur in the upper troposphere at altitudes where atmospheric radiative forcing is most sensitive to perturbations of water vapor concentration and water phase. The formation of cirrus clouds influences the distributions of water in both vapor and ice forms. The radiative properties of cirrus depend strongly on particle sizes. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions (e.g., industrial emission and biomass burning). If anthropogenic emissions influence cirrus formation in a significant manner, then one should expect a systematic difference in cirrus properties between pristine (clean) air and polluted air. Because of the pollution contrasts between the Southern (SH) and Northern Hemispheres (NH), cirrus properties could have hemispheric differences as well. Therefore, we study high-resolution (~200 m), in-situ observations from two global flight campaigns: 1) the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) global campaign in 2009-2011 funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), and 2) the Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign in 2000 funded by the European Union and participating research institutions. To investigate the changes of cirrus clouds by anthropogenic emissions, we compare ice crystal distributions in polluted and pristine air, in terms of their frequency occurrence, number concentration (Nc) and mean diameter (i.e., effective-mean Deff and volume-mean Dc). Total aerosol concentration is used to represent the combined influence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio is used to discriminate between polluted and pristine air masses. All analyses are restricted to temperatures ≤ -40°C to exclude mixed-phased clouds. The HIPPO campaign observations were obtained over the North America continent and the central Pacific Ocean

  18. Determination of the chemical properties of residues retained in individual cloud droplets by XRF microprobe at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.-J.; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the chemical properties of residue retained in individual cloud droplets is primarily important for the understanding of rainout mechanism and aerosol modification in droplet. The sampling of individual cloud droplets were carried out on the summit of Mt. Taiko located in Tango peninsula, Kyoto prefecture, during Asian dust storm event in March of 2002. XRF microprobe system equipped at SPring-8, BL-37XU was applied to the subsequent quantification analysis of ultra trace elements in residues of individual cloud droplets. It was possible to form the replicas of separated individual cloud droplets on the thin collodion film. The two dimensional XRF maps for the residues in individual cloud droplets were clearly drawn by scanning of micro-beam. Also, XRF spectra of trace elements in residues were well resolved. From the XRF spectra for individual residues, the chemical mixed state of residues could be assumed. The chemical forms of Fe (Fe +++ ) and Zn (Zn + ) could be clearly characterized by their K-edge micro-XANES spectra. By comparison of Z/Si mass ratios of residues in cloud droplets and those of the original sands collected in desert areas in China, the aging of ambient dust particles and their in cloud modification were indirectly assumed

  19. The effect of aerosol-derived changes in the warm phase on the properties of deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven; Dagan, Guy

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol impact on deep convective clouds starts in an increased number of cloud droplets in higher aerosol loading environment. This change drives many others, like enhanced condensational growth, delay in collision-coalescence and others. Since the warm processes serve as the initial and boundary conditions for the mixed and cold-phase processes in deep clouds, it is highly important to understand the aerosol effect on them. The weather research and forecasting model (WRF) with spectral bin microphysics was used to study a deep convective system over the Marshall Islands, during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). Three simulations were conducted with aerosol concentrations of 100, 500 and 2000 cm-3, to reflect clean, semipolluted, and polluted conditions. The results of the clean run agreed well with the radar profiles and rain rate observations. The more polluted simulations resulted in larger total cloud mass, larger upper level cloud fraction and rain rates. There was an increased mass both below and above the zero temperature level. It indicates of more efficient growth processes both below and above the zero level. In addition the polluted runs showed an increased upward transport (across the zero level) of liquid water due to both stronger updrafts and larger droplet mobility. In this work we discuss the transport of cloud mass crossing the zero temperature level (in both directions) in order to gain a process level understanding of how aerosol effects on the warm processes affect the macro- and micro-properties of deep convective clouds.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE 30 DOR REGION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Ulrich; Ott, Juergen; Wong, Tony; Muller, Erik; Hughes, Annie

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete 12 CO J = 1 → 0 map of the prominent molecular ridge in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope. The region stretches southward by ∼2 deg. (or 1.7 kpc) from 30 Doradus, the most vigorous star-forming region in the Local Group. The location of this molecular ridge is unique insofar as it allows us to study the properties of molecular gas as a function of the ambient radiation field in a low-metallicity environment. We find that the physical properties of CO-emitting clumps within the molecular ridge do not vary with the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field. Since the peak CO brightness of the clumps shows no correlation with the radiation field strength, the observed constant value for CO-to-H 2 conversion factor along the ridge seems to require an increase in the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas that is offset by a decrease in the angular filling factor of the CO emission. We find that the difference between the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge and the outer Milky Way is smaller than has been reported by previous studies of the CO emission: applying the same cloud identification and analysis methods to our CO observations of the LMC molecular ridge and CO data from the outer Galaxy survey by Dame et al., we find that the average CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge is X CO ≅ (3.9 ± 2.5) x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , approximately twice the value that we determine for the outer Galaxy clouds. The mass spectrum and the scaling relations between the properties of the CO clumps in the molecular ridge are similar, but not identical, to those that have been established for Galactic molecular clouds.

  1. A 25-month database of stratus cloud properties generated from ground-based measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Mace, Gerald G.; Long, Charles N.; Liljegren, James C.

    2000-01-01

    A 25-month database of the macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties of isolated and overcast low-level stratus clouds has been generated using a newly developed parameterization and surface measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement central facility in Oklahoma. The database (5-min resolution) includes two parts: measurements and retrievals. The former consist of cloud base and top heights, layer-mean temperature, cloud liquid water path, and solar transmission ratio measured by a ground-based lidar/ceilometer and radar pair, radiosondes, a microwave radiometer, and a standard Eppley precision spectral pyranometer, respectively. The retrievals include the cloud-droplet effective radius and number concentration and broadband shortwave optical depth and cloud and top-of-atmosphere albedos. Stratus without any overlying mid or high-level clouds occurred most frequently during winter and least often during summer. Mean cloud-layer altitudes and geometric thicknesses were higher and greater, respectively, in summer than in winter. Both quantities are positively correlated with the cloud-layer mean temperature. Mean cloud-droplet effective radii range from 8.1 μm in winter to 9.7 μm during summer, while cloud-droplet number concentrations during winter are nearly twice those in summer. Since cloud liquid water paths are almost the same in both seasons, cloud optical depth is higher during the winter, leading to greater cloud albedos and lower cloud transmittances. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union

  2. Statistical properties of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the complex interaction between aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric properties, it is difficult to extract their individual effects to observed rainfall amount. This research uses principle component analysis (PCA that combines Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol and cloud products, NCEP Reanalysis atmospheric products, and rainrate estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM precipitation radar (PR to assess if aerosols affect warm rain processes. Data collected during September 2006 over the Amazon basin in South America during the biomass-burning season are used. The goal of this research is to combine these observations into a smaller number of variables through PCA with each new variable having a unique physical interpretation. In particular, we are concerned with PC variables whose weightings include aerosol optical thickness (AOT, as these may be an indicator of aerosol indirect effects. If they are indeed occurring, then PC values that include AOT should change as a function of rainrate.

    To emphasize the advantage of PCA, changes in aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric observations are compared to rainrate. Comparing no-rain, rain, and heavy rain only (>5 mm h−1 samples, we find that cloud thicknesses, humidity, and upward motion are all greater during rain and heavy rain conditions. However, no statistically significant difference in AOT exists between each sample, indicating that atmospheric conditions are more important to rainfall than aerosol concentrations as expected. If aerosols are affecting warm process clouds, it would be expected that stratiform precipitation would decrease as a function increasing aerosol concentration through either Twomey and/or semi-direct effects. PCA extracts the latter signal in a variable labeled PC2, which explains 15% of the total variance and is second in importance the variable (PC1 containing the broad atmospheric conditions. PC2

  3. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Nguyen, L.; Palikonda, R.; Hong, G.; Trepte, Q.; Chee, T.; Scarino, B. R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fleeger, C.; Ayers, J. K.; Chang, F. L.; Heck, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  4. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  5. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND ASSEMBLY OF THE MILKY WAY FROM THE PROPERTIES OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel

    2011-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the mass of the Milky Way (MW) based on observed properties of its largest satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and an assumed prior of a ΛCDM universe. The large, high-resolution Bolshoi cosmological simulation of this universe provides a means to statistically sample the dynamical properties of bright satellite galaxies in a large population of dark matter halos. The observed properties of the MCs, including their circular velocity, distance from the center of the MW, and velocity within the MW halo, are used to evaluate the likelihood that a given halo would have each or all of these properties; the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) for any property of the MW system can thus be constructed. This method provides a constraint on the MW virial mass, 1.2 +0.7 –0.4 (stat.) +0.3 –0.3 (sys.) × 10 12 M ☉ (68% confidence), which is consistent with recent determinations that involve very different assumptions. In addition, we calculate the posterior PDF for the density profile of the MW and its satellite accretion history. Although typical satellites of 10 12 M ☉ halos are accreted over a wide range of epochs over the last 10 Gyr, we find a ∼72% probability that the MCs were accreted within the last Gyr, and a 50% probability that they were accreted together.

  6. The Mass Distribution and Assembly of the Milky Way from the Properties of the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busha, Michael T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Zurich U.; Marshall, Philip J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Oxford U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Klypin, Anatoly; /New Mexico State U.; Primack, Joel; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept.

    2012-02-29

    We present a new measurement of the mass of the Milky Way (MW) based on observed properties of its largest satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and an assumed prior of a {Lambda}CDM universe. The large, high-resolution Bolshoi cosmological simulation of this universe provides a means to statistically sample the dynamical properties of bright satellite galaxies in a large population of dark matter halos. The observed properties of the MCs, including their circular velocity, distance from the center of the MW, and velocity within the MW halo, are used to evaluate the likelihood that a given halo would have each or all of these properties; the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) for any property of the MW system can thus be constructed. This method provides a constraint on the MW virial mass, 1.2{sup +0.7} - {sub 0.4}(stat.){sup +0.3} - {sub 0.3}(sys.) x 10{sup 12} M {circle_dot} (68% confidence), which is consistent with recent determinations that involve very different assumptions. In addition, we calculate the posterior PDF for the density profile of the MW and its satellite accretion history. Although typical satellites of 10{sup 12} M {circle_dot} halos are accreted over a wide range of epochs over the last 10 Gyr, we find a {approx}72% probability that the MCs were accreted within the last Gyr, and a 50% probability that they were accreted together.

  7. Estimation of cloud optical thickness by processing SEVIRI images and implementing a semi analytical cloud property retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N.

    2009-04-01

    Clouds play a very important role in the Earth's climate system, as they form an intermediate layer between Sun and the Earth. Satellite remote sensing systems are the only means to provide information about clouds on large scales. The geostationary satellite, Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) has onboard an imaging radiometer, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). SEVIRI is a 12 channel imager, with 11 channels observing the earth's full disk with a temporal resolution of 15 min and spatial resolution of 3 km at nadir, and a high resolution visible (HRV) channel. The visible channels (0.6 µm and 0.81 µm) and near infrared channel (1.6µm) of SEVIRI are being used to retrieve the cloud optical thickness (COT). The study domain is over Europe covering the region between 35°N - 70°N and 10°W - 30°E. SEVIRI level 1.5 images over this domain are being acquired from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) archive. The processing of this imagery, involves a number of steps before estimating the COT. The steps involved in pre-processing are as follows. First, the digital count number is acquired from the imagery. Image geo-coding is performed in order to relate the pixel positions to the corresponding longitude and latitude. Solar zenith angle is determined as a function of latitude and time. The radiometric conversion is done using the values of offsets and slopes of each band. The values of radiance obtained are then used to calculate the reflectance for channels in the visible spectrum using the information of solar zenith angle. An attempt is made to estimate the COT from the observed radiances. A semi analytical algorithm [Kokhanovsky et al., 2003] is implemented for the estimation of cloud optical thickness from the visible spectrum of light intensity reflected from clouds. The asymptotical solution of the radiative transfer equation, for clouds with large optical thickness, is the basis of

  8. An Evaluation of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Simulations in the Community Atmosphere Model Using Satellite Observations: Conventional Subgrid Parameterization versus CLUBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hua [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Zhang, Zhibo [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, and Physics Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Wang, Minghuai [Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a two-step evaluation of the marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties from two Community Atmospheric Model (version 5.3, CAM5) simulations, one based on the CAM5 standard parameterization schemes (CAM5-Base), and the other on the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) scheme (CAM5-CLUBB). In the first step, we compare the cloud properties directly from model outputs between the two simulations. We find that the CAM5-CLUBB run produces more MBL clouds in the tropical and subtropical large-scale descending regions. Moreover, the stratocumulus (Sc) to cumulus (Cu) cloud regime transition is much smoother in CAM5-CLUBB than in CAM5-Base. In addition, in CAM5-Base we find some grid cells with very small low cloud fraction (<20%) to have very high in-cloud water content (mixing ratio up to 400mg/kg). We find no such grid cells in the CAM5-CLUBB run. However, we also note that both simulations, especially CAM5-CLUBB, produce a significant amount of “empty” low cloud cells with significant cloud fraction (up to 70%) and near-zero in-cloud water content. In the second step, we use satellite observations from CERES, MODIS and CloudSat to evaluate the simulated MBL cloud properties by employing the COSP satellite simulators. We note that a feature of the COSP-MODIS simulator to mimic the minimum detection threshold of MODIS cloud masking removes much more low clouds from CAM5-CLUBB than it does from CAM5-Base. This leads to a surprising result — in the large-scale descending regions CAM5-CLUBB has a smaller COSP-MODIS cloud fraction and weaker shortwave cloud radiative forcing than CAM5-Base. A sensitivity study suggests that this is because CAM5-CLUBB suffers more from the above-mentioned “empty” clouds issue than CAM5-Base. The COSP-MODIS cloud droplet effective radius in CAM5-CLUBB shows a spatial increase from coastal St toward Cu, which is in qualitative agreement with MODIS observations. In contrast, COSP-MODIS cloud droplet

  9. Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth under Day and Night Conditions from MODIS Collection 6 Cloud Property Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Heidinger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique to generate cirrus optical depth and particle effective size estimates from the cloud emissivities at 8.5, 11 and 12 μm contained in the Collection-6 (C6 MYD06 cloud product. This technique employs the latest scattering models and scattering radiative transfer approximations to estimate cloud optical depth and particle effective size using efficient analytical formulae. Two scattering models are tested. The first is the same scattering model as that used in the C6 MYD06 solar reflectance products. The second model is an empirical model derived from radiometric consistency. Both models are shown to generate optical depths that compare well to those from constrained CALIPSO retrievals and MYD06. In terms of effective radius retrievals, the results from the radiometric empirical model agree more closely with MYD06 than those from the C6 model. This analysis is applied to AQUA/MODIS data collocated with CALIPSO/CALIOP during January 2010.

  10. Psychometric Properties of a Standardized Observation Protocol to Quantify Pediatric Physical Therapy Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderer, Patrizia; Akhbari Ziegler, Schirin; Gressbach Oertle, Barbara; Meichtry, André; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric physical therapy (PPT) is characterized by heterogeneity. This blurs the evaluation of effective components of PPT. The Groningen Observation Protocol (GOP) was developed to quantify contents of PPT. This study assesses the reliability and completeness of the GOP. Sixty infant PPT sessions were video-taped. Two random samples of 10 videos were used to determine interrater and intrarater reliability using interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals. Completeness of GOP 2.0 was based on 60 videos. Interrater reliability of quantifying PPT actions was excellent (ICC, 0.75-1.0) in 71% and sufficient to good (ICC, 0.4-0.74) in 24% of PPT actions. Intrarater reliability was excellent in 94% and sufficient to good in 6% of PPT actions. Completeness was good for greater than 90% of PPT actions. GOP 2.0 has good reliability and completeness. After appropriate training, it is a useful tool to quantify PPT for children with developmental disorders.

  11. Particle size distribution properties in mixed-phase monsoon clouds from in situ measurements during CAIPEEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patade, Sachin; Prabha, T. V.; Axisa, D.; Gayatri, K.; Heymsfield, A.

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of particle size distributions measured in situ with airborne instrumentation during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) is presented. In situ airborne observations in the developing stage of continental convective clouds during premonsoon (PRE), transition, and monsoon (MON) period at temperatures from 25 to -22°C are used in the study. The PRE clouds have narrow drop size and particle size distributions compared to monsoon clouds and showed less development of size spectra with decrease in temperature. Overall, the PRE cases had much lower values of particle number concentrations and ice water content compared to MON cases, indicating large differences in the ice initiation and growth processes between these cloud regimes. This study provided compelling evidence that in addition to dynamics, aerosol and moisture are important for modulating ice microphysical processes in PRE and MON clouds through impacts on cloud drop size distribution. Significant differences are observed in the relationship of the slope and intercept parameters of the fitted particle size distributions (PSDs) with temperature in PRE and MON clouds. The intercept values are higher in MON clouds than PRE for exponential distribution which can be attributed to higher cloud particle number concentrations and ice water content in MON clouds. The PRE clouds tend to have larger values of dispersion of gamma size distributions than MON clouds, signifying narrower spectra. The relationships between PSDs parameters are presented and compared with previous observations.

  12. Psychometric Properties of a Standardized Observation Protocol to Quantify Pediatric Physical Therapy Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonderer, Patrizia; Ziegler, Schirin Akhbari; Oertle, Barbara Gressbach; Meichtry, Andre; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Purpose: Pediatric physical therapy (PPT) is characterized by heterogeneity. This blurs the evaluation of effective components of PPT. The Groningen Observation Protocol (GOP) was developed to quantify contents of PPT. This study assesses the reliability and completeness of the GOP. Methods: Sixty

  13. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness and cloud droplet effective radius simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VISNIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved and re. In the literature, the retrievals of and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations on the bi-spectral method. As a result, the impact on is contributed only by the sub-pixel variation of VISNIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the sub-pixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VISNIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VISNIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VISNIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our framework can be used

  14. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  15. Comparing lightning polarity and cloud microphysical properties over regions of high ground flash density in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, LA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find a correlation between lightning polarity and microphysical properties of a storm cloud, for events where large amounts of lightning damage have occured and/or there has been a reported lightning-related fatality....

  16. Quantifying the risks of solid aerosol geoengineering: the role of fundamental material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.

    2017-12-01

    Solid aerosols have been considered as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering due to their optical and chemical properties, which lead to different and possibly more attractive risk profiles. Solid aerosols can achieve higher solar scattering efficiency due to their higher refractive index, and in some cases may also be less effective absorbers of thermal infrared radiation. The optical properties of solid aerosols are however sensitive functions of the detailed physical properties of solid materials in question. The relevant details include the exact crystalline structure of the aerosols, the physical size of the particles, and interactions with background stratospheric molecular and particulate constituents. In this work, we examine the impact of these detailed physical properties on the radiative properties of calcite (CaCO3) solid aerosols. We examine how crystal morphology, size, chemical reactions, and interaction with background stratospheric aerosol may alter the scattering and absorption properties of calcite aerosols for solar and thermal infrared radiation. For example, in small particles, crystal lattice vibrations associated with the particle surface may lead to substantially different infrared absorption properties than bulk materials. We examine the wavelength dependence of absorption by the particles, which may lead to altered patterns of stratospheric radiative heating and equilibrium temperatures. Such temperature changes can lead to dynamical changes, with consequences for both stratospheric composition and tropospheric climate. We identify important uncertainties in the current state of understanding, investigate risks associated with these uncertainties, and survey potential approaches to quantitatively improving our knowledge of the relevant material properties.

  17. Estimation of convective entrainment properties from a cloud-resolving model simulation during TWP-ICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang J.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Zeng, Xiping; Mitovski, Toni

    2016-10-01

    The fractional entrainment rate in convective clouds is an important parameter in current convective parameterization schemes of climate models. In this paper, it is estimated using a 1-km-resolution cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation of convective clouds from TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment). The clouds are divided into different types, characterized by cloud-top heights. The entrainment rates and moist static energy that is entrained or detrained are determined by analyzing the budget of moist static energy for each cloud type. Results show that the entrained air is a mixture of approximately equal amount of cloud air and environmental air, and the detrained air is a mixture of ~80 % of cloud air and 20 % of the air with saturation moist static energy at the environmental temperature. After taking into account the difference in moist static energy between the entrained air and the mean environment, the estimated fractional entrainment rate is much larger than those used in current convective parameterization schemes. High-resolution (100 m) large-eddy simulation of TWP-ICE convection was also analyzed to support the CRM results. It is shown that the characteristics of entrainment rates estimated using both the high-resolution data and CRM-resolution coarse-grained data are similar. For each cloud category, the entrainment rate is high near cloud base and top, but low in the middle of clouds. The entrainment rates are best fitted to the inverse of in-cloud vertical velocity by a second order polynomial.

  18. THE 1.1 mm CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND EVOLUTION OF THE DUST-SELECTED CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya; Muller, Erik; Mizuno, Norikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Ezawa, Hajime [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Oshima, Tai; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason E.; Wilson, Grant W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Department of Astronomical Science, School of Physical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-20

    The first 1.1 mm continuum survey toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was performed using the AzTEC instrument installed on the ASTE 10 m telescope. This survey covered 4.5 deg{sup 2} of the SMC with 1 σ noise levels of 5–12 mJy beam{sup −1}, and 44 extended objects were identified. The 1.1 mm extended emission has good spatial correlation with Herschel 160 μ m, indicating that the origin of the 1.1 mm extended emission is thermal emission from a cold dust component. We estimated physical properties using the 1.1 mm and filtered Herschel data (100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μ m). The 1.1 mm objects show dust temperatures of 17–45 K and gas masses of 4 × 10{sup 3}–3 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, assuming single-temperature thermal emission from the cold dust with an emissivity index, β , of 1.2 and a gas-to-dust ratio of 1000. These physical properties are very similar to those of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in our galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The 1.1 mm objects also displayed good spatial correlation with the Spitzer 24 μ m and CO emission, suggesting that the 1.1 mm objects trace the dense gas regions as sites of massive star formation. The dust temperature of the 1.1 mm objects also demonstrated good correlation with the 24 μ m flux connected to massive star formation. This supports the hypothesis that the heating source of the cold dust is mainly local star-formation activity in the 1.1 mm objects. The classification of the 1.1 mm objects based on the existence of star-formation activity reveals the differences in the dust temperature, gas mass, and radius, which reflects the evolution sequence of GMCs.

  19. Arctic boundary layer properties and its influence on cloud occurrence frequency, phase and structure in autumn season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, S.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, autumnal boundary layer characteristics and cloud properties have been investigated using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope of Alaska (ARM NSA) site from January 2002 to December 2008. We found that both cloud and planetary boundary layer (PBL) properties can be well distinguished by surface wind directions. When the ARM NSA site is dominated by a northerly wind during the period September- November, the PBL is at near saturation for all three months; while the maximum RH layer varies from low and thin in September, to higher and thicker in October, and then it becomes close to surface again in November. Both the ceilometer and the MPL derived cloud base heights coincide well with the RH maximum layer in the PBL for all three autumnal months. The frequencies of occurrence of mixed phase clouds in September and October are around 60-80% under a northerly wind, which are about 1.5 times higher than those during a southerly wind. Under northerly wind, the PDFs of PBL temperature and specific humidity are narrow and unimodal, with a peak probability around 0.4-0.5. Under a southerly wind, on the other hand, the PBL is both warmer and wetter than northerly wind profiles, which result in lower RH values (10-15% lower) in September and October; and the PDFs of PBL temperature and specific humidity are more evenly distributed with larger distribution range and lower PDF peak values (<0.3). In September, colder and dryer PBL is more favorable for mixed phase cloud formation, cloud occurrence frequency decreases from 90% to 60% as PBL temperature and specific humidity increase. In October, the frequency of occurrence of mixed phase clouds also decreases from 90% to 50-60% as PBL temperature increases. While in November, it increases first and then decreases with increasing PBL temperature and specific humidity. The frequency of occurrence of mixed phase clouds is linearly correlated to PBL RH values: for all three months, it

  20. The Operational MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Product: Overview of the Collection 6 Algorithm and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties (part of the archived products MOD06 and MYD06, for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) are currently being reprocessed along with other MODIS Atmosphere Team products. The latest "Collection 6" processing stream, which is expected to begin production by summer 2012, includes updates to the previous cloud retrieval algorithm along with new capabilities. The 1 km retrievals, based on well-known solar reflectance techniques, include cloud optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path, as well as thermodynamic phase derived from a combination of solar and infrared tests. Being both global and of high spatial resolution requires an algorithm that is computationally efficient and can perform over all surface types. Collection 6 additions and enhancements include: (i) absolute effective particle radius retrievals derived separately from the 1.6 and 3.7 !-lm bands (instead of differences relative to the standard 2.1 !-lm retrieval), (ii) comprehensive look-up tables for cloud reflectance and emissivity (no asymptotic theory) with a wind-speed interpolated Cox-Munk BRDF for ocean surfaces, (iii) retrievals for both liquid water and ice phases for each pixel, and a subsequent determination of the phase based, in part, on effective radius retrieval outcomes for the two phases, (iv) new ice cloud radiative models using roughened particles with a specified habit, (v) updated spatially-complete global spectral surface albedo maps derived from MODIS Collection 5, (vi) enhanced pixel-level uncertainty calculations incorporating additional radiative error sources including the MODIS L1 B uncertainty index for assessing band and scene-dependent radiometric uncertainties, (v) and use of a new 1 km cloud top pressure/temperature algorithm (also part of MOD06) for atmospheric corrections and low cloud non-unity emissivity temperature adjustments.

