WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantification theory type

  1. A Study of Tongue and Pulse Diagnosis in Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients Based on Quantification Theory Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Mi Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Korean medicine (TKM, pattern identification (PI diagnosis is important for treating diseases. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the relationship between the PI type and tongue diagnosis or pulse diagnosis variables. The study included 1,879 stroke patients who were admitted to 12 oriental medical university hospitals from June 2006 through March 2009. The status of the pulse and tongue was examined in each patient. Additionally, to investigate relatively important indicators related to specialist PI, the quantification theory type II analysis was performed regarding the PI type. In the first axis quantification of the external criteria, the Qi-deficiency and the Yin-deficiency patterns were located in the negative direction, while the dampness-phlegm (DP and fire-heat patterns were located in the positive direction. The explanatory variable with the greatest impact on the assessment was a fine pulse. In the second axis quantification, the external criteria were divided into either the DP or non-DP patterns. The slippery pulse exhibited the greatest effect on the division. This study attempted to build a model using a statistical method to objectively quantify PI and various indicators that constitute the unique diagnosis system of TKM. These results should assist the development of future diagnostic standards in stroke PI.

  2. Uncertainty quantification theory, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Ralph C

    2014-01-01

    The field of uncertainty quantification is evolving rapidly because of increasing emphasis on models that require quantified uncertainties for large-scale applications, novel algorithm development, and new computational architectures that facilitate implementation of these algorithms. Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications provides readers with the basic concepts, theory, and algorithms necessary to quantify input and response uncertainties for simulation models arising in a broad range of disciplines. The book begins with a detailed discussion of applications where uncertainty quantification is critical for both scientific understanding and policy. It then covers concepts from probability and statistics, parameter selection techniques, frequentist and Bayesian model calibration, propagation of uncertainties, quantification of model discrepancy, surrogate model construction, and local and global sensitivity analysis. The author maintains a complementary web page where readers ca...

  3. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with...... coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  4. Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field.  Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines.   This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis.  Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

  5. Quantification of image quality using information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Takanaga; Maeda, Hisatoshi; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Imai, Kuniharu

    2011-12-01

    Aims of present study were to examine usefulness of information theory in visual assessment of image quality. We applied first order approximation of the Shannon's information theory to compute information losses (IL). Images of a contrast-detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom were acquired with computed radiographies for various radiation doses. Information content was defined as the entropy Σp( i )log(1/p ( i )), in which detection probabilities p ( i ) were calculated from distribution of detection rate of the CDMAM. IL was defined as the difference between information content and information obtained. IL decreased with increases in the disk diameters (P information losses (TIL), were closely correlated with the image quality figures (r = 0.985). TIL was dependent on the distribution of image reading ability of each examinee, even when average reading ratio was the same in the group. TIL was shown to be sensitive to the observers' distribution of image readings and was expected to improve the evaluation of image quality.

  6. An approximation approach for uncertainty quantification using evidence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ha-Rok; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Canfield, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    Over the last two decades, uncertainty quantification (UQ) in engineering systems has been performed by the popular framework of probability theory. However, many scientific and engineering communities realize that there are limitations in using only one framework for quantifying the uncertainty experienced in engineering applications. Recently evidence theory, also called Dempster-Shafer theory, was proposed to handle limited and imprecise data situations as an alternative to the classical probability theory. Adaptation of this theory for large-scale engineering structures is a challenge due to implicit nature of simulations and excessive computational costs. In this work, an approximation approach is developed to improve the practical utility of evidence theory in UQ analysis. The techniques are demonstrated on composite material structures and airframe wing aeroelastic design problem.

  7. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald;

    2015-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular...

  8. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  9. A Minimal Propositional Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Propositional type theory, first studied by Henkin, is the restriction of simple type theory to a single base type that is interpreted as the set of the two truth values. We show that two constants (falsity and implication) suffice for denotational and deductive completeness. Denotational completeness means that every value of the full set-theoretic type hierarchy can be described by a closed term. Deductive completeness is shown for a sequent-based proof system that extends a propositional natural deduction system with lambda conversion and Boolean replacement.

  10. Computational semantics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Aarne

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show how Montague-style grammars can be completely formalized and thereby declaratively implemented by using the Grammatical Framework GF. The implementation covers the fundamental operations of Montague’s PTQ model: the construction of analysis trees, the linearization of trees into strings, and the interpretation of trees as logical formulas. Moreover, a parsing algorithm is derived from the grammar. Given that GF is a constructive type theory with dependent types, the te...