  1. Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Retrievals from High-Resolution ASTER Observations: Case Studies and Comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTERspecific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in Zhao and Di Girolamo (2006). To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud effective radius (r(sub eff)) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, tau(sub aA) and r(sub eff, aA) retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R greater than 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between r(sub eff, aA) and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 micrometers. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  2. The sensitivities of in cloud and cloud top phase distributions to primary ice formation in ICON-LEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, H.; Karrer, M.; Tonttila, J.; Hoose, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed phase clouds remain a leading source of uncertainty in our attempt to quantify cloud-climate and aerosol-cloud climate interactions. Nevertheless, recent advances in parametrizing the primary ice formation process, high resolution cloud modelling, and retrievals of cloud phase distributions from satellite data offer an excellent opportunity to conduct closure studies on the sensitivity of the cloud phase to microphysical and dynamical processes. Particularly, the reliability of satellite data to resolve the phase at the top of the cloud provides a promising benchmark to compare model output to. We run large eddy simulations with the new ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic atmosphere model (ICON) to place bounds on the sensitivity of in cloud and cloud top phase to the primary ice formation process. State of the art primary ice formation parametrizations in the form of the cumulative ice active site density ns are implemented in idealized deep convective cloud simulations. We exploit the ability of ICON-LEM to switch between a two moment microphysics scheme and the newly developed Predicted Particle Properties (P3) scheme by running our simulations in both configurations for comparison. To quantify the sensitivity of cloud phase to primary ice formation, cloud ice content is evaluated against order of magnitude changes in ns at variable convective strengths. Furthermore, we assess differences between in cloud and cloud top phase distributions as well as the potential impact of updraft velocity on the suppression of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The study aims to evaluate our practical understanding of primary ice formation in the context of predicting the structure and evolution of mixed phase clouds.

  3. Cloud fraction and cloud base measurements from scanning Doppler lidar during WFIP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T.; Long, C.; Lantz, K. O.; Choukulkar, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; McCarty, B.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP-2) consisted of an 18-month field deployment of a variety of instrumentation with the principle objective of validating and improving NWP forecasts for wind energy applications in complex terrain. As a part of the set of instrumentation, several scanning Doppler lidars were installed across the study domain to primarily measure profiles of the mean wind and turbulence at high-resolution within the planetary boundary layer. In addition to these measurements, Doppler lidar observations can be used to directly quantify the cloud fraction and cloud base, since clouds appear as a high backscatter return. These supplementary measurements of clouds can then be used to validate cloud cover and other properties in NWP output. Herein, statistics of the cloud fraction and cloud base height from the duration of WFIP-2 are presented. Additionally, these cloud fraction estimates from Doppler lidar are compared with similar measurements from a Total Sky Imager and Radiative Flux Analysis (RadFlux) retrievals at the Wasco site. During mostly cloudy to overcast conditions, estimates of the cloud radiating temperature from the RadFlux methodology are also compared with Doppler lidar measured cloud base height.

  4. Inferred effects of cloud deposition on forest floor nutrient cycling and microbial properties along a short elevation gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, M.; Bradley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Higher cloud cover significantly decreases forest floor pH, decrease exchangeable cations, modifies mineral-N speciation and increases physiological stress within microbial communities. - Cloud water deposition often increases with elevation, and it is widely accepted that this cloud water increases acid loading to upland forest ecosystems. A study was undertaken in south-eastern Quebec to determine if a 250 m elevation gradient (i.e. 420-665 m), along a uniform sugar-maple stand on the slope of Mount Orford, corresponded to a pH gradient in the forest floor and to predictable changes in soil nutrient availability and microbial properties. Precipitation data from a nearby study, and a photographic survey, provided presumptive evidence that this elevation gradient corresponded to a strong gradient in cloud water deposition. Forest floor temperature did not differ significantly across elevations. Forest floor moisture content was significantly higher, whereas pH and exchangeable Ca and Mg were significantly lower, at the higher elevations. Average seasonal net nitrification rates, determined by long-term laboratory incubations, did not differ significantly across elevations, whereas average seasonal net ammonification rates were significantly higher at higher elevations. Basal respiration rates and microbial biomass did not differ significantly across elevations, but metabolic quotient was significantly higher at higher elevations indicating possible environmental stress on forest floor microbial communities due to cloud water deposition. Anaerobic N mineralisation rates were significantly higher at higher elevations suggesting that N-limited microbial communities frequently exposed to cloud cover can be important short-term sinks for atmospheric N, thereby contributing to increase the active-N fraction of forest floors. We conclude that, where no significant changes in vegetation or temperature occur, elevation gradients can still be used to understand the spatial

  5. Single-footprint retrievals of temperature, water vapor and cloud properties from AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Schreier, Mathias M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan; Fu, Dejian; Kalmus, Peter; Wilson, R. Chris; Wong, Sun; Yue, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Single-footprint Atmospheric Infrared Sounder spectra are used in an optimal estimation-based algorithm (AIRS-OE) for simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, surface temperature, cloud-top temperature, effective cloud optical depth and effective cloud particle radius. In a departure from currently operational AIRS retrievals (AIRS V6), cloud scattering and absorption are in the radiative transfer forward model and AIRS single-footprint thermal infrared data are used directly rather than cloud-cleared spectra (which are calculated using nine adjacent AIRS infrared footprints). Coincident MODIS cloud data are used for cloud a priori data. Using single-footprint spectra improves the horizontal resolution of the AIRS retrieval from ˜ 45 to ˜ 13.5 km at nadir, but as microwave data are not used, the retrieval is not made at altitudes below thick clouds. An outline of the AIRS-OE retrieval procedure and information content analysis is presented. Initial comparisons of AIRS-OE to AIRS V6 results show increased horizontal detail in the water vapor and relative humidity fields in the free troposphere above the clouds. Initial comparisons of temperature, water vapor and relative humidity profiles with coincident radiosondes show good agreement. Future improvements to the retrieval algorithm, and to the forward model in particular, are discussed.

  6. The variability of tropical ice cloud properties as a function of the large-scale context from ground-based radar-lidar observations over Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protat, A.; Delanoë, J.; May, P. T.; Haynes, J.; Jakob, C.; O'Connor, E.; Pope, M.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2011-08-01

    The high complexity of cloud parameterizations now held in models puts more pressure on observational studies to provide useful means to evaluate them. One approach to the problem put forth in the modelling community is to evaluate under what atmospheric conditions the parameterizations fail to simulate the cloud properties and under what conditions they do a good job. It is the ambition of this paper to characterize the variability of the statistical properties of tropical ice clouds in different tropical "regimes" recently identified in the literature to aid the development of better process-oriented parameterizations in models. For this purpose, the statistical properties of non-precipitating tropical ice clouds over Darwin, Australia are characterized using ground-based radar-lidar observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ice cloud properties analysed are the frequency of ice cloud occurrence, the morphological properties (cloud top height and thickness), and the microphysical and radiative properties (ice water content, visible extinction, effective radius, and total concentration). The variability of these tropical ice cloud properties is then studied as a function of the large-scale cloud regimes derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the amplitude and phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the large-scale atmospheric regime as derived from a long-term record of radiosonde observations over Darwin. The vertical variability of ice cloud occurrence and microphysical properties is largest in all regimes (1.5 order of magnitude for ice water content and extinction, a factor 3 in effective radius, and three orders of magnitude in concentration, typically). 98 % of ice clouds in our dataset are characterized by either a small cloud fraction (smaller than 0.3) or a very large cloud fraction (larger than 0.9). In the ice part of the troposphere three distinct layers characterized by

  7. Retrieval of Cloud Properties from the Multi-spectral, Multi-viewing and Polarized Measurements of the Airborne Polarimeter OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, C.; Cornet, C.; Parol, F.; C-Labonnote, L.; Auriol, F.; Nicolas, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds are recognized as a major source of uncertainty in forecasting the evolution of climate change. One way to improve our knowledge is to obtain accurate cloud properties and variabilities at high spatial resolution. Airborne remote sensing measurements are very suitable to achieve these targets with a tens of meters resolution. In this context, we exploit multi-viewing measurements of the new airborne radiometer OSIRIS (Observing System Including Polarization in the Solar Infrared Spectrum), developed in the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique (LOA). It is based on POLDER concept as a prototype of the future spacecraft 3MI (Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarisation Imaging Mission) that will be part of the EPS-SG Eumetsat-ESA mission. Currently, most operational remote sensing algorithms used to retrieve cloud properties from passive measurements, are based on the construction of pre-calculated Look-Up Tables (LUT) under the hypothesis of a single plane-parallel cloud layer. This assumption leads to certain limitations and possible large errors.We developed an optimal estimation method to retrieve cloud optical thickness and effective radius of cloud droplets. This inversion method is more flexible than the LUT method and allows to take into account uncertainties on both observations and the physical model leading to a direct estimation of the retrievals uncertainties in a well-established formalism. For example, we include uncertainties on retrieved cloud parameters due to an incorrect estimation of the ocean surface winds speed, the cloud vertical profiles and the 3D radiative transfer effects.OSIRIS has two separate optical sensors, one for the visible and near infrared range and the other one for the shortwave infrared (SWIR). Consequently, the developed algorithms are based on two different types of information: (1) the total and polarized multi-viewing reflectances from the visible range and (2) the multi-viewing total reflectances from two SWIR

  8. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, Graham [NOAA ESRL; McComiskey, Allison [CIRES, University of Colorado

    2013-09-25

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

  9. Thermodynamic properties and cloud droplet activation of a series of oxo-acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermodynamic properties of four aliphatic oxo-dicarboyxlic acids identified or thought to be present in atmospheric particulate matter: oxosuccinic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, 3-oxoglutaric acid, and 4-oxopimelic acid. The compounds were characterized in terms of their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, vapor pressure, density, and tendency to decarboxylate in aqueous solution. We deployed a variety of experimental techniques and instruments: a CCN counter, a Tandem Differential Mobililty Analyzer (TDMA coupled with a laminar flow-tube, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The presence of the oxo functional group in the α-position causes the vapor pressure of the compounds to diminish by an order of magnitude with respect to the parent dicarboxylic acid, while the CCN activity is similar or increased. Dicarboxylic acids with an oxo-group in the β-position decarboxylate in aqueous solution. We studied the effects of this process on our measurements and findings.

  10. Critical Zone Co-dynamics: Quantifying Interactions between Subsurface, Land Surface, and Vegetation Properties Using UAV and Geophysical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wu, Y.; Tran, A. P.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Versteeg, R.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding and modelling of terrestrial systems requires advances in measuring and quantifying interactions among subsurface, land surface and vegetation processes over relevant spatiotemporal scales. Such advances are important to quantify natural and managed ecosystem behaviors, as well as to predict how watershed systems respond to increasingly frequent hydrological perturbations, such as droughts, floods and early snowmelt. Our study focuses on the joint use of UAV-based multi-spectral aerial imaging, ground-based geophysical tomographic monitoring (incl., electrical and electromagnetic imaging) and point-scale sensing (soil moisture sensors and soil sampling) to quantify interactions between above and below ground compartments of the East River Watershed in the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluate linkages between physical properties (incl. soil composition, soil electrical conductivity, soil water content), metrics extracted from digital surface and terrain elevation models (incl., slope, wetness index) and vegetation properties (incl., greenness, plant type) in a 500 x 500 m hillslope-floodplain subsystem of the watershed. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate the control of soil and geomorphic characteristic on hydrological processes. Results provide an unprecedented window into critical zone interactions, revealing significant below- and above-ground co-dynamics. Baseline geophysical datasets provide lithological structure along the hillslope, which includes a surface soil horizon, underlain by a saprolite layer and the fractured Mancos shale. Time-lapse geophysical data show very different moisture dynamics in various compartments and locations during the winter and growing season. Integration with aerial imaging reveals a significant linkage between plant growth and the subsurface wetness, soil characteristics and the topographic gradient. The obtained information about the organization and

  11. Quantifying the motion of magnetic particles in excised tissue: Effect of particle properties and applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Sandip, E-mail: sandip.d.kulkarni@gmail.com [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ramaswamy, Bharath; Horton, Emily; Gangapuram, Sruthi [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nacev, Alek [Weinberg Medical Physics, LLC (United States); Depireux, Didier [The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States); Shimoji, Mika [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States); Shapiro, Benjamin [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland at College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Otomagnetics, LLC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a method to investigate how magnetic particle characteristics affect their motion inside tissues under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Particles are placed on top of freshly excised tissue samples, a calibrated magnetic field is applied by a magnet underneath each tissue sample, and we image and quantify particle penetration depth by quantitative metrics to assess how particle sizes, their surface coatings, and tissue resistance affect particle motion. Using this method, we tested available fluorescent particles from Chemicell of four sizes (100 nm, 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm diameter) with four different coatings (starch, chitosan, lipid, and PEG/P) and quantified their motion through freshly excised rat liver, kidney, and brain tissues. In broad terms, we found that the applied magnetic field moved chitosan particles most effectively through all three tissue types (as compared to starch, lipid, and PEG/P coated particles). However, the relationship between particle properties and their resulting motion was found to be complex. Hence, it will likely require substantial further study to elucidate the nuances of transport mechanisms and to select and engineer optimal particle properties to enable the most effective transport through various tissue types under applied magnetic fields.

  12. The Properties of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps in the L1495 Dark Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengyao; Liu, Tie; Qin, Sheng-Li; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Yuan, Jinghua; Wang, Ke; Parsons, Harriet; Koch, Patrick M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Ward-Thompson, D.; Tóth, L. Viktor; Soam, Archana; Lee, Chang Won; Eden, David; Di Francesco, James; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Montillaud, Julien; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Cunningham, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) possibly represent the early stages of star formation. To understand better the properties of PGCCs, we studied 16 PGCCs in the L1495 cloud with molecular lines and continuum data from Herschel, JCMT/SCUBA-2, and the PMO 13.7 m telescope. Thirty dense cores were identified in 16 PGCCs from 2D Gaussian fitting. The dense cores have dust temperatures of T d = 11–14 K, and H2 column densities of {N}{{{H}}2} = (0.36–2.5) × 1022 cm‑2. We found that not all PGCCs contain prestellar objects. In general, the dense cores in PGCCs are usually at their earliest evolutionary stages. All the dense cores have non-thermal velocity dispersions larger than the thermal velocity dispersions from molecular line data, suggesting that the dense cores may be turbulence-dominated. We have calculated the virial parameter α and found that 14 of the dense cores have α 2. This suggests that some of the dense cores are not bound in the absence of external pressure and magnetic fields. The column density profiles of dense cores were fitted. The sizes of the flat regions and core radii decrease with the evolution of dense cores. CO depletion was found to occur in all the dense cores, but is more significant in prestellar core candidates than in protostellar or starless cores. The protostellar cores inside the PGCCs are still at a very early evolutionary stage, sharing similar physical and chemical properties with the prestellar core candidates.

  13. Aerosol and cloud properties derived from hyperspectral transmitted light in the southeast Atlantic sampled during field campaign deployments in 2016 and 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, S. E.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Pistone, K.; Karol, Y.; Schmidt, S.; Cochrane, S.; Chen, H.; Meyer, K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    We present aerosol and cloud properties collected from airborne remote-sensing measurements in the southeast Atlantic during the recent NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign. During the biomass burning seasons of September 2016 and August 2017, we sampled aerosol layers which overlaid marine stratocumulus clouds off the southwestern coast of Africa. We sampled these aerosol layers and the underlying clouds from the NASA P3 airborne platform with the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). Aerosol optical depth (AOD), along with trace gas content in the atmospheric column (water vapor, NO2, and O3), is obtained from the attenuation in the sun's direct beam, measured at the altitude of the airborne platform. Using hyperspectral transmitted light measurements from 4STAR, in conjunction with hyperspectral hemispheric irradiance measurements from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), we also obtained aerosol intensive properties (asymmetry parameter, single scattering albedo), aerosol size distributions, cloud optical depth (COD), cloud particle effective radius, and cloud thermodynamic phase. Aerosol intensive properties are retrieved from measurements of angularly resolved skylight and flight level spectral albedo using the inversion used with measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) that has been modified for airborne use. The cloud properties are obtained from 4STAR measurements of scattered light below clouds. We show a favorable initial comparison of the above-cloud AOD measured by 4STAR to this same product retrieved from measurements by the MODIS instrument on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites. The layer AOD observed above clouds will also be compared to integrated aerosol extinction profile measurements from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2).

  14. Lidar investigations on the optical and dynamical properties of cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere regions at a tropical station, Gadanki, India (13.5°N, 79.2°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Vasudevannair; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Radhakrishnan, Soman R.; Dhaman, Reji K.; Jayeshlal, Glory Selvan; Motty, Gopinathan Nair S.; Pillai, Vellara P. Mahadevan; Raghunath, Karnam; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Rao, Duggirala Ramakrishna; Sudhakar, Pindlodi

    2014-01-01

    High altitude cirrus clouds are composed mainly of ice crystals with a variety of sizes and shapes. They have a large influence on Earth's energy balance and global climate. Recent studies indicate that the formation, dissipation, life time, optical, and micro-physical properties are influenced by the dynamical conditions of the surrounding atmosphere like background aerosol, turbulence, etc. In this work, an attempt has been made to quantify some of these characteristics by using lidar and mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar. Mie lidar and 53 MHz MST radar measurements made over 41 nights during the period 2009 to 2010 from the tropical station, Gadanki, India (13.5°N, 79.2°E). The optical and microphysical properties along with the structure and dynamics of the cirrus are presented as observed under different atmospheric conditions. The study reveals the manifestation of different forms of cirrus with a preferred altitude of formation in the 13 to 14 km altitude. There are considerable differences in the properties obtained among 2009 and 2010 showing significant anomalous behavior in 2010. The clouds observed during 2010 show relatively high asymmetry and large multiple scattering effects. The anomalies found during 2010 may be attributed to the turbulence noticed in the surrounding atmosphere. The results show a clear correlation between the crystal morphology in the clouds and the dynamical conditions of the prevailing atmosphere during the observational period.

  15. In situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African Monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, Mesoscale Convective System outflow, and subvisual cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100 and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS. Two to four modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionately more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3 and satellite images, clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow from a developing MCS ice crystal number concentrations of up to (8.3 ± 1.6 cm−3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m−3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm−3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10−4 g m−3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm.

    Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm−3 with maximum particle sizes of 130

  16. Buffer gas cooling of ions stored in an R.F. trap: Computed properties of the ionic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alili, A.; Andre, J.; Vedel, F.

    1988-01-01

    The spatial and energetic properties of an ion cloud confined in an RF quadrupole trap, together with the lifetimes of the confined ions, have been computed by statistical methods and recently by a simulation method. The influences of different parameters such as ion mass, buffer gas mass, working point in the stability diagram, 'weak' space-charge and shape of the velocity distribution of the cooling buffer gas have been investigated and are described. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of optical and micro-physical properties of cirrus clouds using a wideband thermal infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Luca; Di Natale, Gianluca; Bianchini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    High-altitude ice clouds such as cirrus clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget since they cover permanently about 20-30% of the surface of the planet, reaching even to 60-70% in the tropics. The modulation of the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing Earth's thermal emission due to cirrus can contribute to heat or to cool the atmosphere, according to their optical properties, which must be characterised with great accuracy and over the whole spectral range involved in the scattering and emission processes. Here we present the infrared measurements over the wide spectral range from 9 to 50 micron performed by the Fourier transform spectrometer REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in Far InfraRed - Prototype for Application and Development) during many field campaigns that have taken place since 2007 from different high-altitude ground-based stations: Testa Grigia Station, Cervinia-Italy, (3480 m asl), Cerro Toco, Atacama-Chile, (5380 m asl), Concordia Base, Dome C-Antarctica (3230 m asl). These measurements show for the first time the spectral effect of cirrus clouds in the long-wave part of the emission spectrum above 15 micron of wavelength. To characterise these measurements over the wide spectral range as a function of the optical properties of ice particles, a model of the radiative transfer, that integrates the well known numerical code LBLRTM, which simulates the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, with a specific code which simulates the propagation of the radiation through the cloud, was developed. The optical properties of clouds have been modelled using the δ-scaled Eddington approximation for a single layer and the Ping Yang's database for the single-scattering properties of ice crystals. The preliminary results of the fit procedure used for the determination of the micro-physical parameters of ice crystals, such as the effective diameter, ice water path, effective temperature and optical thickness will be shown in the presentation. The

  18. Quantifying the properties of low-cost powder metallurgy titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E.

    2017-01-01

    The extensive industrial employment of titanium is hindered by its high production costs where reduction of these costs can be achieved using cheap alloying elements and appropriate alternative processing techniques. In this work the feasibility of the production of low-cost titanium alloys is addressed by adding steel to pure titanium and processing the alloys by powder metallurgy. In particular, a spherical 4140 LCH steel powder commonly used in metal injection moulding is blended with irregular hydride-dehydride Ti. The new low-cost alloys are cold uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum and show comparable properties to other wrought-equivalent and powder metallurgy titanium alloys. Differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that Ti can tolerate the employment of iron as primary alloying element without forming detrimental TiFe-based intermetallic phases. Thus, the newly designed α+β alloys could be used for cheaper non-critical components.

  19. Quantifying the effects of tempering on individual phase properties of DP980 steel with nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, F. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Ruimi, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, Doha (Qatar); Field, D.P. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Sun, X., E-mail: xin.sun@pnnl.gov [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Tempering treatment is conducted on a commercial dual phase (DP) 980 steel at 250 °C and 400 °C for 60 min each. Ferrite and martensite grains are distinguished using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and the martensite volume fractions (MVF) are determined based on the image quality (IQ) map. Indentation tests combined with a newly developed inverse method are used to obtain the individual phase flow properties in each sample. The results show that, i) tempering significantly reduces martensite yield strength, while it slightly reduces the ferrite yield strength; ii) tempering temperature has a more significant influence on the work hardening exponent of ferrite than that of martensite. As a validation, a simple rule-of-mixtures is used to verify the above-predicted individual phase flow stresses with the experimentally obtained overall true stress vs. true strain curves.

  20. Quantifying the properties of low-cost powder metallurgy titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, L., E-mail: bolzoni.leandro@gmail.com [WaiCAM (Waikato Centre for Advanced Materials), The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, 3240 Hamilton (New Zealand); Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-27

    The extensive industrial employment of titanium is hindered by its high production costs where reduction of these costs can be achieved using cheap alloying elements and appropriate alternative processing techniques. In this work the feasibility of the production of low-cost titanium alloys is addressed by adding steel to pure titanium and processing the alloys by powder metallurgy. In particular, a spherical 4140 LCH steel powder commonly used in metal injection moulding is blended with irregular hydride-dehydride Ti. The new low-cost alloys are cold uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum and show comparable properties to other wrought-equivalent and powder metallurgy titanium alloys. Differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that Ti can tolerate the employment of iron as primary alloying element without forming detrimental TiFe-based intermetallic phases. Thus, the newly designed α+β alloys could be used for cheaper non-critical components.

  1. Investigating the influence of volcanic sulfate aerosol on cloud properties Along A-Train tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds are central actors in the climate system given their extensive coverage on the Earth's surface, their 1-way influence on the radiative balance (cooling), and their intimate coupling between air motions, anthropogenic and natural aerosol sources, and processes within the upper ocean mixed layer. Knowledge of how MBL shallow cumulus clouds respond to changes in aerosol is central to understanding how MBL clouds modulate the climate system. A frequent approach to investigating how sulfate aerosol influences MBL clouds has been to examine sulfate plumes extending downstream of active island volcanoes. This approach is challenging due to modification of the air motions in the plumes downstream of islands and due to the tendency of most researchers to examine only level-2 retrievals ignoring the actual data collected by sensors such as MODIS. Past studies have concluded that sulfate aerosols have large effects consistent with the 1st aerosol indirect effect (AIE). We reason that if such effects are as large as suggested in level-2 retrievals then evidence should also be present in the raw MODIS reflectance data as well as other data sources. In this paper we will build on our recently published work where we tested that hypothesis from data collected near Mount Kilauea during a 3-year period. Separating data into aerosol optical depth (A) quartiles, we found little support for a large 1st AIE response. We did find an unambiguous increase in sub 1km-scale cloud fraction with A. This increase in sub 1 km cloud fraction was entirely consistent with increased reflectance with increasing A that is used, via the level 2 retrievals, to argue for a large AIE response of MBL clouds. While the 1-km pixels became unambiguously brighter, that brightening was due to increased sub 1 km cloud fraction and not necessarily due to changes in pixel-level cloud microphysics. We also found that MBL cloud top heights increase as do surface wind speeds as

  2. Multi-scale Modeling of Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, B. R.; Roesler, E. L.; Dexheimer, D.

    2017-12-01

    The presence and properties of clouds are critically important to the radiative budget in the Arctic, but clouds are notoriously difficult to represent in global climate models (GCMs). The challenge stems partly from a disconnect in the scales at which these models are formulated and the scale of the physical processes important to the formation of clouds (e.g., convection and turbulence). Because of this, these processes are parameterized in large-scale models. Over the past decades, new approaches have been explored in which a cloud system resolving model (CSRM), or in the extreme a large eddy simulation (LES), is embedded into each gridcell of a traditional GCM to replace the cloud and convective parameterizations to explicitly simulate more of these important processes. This approach is attractive in that it allows for more explicit simulation of small-scale processes while also allowing for interaction between the small and large-scale processes. The goal of this study is to quantify the performance of this framework in simulating Arctic clouds relative to a traditional global model, and to explore the limitations of such a framework using coordinated high-resolution (eddy-resolving) simulations. Simulations from the global model are compared with satellite retrievals of cloud fraction partioned by cloud phase from CALIPSO, and limited-area LES simulations are compared with ground-based and tethered-balloon measurements from the ARM Barrow and Oliktok Point measurement facilities.

  3. An avenue of eddies: Quantifying the biophysical properties of mesoscale eddies in the Tasman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Baird, M. E.; Oke, P. R.; Suthers, I. M.

    2012-08-01

    The Tasman Sea is unique - characterised by a strong seasonal western boundary current that breaks down into a complicated field of mesoscale eddies almost immediately after separating from the coast. Through a 16-year analysis of Tasman Sea eddies, we identify a region along the southeast Australian coast which we name ‘Eddy Avenue’ where eddies have higher sea level anomalies, faster rotation and greater sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a anomalies. The density of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies within Eddy Avenue is 23% and 16% higher respectively than the broader Tasman Sea. We find that Eddy Avenue cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies have more strongly differentiated biological properties than those of the broader Tasman Sea, as a result of larger anticyclonic eddies formed from Coral Sea water depressing chl. a concentrations, and for coastal cyclonic eddies due to the entrainment of nutrient-rich shelf waters. Cyclonic eddies within Eddy Avenue have almost double the chlorophyll a (0.35 mg m-3) of anticyclonic eddies (0.18 mg m-3). The average chlorophyll a concentration for cyclonic eddies is 16% higher in Eddy Avenue and 28% lower for anticyclonic eddies when compared to the Tasman Sea. With a strengthening East Australian Current, the propagation of these eddies will have significant implications for heat transport and the entrainment and connectivity of plankton and larval fish populations.

  4. Macrophysical properties of continental cumulus clouds from active and passive remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Riley, Erin A.; Kleiss, Jessica; Long, Charles N.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Flynn, Donna M.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Berg, Larry K.

    2017-10-06

    Cloud amount is an essential and extensively used macrophysical parameter of cumulus clouds. It is commonly defined as a cloud fraction (CF) from zenith-pointing ground-based active and passive remote sensing. However, conventional retrievals of CF from the remote sensing data with very narrow field-of-view (FOV) may not be representative of the surrounding area. Here we assess its representativeness using an integrated dataset collected at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, USA. For our assessment with focus on selected days with single-layer cumulus clouds (2005-2016), we include the narrow-FOV ARM Active Remotely Sensed Clouds Locations (ARSCL) and large-FOV Total Sky Imager (TSI) cloud products, the 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) measurements of wind speed and direction, and also high-resolution satellite images from Landsat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We demonstrate that a root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the 15-min averaged ARSCL cloud fraction (CF) and the 15-min averaged TSI fractional sky cover (FSC) is large (up to 0.3). We also discuss how the horizontal distribution of clouds can modify the obtained large RMSD using a new uniformity metric. The latter utilizes the spatial distribution of the FSC over the 100° FOV TSI images obtained with high temporal resolution (30 sec sampling). We demonstrate that cases with more uniform spatial distribution of FSC show better agreement between the narrow-FOV CF and large-FOV FSC, reducing the RMSD by up to a factor of 2.

  5. Quantifying the heterogeneity of soil compaction, physical soil properties and soil moisture across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2016-04-01

    England's rural landscape is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Since the Second World War the intensification of agriculture has resulted in greater levels of soil compaction, associated with higher stocking densities in fields. Locally compaction has led to loss of soil storage and an increased in levels of ponding in fields. At the catchment scale soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a 40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. However, at the catchment scale there is likely to be a significant amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields, due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on one specific type of land use (permanent pasture with cattle grazing) and areas of activity within the field (feeding area, field gate, tree shelter, open field area). The aim was to determine if the soil characteristics and soil compaction levels are homogeneous in the four areas of the field. Also, to determine if these levels stayed the same over the course of the year, or if there were differences at the end of the dry (October) and wet (April) periods. Field experiments were conducted in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 120km2. The dynamic cone penetrometer was used to determine the structural properties of the soil, soil samples were collected to assess the bulk density, organic matter content and permeability in the laboratory and the Hydrosense II was used to determine the soil moisture content in the topsoil. Penetration results show that the tree shelter is the most compacted and the open field area

  6. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  7. How Often and Why MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Fail for Liquid-Phase Clouds over Ocean? a Comprehensive Analysis Based on a-Train Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, H. M.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Lebsock, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The cloud optical thickness (τ) and droplet effective radius (re) are two key cloud parameters retrieved by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). These MODIS cloud products are widely used in a broad range of earth system science applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the failed cloud τ and/or re retrievals for liquid-phase clouds over ocean in the Collection 6 MODIS cloud product. The main findings from this study are summarized as follows: MODIS retrieval failure rates for marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a strong dependence on the spectral combination used for retrieval (e.g., 0.86 + 2.1 µm vs. 0.8 + 3.7 µm) and the cloud morphology (i.e., "good" pixels vs. partly cloudy (PCL) pixels). Combining all clear-sky-restoral (CSR) categories (CSR=0,1 and 3), the 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm spectral combinations have an overall failure rate of about 20% and 12%, respectively (See figure below). The PCL pixels (CSR=1 & 3) have significantly higher failure rates and contribute more to the total failure population than the "good" (CSR=0) pixels. The majority of the failed retrievals are caused by the re too large failure, which explains about 85% and 70% of the failed 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm retrievals, respectively. The remaining failures are either due to the re too small failure or τ retrieval failure. The geographical distribution of failure rates has a significant dependence on cloud regime, lower over the coastal stratocumulus cloud regime and higher over the broken trade-wind cumulus cloud regime over open oceans. Enhanced retrieval failure rates are found when MBL clouds have high sub-pixel inhomogeneity , or are located at special Sun-satellite viewing geometries, such as sunglint, large viewing or solar zenith angle, or cloudbow and glory angles, or subject to cloud masking, cloud overlapping and/or cloud phase retrieval issues. About 80% of the failure retrievals can be attributed to at

  8. 16-year Climatology of Cirrus cloud properties using ground-based Lidar over Gadanki (13.45˚N, 79.18˚E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Amit Kumar; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Gadhavi, Harish

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous high level cold clouds predominantly consisting of ice-crystals. With their highest coverage over the tropics, these are one of the most vital and complex components of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) due to their strong radiative feedback and dehydration in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) regions. The continuous changes in their coverage, position, thickness, and ice-crystal size and shape distributions bring uncertainties in the estimates of cirrus cloud radiative forcing. Long-term changes in the distribution of aerosols and water vapour in the TTL can influence cirrus properties. This necessitates long-term studies of tropical cirrus clouds, which are only few. The present study provides 16-year climatology of physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds observed using a ground-based Lidar located at Gadanki (13.45(°) N, 79.18(°) ˚E and 375 m amsl) in south-India. In general, cirrus clouds occurred for about 44% of the total Lidar observation time. Owing to the increased convective activities, the occurrence of cirrus clouds during the southwest-monsoon season is highest while it is lowest during the winter. Altitude distribution of cirrus clouds reveals that the peak occurrence was about 25% at 14.5 km. The most probable base and top height of cirrus clouds are 14 and 15.5 km, respectively. This is also reflected in the bulk extinction coefficient profile (at 532 nm) of cirrus clouds. These results are compared with the CALIPSO observations. Most of the time cirrus clouds are located within the TTL bounded by convective outflow level and cold-point tropopause. Cirrus clouds are thick during the monsoon season as compared to that during winter. An inverse relation between the thickness of cirrus clouds and TTL thickness is found. The occurrence of cirrus clouds at an altitude close to the tropopause (16 km) showed an increase of 8.4% in the last 16 years. Base and top heights of cirrus clouds also showed

  9. Quantified Mechanical Properties of the Deltoid Muscle Using the Shear Wave Elastography: Potential Implications for Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Hatta

    Full Text Available The deltoid muscle plays a critical role in the biomechanics of shoulders undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA. However, both pre- and postoperative assessment of the deltoid muscle quality still remains challenging. The purposes of this study were to establish a novel methodology of shear wave elastography (SWE to quantify the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, and to investigate the reliability of this technique using cadaveric shoulders for the purpose of RSA. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were obtained. The deltoid muscles were divided into 5 segments (A1, A2, M, P1 and P2 according to the muscle fiber orientation and SWE values were measured for each segment. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. To measure the response of muscle tension during RSA, the humeral shaft was osteotomized and subsequently elongated by an external fixator (intact to 15 mm elongation. SWE of the deltoid muscle was measured under each stretch condition. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements for all regions showed 0.761-0.963 and 0.718-0.947 for ICC(2,1. Especially, SWE measurements for segments A2 and M presented satisfactory repeatability. Elongated deltoid muscles by the external fixator showed a progressive increase in passive stiffness for all muscular segments. Especially, SWE outcomes of segments A2 and M reliably showed an exponential growth upon stretching (R2 = 0.558 and 0.593. Segmental measurements using SWE could be reliably and feasibly used to quantitatively assess the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, especially in the anterior and middle portions. This novel technique based on the anatomical features may provide helpful information of the deltoid muscle properties during treatment of RSA.

  10. A Microfluidics Study to Quantify the Impact of Microfracture Properties on Two-Phase Flow in Tight Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, A.; Kelly, S. A.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Balhoff, M.

    2017-12-01

    Microfluidics provides the opportunity for controlled experiments of immiscible fluid dynamics in quasi two-dimensional permeable media and allows their direct observation. We leverage microfluidics to investigate the impact of microfracture properties on water imbibition and drainage in a porous matrix. In the context of this work, microfractures are defined as apertures or preferential flow paths formed along planes of weakness, such as between two different rock fabrics. Patterns of pseudo-microfractures with orientations from parallel and perpendicular to fluid flow as well as variations in their connectivity were fabricated in glass micromodels; surface roughness of the micromodels was also varied utilizing a new method. Light microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify transient front advancement and trapped non-wetting phase saturation during imbibition as well as residual wetting phase saturation and its spatial distribution following drainage. Our experiments enable the assessment of quantitative relationships between fluid invasion rate and residual phase distributions as functions of microfracture network properties. Ultimately, the wide variety of microfluidic experiments performed in this study provide valuable insight into two-phase fluid dynamics in microfracture/matrix networks, the extent of fracture fluid invasion, and the saturation of trapped phases. In reservoir description, the geometries of subsurface fractures are often difficult to ascertain, but the distribution of rock types in a zone, from highly laminated to homogenous, can be reliably assessed with core data and well logs. Assuming that microcracks are functions of lamination planes (thin beds), then a priori predictions of the effect of microcracks on two-phase fluid flow across various geological conditions can possibly be upscaled via effective lamination properties. Such upscaling can significantly reduce the uncertainties associated with subsurface operations, including

  11. The PdBI arcsecond whirlpool survey (PAWS): Environmental dependence of giant molecular cloud properties in M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, Dario; Hughes, Annie; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Leroy, Adam K.; Pety, Jérôme; Dumas, Gaëlle; Schuster, Karl F.; Dobbs, Clare L.; García-Burillo, Santiago; Thompson, Todd A.; Kramer, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS), we have generated the largest extragalactic giant molecular cloud (GMC) catalog to date, containing 1507 individual objects. GMCs in the inner M51 disk account for only 54% of the total 12 CO(1-0) luminosity of the survey, but on average they exhibit physical properties similar to Galactic GMCs. We do not find a strong correlation between the GMC size and velocity dispersion, and a simple virial analysis suggests that ∼30% of GMCs in M51 are unbound. We have analyzed the GMC properties within seven dynamically motivated galactic environments, finding that GMCs in the spiral arms and in the central region are brighter and have higher velocity dispersions than inter-arm clouds. Globally, the GMC mass distribution does not follow a simple power-law shape. Instead, we find that the shape of the mass distribution varies with galactic environment: the distribution is steeper in inter-arm region than in the spiral arms, and exhibits a sharp truncation at high masses for the nuclear bar region. We propose that the observed environmental variations in the GMC properties and mass distributions are a consequence of the combined action of large-scale dynamical processes and feedback from high-mass star formation. We describe some challenges of using existing GMC identification techniques for decomposing the 12 CO(1-0) emission in molecule-rich environments, such as M51's inner disk.

  12. A new parameterization for ice cloud optical properties used in BCC-RAD and its radiative impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Qi; Xie, Bing

    2015-01-01

    A new parameterization of the solar and infrared optical properties of ice clouds that considers the multiple habits of ice particles was developed on the basis of a prescribed dataset. First, the fitting formulae of the bulk extinction coefficient, single-scatter albedo, asymmetry factor, and δ-function forward-peak factor at the given 65 wavelengths as a function of effective radius were created for common scenarios, which consider a greater number of wavelengths and are more accurate than those used previously. Then, the band-averaged volume extinction and absorption coefficients, asymmetry factor and forward-peak factor of ice cloud were derived for the BCC-RAD (Beijing Climate Center radiative transfer model) using a parameter reference table. Finally, the newly developed and the original schemes in the BCC-RAD and the commonly used Fu Scheme of ice cloud were all applied to the BCC-RAD. Their influences on radiation calculations were compared using the mid-latitude summer atmospheric profile with ice clouds under no-aerosol conditions, and produced a maximum difference of approximately 30.0 W/m 2 for the radiative flux, and 4.0 K/d for the heating rate. Additionally, a sensitivity test was performed to investigate the impact of the ice crystal density on radiation calculations using the three schemes. The results showed that the maximum difference was 68.1 W/m 2 for the shortwave downward radiative flux (for the case of perpendicular solar insolation), and 4.2 K/d for the longwave heating rate, indicating that the ice crystal density exerts a significant effect on radiation calculations for a cloudy atmosphere. - Highlights: • A new parameterization of the radiative properties of ice cloud was obtained. • More accurate fitting formulae of them were created for common scenarios. • The band-averaged of them were derived for our radiation model of BCC-RAD. • We found that there exist large differences of results among different ice schemes. • We found

  13. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Calmer, Radiance; Nicoll, Keri; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Preissler, Jana; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin; Russell, Lynn M.

    2017-08-01

    Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel model (ACPM). UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF) by between 25 and 60 W m-2. After accounting for entrainment

  14. Retrieval of ice cloud properties using an optimal estimation algorithm and MODIS infrared observations. Part I: Forward model, error analysis, and information content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An optimal estimation (OE) retrieval method is developed to infer three ice cloud properties simultaneously: optical thickness (τ), effective radius (reff), and cloud-top height (h). This method is based on a fast radiative transfer (RT) model and infrared (IR) observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study conducts thorough error and information content analyses to understand the error propagation and performance of retrievals from various MODIS band combinations under different cloud/atmosphere states. Specifically, the algorithm takes into account four error sources: measurement uncertainty, fast RT model uncertainty, uncertainties in ancillary datasets (e.g., atmospheric state), and assumed ice crystal habit uncertainties. It is found that the ancillary and ice crystal habit error sources dominate the MODIS IR retrieval uncertainty and cannot be ignored. The information content analysis shows that, for a given ice cloud, the use of four MODIS IR observations is sufficient to retrieve the three cloud properties. However, the selection of MODIS IR bands that provide the most information and their order of importance varies with both the ice cloud properties and the ambient atmospheric and the surface states. As a result, this study suggests the inclusion of all MODIS IR bands in practice since little a priori information is available. PMID:29707470

  15. Retrieval of Ice Cloud Properties Using an Optimal Estimation Algorithm and MODIS Infrared Observations. Part I: Forward Model, Error Analysis, and Information Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    An optimal estimation (OE) retrieval method is developed to infer three ice cloud properties simultaneously: optical thickness (tau), effective radius (r(sub eff)), and cloud top height (h). This method is based on a fast radiative transfer (RT) model and infrared (IR) observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study conducts thorough error and information content analyses to understand the error propagation and performance of retrievals from various MODIS band combinations under different cloud/atmosphere states. Specifically, the algorithm takes into account four error sources: measurement uncertainty, fast RT model uncertainty, uncertainties in ancillary data sets (e.g., atmospheric state), and assumed ice crystal habit uncertainties. It is found that the ancillary and ice crystal habit error sources dominate the MODIS IR retrieval uncertainty and cannot be ignored. The information content analysis shows that for a given ice cloud, the use of four MODIS IR observations is sufficient to retrieve the three cloud properties. However, the selection of MODIS IR bands that provide the most information and their order of importance varies with both the ice cloud properties and the ambient atmospheric and the surface states. As a result, this study suggests the inclusion of all MODIS IR bands in practice since little a priori information is available.

  16. THE HERSCHEL EXPLOITATION OF LOCAL GALAXY ANDROMEDA (HELGA). VI. THE DISTRIBUTION AND PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATIONS IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, J. M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gear, W. K.; Smith, M. W. L.; Ford, G.; Eales, S. A.; Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Fritz, J.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Gentile, G.; Gordon, K.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, G. J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); O' Halloran, B. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service, Paris, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roman-Duval, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a catalog of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Andromeda (M31) galaxy extracted from the Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) data set. GMCs are identified from the Herschel maps using a hierarchical source extraction algorithm. We present the results of this new catalog and characterize the spatial distribution and spectral energy properties of its clouds based on the radial dust/gas properties found by Smith et al. A total of 326 GMCs in the mass range 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} are identified; their cumulative mass distribution is found to be proportional to M {sup –2.34}, in agreement with earlier studies. The GMCs appear to follow the same correlation of cloud mass to L {sub CO} observed in the Milky Way. However, comparison between this catalog and interferometry studies also shows that the GMCs are substructured below the Herschel resolution limit, suggesting that we are observing associations of GMCs. Following Gordon et al., we study the spatial structure of M31 by splitting the observed structure into a set of spiral arms and offset rings. We fit radii of 10.3 and 15.5 kpc to the two most prominent rings. We then fit a logarithmic spiral with a pitch angle of 8.°9 to the GMCs not associated with either ring. Last, we comment on the effects of deprojection on our results and investigate the effect different models for M31's inclination will have on the projection of an unperturbed spiral arm system.

  17. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulphate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulphate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulphate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences

  18. Properties of Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkovic Monika I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC give us the possibility to study individual variable star types in a new way. Literature data provide us with photometric information about objects from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Here we would like to show the results of our study of 335 Anomalous and Type II Cepheids in the SMC and LMC detected by OGLE. Using the code More of DUSTY (MoD, a modified version of the DUSTY radiative transfer code, and the assumption that our objects are at a known distance, luminosity and effective temperature were determined. From these data the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of these objects was compared with the theoretical models. The radius and masses of the examined stars was estimated, too. In the end, we have given the period-luminosity relations for the Anomalous and Type II Cepheids.

  19. CLOUD-BASED VS DESKTOP-BASED PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa GULMEZ; Edina AJANOVIC; Ismail KARAYUN

    2015-01-01

    Even though keeping up with the modern developments in IT sector is crucial for the success and competitiveness of a hotel, it is usually very hard for new technologies to be accepted and implemented. This is the case with the cloud technology for which the opinions between hoteliers are divided on those who think that it is just another fashion trend, unnecessary to be taken into consideration and those that believe that it helps in performing daily operations more easily, leaving space for ...

  20. Edge Detection and Feature Line Tracing in 3D-Point Clouds by Analyzing Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated and effective method for detecting 3D edges and tracing feature lines from 3D-point clouds. This method is named Analysis of Geometric Properties of Neighborhoods (AGPN, and it includes two main steps: edge detection and feature line tracing. In the edge detection step, AGPN analyzes geometric properties of each query point’s neighborhood, and then combines RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC and angular gap metric to detect edges. In the feature line tracing step, feature lines are traced by a hybrid method based on region growing and model fitting in the detected edges. Our approach is experimentally validated on complex man-made objects and large-scale urban scenes with millions of points. Comparative studies with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that our method obtains a promising, reliable, and high performance in detecting edges and tracing feature lines in 3D-point clouds. Moreover, AGPN is insensitive to the point density of the input data.

  1. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdelmonem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  2. First correlated measurements of the shape and scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-05-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires the knowledge of the link between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of the cloud particles. Usually, this link is created by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles, simultaneously. Clouds containing particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter can be systematically characterized with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns which were conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced comparable size distributions and images to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is candidate to be a novel air borne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurements instruments.

  3. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-10-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  4. Influence of particle size and chemistry on the cloud nucleating properties of aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Quinn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of an aerosol particle to act as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN is a function of the size of the particle, its composition and mixing state, and the supersaturation of the cloud. In-situ data from field studies provide a means to assess the relative importance of these parameters. During the 2006 Texas Air Quality – Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS-GoMACCS, the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown encountered a wide variety of aerosol types ranging from marine near the Florida panhandle to urban and industrial in the Houston-Galveston area. These varied sources provided an opportunity to investigate the role of aerosol sources and chemistry in the potential activation of particles to form cloud droplets. Measurements were made of CCN concentrations, aerosol chemical composition in the size range relevant for particle activation in warm clouds, and aerosol size distributions. Variability in aerosol composition was parameterized by the mass fraction of Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA for particle diameters less than 200 nm (vacuum aerodynamic. The HOA mass fraction in this size range was lowest for marine aerosol and highest for aerosol sampled close to anthropogenic sources. Combining all data from the experiment reveals that composition (defined by HOA mass fraction explains 40% of the variance in the critical diameter for particle activation at the instrumental supersaturation (S of 0.44%. Correlations between HOA mass fraction and aerosol mean diameter show that these two parameters are essentially independent of one another for this data set. We conclude that, based on the variability of the HOA mass fraction observed during TexAQS-GoMACCS, variability in particle composition played a significant role in determining the fraction of particles that could activate to form cloud droplets. Using a simple model based on Köhler theory and the assumption that HOA is insoluble, we estimate the

  5. Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

  6. The influence of organic-containing soil dust on ice nucleation and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthias; Grini, Alf; Berntsen, Terje K.; Ekman, Annica

    2017-04-01

    Natural mineral dust from desert regions is known to be the most important contributor to atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) which induce heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds. Its ability to nucleate ice effectively is shown by various laboratory (Hoose and Möhler 2012) and field results (DeMott et al. 2015) and its abundance in ice crystal residuals has also been shown (Cziczo et al. 2013). Thus it is an important player when representing mixed-phase clouds in climate models. MODIS satellite data indicate that 1 /4 of the global dust emission originates from semi-arid areas rather than from arid deserts (Ginoux et al. 2012). Here, organic components can mix with minerals within the soil and get into the atmosphere. These so-called 'soil dust' particles are ice-nucleating active at high sub-zero temperatures, i.e. at higher temperatures than pure desert dust (Steinke et al. 2016). In this study, soil dust is incorporated into the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM, Bentsen et al. 2013) and applied to a modified ice nucleation parameterization (Steinke et al. 2016). Its influence on the cloud ice phase is evaluated by comparing a control run, where only pure desert dust is considered, and a sensitivity experiment, where a fraction of the dust emissions are classified as soil dust. Both simulations are nudged to ERA-interim meteorology and they have the same loading of dust emissions. NorESM gives a lower annual soil dust emission flux compared to Ginoux et al. (2012), but the desert dust flux is similar to the MODIS-retrieved data. Although soil dust concentrations are much lower than desert dust, the NorESM simulations indicate that the annual INP concentrations from soil dust are on average lower by a just a factor of 4 than INP concentrations from pure desert dust. The highest soil dust INP concentrations occur at a lower height than for desert dust, i.e at warmer temperatures inside mixed-phase clouds. Furthermore, soil dust INP

  7. The Vortex Formerly Known as White Oval BA: Temperature Structure, CloudProperties and Dynamical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Parrish, P. D.; Mousis, O.; Pantin, E.; Fuse, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Simon-Miller, A.; Morales-Juberias, R.; Tollestrup, E.; Connelley, M.; Trujillo, C.; Hora, J.; Irwin, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hill, D.; Kollmansberger, S.