  11. A "Toy" Model for Operational Risk Quantification using Credibility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hans B\\"uhlmann; Shevchenko, Pavel V.; Mario V. W\\"uthrich

    2009-01-01

    To meet the Basel II regulatory requirements for the Advanced Measurement Approaches in operational risk, the bank's internal model should make use of the internal data, relevant external data, scenario analysis and factors reflecting the business environment and internal control systems. One of the unresolved challenges in operational risk is combining of these data sources appropriately. In this paper we focus on quantification of the low frequency high impact losses exceeding some high thr...

  12. Application of the third theory of quantification in coal and gas outburst forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cai-fang; QIN Yong; ZHANG Xu-liang

    2004-01-01

    The essential principles of the third theory of quantification are discussed, the concept and calculated method of reaction degree are put forward which extend the applying range and scientificalness of the primary reaction. Taking the Zhongmacun Mine as example, on the base of analyzing the rules of gas geology synthetically and traversing the geological factors infecting coal and gas outburst, the paper adopts the method of combining carving up statistical units with the third theory of quantification, screens out 8 sensitive geological factors from 11 geological indexes and carries through the work of gas geology regionalism to the exploited area of Zhongmacun according to the researching result. The practice shows that it is feasible to apply the third theory of quantification to gas geology, which offers a new thought to screen the sensitive geological factors of gas outburst forecast.

  13. Types, structures and theories in NKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoru ZHANG; Zaiyue ZHANG; Yuefei SUI

    2008-01-01

    The National Knowledge,Infrastructure (NKI)is a multi-domain knowledge base. The classical type the-ory is no longer appropriate to describe every kind of object in multi-domains, such as artifacts, natural or micro objects. Three different kinds of type theories are defined: the classical, atomic and pseudo type theories; in the classical type theory, two new type constructors are defined: setm and ∨, to describe the types of sets of all the elements of the types and unions of two sets of different types, respectively. The structures and categories in the type theory are defined, and the sub-structures and homo-morphic structures are used to describe the part-of rela-tions that give the algebraic specifications for the natural objects and the part-of relations between the natural objects, micro objects and artifacts.

  14. Logic in the 1930s: type theory and model theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schiemer, Georg; Reck, Erich H.

    2013-01-01

    In historical discussions of twentieth-century logic, it is typically assumed that model theory emerged within the tradition that adopted first-order logic as the standard framework. Work within the type-theoretic tradition, in the style of Principia Mathematica, tends to be downplayed or ignored in this connection. Indeed, the shift from type theory to first-order logic is sometimes seen as involving a radical break that first made possible the rise of modern model theory. ...

  15. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunck, N; McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-03-17

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going eff orts seek to better root nuclear DFT in the theory of nuclear forces, energy functionals remain semi-phenomenological constructions that depend on a set of parameters adjusted to experimental data in fi nite nuclei. In this paper, we review recent eff orts to quantify the related uncertainties, and propagate them to model predictions. In particular, we cover the topics of parameter estimation for inverse problems, statistical analysis of model uncertainties and Bayesian inference methods. Illustrative examples are taken from the literature.

  16. Uncertainty quantification and propagation in nuclear density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunck, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear and Chemical Science Division, Livermore, CA (United States); McDonnell, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear and Chemical Science Division, Livermore, CA (United States); Francis Marion University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Florence, SC (United States); Higdon, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sarich, J.; Wild, S.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going efforts seek to better root nuclear DFT in the theory of nuclear forces (see Duguet et al., this Topical Issue), energy functionals remain semi-phenomenological constructions that depend on a set of parameters adjusted to experimental data in finite nuclei. In this paper, we review recent efforts to quantify the related uncertainties, and propagate them to model predictions. In particular, we cover the topics of parameter estimation for inverse problems, statistical analysis of model uncertainties and Bayesian inference methods. Illustrative examples are taken from the literature. (orig.)

  17. Quantification of digital forensic hypotheses using probability theory

    OpenAIRE

    Overill, RE; Silomon, JAM; Tse, HKS; Chow, KP

    2013-01-01

    The issue of downloading illegal material from a website onto a personal digital device is considered from the perspective of conventional (Pascalian) probability theory. We present quantitative results for a simple model system by which we analyse and counter the putative defence case that the forensically recovered illegal material was downloaded accidentally by the defendant. The model is applied to two actual prosecutions involving possession of child pornography.

  18. A quantification of prospect theory in the health domain

    OpenAIRE

    Attema, Arthur E.; Werner B.F. Brouwer; Olivier L'Haridon

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that expected utility (EU) has empirical deficiencies. Prospect theory (PT) has developed as an alternative with more descriptive validity. However, PT’s full function had not yet been quantified in the health domain. This paper is therefore the first to simultaneously measure utility of life duration, probability weighting, and loss aversion in the health domain. We observe loss aversion and risk aversion for gains and losses, which for gains can be explained by probabilisti...