    2006-09-01

    White Oval BA, constituted from 3 predecessor vortices (known as Jupiter's "classical" White Ovals) after successive mergers in 1998 and 2000, became second-largest vortex in the atmosphere of Jupiter (and possibly the solar system) at the time of its formation. While it continues in this distinction,it required a name change after a 2005 December through 2006 February transformation which made it appear visually the same color as the Great Red Spot. Our campaign to understand the changes involved examination of the detailed color and wind field using Hubble Space Telescope instrumentation on several orbits in April. The field of temperatures, ammonia distribution and clouds were also examined using the mid-infrared VISIR camera/spectrometer on ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope, the NASA Infrared telescope with the mid-infrared MIRSI instrument and the refurbished near-infrared facility camera NSFCam2. High-resolution images of the Oval were made before the color change with the COMICS mid-infrared facility on the 8.2-m Subaru telescope.We are using these images, togther with images acquired at the IRTF and with the Gemini/North NIRI near-infrared camera between January, 2005, and August, 2006, to characterize the extent to which changes in storm strength (vorticity, postive vertical motion) influenced (i) the depth from which colored cloud particles may have been "dredged up" from depth or (ii) the altitude to which particles may have been lofted and subject to high-energy UV radiation which caused a color change, as alternative explanations for the phenomenon. Clues to this will provide clues to the chemistry of Jupiter's cloud system and its well-known colors in general. The behavior of Oval BA, its interaction with the Great Red Spot in particular,are also being compared with dynamical models run with the EPIC code.

  8. Cloud type comparisons of AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO cloud height and amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Kahn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the two-layer cloud height fields derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS is explored and quantified for a five-day set of observations. Coincident profiles of vertical cloud structure by CloudSat, a 94 GHz profiling radar, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, are compared to AIRS for a wide range of cloud types. Bias and variability in cloud height differences are shown to have dependence on cloud type, height, and amount, as well as whether CloudSat or CALIPSO is used as the comparison standard. The CloudSat-AIRS biases and variability range from −4.3 to 0.5±1.2–3.6 km for all cloud types. Likewise, the CALIPSO-AIRS biases range from 0.6–3.0±1.2–3.6 km (−5.8 to −0.2±0.5–2.7 km for clouds ≥7 km (<7 km. The upper layer of AIRS has the greatest sensitivity to Altocumulus, Altostratus, Cirrus, Cumulonimbus, and Nimbostratus, whereas the lower layer has the greatest sensitivity to Cumulus and Stratocumulus. Although the bias and variability generally decrease with increasing cloud amount, the ability of AIRS to constrain cloud occurrence, height, and amount is demonstrated across all cloud types for many geophysical conditions. In particular, skill is demonstrated for thin Cirrus, as well as some Cumulus and Stratocumulus, cloud types infrared sounders typically struggle to quantify. Furthermore, some improvements in the AIRS Version 5 operational retrieval algorithm are demonstrated. However, limitations in AIRS cloud retrievals are also revealed, including the existence of spurious Cirrus near the tropopause and low cloud layers within Cumulonimbus and Nimbostratus clouds. Likely causes of spurious clouds are identified and the potential for further improvement is discussed.

  9. Cloud retrievals from satellite data using optimal estimation: evaluation and application to ATSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Poulsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in balancing the Earth's radiation budget. Hence, it is vital that cloud climatologies are produced that quantify cloud macro and micro physical parameters and the associated uncertainty. In this paper, we present an algorithm ORAC (Oxford-RAL retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud which is based on fitting a physically consistent cloud model to satellite observations simultaneously from the visible to the mid-infrared, thereby ensuring that the resulting cloud properties provide both a good representation of the short-wave and long-wave radiative effects of the observed cloud. The advantages of the optimal estimation method are that it enables rigorous error propagation and the inclusion of all measurements and any a priori information and associated errors in a rigorous mathematical framework. The algorithm provides a measure of the consistency between retrieval representation of cloud and satellite radiances. The cloud parameters retrieved are the cloud top pressure, cloud optical depth, cloud effective radius, cloud fraction and cloud phase.

    The algorithm can be applied to most visible/infrared satellite instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability to the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers ATSR-2 and AATSR. Examples of applying the algorithm to ATSR-2 flight data are presented and the sensitivity of the retrievals assessed, in particular the algorithm is evaluated for a number of simulated single-layer and multi-layer conditions. The algorithm was found to perform well for single-layer cloud except when the cloud was very thin; i.e., less than 1 optical depths. For the multi-layer cloud, the algorithm was robust except when the upper ice cloud layer is less than five optical depths. In these cases the retrieved cloud top pressure and cloud effective radius become a weighted average of the 2 layers. The sum of optical depth of multi-layer cloud is retrieved well until the cloud becomes thick

  10. Multi-spectral remote sensing of the vortex formerly known as White Oval BA: Temperature structure and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G.; Parrish, P.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Baines, K.; Mousis, O.; Pantin, E.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fuse, T.; Simon-Miller, A.

    White Oval BA: Temperature structure and cloud properties G. Orton, P. Parrish, P. Yanamandra-Fisher, K. Baines (1), O. Mousis (2), E. Pantin (3), T. Fuse, T. Fujiyoshi (4), A. Simon-Miller (5) (1) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif. Inst. of Technology, USA, (2) Obs. de Besancon, France, (3) C.E.A., France, (4) Subaru National Astron. Obs., Japan, (5) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. (Glenn.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov) White Oval BA, constituted from 3 predecessor vortices (known as Jupiter's "classical" White Ovals) after successive mergers in 1998 and 2000, became second-largest vortex in the atmosphere of Jupiter (and possibly the solar system) at the time of its formation. While it continues in this distinction, it required a name change after a 2005 December through 2006 February transformation which made it appear visually the same color as the Great Red Spot. Our campaign to understand the changes involved examination of the detailed color and wind field using Hubble Space Telescope instrumentation on several orbits in April. The field of temperatures, ammonia distribution and clouds were also examined using the mid-infrared VISIR camera/spectrometer on ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope (3), the NASA Infrared telescope with the mid-infrared MIRSI instrument and the refurbished near-infrared facility camera NSFCam2. High-resolution images of the Oval were made before the color change with the COMICS mid-infrared facility on the Subaru telescope. We are using these data, and possibly others to be acquired during the summer, to characterize the extent to which changes in storm strength (vorticity, positive vertical motion) influenced (i) the depth from which colored cloud particles may have been "dredged up" from depth or (ii) the altitude to which particles may have been lofted and subject to high-energy UV radiation which caused a color change, as alternative explanations for the phenomenon. Clues to this will provide clues to the chemistry of Jupiter's cloud

  11. Instantaneous Linkages between Clouds and Large-Scale Meteorology over the Southern Ocean in Observations and a Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Casey J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Hartmann, Dennis L. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-12-01

    Instantaneous, coincident, footprint-level satellite observations of cloud properties and radiation taken during austral summer over the Southern Ocean are used to study relationships between clouds and large-scale meteorology. Cloud properties are very sensitive to the strength of vertical motion in the middle-troposphere, and low-cloud properties are sensitive to estimated inversion strength, low-level temperature advection, and sea surface temperature. These relationships are quantified. An index for the meteorological anomalies associated with midlatitude cyclones is presented, and it is used to reveal the sensitivity of clouds to the meteorology within the warm- and cold-sector of cyclones. The observed relationships between clouds and meteorology are compared to those in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) using satellite simulators. Low-clouds simulated by CAM5 are too few, too bright, and contain too much ice, and low-clouds located in the cold-sector of cyclones are too sensitive to variations in the meteorology. The latter two biases are dramatically reduced when CAM5 is coupled with an updated boundary layer parameterization know as Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB). More generally, this study demonstrates that examining the instantaneous timescale is a powerful approach to understanding the physical processes that control clouds and how they are represented in climate models. Such an evaluation goes beyond the cloud climatology and exposes model bias under various meteorological conditions.

  12. Pion-cloud effects on the electromagnetic properties of nucleons in a quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that incorporating corrections for the center-of-mass motion and pion-cloud effects the nucleon electromagnetic form factors G N E.M (q 2 ) are computed in an independent quark model based on the Dirac equation with a confining potential V q (r) = (1 + γ 0 ) a 1n (r/b). The static quantities like magnetic moment μn, charge radius (r 2 ) 1/2 N and axial vector coupling constant (g A ) n → pev of the nucleons computed in this model are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The pseudoscalar and the pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling constants are obtained as g NNπ = 13.52 and f NNπ = 0.284, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental data

  13. Comparison of CERES-MODIS stratus cloud properties with ground-based measurements at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Xi, Baike; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-02-01

    Overcast stratus cloud properties derived for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site from March 2000 through December 2004. Retrievals from ARM surface-based data were averaged over a 1-h interval centered at the time of each satellite overpass, and the CERES-MODIS cloud properties were averaged within a 30 km × 30 km box centered on the ARM SGP site. Two data sets were analyzed: all of the data (ALL), which include multilayered, single-layered, and slightly broken stratus decks and a subset, single-layered unbroken decks (SL). The CERES-MODIS effective cloud heights were determined from effective cloud temperature using a lapse rate method with the surface temperature specified as the 24-h mean surface air temperature. For SL stratus, they are, on average, within the ARM radar-lidar estimated cloud boundaries and are 0.534 ± 0.542 km and 0.108 ± 0.480 km lower than the cloud physical tops and centers, respectively, and are comparable for day and night observations. The mean differences and standard deviations are slightly larger for ALL data, but not statistically different to those of SL data. The MODIS-derived effective cloud temperatures are 2.7 ± 2.4 K less than the surface-observed SL cloud center temperatures with very high correlations (0.86-0.97). Variations in the height differences are mainly caused by uncertainties in the surface air temperatures, lapse rates, and cloud top height variability. The biases are mainly the result of the differences between effective and physical cloud top, which are governed by cloud liquid water content and viewing zenith angle, and the selected lapse rate, -7.1 K km-1. On the basis of a total of 43 samples, the means and standard deviations of the differences between the daytime

  14. Stratocumulus Cloud Top Radiative Cooling and Cloud Base Updraft Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Balsells, J.; Klinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud top radiative cooling is a primary driver of turbulence in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speeds may therefore exist. A correlation of cloud top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds has been recently identified empirically, providing a basis for satellite retrieval of cloud base updraft speeds. Such retrievals may enable analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions using satellite observations: Updraft speeds at cloud base co-determine supersaturation and therefore the activation of cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn co-determine cloud properties and precipitation formation. We use large eddy simulation and an off-line radiative transfer model to explore the relationship between cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds in a marine stratocumulus cloud over the course of the diurnal cycle. We find that during daytime, at low cloud water path (CWP correlated, in agreement with the reported empirical relationship. During the night, in the absence of short-wave heating, CWP builds up (CWP > 50 g m-2) and long-wave emissions from cloud top saturate, while cloud base heating increases. In combination, cloud top cooling and cloud base updrafts become weakly anti-correlated. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speed can hence be expected for stratocumulus clouds with a sufficiently low CWP and sub-saturated long-wave emissions, in particular during daytime. At higher CWPs, in particular at night, the relationship breaks down due to saturation of long-wave emissions from cloud top.

  15. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootten, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  16. Top-down and Bottom-up aerosol-cloud-closure: towards understanding sources of unvertainty in deriving cloud radiative flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, K.; Roberts, G.; Calmer, R.; Nicoll, K.; Hashimshoni, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Preissler, J.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.; Russell, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head atmospheric research station in Galway, Ireland in August 2015. Instrument platforms include ground-based, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were used to initiate a 1D microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel model (ACPM). UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction, or a 5-hole probe for 3D wind vectors. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in-situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF) by between 25 W m-2 and 60 W m-2. After accounting for entrainment, satellite-derived cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) were within 30% of simulated CDNC. In cases with a well-mixed boundary layer, δRF is no greater than 20 W m-2 after accounting for cloud-top entrainment, and up to 50 W m-2 when entrainment is not taken into account. In cases with a decoupled boundary layer, cloud microphysical properties are inconsistent with ground-based aerosol measurements, as expected, and δRF is as high as 88 W m-2, even high (> 30 W m-2) after

  17. Investigation of the seasonal variations of aerosol physicochemical properties and their impact on cloud condensation nuclei number concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy S.

    Aerosols are among the most complex yet widely studied components of the atmosphere not only due to the seasonal variability of their physical and chemical properties but also their effects on climate change. The three main aerosol types that are known to affect the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere are: mineral dust, anthropogenic pollution, and biomass burning aerosols. In order to understand how these aerosols affect the atmosphere, this dissertation addresses the following three scientific questions through a combination of surface and satellite observations: SQ1: What are the seasonal and regional variations of aerosol physico-chemical properties at four selected Asian sites? SQ2: How do these aerosol properties change during transpacific and intra-continental long range transport? SQ3: What are the impacts of aerosol properties on marine boundary layer cloud condensation nuclei number concentration? This dissertation uses an innovative approach to classify aerosol properties by region and season to address SQ1. This is useful because this method provides an additional dimension when investigating the physico-chemical properties of aerosols by linking a regional and seasonal dependence to both the aerosol direct and indirect effects. This method involves isolating the aerosol physico-chemical properties into four separate regions using AERONET retrieved Angstrom exponent (AEAOD) and single scattering co-albedo (o oabs) to denote aerosol size and absorptive properties. The aerosols events are then clustered by season. The method is first applied to four AERONET sites representing single mode aerosol dominant regions: weakly absorbing pollution (NASA Goddard), strongly absorbing pollution (Mexico City), mineral dust (Solar Village), and biomass burning smoke (Alta Floresta). The method is then applied to four Asian sites that represent complicated aerosol components. There are strong regional and seasonal influences of the four aerosol types over the

  18. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarquhar, Greg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We proposed to analyze in-situ cloud data collected during ARM/ASR field campaigns to create databases of cloud microphysical properties and their uncertainties as needed for the development of improved cloud parameterizations for models and remote sensing retrievals, and for evaluation of model simulations and retrievals. In particular, we proposed to analyze data collected over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) Experiment and the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, over the North Slope of Alaska during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), and over the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) during The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), to meet the following 3 objectives; derive statistical databases of single ice particle properties (aspect ratio AR, dominant habit, mass, projected area) and distributions of ice crystals (size distributions SDs, mass-dimension m-D, area-dimension A-D relations, mass-weighted fall speeds, single-scattering properties, total concentrations N, ice mass contents IWC), complete with uncertainty estimates; assess processes by which aerosols modulate cloud properties in arctic stratus and mid-latitude cumuli, and quantify aerosol’s influence in context of varying meteorological and surface conditions; and determine how ice cloud microphysical, single-scattering and fall-out properties and contributions of small ice crystals to such properties vary according to location, environment, surface, meteorological and aerosol conditions, and develop parameterizations of such effects.In this report we describe the accomplishments that we made on all 3 research objectives.

  19. Aerosol properties and their impacts on surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean. Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration ( N CCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways. ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site. Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean, continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient ( σ sp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and N CCN values less than 100 cm-3. However, southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation ( R) among aerosol loading ( σ sp moisture via the Gulf of Mexico, indicating a strong dependence on air mass type. NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data, suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP, especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico. Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol, CCN, and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  20. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  1. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km×30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R(sup 2) = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km× 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 micrometers is 1.3 micrometers larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 micrometers), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm( exp -2) less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm( exp-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50

  2. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties From CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) cloud properties derived for the NASA CERES Project using Terra and Aqua MODIS data are compared with observations taken at DOE ARM Mobile Facility at the Azores site from Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1-hour interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30×30 km2 grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud-top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud-top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary-layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R2=0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud-top comparisons agree better than cloud-base comparisons because the CM Tbase and Hbase are secondary product determined from Ttop and Htop. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of microphysical properties reveal that, when averaged over a 30x30 km2 area, the CM-retrieved cloud-droplet effective radius (re) is 1.3 µm larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 µm). While the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm-2 less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm-2) due to its small optical depth (τ, 9.6 vs. 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50% when the CM averages are computed only using the MODIS pixel nearest the AMF site. Using effective radius retrieved at 2.1-µm channel to calculate LWP can reduce the difference between the CM and ARM from -13.7 to 2.1 gm-2. The 10% differences between the ARM and CM LWP and re

  3. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  4. The Microphysical Properties of Convective Precipitation Over the Tibetan Plateau by a Subkilometer Resolution Cloud-Resolving Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Liu, Liping; Li, Jian; Lu, Chunsong

    2018-03-01

    The microphysical properties of convective precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau are unique because of the extremely high topography and special atmospheric conditions. In this study, the ground-based cloud radar and disdrometer observations as well as high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences microphysics and four other microphysical schemes are used to investigate the microphysics and precipitation mechanisms of a convection event on 24 July 2014. The Weather Research and Forecasting-Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-hr accumulated rainfall, yet the temporal evolution of rain rate has a delay of 1-3 hr. The model reflectivity shares the common features with the cloud radar observations. The simulated raindrop size distributions demonstrate more of small- and large-size raindrops produced with the increase of rain rate, suggesting that changeable shape parameter should be used in size distribution. Results show that abundant supercooled water exists through condensation of water vapor above the freezing layer. The prevailing ice crystal microphysical processes are depositional growth and autoconversion of ice crystal to snow. The dominant source term of snow/graupel is riming of supercooled water. Sedimentation of graupel can play a vital role in the formation of precipitation, but melting of snow is rather small and quite different from that in other regions. Furthermore, water vapor budgets suggest that surface moisture flux be the principal source of water vapor and self-circulation of moisture happen at the beginning of convection, while total moisture flux convergence determine condensation and precipitation during the convective process over the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  6. On the regional climatic impact of contrails: microphysical and radiative properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Strauss

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of contrail-induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for mean atmospheric conditions of southern Germany in the months of July and October. This is done by use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM. The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results representing climatological values with a modified case. In order to study the sensitivity of this effect on the radiative characteristics of the ice cloud, two types of additional ice clouds were modelled: cirrus and contrails, the latter cloud type containing a higher number of smaller and less of the larger cloud particles. Ice cloud parameters are calculated on the basis of a particle size distribution which covers the range from 2 to 2000 µm, taking into consideration recent measurements which show a remarkable amount of particles smaller than 20 µm. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase in the order of 1K, ranging from 1.1 to 1.2K in July and from 0.8 to 0.9K in October depending on the radiative characteristics of the air-traffic-induced ice clouds. Modelling the current contrail cloud cover which is near 0.5% over Europe yields a surface temperature increase in the order of 0.05K.

  7. Diurnal spatial distributions of aerosol optical and cloud micro-macrophysics properties in Africa based on MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntwali, Didier; Chen, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    The diurnal spatial distribution of both natural and anthropogenic aerosols, as well as liquid and ice cloud micro-macrophysics have been evaluated over Africa using Terra and Aqua MODIS collection 6 products. The variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE), liquid and ice cloud microphysics (Liquid cloud effective radius LCER, Ice cloud effective radius ICER) and cloud macrophysics (Liquid cloud optical thickness LCOT, Liquid cloud water path LCWP, Ice cloud optical thickness ICOT, Ice cloud water path ICWP) parameters were investigated from the morning to afternoon over Africa from 2010 to 2014. In both the morning (Terra) and afternoon (Aqua) heavy pollution (AOD ≥ 0.6) occurs in the coastal and central areas (between 120 N-170 N and 100 E-150 E) of West of Africa (WA), Central of Africa (CA) (0.50 S-70S and 100 E-250 E),. Moderate pollution (0.3 1.2) aerosols. The mixture of dust and biomass burning aerosols (0.7 improve aerosol and cloud remote sensing retrieval.

  8. Spatial Variations of Turbulent Properties of Neutral Hydrogen Gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud Using Structure-function Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestingen-Palm, David; Stanimirović, Snežana; González-Casanova, Diego F.; Babler, Brian [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Jameson, Katherine; Bolatto, Alberto, E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We investigate spatial variations of turbulent properties in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by using neutral hydrogen (H i) observations. With the goal of testing the importance of stellar feedback on H i turbulence, we define central and outer SMC regions based on the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, as well as the H i integrated intensity. We use the structure function and the velocity channel analysis to calculate the power-law index ( γ ) for both underlying density and velocity fields in these regions. In all cases, our results show essentially no difference in γ between the central and outer regions. This suggests that H i turbulent properties are surprisingly homogeneous across the SMC when probed at a resolution of 30 pc. Contrary to recent suggestions from numerical simulations, we do not find a significant change in γ due to stellar feedback as traced by the SFR surface density. This could be due to the stellar feedback being widespread over the whole of the SMC, but more likely due to a large-scale gravitational driving of turbulence. We show that the lack of difference between central and outer SMC regions cannot be explained by the high optical depth H I.

  9. Macrophysical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus clouds over a semi-arid area observed by micro-pulse lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jianping; Cao, Xianjie; Liu, Ruijin; Zhou, Bi; Wang, Hongbin; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Beidou; Wang, Tengjiao

    2013-01-01

    Macrophysical and optical characteristics of cirrus clouds were investigated at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL; 35.95°N, 104.14°E) of Lanzhou University in northwest China during April to December 2007 using micro-pulse lidar data and profiling radiometer measurements. Analysis of the measurements allowed the determination of macrophysical properties such as cirrus cloud height, ambient temperature, and geometrical depth, and optical characteristics were determined in terms of optical depth, extinction coefficient, and lidar ratio. Cirrus clouds were generally observed at heights ranging from 5.8 to 12.7 km, with a mean of 9.0±1.0 km. The mean cloud geometrical depth and optical depth were found to be 2.0±0.6 km and 0.350±0.311, respectively. Optical depth increased linearly with increasing geometrical depth. The results derived from lidar signals showed that cirrus over SACOL consisted of thin cirrus and opaque cirrus which occurred frequently in the height of 8–10 km. The lidar ratio varied from 5 to 70 sr, with a mean value of 26±16 sr, after taking into account multiple scattering effects. The mean lidar ratio of thin cirrus was greater than that of opaque cirrus. The maximum lidar ratio appeared between 0.058 and 0.3 when plotted against optical depth. The lidar ratio increased exponentially as the optical depth increased. The maximum lidar ratio fell between 11 and 12 km when plotted against cloud mid-height. The lidar ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing mid-height. -- Highlights: ► Cirrus clouds over semi-arid area were firstly observed by ground-based lidar. ► Macrophysical and optical characteristics of cirrus clouds were discussed. ► Thin cirrus and opaque cirrus occurred most frequently over SACOL. ► Thin cirrus often occurred above 10 km

  10. Estimating cloud field coverage using morphological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Or, Rotem Z; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit

    2010-01-01

    The apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds ('the twilight zone') is often affected by undetectable weak signature clouds and humidified aerosols. It is suggested here to classify the atmosphere into two classes: cloud fields, and cloud-free (away from a cloud field), while detectable clouds are included in the cloud field class as a subset. Since the definition of cloud fields is ambiguous, a robust cloud field masking algorithm is presented here, based on the cloud spatial distribution. The cloud field boundaries are calculated then on the basis of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask products and the total cloud field area is estimated for the Atlantic Ocean (50 deg. S-50 deg. N). The findings show that while the monthly averaged cloud fraction over the Atlantic Ocean during July is 53%, the cloud field fraction may reach 97%, suggesting that cloud field properties should be considered in climate studies. A comparison between aerosol optical depth values inside and outside cloud fields reveals differences in the retrieved radiative properties of aerosols depending on their location. The observed mean aerosol optical depth inside the cloud fields is more than 10% higher than outside it, indicating that such convenient cloud field masking may contribute to better estimations of aerosol direct and indirect forcing.

  11. Cloud forming properties of ambient aerosol in the Netherlands and resultant shortwave radiative forcing of climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlystov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis discusses properties of ambient aerosols in the Netherlands which are controlling the magnitude of the local aerosol radiative forcing. Anthropogenic aerosols influence climate by changing the radiative transfer through the atmosphere via two effects, one is direct and a second

  12. Development of a SaaS application probe to the physical properties of the Earth's interior: An attempt at moving HPC to the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian

    2014-09-01

    Scientific computing often requires the availability of a massive number of computers for performing large-scale simulations, and computing in mineral physics is no exception. In order to investigate physical properties of minerals at extreme conditions in computational mineral physics, parallel computing technology is used to speed up the performance by utilizing multiple computer resources to process a computational task simultaneously thereby greatly reducing computation time. Traditionally, parallel computing has been addressed by using High Performance Computing (HPC) solutions and installed facilities such as clusters and super computers. Today, it has been seen that there is a tremendous growth in cloud computing. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), the on-demand and pay-as-you-go model, creates a flexible and cost-effective mean to access computing resources. In this paper, a feasibility report of HPC on a cloud infrastructure is presented. It is found that current cloud services in IaaS layer still need to improve performance to be useful to research projects. On the other hand, Software as a Service (SaaS), another type of cloud computing, is introduced into an HPC system for computing in mineral physics, and an application of which is developed. In this paper, an overall description of this SaaS application is presented. This contribution can promote cloud application development in computational mineral physics, and cross-disciplinary studies.

  13. A new technique for quantifying symmetry and opening angles in quartz c-axis pole figures: Implications for interpreting the kinematic and thermal properties of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, N. J. R.; Weinberg, R. F.; Wilson, C. J. L.; Law, R. D.

    2018-07-01

    Variations in flow kinematics influence the type of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in plastically deformed quartz, yet we currently lack a robust means of quantifying the diagnostic symmetries that develop in the c-axis (0001) pole figure. In this contribution, we demonstrate how the symmetry of common c-axis topologies may be quantified by analysing the intensity distribution across a line transect of the pole figure margin. A symmetry value (S) measures the relative difference in intensities between marginal girdle maxima in the pole figure, and thus the degree to which the pole figure defines orthorhombic or monoclinic end member symmetries. This provides a semi-quantitative depiction of whether the rocks underwent coaxial or non-coaxial flow, respectively, and may subsequently be used to quantify other topological properties, such as the opening angle of girdle maxima. The open source Matlab® toolbox MTEX is used to quantify pole figure symmetries in quartzite samples from the Main Central Thrust (NW Himalaya) and the Moine Thrust (NW Scotland).

  14. Large-Scale Analysis of Relationships between Mineral Dust, Ice Cloud Properties, and Precipitation from Satellite Observations Using a Bayesian Approach: Theoretical Basis and First Results for the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Klüser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust and ice cloud observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are used to assess the relationships between desert dust aerosols and ice clouds over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during the hurricane season 2008. Cloud property histograms are first adjusted for varying cloud top temperature or ice water path distributions with a Bayesian approach to account for meteorological constraints on the cloud variables. Then, histogram differences between dust load classes are used to describe the impact of dust load on cloud property statistics. The analysis of the histogram differences shows that ice crystal sizes are reduced with increasing aerosol load and ice cloud optical depth and ice water path are increased. The distributions of all three variables broaden and get less skewed in dusty environments. For ice crystal size the significant bimodality is reduced and the order of peaks is reversed. Moreover, it is shown that not only are distributions of ice cloud variables simply shifted linearly but also variance, skewness, and complexity of the cloud variable distributions are significantly affected. This implies that the whole cloud variable distributions have to be considered for indirect aerosol effects in any application for climate modelling.

  15. GEWEX cloud assessment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Rossow, William B.; Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Steve; Cesana, Gregory; Chepfer, Hélène; Di Girolamo, Larry; Getzewich, Brian; Guignard, Anthony; Heidinger, Andy; Maddux, Brent; Menzel, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Pearl, Cindy; Platnick, Steven; Poulsen, Caroline; Riedi, Jérôme; Sayer, Andrew; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Walther, Andi; Winker, Dave; Zeng, Shen; Zhao, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the entire globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years; however, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provides the first coordinated intercomparison of publicly available, global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multi-angle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. The monthly, gridded database presented here facilitates further assessments, climate studies, and the evaluation of climate models.

  16. Effect of chemical structure on the cloud point of some new non-ionic surfactants based on bisphenol in relation to their surface active properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of non-ionic surfactants were prepared from bisphenol derived from acetone (A, acetophenone (AC and cyclohexanone (CH. The prepared bisphenols were ethoxylated at different degrees of ethylene oxide (27, 35, 43. The ethoxylated bisphenols were non-esterified by fatty acids; decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoloic and linolinic. Some surface active properties for these surfactants were measured and calculated such as, surface tension [γ], critical micelle concentration [CMC], minimum area per molecule [Amin], surface excess [Cmax], free energy of micellization and adsorption [ΔGmic] and [ΔGads]. At a certain temperature, the cloud point was measured for these surfactants. From the obtained data it was found that; the cloud point is very sensitive to the increase of the alkyl chain length, content of ethylene oxide and degree of unsaturation. The core of bisphenol affected the cloud point sharply and they are ranked regarding bisphenol structure as BA > BCH > BAC. By inspection of the surface active properties of these surfactants, a good relation was obtained with their cloud points. The data were discussed on the light of their chemical structures.

  17. Fast radiative transfer models for retrieval of cloud properties in the back-scattering region: application to DSCOVR-EPIC sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Garcia, Victor; Sasi, Sruthy; Efremenko, Dmitry; Doicu, Adrian; Loyola, Diego

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the requirements for the retrieval of cloud properties in the back-scattering region are described, and their application to the measurements taken by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is shown. Various radiative transfer models and their linearizations are implemented, and their advantages and issues are analyzed. As radiative transfer calculations in the back-scattering region are computationally time-consuming, several acceleration techniques are also studied. The radiative transfer models analyzed include the exact Discrete Ordinate method with Matrix Exponential (DOME), the Matrix Operator method with Matrix Exponential (MOME), and the approximate asymptotic and equivalent Lambertian cloud models. To reduce the computational cost of the line-by-line (LBL) calculations, the k-distribution method, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a combination of the k-distribution method plus PCA are used. The linearized radiative transfer models for retrieval of cloud properties include the Linearized Discrete Ordinate method with Matrix Exponential (LDOME), the Linearized Matrix Operator method with Matrix Exponential (LMOME) and the Forward-Adjoint Discrete Ordinate method with Matrix Exponential (FADOME). These models were applied to the EPIC oxygen-A band absorption channel at 764 nm. It is shown that the approximate asymptotic and equivalent Lambertian cloud models give inaccurate results, so an offline processor for the retrieval of cloud properties in the back-scattering region requires the use of exact models such as DOME and MOME, which behave similarly. The combination of the k-distribution method plus PCA presents similar accuracy to the LBL calculations, but it is up to 360 times faster, and the relative errors for the computed radiances are less than 1.5% compared to the results when the exact phase function is used. Finally, the linearized models studied show similar behavior

  18. Quantifying and modelling the effects of environmental factors on wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available screening techniques. Furthermore, because this species lacks distinct annual boundaries that correspond to seasonal climatic changes, the change in wood properties with age usually cannot be studied with reasonable accuracy. For this reason, a study...

  19. Mean deformation metrics for quantifying 3D cell–matrix interactions without requiring information about matrix material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, David A.; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Toyjanova, Jennet; Kesari, Haneesh; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Franck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in mechanobiology rely on correlation of cellular processes with mechanical signals, such as matrix stiffness and cell tractions. Almost all cell traction and force quantification methodologies require knowledge of the underlying mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix to convert displacement data into corresponding traction data, which restricts the use of these techniques to systems in which the material properties are known. To overcome this hurdle, we present a ne...

  20. Review of the status of nondestructive measurement techniques to quantify material property degradation due to aging and planning for further evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Green, E.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Simonen, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in nuclear reactors are inspected periodically during the service life of the power plant to detect degradation that might occur. These inspections follow the rules specified in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These inspections are designed to detect service-induced failure mechanisms. This program is designed not to look at the detection of defects but the marking of nondestructive measurements to quantify the material properties that a defect may reside in or the incipient condition(s) that may initiate a defect. This program is intended to provide an assessment of the technologies that are available to quantify with nondestructive measurements material properties or material property changes related to degradation due to aging of structural components in light water reactors. In addition, a program plan will be developed that describes the work necessary to create adequate engineering data bases for demonstrating and validating prototypic systems for making these measurements. The main thrust this year has been an extensive review of literature and an assessment of the technology. The second major activity was the planning of a workshop to bring together 30 leading experts in materials and NDE to discuss the state-of-the-art and to address where future work should go

  1. Review of the status of nondestructive measurement techniques to quantify material property degradation due to aging and planning for further evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Boyd, D.M.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Green, E.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Simonen, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in nuclear reactors are inspected periodically during the service life of the power plant to detect degradation that might occur. These inspections follow the rules specified in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These inspections are designed to detect service-induced failure mechanisms. This program is designed not to look at the detection of defects but the making of nondestructive measurements to quantify the material properties that a defect may reside in or the incipient condition(s) that may initiate a defect. This program is intended to provide an assessment of the technologies that are available to quantify with nondestructive measurements material properties or material property changes related to degradation due to aging of structural components in light water reactors. In addition, a program plan will be developed that describes the work necessary to create adequate engineering data bases for demonstrating and validating prototypic systems for making these measurements. The main thrust this year has been an extensive review of literature and an assessment of the technology. The second major activity was the planning of a workshop to bring together 30 leading experts in materials and nondestructive evaluation to discuss the state-of-the-art and to address where future work should go

  2. Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy LOGAN; Xiquan DONG; Baike XI

    2018-01-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean.Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways.ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds,Aerosol,and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site.Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean,continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and NCCN values less than 100 cm-3.However,southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation (R)among aerosol loading (σsp > 60 Mm-1) and NCCN,carbonaceous chemical species (biomass burning smoke),and precipitable water vapor.This suggests a common transport mechanism for smoke aerosols and moisture via the Gulf of Mexico,indicating a strong dependence on air mass type.NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data,suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP,especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico.Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol,CCN,and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  3. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Vaughan T. J.

    2013-10-18

    sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  4. PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF NOVAE IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafter, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    The photometric and spectroscopic properties of the 43 known LMC nova candidates are summarized and reviewed. Of these, photometric data sufficient to establish decline rates are available for 29 novae, while spectroscopic data sufficient to establish the spectroscopic classes are available for 18 systems. Half of the 18 novae belong to the Fe II class, with the remaining nine belonging to either the He/N or the Fe IIb classes. As seen in previous nova studies of M31 and M33, the He/N and Fe IIb novae have on average faster photometric developments than do their Fe II counterparts. Overall, the available photometry confirms earlier studies, and shows conclusively that LMC novae have faster rates of decline than do novae in the Galaxy and M31. It appears that the increased fraction of faster, He/N and Fe IIb novae observed in the LMC compared with M31 is almost certainly the result of differences in the underlying stellar population between the two galaxies. We propose that the younger population seen in the LMC compared with M31's bulge (where most of the novae are found), produces progenitor binaries with higher average white dwarf masses. The higher mean white dwarf mass not only produces a larger fraction of fast, He/N novae compared with M31, but also results in a relatively large recurrent nova population.

  5. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  6. Radiative Importance of Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol particles are input into the troposphere by biomass burning, among other sources. These aerosol palls cover large expanses of the earth's surface. Aerosols may directly scatter solar radiation back to space, thus increasing the earth's albedo and act to cool the earth's surface and atmosphere. Aerosols also contribute to the earth's energy balance indirectly. Hygroscopic aerosol act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus affects cloud properties. In 1977, Twomey theorized that additional available CCN would create smaller but more numerous cloud droplets in a cloud with a given amount of liquid water. This in turn would increase the cloud albedo which would scatter additional radiation back to space and create a similar cooling pattern as the direct aerosol effect. Estimates of the magnitude of the aerosol indirect effect on a global scale range from 0.0 to -4.8 W/sq m. Thus the indirect effect can be of comparable magnitude and opposite in sign to the estimates of global greenhouse gas forcing Aerosol-cloud interaction is not a one-way process. Just as aerosols have an influence on clouds through the cloud microphysics, clouds have an influence on aerosols. Cloud droplets are solutions of liquid water and CCN, now dissolved. When the cloud droplet evaporates it leaves behind an aerosol particle. This new particle does not have to have the same properties as the original CCN. In fact, studies show that aerosol particles that result from cloud processing are larger in size than the original CCN. Optical properties of aerosol particles are dependent on the size of the particles. Larger particles have a smaller backscattering fraction, and thus less incoming solar radiation will be backscattered to space if the aerosol particles are larger. Therefore, we see that aerosols and clouds modify each other to influence the radiative balance of the earth. Understanding and quantifying the spatial and seasonal patterns of the aerosol indirect forcing may have

  7. Energy savings from temperature setpoints and deadband: Quantifying the influence of building and system properties on savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahramani, Ali; Zhang, Kenan; Dutta, Kanu; Yang, Zheng; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We provide a systematic approach to quantify the impact of factors on energy usage. • We study setpoints, deadbands, building size, construction, occupancy, and climate. • We derive the HVAC optimal control parameters with respect to dynamic factors. • We present quantification of optimal setpoints and deadbands energy usages. • Daily optimal setpoints based on outside temperature improves energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper provides a systematic approach for quantifying the influence of building size, construction category, climate, occupancy schedule, setpoint, and deadband on HVAC energy consumption in office buildings. Simulating the DOE reference office buildings of three sizes and three construction categories in all United States climate zones, using the EnergyPlus, we conducted several N-way ANOVA analyses to study the interrelationships between setpoints, deadbands and several building related and environment related factors. In summary, daily optimal deadband selection of 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 K would result in an average energy savings of −70.0%, −34.9%, −13.7%, 9.6%, 16.4%, and 21.2%, respectively, compared to baseline deadline of 3 K. Selecting the daily optimal setpoint in the range of 22.5 ± 1 °C, 22.5 ± 2 °C, and 22.5 ± 3 °C would result in an average savings of 7.5%, 12.7%, and 16.4%, respectively, compared to the baseline setpoint of 22.5 °C. Additionally, we found that when the outdoor temperature is within −20 to 30 °C, the optimal setpoint depends on the building size. We also observed a range of outdoor temperatures (e.g., 9–14 °C for small buildings and 8–11 °C for medium buildings) where the setpoint selection would only slightly influence the energy consumption. However, the choice of setpoints becomes very influential (up to 30% of energy savings) where the outdoor temperatures are slightly outside the mentioned ranges on either direction. The potential savings from selecting daily optimal

  8. Covariance between Arctic sea ice and clouds within atmospheric state regimes at the satellite footprint level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-12-27

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and midtropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500 m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  9. Covariance Between Arctic Sea Ice and Clouds Within Atmospheric State Regimes at the Satellite Footprint Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Kato, Seiji; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cloud response to sea ice change is necessary for modeling Arctic climate. Previous work has primarily addressed this problem from the interannual variability perspective. This paper provides a refined perspective of sea ice-cloud relationship in the Arctic using a satellite footprint-level quantification of the covariance between sea ice and Arctic low cloud properties from NASA A-Train active remote sensing data. The covariances between Arctic low cloud properties and sea ice concentration are quantified by first partitioning each footprint into four atmospheric regimes defined using thresholds of lower tropospheric stability and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity. Significant regional variability in the cloud properties is found within the atmospheric regimes indicating that the regimes do not completely account for the influence of meteorology. Regional anomalies are used to account for the remaining meteorological influence on clouds. After accounting for meteorological regime and regional influences, a statistically significant but weak covariance between cloud properties and sea ice is found in each season for at least one atmospheric regime. Smaller average cloud fraction and liquid water are found within footprints with more sea ice. The largest-magnitude cloud-sea ice covariance occurs between 500m and 1.2 km when the lower tropospheric stability is between 16 and 24 K. The covariance between low cloud properties and sea ice is found to be largest in fall and is accompanied by significant changes in boundary layer temperature structure where larger average near-surface static stability is found at larger sea ice concentrations.

  10. Relationships between the Raindrop Size Distribution and Properties of the Environment and Clouds Inferred from TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, Stephen Joseph; Kummerow, Christian; Elsaesser, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Variability in the raindrop sized distribution (DSD) has long been recognized as a source of uncertainty in relationships between radar reflectivity Z and rain rate R. In this study, we analyze DSD retrievals from two years of data gathered by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and processed with a combined radar-radiometer retrieval algorithm over the global oceans equatorward of 35?. Numerous variables describing properties of each reflectivity profile, large-scale organization, and the background environment are examined for relationships to the reflectivity-normalized median drop diameter, epsilonDSD. In general, we find that higher freezing levels and relative humidities are associated with smaller epsilonDSD. Within a given environment, the mesoscale organization of precipitation and the vertical profile of reflectivity are associated with DSD characteristics. In the tropics, the smallest epsilonDSD values are found in large but shallow convective systems, where warm rain formation processes are thought to be predominant, whereas larger sizes are found in the stratiform regions of organized deep convection. In the extratropics, the largest epsilonDSD values are found in the scattered convection that occurs when cold, dry continental air moves over the much warmer ocean after the passage of a cold front. The geographical distribution of the retrieved DSDs is consistent with many of the observed regional Z-R relationships found in the literature as well as discrepancies between the TRMM radar-only and radiometer-only precipitation products. In particular, mid-latitude and tropical regions near land tend to have larger drops for a given reflectivity, whereas the smallest drops are found in the eastern Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  11. 3D Cloud Tomography, Followed by Mean Optical and Microphysical Properties, with Multi-Angle/Multi-Pixel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; von Allmen, P. A.; Marshak, A.; Bal, G.

    2010-12-01

    The geometrical assumption in all operational cloud remote sensing algorithms is that clouds are plane-parallel slabs, which applies relatively well to the most uniform stratus layers. Its benefit is to justify using classic 1D radiative transfer (RT) theory, where angular details (solar, viewing, azimuthal) are fully accounted for and precise phase functions can be used, to generate the look-up tables used in the retrievals. Unsurprisingly, these algorithms catastrophically fail when applied to cumulus-type clouds, which are highly 3D. This is unfortunate for the cloud-process modeling community that may thrive on in situ airborne data, but would very much like to use satellite data for more than illustrations in their presentations and publications. So, how can we obtain quantitative information from space-based observations of finite aspect ratio clouds? Cloud base/top heights, vertically projected area, mean liquid water content (LWC), and volume-averaged droplet size would be a good start. Motivated by this science need, we present a new approach suitable for sparse cumulus fields where we turn the tables on the standard procedure in cloud remote sensing. We make no a priori assumption about cloud shape, save an approximately flat base, but use brutal approximations about the RT that is necessarily 3D. Indeed, the first order of business is to roughly determine the cloud's outer shape in one of two ways, which we will frame as competing initial guesses for the next phase of shape refinement and volume-averaged microphysical parameter estimation. Both steps use multi-pixel/multi-angle techniques amenable to MISR data, the latter adding a bi-spectral dimension using collocated MODIS data. One approach to rough cloud shape determination is to fit the multi-pixel/multi-angle data with a geometric primitive such as a scalene hemi-ellipsoid with 7 parameters (translation in 3D space, 3 semi-axes, 1 azimuthal orientation); for the radiometry, a simple radiosity

  12. Quantifying dynamic mechanical properties of human placenta tissue using optimization techniques with specimen-specific finite-element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Miller, Carl S; Nazmi, Giseli; Pearlman, Mark D; Schneider, Lawrence W; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2009-11-13

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fetal deaths resulting from maternal trauma in the United States, and placental abruption is the most common cause of these deaths. To minimize this injury, new assessment tools, such as crash-test dummies and computational models of pregnant women, are needed to evaluate vehicle restraint systems with respect to reducing the risk of placental abruption. Developing these models requires accurate material properties for tissues in the pregnant abdomen under dynamic loading conditions that can occur in crashes. A method has been developed for determining dynamic material properties of human soft tissues that combines results from uniaxial tensile tests, specimen-specific finite-element models based on laser scans that accurately capture non-uniform tissue-specimen geometry, and optimization techniques. The current study applies this method to characterizing material properties of placental tissue. For 21 placenta specimens tested at a strain rate of 12/s, the mean failure strain is 0.472+/-0.097 and the mean failure stress is 34.80+/-12.62 kPa. A first-order Ogden material model with ground-state shear modulus (mu) of 23.97+/-5.52 kPa and exponent (alpha(1)) of 3.66+/-1.90 best fits the test results. The new method provides a nearly 40% error reduction (p<0.001) compared to traditional curve-fitting methods by considering detailed specimen geometry, loading conditions, and dynamic effects from high-speed loading. The proposed method can be applied to determine mechanical properties of other soft biological tissues.

  13. Quantifying differences in the impact of variable chemistry on equilibrium Uranium(VI) adsorption properties of aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Kent, Douglas B; Zachara, John M

    2011-10-15

    Uranium adsorption-desorption on sediment samples collected from the Hanford 300-Area, Richland, WA varied extensively over a range of field-relevant chemical conditions, complicating assessment of possible differences in equilibrium adsorption properties. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 500-1000 h although dissolved uranium concentrations increased over thousands of hours owing to changes in aqueous chemical composition driven by sediment-water reactions. A nonelectrostatic surface complexation reaction, >SOH + UO₂²⁺ + 2CO₃²⁻ = >SOUO₂(CO₃HCO₃)²⁻, provided the best fit to experimental data for each sediment sample resulting in a range of conditional equilibrium constants (logK(c)) from 21.49 to 21.76. Potential differences in uranium adsorption properties could be assessed in plots based on the generalized mass-action expressions yielding linear trends displaced vertically by differences in logK(c) values. Using this approach, logK(c) values for seven sediment samples were not significantly different. However, a significant difference in adsorption properties between one sediment sample and the fines (< 0.063 mm) of another could be demonstrated despite the fines requiring a different reaction stoichiometry. Estimates of logK(c) uncertainty were improved by capturing all data points within experimental errors. The mass-action expression plots demonstrate that applying models outside the range of conditions used in model calibration greatly increases potential errors.

  14. Improving Mixed-phase Cloud Parameterization in Climate Model with the ACRF Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Mixed-phase cloud microphysical and dynamical processes are still poorly understood, and their representation in GCMs is a major source of uncertainties in overall cloud feedback in GCMs. Thus improving mixed-phase cloud parameterizations in climate models is critical to reducing the climate forecast uncertainties. This study aims at providing improved knowledge of mixed-phase cloud properties from the long-term ACRF observations and improving mixed-phase clouds simulations in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The key accomplishments are: 1) An improved retrieval algorithm was developed to provide liquid droplet concentration for drizzling or mixed-phase stratiform clouds. 2) A new ice concentration retrieval algorithm for stratiform mixed-phase clouds was developed. 3) A strong seasonal aerosol impact on ice generation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds was identified, which is mainly attributed to the high dust occurrence during the spring season. 4) A suite of multi-senor algorithms was applied to long-term ARM observations at the Barrow site to provide a complete dataset (LWC and effective radius profile for liquid phase, and IWC, Dge profiles and ice concentration for ice phase) to characterize Arctic stratiform mixed-phase clouds. This multi-year stratiform mixed-phase cloud dataset provides necessary information to study related processes, evaluate model stratiform mixed-phase cloud simulations, and improve model stratiform mixed-phase cloud parameterization. 5). A new in situ data analysis method was developed to quantify liquid mass partition in convective mixed-phase clouds. For the first time, we reliably compared liquid mass partitions in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds. Due to the different dynamics in stratiform and convective mixed-phase clouds, the temperature dependencies of liquid mass partitions are significantly different due to much higher ice concentrations in convective mixed phase clouds. 6) Systematic evaluations

  15. Unified Retrieval of Cloud Properties, Atmospheric Profiles, and Surface Parameters from Combined DMSP Imager and Sounder Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed study was to investigate the complementary information provided by microwave and infrared sensors in order to enhance both the microwave retrieval and the current cloud analysis...

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Cloud Properties from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-x), Version 5.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of cloud products was produced by the University of Wisconsin using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-X)...

  17. Mechanical properties of silicone based composites as a temperature insensitive ballistic backing material for quantifying back face deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tara D; Bain, Erich D; Cole, Shawn T; Freeney, Reygan M; Halls, Virginia A; Ivancik, Juliana; Lenhart, Joseph L; Napadensky, Eugene; Yu, Jian H; Zheng, James Q; Mrozek, Randy A

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a new witness material for quantifying the back face deformation (BFD) resulting from high rate impact of ballistic protective equipment. Accurate BFD quantification is critical for the assessment and certification of personal protective equipment, such as body armor and helmets, and ballistic evaluation. A common witness material is ballistic clay, specifically, Roma Plastilina No. 1 (RP1). RP1 must be heated to nearly 38°C to pass calibration, and used within a limited time frame to remain in calibration. RP1 also exhibits lot-to-lot variability and is sensitive to time, temperature, and handling procedures, which limits the BFD accuracy and reproducibility. A new silicone composite backing material (SCBM) was developed and tested side-by-side with heated RP1 using quasi-static indentation and compression, low velocity impact, spherical projectile penetration, and both soft and hard armor ballistic BFD measurements to compare their response over a broad range of strain rates and temperatures. The results demonstrate that SCBM mimics the heated RP1 response at room temperature and exhibits minimal temperature sensitivity. With additional optimization of the composition and processing, SCBM could be a drop-in replacement for RP1 that is used at room temperature during BFD quantification with minimal changes to the current RP1 handling protocols and infrastructure. It is anticipated that removing the heating requirement, and temperature-dependence, associated with RP1 will reduce test variability, simplify testing logistics, and enhance test range productivity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Quantifying the variability of snowpack properties and processes in a small-forested catchment representative of the boreal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, A.; Nadeau, D.; Anctil, F.; Parent, A. C.; Bouchard, B.; Jutras, S.