  19. Quantification of Uncertainties in Nuclear Density Functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, N; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S

    2014-01-01

    Reliable predictions of nuclear properties are needed as much to answer fundamental science questions as in applications such as reactor physics or data evaluation. Nuclear density functional theory is currently the only microscopic, global approach to nuclear structure that is applicable throughout the nuclear chart. In the past few years, a lot of effort has been devoted to setting up a general methodology to assess theoretical uncertainties in nuclear DFT calculations. In this paper, we summarize some of the recent progress in this direction. Most of the new material discussed here will be be published in separate articles.

  20. Quantification of Uncertainties in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunck, N., E-mail: schunck1@llnl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); McDonnell, J.D. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Higdon, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sarich, J.; Wild, S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Reliable predictions of nuclear properties are needed as much to answer fundamental science questions as in applications such as reactor physics or data evaluation. Nuclear density functional theory is currently the only microscopic, global approach to nuclear structure that is applicable throughout the nuclear chart. In the past few years, a lot of effort has been devoted to setting up a general methodology to assess theoretical uncertainties in nuclear DFT calculations. In this paper, we summarize some of the recent progress in this direction. Most of the new material discussed here will be be published in separate articles.

  1. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting...

  2. Application of quantification theory in risk assessment of mine flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lian-guo; MIAO Xie-xing; DONG Xu; WU Yu

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of mine flooding accidents have occurred in China since the 1950s. These flooding accidents result in sub-merged working faces, even entire coal mines, leading to tremendous economic losses. It is reported that among 601 state-owned mines in China, 285 mines are exposed to water-inrush risks. The water pressure is becoming larger and larger with the increase of mining depth, leading to an increase of water-inrush hazards. Only when the risk of mine flooding is predicted in a reasonable manner, can we take timely and effective measures to prevent mine flooding from taking place. In our investigation quantifica-tion(II) theory is used to study the risk prediction problem about mine flooding. By investigating the main factors which affect mine flooding, eight risk assessment items have been identified. The extent of risk is classified into 4 grades. Given the data from differ-ent periods in the Feicheng mining area, a prediction model for the risk of mine flooding is established. The test analysis indicates a model correlation coefficient of 0.97 and the incidence of discrimination is as high as 97.37%, which implies that the effect of the model is quite satisfactory. With the help of computers, this method can be widely applied.

  3. Transcriptional regulatory network refinement and quantification through kinetic modeling, gene expression microarray data and information theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kagan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression microarray and other multiplex data hold promise for addressing the challenges of cellular complexity, refined diagnoses and the discovery of well-targeted treatments. A new approach to the construction and quantification of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs is presented that integrates gene expression microarray data and cell modeling through information theory. Given a partial TRN and time series data, a probability density is constructed that is a functional of the time course of transcription factor (TF thermodynamic activities at the site of gene control, and is a function of mRNA degradation and transcription rate coefficients, and equilibrium constants for TF/gene binding. Results Our approach yields more physicochemical information that compliments the results of network structure delineation methods, and thereby can serve as an element of a comprehensive TRN discovery/quantification system. The most probable TF time courses and values of the aforementioned parameters are obtained by maximizing the probability obtained through entropy maximization. Observed time delays between mRNA expression and activity are accounted for implicitly since the time course of the activity of a TF is coupled by probability functional maximization, and is not assumed to be proportional to expression level of the mRNA type that translates into the TF. This allows one to investigate post-translational and TF activation mechanisms of gene regulation. Accuracy and robustness of the method are evaluated. A kinetic formulation is used to facilitate the analysis of phenomena with a strongly dynamical character while a physically-motivated regularization of the TF time course is found to overcome difficulties due to omnipresent noise and data sparsity that plague other methods of gene expression data analysis. An application to Escherichia coli is presented. Conclusion Multiplex time series data can be used for the

  4. Quantification of fibre type regionalisation : an analysis of lower hindlimb muscles in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, LC; Kernell, D

    2001-01-01

    Newly developed concepts and methods for the quantification of fibre type regionalisation were used for comparison between all muscles traversing the ankle of the rat lower hindlimb (n = 13). For each muscle, cross-sections from the proximodistal midlevel were stained for myofibrillar ATPase and cla

  5. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  6. Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Density Functional Theory and Information Content of New Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M; Nazarewicz, W

    2015-01-01

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models; to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability; to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment; and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, w...