    2017-12-01

    In snow-fed catchments, it is crucial to monitor and to model snow water equivalent (SWE), particularly to simulate the melt water runoff. However, the distribution of SWE can be highly heterogeneous, particularly within forested environments, mainly because of the large variability in snow depths. Although the boreal forest is the dominant land cover in Canada and in a few other northern countries, very few studies have quantified the spatiotemporal variability of snow depths and snowpack dynamics within this biome. The objective of this paper is to fill this research gap, through a detailed monitoring of snowpack dynamics at nine locations within a 3.57 km2 experimental forested catchment in southern Quebec, Canada (47°N, 71°W). The catchment receives 6 m of snow annually on average and is predominantly covered with balsam fir stand with some traces of spruce and white birch. In this study, we used a network of nine so-called `snow profiling stations', providing automated snow depth and snowpack temperature profile measurements, as well as three contrasting sites (juvenile, sapling and open areas) where sublimation rates were directly measured with flux towers. In addition, a total of 1401 manual snow samples supported by 20 snow pits measurements were collected throughout the winter of 2017. This paper presents some preliminary analyses of this unique dataset. Simple empirical relations relying SWE with easy-to-determine proxies, such as snow depths and snow temperature, are tested. Then, binary regression trees and multiple regression analysis are used to model SWE using topographic characteristics (slope, aspect, elevation), forest features (tree height, tree diameter, forest density and gap fraction) and meteorological forcing (solar radiation, wind speed, snow-pack temperature profile, air temperature, humidity). An analysis of sublimation rates comparing open area, saplings and juvenile forest is also presented in this paper.

  19. A study of the cool gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Properties of the cool atomic phase - a third H i absorption survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Zimmer, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Dickey, J. M.; Zimmer, F.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Mebold, U.

    2000-02-01

    The cool atomic interstellar medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) seems to be quite different from that in the Milky Way. In a series of three papers we study the properties of the cool atomic hydrogen in the LMC (Paper I), its relation to molecular clouds using SEST-CO-observations (Paper II) and the cooling mechanism of the atomic gas based on ISO-[\\CII]-investigations (Paper III). In this paper we present the results of a third 21 cm absorption line survey toward the LMC carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). 20 compact continuum sources, which are mainly in the direction of the supergiant shell LMC 4, toward the surroundings of 30 Doradus and toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary, have been chosen from the 1.4 GHz snapshot continuum survey of Marx et al. We have identified 20 absorption features toward nine of the 20 sources. The properties of the cool \\HI\\ clouds are investigated and are compared for the different regions of the LMC taking the results of Dickey et al. (survey 2) into account. We find that the cool \\HI\\ gas in the LMC is either unusually abundant compared to the cool atomic phase of the Milky Way or the gas is clearly colder (\\Tc\\ ~ 30 K) than that in our Galaxy (\\Tc\\ ~ 60 K). The properties of atomic clouds toward 30 Doradus and LMC 4 suggest a higher cooling rate in these regions compared to other parts of the LMC, probably due to an enhanced pressure near the shock fronts of LMC 4 and 30 Doradus. The detected cool atomic gas toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary might be the result of a high compression of gas at the leading edge. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  20. A cloud-ozone data product from Aura OMI and MLS satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone within deep convective clouds is controlled by several factors involving photochemical reactions and transport. Gas-phase photochemical reactions and heterogeneous surface chemical reactions involving ice, water particles, and aerosols inside the clouds all contribute to the distribution and net production and loss of ozone. Ozone in clouds is also dependent on convective transport that carries low-troposphere/boundary-layer ozone and ozone precursors upward into the clouds. Characterizing ozone in thick clouds is an important step for quantifying relationships of ozone with tropospheric H2O, OH production, and cloud microphysics/transport properties. Although measuring ozone in deep convective clouds from either aircraft or balloon ozonesondes is largely impossible due to extreme meteorological conditions associated with these clouds, it is possible to estimate ozone in thick clouds using backscattered solar UV radiation measured by satellite instruments. Our study combines Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite measurements to generate a new research product of monthly-mean ozone concentrations in deep convective clouds between 30° S and 30° N for October 2004–April 2016. These measurements represent mean ozone concentration primarily in the upper levels of thick clouds and reveal key features of cloud ozone including: persistent low ozone concentrations in the tropical Pacific of  ∼ 10 ppbv or less; concentrations of up to 60 pphv or greater over landmass regions of South America, southern Africa, Australia, and India/east Asia; connections with tropical ENSO events; and intraseasonal/Madden–Julian oscillation variability. Analysis of OMI aerosol measurements suggests a cause and effect relation between boundary-layer pollution and elevated ozone inside thick clouds over landmass regions including southern Africa and India/east Asia.

  1. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J.-M.; Hoareau, J.; Grammare, M.; Caron, D.; Nandagiri, L.; Legchenko, A.

    2012-11-01

    Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements. We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m-2 of surface area (± 50%). We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  2. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  3. COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN A MAGNETIC CLOUD AND ITS SOLAR SOURCE ON 2013 APRIL 11–14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Mishra, W. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei-230026 (China); Farrugia, C. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Leitner, M., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the Sun–Earth connection of coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), we studied the solar active region (AR) and the magnetic properties of magnetic cloud (MC) event during 2013 April 14–15. We use in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer and source AR measurements from the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The MCs magnetic structure is reconstructed from the Grad–Shafranov method, which reveals a northern component of the axial field with left handed helicity. The MC invariant axis is highly inclined to the ecliptic plane pointing northward and is rotated by 117° with respect to the source region PIL. The net axial flux and current in the MC are comparatively higher than from the source region. Linear force-free alpha distribution (10{sup −7}–10{sup −6} m{sup −1}) at the sigmoid leg matches the range of twist number in the MC of 1–2 au MFR. The MFR is nonlinear force-free with decreasing twist from the axis (9 turns/au) toward the edge. Therefore, a Gold–Hoyle (GH) configuration, assuming a constant twist, is more consistent with the MC structure than the Lundquist configuration of increasing twist from the axis to boundary. As an indication of that, the GH configuration yields a better fitting to the global trend of in situ magnetic field components, in terms of rms, than the Lundquist model. These cylindrical configurations improved the MC fitting results when the effect of self-similar expansion of MFR was considered. For such twisting behavior, this study suggests an alternative fitting procedure to better characterize the MC magnetic structure and its source region links.

  4. Investigation of cloud condensation nuclei properties and droplet growth kinetics of the water-soluble aerosol fraction in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padró, Luz T.; Tkacik, Daniel; Lathem, Terry; Hennigan, Chris J.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, L. Greg; Nenes, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    We present hygroscopic and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) relevant properties of the water-soluble fraction of Mexico City aerosol collected upon filters during the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. Application of κ-Köhler theory to the observed CCN activity gave a fairly constant hygroscopicity parameter (κ = 0.28 ± 0.06) regardless of location and organic fraction. Köhler theory analysis was used to understand this invariance by separating the molar volume and surfactant contributions to the CCN activity. Organics were found to depress surface tension (10-15%) from that of pure water. Daytime samples exhibited lower molar mass (˜200 amu) and surface tension depression than nighttime samples (˜400 amu); this is consistent with fresh hygroscopic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) condensing onto particles during peak photochemical hours, subsequently aging during nighttime periods of high relative humidity. Changes in surface tension partially compensate for shifts in average molar volume to give the constant hygroscopicity observed, which implies the amount (volume fraction) of soluble material in the parent aerosol is the key composition parameter required for CCN predictions. This finding, if applicable elsewhere, may explain why CCN predictions are often found to be insensitive to assumptions of chemical composition and provides a very simple way to parameterize organic hygroscopicity in atmospheric models (i.e., κorg = 0.28ɛWSOC). Special care should be given, however, to surface tension depression from organic surfactants, as its nonlinear dependence with organic fraction may introduce biases in observed (and predicted) hygroscopicity. Finally, threshold droplet growth analysis suggests the water-soluble organics do not affect activation kinetics.

  5. COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN A MAGNETIC CLOUD AND ITS SOLAR SOURCE ON 2013 APRIL 11–14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Mishra, W.; Farrugia, C.; Leitner, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the Sun–Earth connection of coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), we studied the solar active region (AR) and the magnetic properties of magnetic cloud (MC) event during 2013 April 14–15. We use in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer and source AR measurements from the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The MCs magnetic structure is reconstructed from the Grad–Shafranov method, which reveals a northern component of the axial field with left handed helicity. The MC invariant axis is highly inclined to the ecliptic plane pointing northward and is rotated by 117° with respect to the source region PIL. The net axial flux and current in the MC are comparatively higher than from the source region. Linear force-free alpha distribution (10 −7 –10 −6 m −1 ) at the sigmoid leg matches the range of twist number in the MC of 1–2 au MFR. The MFR is nonlinear force-free with decreasing twist from the axis (9 turns/au) toward the edge. Therefore, a Gold–Hoyle (GH) configuration, assuming a constant twist, is more consistent with the MC structure than the Lundquist configuration of increasing twist from the axis to boundary. As an indication of that, the GH configuration yields a better fitting to the global trend of in situ magnetic field components, in terms of rms, than the Lundquist model. These cylindrical configurations improved the MC fitting results when the effect of self-similar expansion of MFR was considered. For such twisting behavior, this study suggests an alternative fitting procedure to better characterize the MC magnetic structure and its source region links.

  6. Comparison of Magnetic Properties in a Magnetic Cloud and Its Solar Source on 2013 April 11-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.; Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Mishra, W.; Farrugia, C.; Leitner, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the Sun-Earth connection of coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), we studied the solar active region (AR) and the magnetic properties of magnetic cloud (MC) event during 2013 April 14-15. We use in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer and source AR measurements from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The MCs magnetic structure is reconstructed from the Grad-Shafranov method, which reveals a northern component of the axial field with left handed helicity. The MC invariant axis is highly inclined to the ecliptic plane pointing northward and is rotated by 117° with respect to the source region PIL. The net axial flux and current in the MC are comparatively higher than from the source region. Linear force-free alpha distribution (10-7-10-6 m-1) at the sigmoid leg matches the range of twist number in the MC of 1-2 au MFR. The MFR is nonlinear force-free with decreasing twist from the axis (9 turns/au) toward the edge. Therefore, a Gold-Hoyle (GH) configuration, assuming a constant twist, is more consistent with the MC structure than the Lundquist configuration of increasing twist from the axis to boundary. As an indication of that, the GH configuration yields a better fitting to the global trend of in situ magnetic field components, in terms of rms, than the Lundquist model. These cylindrical configurations improved the MC fitting results when the effect of self-similar expansion of MFR was considered. For such twisting behavior, this study suggests an alternative fitting procedure to better characterize the MC magnetic structure and its source region links.

  7. Quantifying the Interactions Between Soil Thermal Characteristics, Soil Physical Properties, Hydro-geomorphological Conditions and Vegetation Distribution in an Arctic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Robert, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Peterson, J. E.; Soom, F.; Biraud, S.; Tran, A. P.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Improving understanding of Arctic ecosystem functioning and parameterization of process-rich hydro-biogeochemical models require advances in quantifying ecosystem properties, from the bedrock to the top of the canopy. In Arctic regions having significant subsurface heterogeneity, understanding the link between soil physical properties (incl. fraction of soil constituents, bedrock depth, permafrost characteristics), thermal behavior, hydrological conditions and landscape properties is particularly challenging yet is critical for predicting the storage and flux of carbon in a changing climate. This study takes place in Seward Peninsula Watersheds near Nome AK and Council AK, which are characterized by an elevation gradient, shallow bedrock, and discontinuous permafrost. To characterize permafrost distribution where the top of permafrost cannot be easily identified with a tile probe (due to rocky soil and/or large thaw layer thickness), we developed a novel technique using vertically resolved thermistor probes to directly sense the temperature regime at multiple depths and locations. These measurements complement electrical imaging, seismic refraction and point-scale data for identification of the various thermal behavior and soil characteristics. Also, we evaluate linkages between the soil physical-thermal properties and the surface properties (hydrological conditions, geomorphic characteristics and vegetation distribution) using UAV-based aerial imaging. Data integration and analysis is supported by numerical approaches that simulate hydrological and thermal processes. Overall, this study enables the identification of watershed structure and the links between various subsurface and landscape properties in representative Arctic watersheds. Results show very distinct trends in vertically resolved soil temperature profiles and strong lateral variations over tens of meters that are linked to zones with various hydrological conditions, soil properties and vegetation

  8. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  9. EDAPHIC PROPERTIES PLOTS CULTIVATED WITH MILPA USING MINIMUM TILLAGE IN THE MOUNTAINS OF OAXACA, WHERE THERE WAS MOUNTAIN CLOUD FOREST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Reyes-Jaramillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility in the first 20 cm of six plots and a cloud forest (MCF still preserved in Sta. María Chilchotla, north of Oaxaca, where the predominant MCF and grown landraces were evaluated. The soils are on slopes are shallow, rocky and not suitable for agriculture. Yields are low, the Mazatec perform traditional cultural practices such as minimum tillage as the terrain does not allow entering tractor or oxen, farmers do not burn, and do not use chemicals. Soil sampling randomly obtaining composite samples were made​​ physical, chemical and biological properties were analyzed. The results showed that are medium textured soils, the pH of the MCF is extremely acid (4.5 and in the plots ranged from 5 to 6.9, organic carbon is high from 24 to 100 g kg -1, total nitrogen ranged from 1.4 - 8.3 g kg-1 medium and high values, available phosphorus was low with the exception of the plot three, the CEC ranged from 8.8 to 36 cmoles(+ kg-1. They have high iron content of 20.26 to 94.18 mg kg-1 on BMM standing there also high in copper, zinc and manganese. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed a significant difference (р 0.5 between the means of soil properties and soil analyzed than sodium. The multiple comparison test of Tukey was applied. Trap pots mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from different species. It is concluded that the soils of most of the plots are fertile, are poor in phosphorus but everything indicates that they make up the AM fungi; no physical degradation was observed, its major limitation is the stoniness and steep slopes. The practice of minimum tillage, barriers of rocks that outcrop at the surface and leaving stumps of tree ferns prevent erosion. It aims to increase maize production experimenting with chemical fertilizers. To preserve the MCF recommends building their biological and ethnobotanical wealth, carbon sequestration mazatec could receive a financial benefit.

  10. Quantifying Subsurface Water and Heat Distribution and its Linkage with Landscape Properties in Terrestrial Environment using Hydro-Thermal-Geophysical Monitoring and Coupled Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Tran, A. P.; Wainwright, H. M.; Hubbard, S. S.; Peterson, J.; Ulrich, C.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying water and heat fluxes in the subsurface is crucial for managing water resources and for understanding the terrestrial ecosystem where hydrological properties drive a variety of biogeochemical processes across a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we present the development of an advanced monitoring strategy where hydro-thermal-geophysical datasets are continuously acquired and further involved in a novel inverse modeling framework to estimate the hydraulic and thermal parameter that control heat and water dynamics in the subsurface and further influence surface processes such as evapotranspiration and vegetation growth. The measured and estimated soil properties are also used to investigate co-interaction between subsurface and surface dynamics by using above-ground aerial imaging. The value of this approach is demonstrated at two different sites, one in the polygonal shaped Arctic tundra where water and heat dynamics have a strong impact on freeze-thaw processes, vegetation and biogeochemical processes, and one in a floodplain along the Colorado River where hydrological fluxes between compartments of the system (surface, vadose zone and groundwater) drive biogeochemical transformations. Results show that the developed strategy using geophysical, point-scale and aerial measurements is successful to delineate the spatial distribution of hydrostratigraphic units having distinct physicochemical properties, to monitor and quantify in high resolution water and heat distribution and its linkage with vegetation, geomorphology and weather conditions, and to estimate hydraulic and thermal parameters for enhanced predictions of water and heat fluxes as well as evapotranspiration. Further, in the Colorado floodplain, results document the potential presence of only periodic infiltration pulses as a key hot moment controlling soil hydro and biogeochemical functioning. In the arctic, results show the strong linkage between soil water content, thermal

  11. H I, CO, and Planck/IRAS dust properties in the high latitude cloud complex, MBM 53, 54, 55 and HLCG 92 – 35. Possible evidence for an optically thick H I envelope around the CO clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Okamoto, Ryuji; Kaji, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Torii, Kazufumi; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Okuda, Takeshi; Ohama, Akio; Kuroda, Yutaka; Kuwahara, Toshihisa [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dickey, John M., E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We present an analysis of the H I and CO gas in conjunction with the Planck/IRAS submillimeter/far-infrared dust properties toward the most outstanding high latitude clouds MBM 53, 54, 55 and HLCG 92 – 35 at b = –30° to – 45°. The CO emission, dust opacity at 353 GHz (τ{sub 353}), and dust temperature (T {sub d}) show generally good spatial correspondence. On the other hand, the correspondence between the H I emission and the dust properties is less clear than in CO. The integrated H I intensity W{sub H} {sub I} and τ{sub 353} show a large scatter with a correlation coefficient of ∼0.6 for a T {sub d} range from 16 K to 22 K. We find, however, that W{sub H} {sub I} and τ{sub 353} show better correlation for smaller ranges of T {sub d} every 0.5 K, generally with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.9. We set up a hypothesis that the H I gas associated with the highest T {sub d} ≥ 21.5 K is optically thin, whereas the H I emission is generally optically thick for T {sub d} lower than 21.5 K. We have determined a relationship for the optically thin H I gas between atomic hydrogen column density and τ{sub 353}, N{sub H} {sub I} (cm{sup −2})=(1.5×10{sup 26})⋅τ{sub 353}, under the assumption that the dust properties are uniform and we have applied this to estimate N{sub H} {sub I} from τ{sub 353} for the whole cloud. N{sub H} {sub I} was then used to solve for T {sub s} and τ{sub H} {sub I} over the region. The result shows that the H I is dominated by optically thick gas having a low spin temperature of 20-40 K and a density of 40-160 cm{sup –3}. The H I envelope has a total mass of ∼1.2 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, an order of magnitude larger than that of the CO clouds. The H I envelope properties derived by this method do not rule out a mixture of H I and H{sub 2} in the dark gas, but we present indirect evidence that most of the gas mass is in the atomic state.

  12. Observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Bierwirth, E.; Ehrlich, A.; Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on airborne spectral imaging observations three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes have been identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate sea ice and open water in case of clouds from imaging radiance measurements. This separation simultaneously reveals that in case of clouds the transition of radiance between open water and sea ice is not instantaneously but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce the nadir radiance above bright surfaces in the vicinity of sea ice - open water boundaries, while the nadir radiance above dark surfaces is enhanced compared to situations with clouds located above horizontal homogeneous surfaces. With help of the observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge. This affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both, cloud and sea ice properties. For a ground overlaying cloud in 0-200 m altitude, increasing the cloud optical thickness from τ = 1 to τ = 10 decreases Δ L from 600 to 250 m, while increasing cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness can increase Δ L; Δ L(τ = 1/10) = 2200 m/1250 m for 500-1000 m cloud altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of the ice floes, various albedo fields (infinite straight ice edge, circles, squares, realistic ice floe field) were modelled. Simulations show that Δ L increases by the radius of the ice floe and for sizes larger than 6 km (500-1000 m cloud altitude) asymptotically reaches maximum values, which corresponds to an infinite straight ice edge. Furthermore, the impact of these 3-D-radiative effects on retrieval of cloud optical properties was investigated. The enhanced brightness of a dark pixel next to an ice edge results in uncertainties of up to 90 and 30% in retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective radius reff, respectively. With help of Δ L quantified here, an

  13. Atmospheric System Research Marine Low Clouds Workshop Report, January 27-29,2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wood, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Marine low clouds are a major determinant of the Earth?s albedo and are a major source of uncertainty in how the climate responds to changing greenhouse gas levels and anthropogenic aerosol. Marine low clouds are particularly difficult to simulate accurately in climate models, and their remote locations present a significant observational challenge. A complex set of interacting controlling processes determine the coverage, condensate loading, and microphysical and radiative properties of marine low clouds. Marine low clouds are sensitive to atmospheric aerosol in several ways. Interactions at microphysical scales involve changes in the concentration of cloud droplets and precipitation, which induce cloud dynamical impacts including changes in entrainment and mesoscale organization. Marine low clouds are also impacted by atmospheric heating changes due to absorbing aerosols. The response of marine low clouds to aerosol perturbations depends strongly upon the unperturbed aerosol-cloud state, which necessitates greater understanding of processes controlling the budget of aerosol in the marine boundary layer. Entrainment and precipitation mediate the response of low clouds to aerosols but these processes also play leading roles in controlling the aerosol budget. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program are making major recent investments in observational data sets from fixed and mobile sites dominated by marine low clouds. This report provides specific action items for how these measurements can be used together with process modeling to make progress on understanding and quantifying the key cloud and aerosol controlling processes in the next 5-10 years. Measurements of aerosol composition and its variation with particle size are needed to advance a quantitative, process-level understanding of marine boundary-layer aerosol budget. Quantitative precipitation estimates

  14. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  15. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties of Arctic springtime low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Greenland and Norwegian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioche, Guillaume; Jourdan, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Dupuy, Régis; Monier, Marie; Szczap, Frédéric; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Gayet, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets within low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds (MPCs). We compiled and analyzed cloud in situ measurements from four airborne spring campaigns (representing 18 flights and 71 vertical profiles in MPCs) over the Greenland and Norwegian seas mainly in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago. Cloud phase discrimination and representative vertical profiles of the number, size, mass and shape of ice crystals and liquid droplets are established. The results show that the liquid phase dominates the upper part of the MPCs. High concentrations (120 cm-3 on average) of small droplets (mean values of 15 µm), with an averaged liquid water content (LWC) of 0.2 g m-3 are measured at cloud top. The ice phase dominates the microphysical properties in the lower part of the cloud and beneath it in the precipitation region (mean values of 100 µm, 3 L-1 and 0.025 g m-3 for diameter, particle concentration and ice water content (IWC), respectively). The analysis of the ice crystal morphology shows that the majority of ice particles are irregularly shaped or rimed particles; the prevailing regular habits found are stellars and plates. We hypothesize that riming and diffusional growth processes, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) mechanism, are the main growth mechanisms involved in the observed MPCs. The impact of larger-scale meteorological conditions on the vertical profiles of MPC properties was also investigated. Large values of LWC and high concentration of smaller droplets are possibly linked to polluted situations and air mass origins from the south, which can lead to very low values of ice crystal size and IWC. On the contrary, clean situations with low temperatures exhibit larger values of ice crystal size and IWC. Several parameterizations relevant for remote sensing or modeling studies are also determined, such as IWC (and LWC) - extinction

  16. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties of Arctic springtime low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Greenland and Norwegian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mioche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets within low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds (MPCs. We compiled and analyzed cloud in situ measurements from four airborne spring campaigns (representing 18 flights and 71 vertical profiles in MPCs over the Greenland and Norwegian seas mainly in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago. Cloud phase discrimination and representative vertical profiles of the number, size, mass and shape of ice crystals and liquid droplets are established. The results show that the liquid phase dominates the upper part of the MPCs. High concentrations (120 cm−3 on average of small droplets (mean values of 15 µm, with an averaged liquid water content (LWC of 0.2 g m−3 are measured at cloud top. The ice phase dominates the microphysical properties in the lower part of the cloud and beneath it in the precipitation region (mean values of 100 µm, 3 L−1 and 0.025 g m−3 for diameter, particle concentration and ice water content (IWC, respectively. The analysis of the ice crystal morphology shows that the majority of ice particles are irregularly shaped or rimed particles; the prevailing regular habits found are stellars and plates. We hypothesize that riming and diffusional growth processes, including the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF mechanism, are the main growth mechanisms involved in the observed MPCs. The impact of larger-scale meteorological conditions on the vertical profiles of MPC properties was also investigated. Large values of LWC and high concentration of smaller droplets are possibly linked to polluted situations and air mass origins from the south, which can lead to very low values of ice crystal size and IWC. On the contrary, clean situations with low temperatures exhibit larger values of ice crystal size and IWC. Several parameterizations relevant for remote sensing or modeling studies are also determined

  17. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X D; Jennett, N M

    2017-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed. (paper)

  18. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. D.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed.

  19. The ARM Cloud Radar Simulator for Global Climate Models: Bridging Field Data and Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Marchand, Roger [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; Clothiaux, Eugene E. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Swales, Dustin [CIRES and NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Haynes, John M. [Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere/Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Collis, Scott [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Bharadwaj, Nitin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Hardin, Joseph [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Isom, Bradley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2018-01-01

    Clouds play an important role in Earth’s radiation budget and hydrological cycle. However, current global climate models (GCMs) have had difficulties in accurately simulating clouds and precipitation. To improve the representation of clouds in climate models, it is crucial to identify where simulated clouds differ from real world observations of them. This can be difficult, since significant differences exist between how a climate model represents clouds and what instruments observe, both in terms of spatial scale and the properties of the hydrometeors which are either modeled or observed. To address these issues and minimize impacts of instrument limitations, the concept of instrument “simulators”, which convert model variables into pseudo-instrument observations, has evolved with the goal to improve and to facilitate the comparison of modeled clouds with observations. Many simulators have (and continue to be developed) for a variety of instruments and purposes. A community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP; Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2011), contains several independent satellite simulators and is being widely used in the global climate modeling community to exploit satellite observations for model cloud evaluation (e.g., Klein et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2010). This article introduces a ground-based cloud radar simulator developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program for comparing climate model clouds with ARM observations from its vertically pointing 35-GHz radars. As compared to CloudSat radar observations, ARM radar measurements occur with higher temporal resolution and finer vertical resolution. This enables users to investigate more fully the detailed vertical structures within clouds, resolve thin clouds, and quantify the diurnal variability of clouds. Particularly, ARM radars are sensitive to low-level clouds, which are

  20. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  1. The physical properties of giant molecular cloud complexes in the outer Galaxy - Implications for the ratio of H2 column density to (C-12)O intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    The physical properties of 35 giant molecular cloud complexes in the outer Galaxy were derived from the Goddard-Columbia surveys of the Galactic plane region (Dame et al., 1987). The spatial and radial velocity boundaries for the individual cloud complexes were estimated by analyzing the spatial and velocity structure of emission features in the (C-12)O surveys, and the distance to each cmplex was determined kinematically on the assumption of a flat rotation curve. The ratio of the H2 column density to the (C-12)O intensity for the outer Galaxy complexes was found to be about 6.0 x 10 to the 20th molecules/sq cm K per km/sec, which is by a factor of 2-3 greater than the value derived by other auhtors for the inner Galaxy complexes. This increase in the H2 column density/(C-12)O intensity with the distance from with the Galactic center is consistent with predictions of the optically thick cloudlet model of giant molecular cloud complexes.

  2. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Sarga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing is gaining acclaim as a cost-effective alternative to acquiring processing resources for corporations, scientific applications and individuals, various challenges are rapidly coming to the fore. While academia struggles to procure a concise definition, corporations are more interested in competitive advantages it may generate and individuals view it as a way of speeding up data access times or a convenient backup solution. Properties of the cloud architecture largely preclude usage of existing practices while achieving end-users’ and companies’ compliance requires considering multiple infrastructural as well as commercial factors, such as sustainability in case of cloud-side interruptions, identity management and off-site corporate data handling policies. The article overviews recent attempts at formal definitions of cloud computing, summarizes and critically evaluates proposed delimitations, and specifies challenges associated with its further proliferation. Based on the conclusions, future directions in the field of cloud computing are also briefly hypothesized to include deeper focus on community clouds and bolstering innovative cloud-enabled platforms and devices such as tablets, smart phones, as well as entertainment applications.

  3. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Sanchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM. UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF by between 25 and 60 W m−2. After

  4. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300 % over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were  ∼  40–60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq and various biomass burning tracers (BBt across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI  =  (1∕3 × dln(Nliq∕dln(BBt to be  ∼  0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ∼  0.02 g m−3 and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm−3 in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m−2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the

  5. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  6. Atmospheric diffusion of large clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. V. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Radiation Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    1967-07-01

    Clouds of pollutants travel within a coordinate system that is fixed to the earth's surface, and they diffuse and grow within a coordinate system fixed to the cloud's center. This paper discusses an approach to predicting the cloud's properties, within the latter coordinate system, on space scales of a few hundred meters to a few hundred kilometers and for time periods of a few days. A numerical cloud diffusion model is presented which starts with a cloud placed arbitrarily within the troposphere. Similarity theories of atmospheric turbulence are used to predict the horizontal diffusivity as a function of initial cloud size, turbulent atmospheric dissipation, and time. Vertical diffusivity is input as a function of time and height. Therefore, diurnal variations of turbulent diffusion in the boundary layer and effects of temperature inversions, etc. can be modeled. Nondiffusive cloud depletion mechanisms, such as dry deposition, washout, and radioactive decay, are also a part of this numerical model. An effluent cloud, produced by a reactor run at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station, Nevada, is discussed in this paper. Measurements on this cloud, for a period of two days, are compared to calculations with the above numerical cloud diffusion model. In general, there is agreement. within a factor of two, for airborne concentrations, cloud horizontal area, surface air concentrations, and dry deposition as airborne concentration decreased by seven orders of magnitude during the two-day period. (author)

  7. Performance Evaluation of Cloud Service Considering Fault Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Tan, Feng; Dai, Yuan-Shun; Guo, Suchang

    In cloud computing, cloud service performance is an important issue. To improve cloud service reliability, fault recovery may be used. However, the use of fault recovery could have impact on the performance of cloud service. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary study on this issue. Cloud service performance is quantified by service response time, whose probability density function as well as the mean is derived.

  8. How small is a small cloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between clouds and aerosols and their contribution to the radiation budget is one of the largest uncertainties of climate change. Most work to date has separated cloudy and cloud-free areas in order to evaluate the individual radiative forcing of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol effects on clouds.

    Here we examine the size distribution and the optical properties of small, sparse cumulus clouds and the associated optical properties of what is considered a cloud-free atmosphere within the cloud field. We show that any separation between clouds and cloud free atmosphere will incur errors in the calculated radiative forcing.

    The nature of small cumulus cloud size distributions suggests that at any resolution, a significant fraction of the clouds are missed, and their optical properties are relegated to the apparent cloud-free optical properties. At the same time, the cloudy portion incorporates significant contribution from non-cloudy pixels.

    We show that the largest contribution to the total cloud reflectance comes from the smallest clouds and that the spatial resolution changes the apparent energy flux of a broken cloudy scene. When changing the resolution from 30 m to 1 km (Landsat to MODIS the average "cloud-free" reflectance at 1.65 μm increases from 0.0095 to 0.0115 (>20%, the cloud reflectance decreases from 0.13 to 0.066 (~50%, and the cloud coverage doubles, resulting in an important impact on climate forcing estimations. The apparent aerosol forcing is on the order of 0.5 to 1 Wm−2 per cloud field.

  9. Aerosol properties in the upper clouds of Venus from glory observations by the Venus Monitoring Camera (Venus Express mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Petrova, Elena V.; Shalygina, Oksana S.

    2018-01-01

    From the angular positions of the glory features observed on the upper cloud deck of Venus in three VMC channels (at 0.365, 0.513, and 0.965 μm), the dominating sizes of cloud particles and their refractive indices have been retrieved, and their spatial and temporal variations have been analyzed. For this, the phase profiles of brightness were compared to the single-scattering phase functions of particles of different sizes, since diffuse multiple scattering in the clouds does not move the angular positions of the glory, which is produced by the single scattering by cloud particles, but only makes them less pronounced. We presented the measured phase profiles in two ways: they were built for individual images and for individual small regions observed in series of successive images. The analysis of the data of both types has yielded consistent results. The presently retrieved radii of cloud particle average approximately 1.0-1.2 μm (though some values reach 1.4 μm) and demonstrate a variable pattern versus latitude and local solar time (LST). The decrease of particle sizes at high latitudes (down to 0.6 μm at 60°S) earlier found from the 0.965-μm and partly 0.365-μm data has been definitely confirmed in the analysis of the data of all three channels considered. To obtain the consistent estimates of particle sizes from the UV glory maximum and minimum positions, we have to vary the effective variance of the particle sizes, while it was fixed constant in our previous studies. The twofold increase of this parameter (from 0.07 to 0.14) diminishes the estimates of particle sizes by 10-15%, while the effect on the retrieved refractive index is negligible. The obtained estimates of the refractive index are more or less uniformly distributed over the covered latitude and LST ranges, and most of them are higher than those of concentrated sulfuric acid solution. This confirms our previous result obtained only at 0.965 μm, and now we may state that the cases of a

  10. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  11. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  12. A new airborne Polar Nephelometer for the measurement of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crépel

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, has been tested in an open wind tunnel. The wind tunnel was operated in cloudy conditions including either cloud water droplets or ice crystals, or a mixture of these particles. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of cloud particles sized from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. Basically, the probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles which intersect a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloidal mirror. From the measured scattering phase function the retrieval of the droplet-size spectra and subsequent derived quantities such as liquid water content and size parameters can be calculated using an inversion method. The particle phase discrimination (water droplets/ice particles can be derived from the shape of the scattering phase function and the sensitivity of the probe allows the detection of small ice crystals (typically of 5 µm diameter. The paper describes the preliminary results obtained by the prototype version of the Polar Nephelometer in various cloudy conditions. These results are compared with direct microphysical measurements obtained by usual PMS probes also mounted in the wind tunnel. Complementary results obtained in a cold chamber are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of the Polar Nephelometer in the presence of small ice crystals.

  13. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  14. Investigation of the relationships between DCS cloud properties, lifecycle, and precipitation with meteorological regimes and aerosol sources at the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-10-26

    In this proposed research, we will investigate how different meteorological regimes and aerosol sources affect DCS properties, diurnal and life cycles, and precipitation using multiple observational platforms (surface, satellite, and aircraft) and NARR reanalysis at the ARM SGP site. The Feng et al. (2011, 2012) DCS results will serve as a starting point for this proposed research, and help us to address some fundamental issues of DCSs, such as convective initiation, rain rate, areal extent (including stratiform and convective regions), and longevity. Convective properties will be stratified by meteorological regime (synoptic/mesoscale patterns) identified by reanalysis. Aerosol information obtained from the ARM SGP site will also be stratified by meteorological regimes to understand their effects on convection. Finally, the aircraft in-situ measurements and various radar observations and retrievals during the MC3E campaign will provide a “cloud-truth” dataset and are an invaluable data source for verifying the findings and investigating the proposed hypotheses in Objective 1.

  15. Aerosols, cloud physics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of climate physics are discussed with special attention given to cases where cloud physics is relevant for the phase and microstructure of clouds and, therefore, in the optical properties of the planet. It is argued that aerosol particles, through their strong effect on cloud microphysics, influence the shortwave energy input to earth, and that cloud microphysics strongly influence rain formation. Therefore, through their influence on microphysics, the aerosols play a central role in the atmospheric water cycle and, thus, on the planet's outgoing radiation. 20 refs

  16. “Using Statistical Comparisons between SPartICus Cirrus Microphysical Measurements, Detailed Cloud Models, and GCM Cloud Parameterizations to Understand Physical Processes Controlling Cirrus Properties and to Improve the Cloud Parameterizations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Sarah [SPEC Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The dual objectives of this project were improving our basic understanding of processes that control cirrus microphysical properties and improvement of the representation of these processes in the parameterizations. A major effort in the proposed research was to integrate, calibrate, and better understand the uncertainties in all of these measurements.

  17. Relative and Absolute Interrater Reliabilities of a Hand-Held Myotonometer to Quantify Mechanical Muscle Properties in Patients with Acute Stroke in an Inpatient Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Leung Ambrose Lo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The reliability of using MyotonPRO to quantify muscles mechanical properties in a ward setting for the acute stroke population remains unknown. Aims. To investigate the within-session relative and absolute interrater reliability of MyotonPRO. Methods. Mechanical properties of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior were recorded at bedside. Participants were within 1 month of the first occurrence of stroke. Relative reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Absolute reliability was assessed by standard error of measurement (SEM, SEM%, smallest real difference (SRD, SRD%, and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement. Results. ICCs of all studied muscles ranged between 0.63 and 0.97. The SEM of all muscles ranged within 0.30–0.88 Hz for tone, 0.07–0.19 for decrement, 6.42–20.20 N/m for stiffness, and 0.04–0.07 for creep. The SRD of all muscles ranged within 0.70–2.05 Hz for tone, 0.16–0.45 for decrement, 14.98–47.15 N/m for stiffness, and 0.09–0.17 for creep. Conclusions. MyotonPRO demonstrated acceptable relative and absolute reliability in a ward setting for patients with acute stroke. However, results must be interpreted with caution, due to the varying level of consistency between different muscles, as well as between different parameters within a muscle.

  18. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  19. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  20. Dynamics of the Marine Cloud Layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chi, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Goals of this research have been to identify physical processes that determine the dynamics of marine cloud layers and to quantify roles of turbulence, convection and thermal radiation that play in formation...

  1. Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico - a new evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-García, F.; García-García, F.; Montero-Martínez, G.; Borrmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Mertes, S.; Walter, S.; Gysel, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Krämer, M.

    2008-03-01

    The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico, using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation such as aerosol mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE) was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submicron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE) was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (residual particles and concentrations of cloudwater nitrate, sulphate and insoluble material increased during polluted conditions. Previous studies in Puerto Rico had reported the presence of a significant non-anthropogenic organic fraction in the aerosols measured and concluded that this was a factor controlling the in situ cloud properties. However, this was not observed in our case. In contrast to the 1.00±0.14 μg m-3 of organic carbon measured in 1992 and 1995, the organic matter measured in the current study of 0

  2. SiCloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Cathy Y.; Devore, Peter T.S.; Lonappan, Cejo Konuparamban

    2017-01-01

    The silicon photonics industry is projected to be a multibillion dollar industry driven by the growth of data centers. In this work, we present an interactive online tool for silicon photonics. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCCloud.org) is an easy to use instructional tool for optical properties...

  3. Cloud-Resolving Modeling Intercomparison Study of a Squall Line Case from MC3E - Properties of Convective Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Han, B.; Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; North, K.; Kollias, P.; Chen, B.; Dong, X.; Giangrande, S. E.; Khain, A.; Lin, Y.; Mansell, E.; Milbrandt, J.; Stenz, R.; Thompson, G.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The large spread in CRM model simulations of deep convection and aerosol effects on deep convective clouds (DCCs) makes it difficult to (1) further our understanding of deep convection and (2) define "benchmarks" and then limit their use in parameterization developments. A constrained model intercomparsion study on a mid-latitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km horizontal grid spacing with eight cloud microphysics schemes to understand specific processes that lead to the large spreads of simulated convection and precipitation. Various observational data are employed to evaluate the baseline simulations. All simulations tend to produce a wider convective area but a much narrower stratiform area. The magnitudes of virtual potential temperature drop, pressure rise, and wind speed peak associated with the passage of the gust front are significantly smaller compared with the observations, suggesting simulated cool pools are weaker. Simulations generally overestimate the vertical velocity and radar reflectivity in convective cores compared with the retrievals. The modeled updraft velocity and precipitation have a significant spread across eight schemes. The spread of updraft velocity is the combination of both low-level pressure perturbation gradient (PPG) and buoyancy. Both PPG and thermal buoyancy are small for simulations of weak convection but both are large for those of strong convection. Ice-related parameterizations contribute majorly to the spread of updraft velocity, while they are not the reason for the large spread of precipitation. The understandings gained in this study can help to focus future observations and parameterization development.

  4. Comparison Between CCCM and CloudSat Radar-Lidar (RL) Cloud and Radiation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    To enhance cloud properties, LaRC and CIRA developed each combination algorithm for obtained properties from passive, active and imager in A-satellite constellation. When comparing global cloud fraction each other, LaRC-produced CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) products larger low-level cloud fraction over tropic ocean, while CIRA-produced Radar-Lidar (RL) shows larger mid-level cloud fraction for high latitude region. The reason for different low-level cloud fraction is due to different filtering method of lidar-detected cloud layers. Meanwhile difference in mid-level clouds is occurred due to different priority of cloud boundaries from lidar and radar.

  5. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  6. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  7. Active sensor synergy for arctic cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kaori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the retrieval of liquid and ice-phase cloud microphysics from spaceborne and ground-based lidar-cloud radar synergy. As an application of the cloud retrieval algorithm developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission (JAXA-ESA [1], the derived statistics of cloud microphysical properties in high latitudes and their relation to the Arctic climate are investigated.

  8. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  9. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU, Y.; DAUM, P.H.; CHAI, S.K.; LIU, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments

  10. Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Wood, Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With their extensive coverage, low clouds greatly impact global climate. Presently, low clouds are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs), and the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols remains the major source of uncertainty in climate simulations. The poor representations of low clouds in GCMs are in part due to inadequate observations of their microphysical and macrophysical structures, radiative effects, and the associated aerosol distribution and budget in regions where the aerosol impact is the greatest. The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) is a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary-layer (MBL) clouds, whose albedo and precipitation are highly susceptible to perturbations in aerosol properties. Boundary-layer aerosol in the ENA region is influenced by a variety of sources, leading to strong variations in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and aerosol optical properties. Recently a permanent ENA site was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility on Graciosa Island in the Azores, providing invaluable information on MBL aerosol and low clouds. At the same time, the vertical structures and horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol, the radiative properties, precipitation efficiency, and lifecycle of MBL clouds, and the cloud response to aerosol perturbations. Much of this data can be obtained only through aircraft-based measurements. In addition, the interconnected aerosol and cloud processes are best investigated by a study involving simultaneous in situ aerosol, cloud, and thermodynamics measurements. Furthermore, in situ measurements are also necessary for validating and improving ground-based retrieval algorithms at the ENA site. This project is motivated by the need

  11. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  12. Comparasion of Cloud Cover restituted by POLDER and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Cornet, C.; Thieuxleux, F.

    2009-04-01

    PARASOL and AQUA are two sun-synchronous orbit satellites in the queue of A-Train satellites that observe our earth within a few minutes apart from each other. Aboard these two platforms, POLDER and MODIS provide coincident observations of the cloud cover with very different characteristics. These give us a good opportunity to study the clouds system and evaluate strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in order to provide an accurate representation of global cloud cover properties. This description is indeed of outermost importance to quantify and understand the effect of clouds on global radiation budget of the earth-atmosphere system and their influence on the climate changes. We have developed a joint dataset containing both POLDER and MODIS level 2 cloud products collocated and reprojected on a common sinusoidal grid in order to make the data comparison feasible and veracious. Our foremost work focuses on the comparison of both spatial distribution and temporal variation of the global cloud cover. This simple yet critical cloud parameter need to be clearly understood to allow further comparison of the other cloud parameters. From our study, we demonstrate that on average these two sensors both detect the clouds fairly well. They provide similar spatial distributions and temporal variations:both sensors see high values of cloud amount associated with deep convection in ITCZ, over Indonesia, and in west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool region; they also provide similar high cloud cover associated to mid-latitude storm tracks, to Indian monsoon or to the stratocumulus along the west coast of continents; on the other hand small cloud amounts that typically present over subtropical oceans and deserts in subsidence aeras are well identified by both POLDER and MODIS. Each sensor has its advantages and inconveniences for the detection of a particular cloud types. With higher spatial resolution, MODIS can better detect the fractional clouds thus explaining as one part

  13. Cirrus clouds properties derived from polarized micro pulse lidar (p-mpl) observations at the atmospheric observatory `el arenosillo' (sw iberian peninsula): a case study for radiative implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Ana del; Gómez, Laura; Vilaplana, José Manuel; Sorribas, Mar; Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen

    2018-04-01

    Cirrus (Ci) clouds are involved in Climate Change concerns since they affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently, a polarized Micro Pulse Lidar (P-MPL), standard system within NASA/MPLNET has been deployed at the INTA/Atmospheric Observatory `El Arenosillo' (ARN), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Hence, the INTA/P-MPL system is used for Ci detection over that station for the first time. Radiative effects of a Ci case observed over ARN are examined, as reference for future long-term Ci observations. Optical and macrophysical properties are retrieved, and used for radiative transfer simulations. Data are compared to the measured surface radiation levels and all-sky images simultaneously performed at the ARN station.

  14. Analysis of CCN activity of Remote and Combustion Aerosol over the South East Pacific during autumn 2008 and links to Sc cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, S.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; Twohy, C. H.; Snider, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Shank, L.; McNaughton, C. S.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Kapustin, V.

    2013-12-01

    The earth's most extensive Stratocumulus (Sc) deck, situated off the coast of Northern Chile and Southern Peru, strongly influences the radiation budget and climate over the South East Pacific (SEP) by enhancing solar reflection. This feature makes Sc clouds an important constituent for climate modeling, yet these clouds are poorly represented in models. A large uncertainty in understanding the variability in these low cloud fields arises from our deficit in understanding the role of aerosol. Hence, a major goal of the VOCALS (www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals) campaign in 2008 was to further explore and assess interactions of natural and anthropogenic aerosol with Sc clouds in both the more polluted coastal environment and west of 80W where we encountered nearly pristine boundary layer clouds often exposed to cloud-top entrainment of pollution aerosol from the free troposphere. Extensive airborne measurements of size-resolved aerosol volatility and chemical composition collected aboard the NCAR C-130 were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) to calculate aerosol hygroscopicity (κ) and predict cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration for all observed air mass types above and below cloud utilizing estimated Sc cloud supersaturations deduced from cloud-processed aerosol size distribution information. The predicted CCN agree to within 10% to measured CCN. Results from this analysis are presented here and CCN variability observed along VOCALS flight tracks is discussed in conjunction with size-resolved cloud droplet information. This includes assessing the impact of aerosol perturbations on the shape of the cloud droplet size distribution parameterized in models and satellite algorithms such as cloud top effective radius retrievals. We will further discuss cloud droplet residual composition collected using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) and analyzed with the AMS and SP2. Size resolved variations in

  15. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  16. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  17. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  18. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Montmessin, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.

  19. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  20. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  1. Modelling ice microphysics of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Tonttila, J.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Kokkola, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2017-12-01

    match. One of the advantages of UCLALES-SALSA is that it can be used to quantify the effect of aerosol scavenging on cloud properties in a precise way.

  2. Resolving both entrainment-mixing and number of activated CCN in deep convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Freud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number concentration of activated CCN (Na is the most fundamental microphysical property of a convective cloud. It determines the rate of droplet growth with cloud depth and conversion into precipitation-sized particles and affects the radiative properties of the clouds. However, measuring Na is not always possible, even in the cores of the convective clouds, because entrainment of sub-saturated ambient air deeper into the cloud lowers the concentrations by dilution and may cause partial or total droplet evaporation, depending on whether the mixing is homogeneous or extreme inhomogeneous, respectively.

    Here we describe a methodology to derive Na based on the rate of cloud droplet effective radius (Re growth with cloud depth and with respect to the cloud mixing with the entrained ambient air. We use the slope of the tight linear relationship between the adiabatic liquid water mixing ratio and Re3 (or Rv3 to derive an upper limit for Na assuming extreme inhomogeneous mixing. Then we tune Na down to find the theoretical relative humidity that the entrained ambient air would have for each horizontal cloud penetration, in case of homogeneous mixing. This allows us to evaluate both the entrainment and mixing process in the vertical dimension in addition to getting a better estimation for Na.

    We found that the derived Na from the entire profile data is highly correlated with the independent CCN measurements from below cloud base. Moreover, it was found that mixing of sub-saturated ambient air into the cloud at scales of ~100 m and above is inclined towards the extreme inhomogeneous limit, i.e. that the time scale of droplet evaporation is significantly smaller than that for turbulent mixing. This means that ambient air that entrains

  3. In search of the best match: probing a multi-dimensional cloud microphysical parameter space to better understand what controls cloud thermodynamic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ivy; Storelvmo, Trude

    2015-04-01

    Substantial improvements have been made to the cloud microphysical schemes used in the latest generation of global climate models (GCMs), however, an outstanding weakness of these schemes lies in the arbitrariness of their tuning parameters, which are also notoriously fraught with uncertainties. Despite the growing effort in improving the cloud microphysical schemes in GCMs, most of this effort has neglected to focus on improving the ability of GCMs to accurately simulate the present-day global distribution of thermodynamic phase partitioning in mixed-phase clouds. Liquid droplets and ice crystals not only influence the Earth's radiative budget and hence climate sensitivity via their contrasting optical properties, but also through the effects of their lifetimes in the atmosphere. The current study employs NCAR's CAM5.1, and uses observations of cloud phase obtained by NASA's CALIOP lidar over a 79-month period (November 2007 to June 2014) guide the accurate simulation of the global distribution of mixed-phase clouds in 20∘ latitudinal bands at the -10∘ C, -20∘C and -30∘C isotherms, by adjusting six relevant cloud microphysical tuning parameters in the CAM5.1 via Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Among the parameters include those that control the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) timescale for the conversion of supercooled liquid droplets to ice and snow in mixed-phase clouds, the fraction of ice nuclei that nucleate ice in the atmosphere, ice crystal sedimentation speed, and wet scavenging in stratiform and convective clouds. Using a Generalized Linear Model as a variance-based sensitivity analysis, the relative contributions of each of the six parameters are quantified to gain a better understanding of the importance of their individual and two-way interaction effects on the liquid to ice proportion in mixed-phase clouds. Thus, the methodology implemented in the current study aims to search for the combination of cloud microphysical parameters in a GCM that

  4. Exploring the Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on Cloud Microphysical Retrievals based on Polarized Reflectances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, A. S.; Cornet, C.; Baum, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    A polarized cloud reflectance simulator was developed by coupling an LES cloud model with a polarized radiative transfer model to assess the capabilities of polarimetric cloud retrievals. With future remote sensing campaigns like NASA's Aerosols/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) planning to feature advanced polarimetric instruments it is important for the cloud remote sensing community to understand the retrievable information available and the related systematic/methodical limitations. The cloud retrieval simulator we have developed allows us to probe these important questions in a realistically relevant test bed. Our simulator utilizes a polarized adding-doubling radiative transfer model and an LES cloud field from a DHARMA simulation (Ackerman et al. 2004) with cloud properties based on the stratocumulus clouds observed during the DYCOMS-II field campaign. In this study we will focus on how the vertical structure of cloud microphysics can influence polarized cloud effective radius retrievals. Numerous previous studies have explored how retrievals based on total reflectance are affected by cloud vertical structure (Platnick 2000, Chang and Li 2002) but no such studies about the effects of vertical structure on polarized retrievals exist. Unlike the total cloud reflectance, which is predominantly multiply scattered light, the polarized reflectance is primarily the result of singly scattered photons. Thus the polarized reflectance is sensitive to only the uppermost region of the cloud (tau~influencer on the microphysical development of cloud droplets, can be potentially studied with polarimetric retrievals.