  7. Applicability of Information Theory to the Quantification of Responses to Anthropogenic Noise by Southeast Alaskan Humpback Whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ellen Blue

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We assess the effectiveness of applying information theory to the characterization and quantification of the affects of anthropogenic vessel noise on humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae vocal behavior in and around Glacier Bay, Alaska. Vessel noise has the potential to interfere with the complex vocal behavior of these humpback whales which could have direct consequences on their feeding behavior and thus ultimately on their health and reproduction. Humpback whale feeding calls recorded during conditions of high vessel-generated noise and lower levels of background noise are compared for differences in acoustic structure, use, and organization using information theoretic measures. We apply information theory in a self-referential manner (i.e., orders of entropy to quantify the changes in signaling behavior. We then compare this with the reduction in channel capacity due to noise in Glacier Bay itself treating it as a (Gaussian noisy channel. We find that high vessel noise is associated with an increase in the rate and repetitiveness of sequential use of feeding call types in our averaged sample of humpback whale vocalizations, indicating that vessel noise may be modifying the patterns of use of feeding calls by the endangered humpback whales in Southeast Alaska. The information theoretic approach suggested herein can make a reliable quantitative measure of such relationships and may also be adapted for wider application to many species where environmental noise is thought to be a problem.

  8. Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Josiah S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

  9. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers’ activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers’ health systematically. Objective The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. Results The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and

  10. Uncertainty quantification for nuclear density functional theory and information content of new measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schunck, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Higdon, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sarich, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wild, S. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nazarewicz, W. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-03-24

    Statistical tools of uncertainty quantification can be used to assess the information content of measured observables with respect to present-day theoretical models, to estimate model errors and thereby improve predictive capability, to extrapolate beyond the regions reached by experiment, and to provide meaningful input to applications and planned measurements. To showcase new opportunities offered by such tools, we make a rigorous analysis of theoretical statistical uncertainties in nuclear density functional theory using Bayesian inference methods. By considering the recent mass measurements from the Canadian Penning Trap at Argonne National Laboratory, we demonstrate how the Bayesian analysis and a direct least-squares optimization, combined with high-performance computing, can be used to assess the information content of the new data with respect to a model based on the Skyrme energy density functional approach. Employing the posterior probability distribution computed with a Gaussian process emulator, we apply the Bayesian framework to propagate theoretical statistical uncertainties in predictions of nuclear masses, two-neutron dripline, and fission barriers. Overall, we find that the new mass measurements do not impose a constraint that is strong enough to lead to significant changes in the model parameters. As a result, the example discussed in this study sets the stage for quantifying and maximizing the impact of new measurements with respect to current modeling and guiding future experimental efforts, thus enhancing the experiment-theory cycle in the scientific method.

  11. Development of an exchange-correlation functional with uncertainty quantification capabilities for density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldegunde, Manuel; Kermode, James R.; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a new exchange-correlation functional from the point of view of machine learning. Using atomization energies of solids and small molecules, we train a linear model for the exchange enhancement factor using a Bayesian approach which allows for the quantification of uncertainties in the predictions. A relevance vector machine is used to automatically select the most relevant terms of the model. We then test this model on atomization energies and also on bulk properties. The average model provides a mean absolute error of only 0.116 eV for the test points of the G2/97 set but a larger 0.314 eV for the test solids. In terms of bulk properties, the prediction for transition metals and monovalent semiconductors has a very low test error. However, as expected, predictions for types of materials not represented in the training set such as ionic solids show much larger errors.

  12. Simple Type Theory as Framework for Combining Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Simple type theory is suited as framework for combining classical and non-classical logics. This claim is based on the observation that various prominent logics, including (quantified) multimodal logics and intuitionistic logics, can be elegantly embedded in simple type theory. Furthermore, simple type theory is sufficiently expressive to model combinations of embedded logics and it has a well understood semantics. Off-the-shelf reasoning systems for simple type theory exist that can be uniformly employed for reasoning within and about combinations of logics.

  13. Hoare type theory, polymorphism and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanevski, Alexandar; Morrisett, J. Gregory; Birkedal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    with higher-order functions and type polymorphism. We further show that in the presence of type polymorphism, it becomes possible to interpret the Hoare types in the “small footprint” manner, as advocated by separation logic, whereby specifications tightly describe the state required by the computation. We...

  14. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  15. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 1996–2000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50 m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  16. Evidence theory and differential evolution based uncertainty quantification for buckling load of semi-rigid jointed frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hesheng Tang; Yu Su; Jiao Wang

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes a procedure for the uncertainty quantification (UQ) using evidence theory in buckling analysis of semi-rigid jointed frame structures under mixed epistemic–aleatory uncertainty. The design uncertainties (geometrical, material, strength, and manufacturing) are often prevalent in engineering applications. Due to lack of knowledge or incomplete, inaccurate, unclear information in the modeling, simulation, measurement, and design, there are limitations in using only one framework (probability theory) to quantify uncertainty in a system because of the impreciseness of data or knowledge. Evidence theory provides an alternative to probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty that derives from a lack of knowledge with respect to the appropriate values to use for various inputs to the model. Unfortunately, propagation of an evidence theory representation for uncertainty through a model is more computationally demanding than propagation of a probabilistic representation for uncertainty. In order to alleviate the computational difficulties in the evidence theory based UQ analysis, a differential evolution-based computational strategy for propagation of epistemic uncertainty in a system with evidence theory is presented here. A UQ analysis for the buckling load of steel-plane frames with semi-rigid connections is given herein to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    CERN Document Server

    García-Etxebarria, Iñaki; Uranga, Angel M

    2015-01-01

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to $KO({\\bf S}^4)={\\bf Z}$ and $KO({\\bf S}^8)={\\bf Z}$, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces.

  18. HPAEC-PAD quantification of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide in upstream and downstream samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Robert M F; de Haan, Alex; van den IJssel, Jan G M; Hamidi, Ahd; Beurret, Michel

    2015-11-27

    Due to the rapidly increasing introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and other conjugate vaccines worldwide during the last decade, reliable and robust analytical methods are needed for the quantitative monitoring of intermediate samples generated during fermentation (upstream processing, USP) and purification (downstream processing, DSP) of polysaccharide vaccine components. This study describes the quantitative characterization of in-process control (IPC) samples generated during the fermentation and purification of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), derived from Hib. Reliable quantitative methods are necessary for all stages of production; otherwise accurate process monitoring and validation is not possible. Prior to the availability of high performance anion exchange chromatography methods, this polysaccharide was predominantly quantified either with immunochemical methods, or with the colorimetric orcinol method, which shows interference from fermentation medium components and reagents used during purification. Next to an improved high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method, using a modified gradient elution, both the orcinol assay and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses were evaluated. For DSP samples, it was found that the correlation between the results obtained by HPAEC-PAD specific quantification of the PRP monomeric repeat unit released by alkaline hydrolysis, and those from the orcinol method was high (R(2)=0.8762), and that it was lower between HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC results. Additionally, HPSEC analysis of USP samples yielded surprisingly comparable results to those obtained by HPAEC-PAD. In the early part of the fermentation, medium components interfered with the different types of analysis, but quantitative HPSEC data could still be obtained, although lacking the specificity of the HPAEC-PAD method. Thus, the HPAEC

  19. Quantification of three-dimensional cell-mediated collagen remodeling using graph theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell cooperation is a critical event during tissue development. We present the first precise metrics to quantify the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and extra cellular matrix (ECM. In particular, we describe cooperative collagen alignment process with respect to the spatio-temporal organization and function of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined two precise metrics: Collagen Alignment Index and Cell Dissatisfaction Level, for quantitatively tracking type I collagen and fibrillogenesis remodeling by mesenchymal stem cells over time. Computation of these metrics was based on graph theory and vector calculus. The cells and their three dimensional type I collagen microenvironment were modeled by three dimensional cell-graphs and collagen fiber organization was calculated from gradient vectors. With the enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, acceleration through different phases was quantitatively demonstrated. The phases were clustered in a statistically significant manner based on collagen organization, with late phases of remodeling by untreated cells clustering strongly with early phases of remodeling by differentiating cells. The experiments were repeated three times to conclude that the metrics could successfully identify critical phases of collagen remodeling that were dependent upon cooperativity within the cell population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Definition of early metrics that are able to predict long-term functionality by linking engineered tissue structure to function is an important step toward optimizing biomaterials for the purposes of regenerative medicine.

  20. A model of PCF in guarded type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy...

  1. Decorated linear order types and the theory of concatenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacic, V.; Pudlák, P.; Restall, G.; Urquhart, A.; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the interpretation of Grzegorczyk’s Theory of Concatenation TC in structures of decorated linear order types satisfying Grzegorczyk’s axioms. We show that TC is incomplete for this interpretation. What is more, the first order theory validated by this interpretation interprets arithmetical

  2. Decorated linear order types and the theory of concatenation

    OpenAIRE

    Cacic, V.; Pudlák, P.; Restall, G.; Urquhart, A; de Visser, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the interpretation of Grzegorczyk’s Theory of Concatenation TC in structures of decorated linear order types satisfying Grzegorczyk’s axioms. We show that TC is incomplete for this interpretation. What is more, the first order theory validated by this interpretation interprets arithmetical truth. We also show that every extension of TC has a model that is not isomorphic to a structure of decorated order types. We provide a positive result, to wit a construction that builds structures...