  5. The Monoceros R2 Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. M.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Monoceros R2 region was first recognized as a chain of reflection nebulae illuminated by A- and B-type stars. These nebulae are associated with a giant molecular cloud that is one of the closest massive star forming regions to the Sun. This chapter reviews the properties of the Mon R2 region, including the namesake reflection nebulae, the large scale molecula= r cloud, global star formation activity, and properties of prominent star forming regions in the cloud.

  6. CloudTPS: Scalable Transactions for Web Applications in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Pierre, G.E.O.; Chi, C.-H.

    2010-01-01

    NoSQL Cloud data services provide scalability and high availability properties for web applications but at the same time they sacrifice data consistency. However, many applications cannot afford any data inconsistency. CloudTPS is a scalable transaction manager to allow cloud database services to

  7. Comparison of mean properties of simulated convection in a cloud-resolving model with those produced by cumulus parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudhia, J.; Parsons, D.B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    An Intensive Observation Period (IOP) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program took place at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site from June 16-26, 1993. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) has been used to simulate this period on a 60-km domain with 20- and 6.67-km nests centered on Lamont, Oklahoma. Simulations are being run with data assimilation by the nudging technique to incorporate upper-air and surface data from a variety of platforms. The model maintains dynamical consistency between the fields, while the data correct for model biases that may occur during long-term simulations and provide boundary conditions. For the work reported here the Mesoscale Atmospheric Prediction System (MAPS) of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 3-hourly analyses were used to drive the 60-km domain while the inner domains were unforced. A continuous 10-day period was simulated.

  8. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. CHARACTERIZING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE GEMINI OB1 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Merello, Manuel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, Eric Todd; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observations of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud complex, and targeted NH 3 observations of the BGPS sources. When paired with molecular spectroscopy of a dense gas tracer, millimeter observations yield physical properties such as masses, radii, mean densities, kinetic temperatures, and line widths. We detect 34 distinct BGPS sources above 5σ = 0.37 Jy beam -1 with corresponding 5σ detections in the NH 3 (1,1) transition. Eight of the objects show water maser emission (20%). We find a mean millimeter source FWHM of 1.12 pc and a mean gas kinetic temperature of 20 K for the sample of 34 BGPS sources with detections in the NH 3 (1,1) line. The observed NH 3 line widths are dominated by non-thermal motions, typically found to be a few times the thermal sound speed expected for the derived kinetic temperature. We calculate the mass for each source from the millimeter flux assuming the sources are isothermal and find a mean isothermal mass within a 120'' aperture of 230 ± 180 M sun . We find a total mass of 8400 M sun for all BGPS sources in the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud, representing 6.5% of the cloud mass. By comparing the millimeter isothermal mass to the virial mass calculated from the NH 3 line widths within a radius equal to the millimeter source size, we find a mean virial parameter (M vir /M iso ) of 1.0 ± 0.9 for the sample. We find mean values for the distributions of column densities of 1.0 x 10 22 cm -2 for H 2 , and 3.0 x 10 14 cm -2 for NH 3 , giving a mean NH 3 abundance of 3.0 x 10 -8 relative to H 2 . We find volume-averaged densities on the order of 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 . The sizes and densities suggest that in the Gem OB1 region the BGPS is detecting the clumps from which stellar clusters form, rather than smaller, higher density cores where single stars or small multiple systems form.

  9. Wide-field 12CO (J=2-1) and 13CO (J=2-1) Observations toward the Aquila Rift and Serpens Molecular Cloud Complexes. I. Molecular Clouds and Their Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Onishi, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of wide-field 12CO (J=2{--}1) and 13CO (J=2{--}1) observations toward the Aquila Rift and Serpens molecular cloud complexes (25^\\circ < l< 33^\\circ and 1^\\circ < b< 6^\\circ ) at an angular resolution of 3.‧4 (≈ 0.25 pc) and at a velocity resolution of 0.079 km s-1 with velocity coverage of -5 {km} {{{s}}}-1< {V}{LSR}< 35 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We found that the 13CO emission better traces the structures seen in the extinction map, and derived the {X}{13{CO}}-factor of this region. Applying SCIMES to the 13CO data cube, we identified 61 clouds and derived their mass, radii, and line widths. The line width-radius relation of the identified clouds basically follows those of nearby molecular clouds. The majority of the identified clouds are close to virial equilibrium, although the dispersion is large. By inspecting the 12CO channel maps by eye, we found several arcs that are spatially extended to 0.°2-3° in length. In the longitude-velocity diagrams of 12CO, we also found two spatially extended components that appear to converge toward Serpens South and the W40 region. The existence of two components with different velocities and arcs suggests that large-scale expanding bubbles and/or flows play a role in the formation and evolution of the Serpens South and W40 cloud.

  10. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  11. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Measurements During the First Year of the ORACLES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacarab, M.; Howell, S. G.; Wood, R.; Redemann, J.; Nenes, A.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols have significant impacts on air quality and climate. Their ability to scatter and absorb radiation and to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) plays a very important role in the global climate. Biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) can drastically elevate the concentration of CCN in clouds, but the response in droplet number may be strongly suppressed (or even reversed) owing to low supersaturations that may develop from the strong competition of water vapor (Bougiatioti et al. 2016). Understanding and constraining the magnitude of droplet response to biomass burning plumes is an important component of the aerosol-cloud interaction problem. The southeastern Atlantic (SEA) cloud deck provides a unique opportunity to study these cloud-BBOA interactions for marine stratocumulus, as it is overlain by a large, optically thick biomass burning aerosol plume from Southern Africa during the burning season. The interaction between these biomass burning aerosols and the SEA cloud deck is being investigated in the NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above Clouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) study. The CCN activity of aerosol around the SEA cloud deck and associated biomass burning plume was evaluated during the first year of the ORACLES study with direct measurements of CCN concentration, aerosol size distribution and composition onboard the NASA P-3 aircraft during August and September of 2016. Here we present analysis of the observed CCN activity of the BBOA aerosol in and around the SEA cloud deck and its relationship to aerosol size, chemical composition, and plume mixing and aging. We also evaluate the predicted and observed droplet number sensitivity to the aerosol fluctuations and quantify, using the data, the drivers of droplet number variability (vertical velocity or aerosol properties) as a function of biomass burning plume characteristics.

  12. Data intensive ATLAS workflows in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    From 2025 onwards, the ATLAS collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will experience a massive increase in data quantity as well as complexity. Including mitigating factors, the prevalent computing power by that time will only fulfil one tenth of the requirement. This contribution will focus on Cloud computing as an approach to help overcome this challenge by providing flexible hardware that can be configured to the specific needs of a workflow. Experience with Cloud computing exists, but there is a large uncertainty if and to which degree it can be able to reduce the burden by 2025. In order to understand and quantify the benefits of Cloud computing, the "Workflow and Infrastructure Model" was created. It estimates the viability of Cloud computing by combining different inputs from the workflow side with infrastructure specifications. The model delivers metrics that enable the comparison of different Cloud configurations as well as different Cloud offerings with each other. A wide range of r...

  13. Airborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Bierwirth, E.; Ehrlich, A.; Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-07-01

    Based on airborne spectral imaging observations, three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and highly variable Arctic surfaces were identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate between sea ice and open water under cloudy conditions based on airborne nadir reflectivity γλ measurements in the visible spectral range. In cloudy cases the transition of γλ from open water to sea ice is not instantaneous but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce γλ above bright surfaces in the vicinity of open water, while γλ above open sea is enhanced. With the help of observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge (for a dark-ocean albedo of αwater = 0.042 and a sea-ice albedo of αice = 0.91 at 645 nm wavelength). The affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both cloud and sea ice properties. For a low-level cloud at 0-200 m altitude, as observed during the Arctic field campaign VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI) in 2012, an increase in the cloud optical thickness τ from 1 to 10 leads to a decrease in Δ L from 600 to 250 m. An increase in the cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness results in an increase in Δ L; for τ = 1/10 Δ L = 2200 m/1250 m in case of a cloud at 500-1000 m altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of ice floes, radiative transfer simulations were performed with various albedo fields (infinitely long straight ice edge, circular ice floes, squares, realistic ice floe field). The simulations show that Δ L increases with increasing radius of the ice floe and reaches maximum values for ice floes with radii larger than 6 km (500-1000 m cloud altitude), which matches the results found for an infinitely long, straight ice edge. Furthermore, the influence of these 3-D radiative effects on the retrieved cloud optical properties was investigated

  14. Airborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schäfer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on airborne spectral imaging observations, three-dimensional (3-D radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and highly variable Arctic surfaces were identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate between sea ice and open water under cloudy conditions based on airborne nadir reflectivity γλ measurements in the visible spectral range. In cloudy cases the transition of γλ from open water to sea ice is not instantaneous but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce γλ above bright surfaces in the vicinity of open water, while γλ above open sea is enhanced. With the help of observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge (for a dark-ocean albedo of αwater = 0.042 and a sea-ice albedo of αice = 0.91 at 645 nm wavelength. The affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both cloud and sea ice properties. For a low-level cloud at 0–200 m altitude, as observed during the Arctic field campaign VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI in 2012, an increase in the cloud optical thickness τ from 1 to 10 leads to a decrease in Δ L from 600 to 250 m. An increase in the cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness results in an increase in Δ L; for τ = 1/10 Δ L = 2200 m/1250 m in case of a cloud at 500–1000 m altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of ice floes, radiative transfer simulations were performed with various albedo fields (infinitely long straight ice edge, circular ice floes, squares, realistic ice floe field. The simulations show that Δ L increases with increasing radius of the ice floe and reaches maximum values for ice floes with radii larger than 6 km (500–1000 m cloud altitude, which matches the results found for an infinitely long, straight ice edge. Furthermore, the influence of these 3-D radiative effects on the retrieved cloud optical

  15. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  16. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  17. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  18. Quantifiers and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study examining the role of working memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support the data obtained

  19. EUREC4A: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Couplings Between Clouds, Convection and Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Ament, Felix; Bigorre, Sebastien; Chazette, Patrick; Crewell, Susanne; Delanoë, Julien; Emanuel, Kerry; Farrell, David; Flamant, Cyrille; Gross, Silke; Hirsch, Lutz; Karstensen, Johannes; Mayer, Bernhard; Nuijens, Louise; Ruppert, James H.; Sandu, Irina; Siebesma, Pier; Speich, Sabrina; Szczap, Frédéric; Totems, Julien; Vogel, Raphaela; Wendisch, Manfred; Wirth, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Trade-wind cumuli constitute the cloud type with the highest frequency of occurrence on Earth, and it has been shown that their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions will critically influence the magnitude and pace of future global warming. Research over the last decade has pointed out the importance of the interplay between clouds, convection and circulation in controling this sensitivity. Numerical models represent this interplay in diverse ways, which translates into different responses of trade-cumuli to climate perturbations. Climate models predict that the area covered by shallow cumuli at cloud base is very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, while process models suggest the opposite. To understand and resolve this contradiction, we propose to organize a field campaign aimed at quantifying the physical properties of trade-cumuli (e.g., cloud fraction and water content) as a function of the large-scale environment. Beyond a better understanding of clouds-circulation coupling processes, the campaign will provide a reference data set that may be used as a benchmark for advancing the modelling and the satellite remote sensing of clouds and circulation. It will also be an opportunity for complementary investigations such as evaluating model convective parameterizations or studying the role of ocean mesoscale eddies in air-sea interactions and convective organization.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover and fog inundation in coastal California: Ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Bharat; Williams, A. Park; Fischer, Douglas T.; Iacobellis, Sam F.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Carvalho, Leila; Jones, Charles Leslie; Baguskas, Sara A.; Still, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog has been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in coastal California where forests are frequently shaded by low-lying clouds or immersed in fog during otherwise warm and dry summer months. Summer fog and stratus can ameliorate summer drought stress and enhance soil water budgets, and often have different spatial and temporal patterns. Here we use remote sensing datasets to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover over California’s northern Channel Islands. We found marine stratus to be persistent from May through September across the years 2001-2012. Stratus clouds were both most frequent and had the greatest spatial extent in July. Clouds typically formed in the evening, and dissipated by the following early afternoon. We present a novel method to downscale satellite imagery using atmospheric observations and discriminate patterns of fog from those of stratus and help explain patterns of fog deposition previously studied on the islands. The outcomes of this study contribute significantly to our ability to quantify the occurrence of coastal fog at biologically meaningful spatial and temporal scales that can improve our understanding of cloud-ecosystem interactions, species distributions and coastal ecohydrology.

  1. EUREC4A: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Couplings Between Clouds, Convection and Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Ament, Felix; Bigorre, Sebastien; Chazette, Patrick; Crewell, Susanne; Delanoë, Julien; Emanuel, Kerry; Farrell, David; Flamant, Cyrille; Gross, Silke; Hirsch, Lutz; Karstensen, Johannes; Mayer, Bernhard; Nuijens, Louise; Ruppert, James H.; Sandu, Irina; Siebesma, Pier; Speich, Sabrina; Szczap, Frédéric; Totems, Julien; Vogel, Raphaela; Wendisch, Manfred; Wirth, Martin

    Trade-wind cumuli constitute the cloud type with the highest frequency of occurrence on Earth, and it has been shown that their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions will critically influence the magnitude and pace of future global warming. Research over the last decade has pointed out the importance of the interplay between clouds, convection and circulation in controling this sensitivity. Numerical models represent this interplay in diverse ways, which translates into different responses of tradecumuli to climate perturbations. Climate models predict that the area covered by shallow cumuli at cloud base is very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, while process models suggest the opposite. To understand and resolve this contradiction, we propose to organize a field campaign aimed at quantifying the physical properties of tradecumuli (e.g., cloud fraction and water content) as a function of the large-scale environment. Beyond a better understanding of clouds-circulation coupling processes, the campaign will provide a reference data set that may be used as a benchmark for advancing the modelling and the satellite remote sensing of clouds and circulation. It will also be an opportunity for complementary investigations such as evaluating model convective parameterizations or studying the role of ocean mesoscale eddies in air-sea interactions and convective organization.

  2. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  3. Formation of massive, dense cores by cloud-cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Ken; Shima, Kazuhiro; Habe, Asao; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2018-05-01

    We performed sub-parsec (˜ 0.014 pc) scale simulations of cloud-cloud collisions of two idealized turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) with different masses in the range of (0.76-2.67) × 104 M_{⊙} and with collision speeds of 5-30 km s-1. Those parameters are larger than in Takahira, Tasker, and Habe (2014, ApJ, 792, 63), in which study the colliding system showed a partial gaseous arc morphology that supports the NANTEN observations of objects indicated to be colliding MCs using numerical simulations. Gas clumps with density greater than 10-20 g cm-3 were identified as pre-stellar cores and tracked through the simulation to investigate the effects of the mass of colliding clouds and the collision speeds on the resulting core population. Our results demonstrate that the smaller cloud property is more important for the results of cloud-cloud collisions. The mass function of formed cores can be approximated by a power-law relation with an index γ = -1.6 in slower cloud-cloud collisions (v ˜ 5 km s-1), and is in good agreement with observation of MCs. A faster relative speed increases the number of cores formed in the early stage of collisions and shortens the gas accretion phase of cores in the shocked region, leading to the suppression of core growth. The bending point appears in the high-mass part of the core mass function and the bending point mass decreases with increase in collision speed for the same combination of colliding clouds. The higher-mass part of the core mass function than the bending point mass can be approximated by a power law with γ = -2-3 that is similar to the power index of the massive part of the observed stellar initial mass function. We discuss implications of our results for the massive-star formation in our Galaxy.

  4. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  5. Properties and geoeffectiveness of magnetic clouds in the rising, maximum and early declining phases of solar cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic structure and geomagnetic response of 73 magnetic clouds (MC observed by the WIND and ACE satellites in solar cycle 23 are examined. The results have been compared with the surveys from the previous solar cycles. The preselected candidate MC events were investigated using the minimum variance analysis to determine if they have a flux-rope structure and to obtain the estimation for the axial orientation (θC, φC. Depending on the calculated inclination relative to the ecliptic we divided MCs into "bipolar" (θC<45° and "unipolar" (θC>45°. The number of observed MCs was largest in the early rising phase, although the halo CME rate was still low. It is likely that near solar maximum we did not identify all MCs at 1AU, as they were crossed far from the axis or they had interacted strongly with the ambient solar wind or with other CMEs. The occurrence rate of MCs at 1AU is also modified by the migration of the filament sites on the Sun towards the poles near solar maximum and by the deflection of CMEs towards the equator due to the fast solar wind flow from large polar coronal holes near solar minimum. In the rising phase nearly all bipolar MCs were associated with the rotation of the magnetic field from the south at the leading edge to the north at the trailing edge. The results for solar cycles 21-22 showed that the direction of the magnetic field in the leading portion of the MC starts to reverse at solar maximum. At solar maximum and in the declining phase (2000-2003 we observed several MCs with the rotation from the north to the south. We observed unipolar (i.e. highly inclined MCs frequently during the whole investigated period. For solar cycles 21-22 the majority of MCs identified in the rising phase were bipolar while in the declining phase most MCs were unipolar. The geomagnetic response of a given MC depends greatly on its magnetic structure and the orientation of the sheath fields. For each event we distinguished the

  6. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  7. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... There are several types of services available on a cloud. We describe .... CPU speed has been doubling every 18 months at constant cost. Besides this ... Plain text (e.g., email) may be read by anyone who is able to access it.

  8. Effect of vehicular traffic, remote sources and new particle formation on the activation properties of cloud condensation nuclei in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Souto-Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol is the primary source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The microphysics and chemical composition of aerosols can affect cloud development and the precipitation process. Among studies conducted in Latin America, only a handful have reported the impact of urban aerosol on CCN activation parameters such as activation ratio (AR and activation diameter (Dact. With over 20 million inhabitants, the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is the largest megacity in South America. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact that remote sources and new particle formation (NPF events have on CCN activation properties in a South American megacity. The measurements were conducted in the MASP between August and September 2014. We measured the CCN within the 0.2–1.0 % range of supersaturation, together with particle number concentration (PNC and particle number distribution (PND, as well as trace-element concentrations and black carbon (BC. NPF events were identified on 35 % of the sampling days. Combining multivariate analysis in the form of positive matrix factorization (PMF with an aerosol profile from lidar and HYSPLIT model analyses allowed us to identify the main contribution of vehicular traffic on all days and sea salt and biomass burning from remote regions on 28 and 21 % of the sampling days, respectively. The AR and Dact parameters showed distinct patterns for daytime with intense vehicular traffic and nighttime periods. For example, CCN activation was lower during the daytime than during the nighttime periods, a pattern that was found to be associated mainly with local road-traffic emissions. A decrease in CCN activation was observed on the NPF event days, mainly due to high concentrations of particles with smaller diameters. We also found that aerosols from sea salt, industrial emissions, and biomass burning had minor effects on Dact. For example, nights with biomass burning and vehicular emissions

  9. Effect of vehicular traffic, remote sources and new particle formation on the activation properties of cloud condensation nuclei in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo; de Fátima Andrade, Maria; Kumar, Prashant; Juliano da Silva Lopes, Fábio; Babinski, Marly; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is the primary source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The microphysics and chemical composition of aerosols can affect cloud development and the precipitation process. Among studies conducted in Latin America, only a handful have reported the impact of urban aerosol on CCN activation parameters such as activation ratio (AR) and activation diameter (Dact). With over 20 million inhabitants, the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the largest megacity in South America. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact that remote sources and new particle formation (NPF) events have on CCN activation properties in a South American megacity. The measurements were conducted in the MASP between August and September 2014. We measured the CCN within the 0.2-1.0 % range of supersaturation, together with particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number distribution (PND), as well as trace-element concentrations and black carbon (BC). NPF events were identified on 35 % of the sampling days. Combining multivariate analysis in the form of positive matrix factorization (PMF) with an aerosol profile from lidar and HYSPLIT model analyses allowed us to identify the main contribution of vehicular traffic on all days and sea salt and biomass burning from remote regions on 28 and 21 % of the sampling days, respectively. The AR and Dact parameters showed distinct patterns for daytime with intense vehicular traffic and nighttime periods. For example, CCN activation was lower during the daytime than during the nighttime periods, a pattern that was found to be associated mainly with local road-traffic emissions. A decrease in CCN activation was observed on the NPF event days, mainly due to high concentrations of particles with smaller diameters. We also found that aerosols from sea salt, industrial emissions, and biomass burning had minor effects on Dact. For example, nights with biomass burning and vehicular emissions showed slightly lower

  10. Quantifying the Bering Strait Oceanic Fluxes and their Impacts on Sea-Ice and Water Properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and Western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    impacts on sea-ice and water properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014 Rebecca Woodgate Polar Science...and G. R. Bigg (2002), Impact of flow through the Canadian Archipelago and Bering Strait on the North Atlantic and Arctic circulation: an ocean ...Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb 2013 - April 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying the Bering Strait oceanic fluxes and their impacts

  11. Unveiling aerosol-cloud interactions - Part 1: Cloud contamination in satellite products enhances the aerosol indirect forcing estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Neubauer, David; Poulsen, Caroline A.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McGarragh, Gregory R.; Povey, Adam C.; Proud, Simon R.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2017-11-01

    Increased concentrations of aerosol can enhance the albedo of warm low-level cloud. Accurately quantifying this relationship from space is challenging due in part to contamination of aerosol statistics near clouds. Aerosol retrievals near clouds can be influenced by stray cloud particles in areas assumed to be cloud-free, particle swelling by humidification, shadows and enhanced scattering into the aerosol field from (3-D radiative transfer) clouds. To screen for this contamination we have developed a new cloud-aerosol pairing algorithm (CAPA) to link cloud observations to the nearest aerosol retrieval within the satellite image. The distance between each aerosol retrieval and nearest cloud is also computed in CAPA. Results from two independent satellite imagers, the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), show a marked reduction in the strength of the intrinsic aerosol indirect radiative forcing when selecting aerosol pairs that are located farther away from the clouds (-0.28±0.26 W m-2) compared to those including pairs that are within 15 km of the nearest cloud (-0.49±0.18 W m-2). The larger aerosol optical depths in closer proximity to cloud artificially enhance the relationship between aerosol-loading, cloud albedo, and cloud fraction. These results suggest that previous satellite-based radiative forcing estimates represented in key climate reports may be exaggerated due to the inclusion of retrieval artefacts in the aerosol located near clouds.

  12. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  13. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  14. Integrated cloud-aerosol-radiation product using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Gibson, Sharon; Yi, Yuhong; Trepte, Qing; Wielicki, Bruce; Kato, Seiji; Winker, Dave; Stephens, Graeme; Partain, Philip

    2007-10-01

    This paper documents the development of the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of clouds, aerosols, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. As part of this effort, cloud data from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar are merged with the integrated column cloud properties from the CERES-MODIS analyses. The active and passive datasets are compared to determine commonalities and differences in order to facilitate the development of a 3-dimensional cloud and aerosol dataset that will then be integrated into the CERES broadband radiance footprint. Preliminary results from the comparisons for April 2007 reveal that the CERES-MODIS global cloud amounts are, on average, 0.14 less and 0.15 greater than those from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  15. Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico ─ a new evaluation

    Direct