  3. Calabi-Yau compactification of type II string theories

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sibasish

    2016-01-01

    Superstring theories are the most promising theories for unified description of all fundamental interactions including gravity. However, these theories are formulated consistently only in 10 spacetime dimensions. Therefore, to connect to the observable world, it is required to compactify 6 out of those 10 dimensions in a suitable fashion. In this thesis, we mainly consider compactifications of type II string theories on Calabi-Yau threefolds. As a consequence, the resulting four dimensional theories preserve $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry. In these cases the metrics on the moduli spaces of the matter multiplets, vector and hypermultiplets, completely determine the low energy theories. Whereas the former are very well understood by now, the complete description of hypermultiplets is more complicated. In fact, hypermultiplets receive both perturbative and non-perturbative corrections. The thesis mainly pertains to the understanding of the non-perturbative corrections. Our findings for the hypermultiplets rely on...

  4. Rational sphere valued supercocycles in M-theory and type IIA string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorenza, Domenico; Schreiber, Urs

    2016-01-01

    We show that supercocycles on super $L_\\infty$-algebras capture, at the rational level, the twisted cohomological charge structure of the fields of M-theory and of type IIA string theory. We show that rational 4-sphere-valued supercocycles for M-branes in M-theory descend to supercocycles in type IIA string theory to yield the Ramond-Ramond fields predicted by the rational image of twisted K-theory, with the twist given by the B-field. In particular, we derive the M2/M5 $\\leftrightarrow$ F1/Dp/NS5 correspondence via dimensional reduction of sphere-valued $L_\\infty$ supercocycles in rational homotopy theory.

  5. Module-based Hybrid Uncertainty Quantification for Multi-physics Applications: Theory and Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, Xiao [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Iaccarino, Gianluca [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mittal, Akshay [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    In this project we proposed to develop an innovative uncertainty quantification methodology that captures the best of the two competing approaches in UQ, namely, intrusive and non-intrusive approaches. The idea is to develop the mathematics and the associated computational framework and algorithms to facilitate the use of intrusive or non-intrusive UQ methods in different modules of a multi-physics multi-module simulation model in a way that physics code developers for different modules are shielded (as much as possible) from the chores of accounting for the uncertain ties introduced by the other modules. As the result of our research and development, we have produced a number of publications, conference presentations, and a software product.

  6. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to KO(S4) = Z and KO(S8) = Z, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Montero, Miguel [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Uranga, Angel M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to KO(S{sup 4}) = Z and KO(S{sup 8}) = Z, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Intensional Type Theory with Guarded Recursive Types qua Fixed Points on Universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Mogelberg, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions...

  9. Models of Particle Physics from Type IIB String Theory and F-theory: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, Anshuman

    2012-01-01

    We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilisation within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.

  10. Horava—Lifshitz Type Quantum Field Theory and Hierarchy Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao

    2016-06-01

    We study the Lifshitz type extension of the standard model (SM) at the UV, with dynamical critical exponent z = 3. One loop radiative corrections to the Higgs mass in such a model are calculated. Our result shows that, the Hierarchy problem, which has initiated many excellent extension of the minimal SM, may be weakened in the z = 3 Lifshitz type quantum field theory. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China

  11. Classical instanton and wormhole solutions of Type IIB string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, H. W.; Myung, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    We study $p=-1$ D-brane in type IIB superstring theory. In addition to RR instanton, we obtain the RR charged wormhole solution in the Einstein frame. This corresponds to the ten-dimensional singular wormhole solution with infinite euclidean action.

  12. Inverse Regression-based Uncertainty Quantification Algorithms for High-Dimensional Models: Theory and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang; Li, Bing

    2016-09-15

    A well-known challenge in uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the "curse of dimensionality". However, many high-dimensional UQ problems are essentially low-dimensional, because the randomness of the quantity of interest (QoI) is caused only by uncertain parameters varying within a low-dimensional subspace, known as the sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) subspace. Motivated by this observation, we propose and demonstrate in this paper an inverse regression-based UQ approach (IRUQ) for high-dimensional problems. Specifically, we use an inverse regression procedure to estimate the SDR subspace and then convert the original problem to a low-dimensional one, which can be efficiently solved by building a response surface model such as a polynomial chaos expansion. The novelty and advantages of the proposed approach is seen in its computational efficiency and practicality. Comparing with Monte Carlo, the traditionally preferred approach for high-dimensional UQ, IRUQ with a comparable cost generally gives much more accurate solutions even for high-dimensional problems, and even when the dimension reduction is not exactly sufficient. Theoretically, IRUQ is proved to converge twice as fast as the approach it uses seeking the SDR subspace. For example, while a sliced inverse regression method converges to the SDR subspace at the rate of $O(n^{-1/2})$, the corresponding IRUQ converges at $O(n^{-1})$. IRUQ also provides several desired conveniences in practice. It is non-intrusive, requiring only a simulator to generate realizations of the QoI, and there is no need to compute the high-dimensional gradient of the QoI. Finally, error bars can be derived for the estimation results reported by IRUQ.

  13. Inverse regression-based uncertainty quantification algorithms for high-dimensional models: Theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang; Li, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Many uncertainty quantification (UQ) approaches suffer from the curse of dimensionality, that is, their computational costs become intractable for problems involving a large number of uncertainty parameters. In these situations, the classic Monte Carlo often remains the preferred method of choice because its convergence rate O (n - 1 / 2), where n is the required number of model simulations, does not depend on the dimension of the problem. However, many high-dimensional UQ problems are intrinsically low-dimensional, because the variation of the quantity of interest (QoI) is often caused by only a few latent parameters varying within a low-dimensional subspace, known as the sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) subspace in the statistics literature. Motivated by this observation, we propose two inverse regression-based UQ algorithms (IRUQ) for high-dimensional problems. Both algorithms use inverse regression to convert the original high-dimensional problem to a low-dimensional one, which is then efficiently solved by building a response surface for the reduced model, for example via the polynomial chaos expansion. The first algorithm, which is for the situations where an exact SDR subspace exists, is proved to converge at rate O (n-1), hence much faster than MC. The second algorithm, which doesn't require an exact SDR, employs the reduced model as a control variate to reduce the error of the MC estimate. The accuracy gain could still be significant, depending on how well the reduced model approximates the original high-dimensional one. IRUQ also provides several additional practical advantages: it is non-intrusive; it does not require computing the high-dimensional gradient of the QoI; and it reports an error bar so the user knows how reliable the result is.

  14. A Model of PCF in Guarded Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paviotti, Marco; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Guarded recursion is a form of recursion where recursive calls are guarded by delay modalities. Previous work has shown how guarded recursion is useful for constructing logics for reasoning about programming languages with advanced features, as well as for constructing and reasoning about elements...... of coinductive types. In this paper we investigate how type theory with guarded recursion can be used as a metalanguage for denotational semantics useful both for constructing models and for proving properties of these. We do this by constructing a fairly intensional model of PCF and proving it...... computationally adequate. The model construction is related to Escardo's metric model for PCF, but here everything is carried out entirely in type theory with guarded recursion, including the formulation of the operational semantics, the model construction and the proof of adequacy....

  15. D-branes in Type IIA and Type IIB theories from tachyon condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we will construct all D-branes in Type IIA and Type IIB theories via tachyon condensation. We also propose form of Wess-Zumino term for non-BPS D-brane and we will show that tachyon condensation in this term leads to standard Wess-Zumino term for BPS D-brane.

  16. Constructive Type Theory and the Dialogical Approach to Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In its origins Dialogical logic constituted one part of a new movement called the Erlangen School or Erlangen Constructivism. Its goal was to provide a new start to a general theory of language and of science. According to the Erlangen-School, language is not just a fact that we discover, but a human cultural accomplishment whose construction reason can and should control. The resulting project of intentionally constructing a scientific language was called the Orthosprache-project. Unfortunately, the Orthosprache-project was not further developed and seemed to fade away. It is possible that one of the reasons for this fading away is that the link between dialogical logic and Orthosprache was not sufficiently developed - in particular, the new theory of meaning to be found in dialogical logic seemed to be cut off from both the project of establishing the basis for scientific language and also from a general theory of meaning. We would like to contribute to clarifying one possible way in which a general dialogical theory of meaning could be linked to dialogical logic. The idea behind the proposal is to make use of constructive type theory in which logical inferences are preceded by the description of a fully interpreted language. The latter, we think, provides the means for a new start not only for the project of Orthosprache, but also for a general dialogical theory of meaning.

  17. Formation of social types in the theory of Orrin Klapp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Orrin Klapp about social types draws attention to important functions that these types have within certain societies as well as that it is preferable to take them into consideration if our goal is more complete knowledge of that society. For Klapp, social types are important social symbols, which in an interesting way reflect society they are part of and for that reason this author dedicates his work to considering their meanings and social functions. He thinks that we can not understand a society without the knowledge about the types with which its members are identified and which serve them as models in their social activity. Hence, these types have cognitive value since, according to Klapp, they assist in perception and "contain the truth", and therefore the knowledge of them allows easier orientation within the social system. Social types also offer insight into the scheme of the social structure, which is otherwise invisible and hidden, but certainly deserves attention if we wish clearer picture about social relations within specific community. The aim of this work is to present this very interesting and inspirative theory of Orrin Klapp, pointing out its importance but also its weaknesses which should be kept in mind during its application in further research.

  18. Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    equation for the distribution of k is solved, provided that Cauchy data are appropriately assigned. In the next stage, only a limited number of passive measurements are provided. In this case, the forward and inverse PDEs are solved simultaneously. This is accomplished by adding regularization terms and filtering the pressure gradients in the inverse problem. Both the forward and the inverse problem are either simultaneously or sequentially coupled and solved using implicit schemes, adaptive mesh refinement, Galerkin finite elements. The final case arises when P, k, and Q data only exist at producing wells. This exceedingly ill posed problem calls for additional constraints on the forward-inverse coupling to insure that the production rates are satisfied at the desired locations. Results from all three cases are presented demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed approach and, more importantly, providing some insights into the consequences of data under sampling, uncertainty propagation and quantification. We illustrate the advantages of this novel approach over the common UQ forward drivers on several subsurface energy problems in either porous or fractured or/and faulted reservoirs. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Nucleation of vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Wonwoo; Lee, Young Jae; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study nucleation of vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke type theory of gravity. In the Euclidean signatures, we calculate field combinations of vacuum bubbles as solutions of Einstein and field equations as well as their probabilities by integrating the Euclidean action. We illustrate three possible ways to obtain vacuum bubbles: true vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ > -3/2, false vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ -3/2 when the vacuum energy of the false vacuum in the potential of the Einstein frame is less than that of the true vacuum. After the bubble is nucleated at the t = 0 surface, we can smoothly connect and match the field combinations to some solutions of the Lorentzian signatures and consistently continue their subsequent evolutions. Therefore, we conclude that, in general scalar-tensor theories or Brans-Dicke type theories, which include some models of string theory, vacuum bubbles are allowed not only in the form of true vacuum bubbles but also false vacuum bubbles, as long as a special cond...

  20. Type 1 2HDM as Effective Theory of Supersymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华

    2012-01-01

    It is generally believed that the low energy effective theory of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is the type 2 two Higgs doublet model. We will show that the type 1 two Higge doublet model can also be as the effective of supersymmetry in a specific ease with high scale supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation. If the other electroweak doublet obtain the vacuum expectation value after the electroweak symmetry breaking, the Higgs spectrum is quite different. A remarkable feature is that the physical Higgs boson mass can be 125 GeV unlike in the ordinary models with high scale supersymmetry in which the Higgs mass is generally around 140 GeV.

  1. Multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, John

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate Bonferroni-Type Inequalities: Theory and Applications presents a systematic account of research discoveries on multivariate Bonferroni-type inequalities published in the past decade. The emergence of new bounding approaches pushes the conventional definitions of optimal inequalities and demands new insights into linear and Fréchet optimality. The book explores these advances in bounding techniques with corresponding innovative applications. It presents the method of linear programming for multivariate bounds, multivariate hybrid bounds, sub-Markovian bounds, and bounds using Hamil

  2. Type 1 2HDM as Effective Theory of Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally believed that the low energy effective theory of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is the type 2 two Higgs doublet model. We will show that the type 1 two Higgs doublet model can also be as the effective of supersymmetry in a specific case with high scale supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation. If the other electroweak doublet obtain the vacuum expectation value after the electroweak symmetry breaking, the Higgs spectrum is quite different. A remarkable feature is that the physical Higgs boson mass can be 125 GeV unlike in the ordinary models with high scale supersymmetry in which the Higgs mass is generally around 140 GeV.

  3. Type I/heterotic duality and M-theory amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates relationships between low-energy four-particle scattering amplitudes with external gauge particles and gravitons in the E_8 X E_8 and SO(32) heterotic string theories and the type I and type IA superstring theories by considering a variety of tree level and one-loop Feynman diagrams describing such amplitudes in eleven-dimensional supergravity in a Horava--Witten background compactified on a circle. This accounts for a number of perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of low order higher derivative terms in the low-energy expansion of string theory amplitudes, which are expected to be protected by half maximal supersymmetry from receiving corrections beyond one or two loops. It also suggests the manner in which type I/heterotic duality may be realised for certain higher derivative interactions that are not so obviously protected. For example, our considerations suggest that R**4 interactions (where R is the Riemann curvature) might receive no perturbative corrections beyond one loop ...

  4. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  5. Uncertainty quantification for proton-proton fusion in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B; Ekström, A; Forssén, C; Platter, L

    2016-01-01

    We compute the $S$-factor of the proton-proton ($pp$) fusion reaction using chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and perform a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the results. We quantify the uncertainties due to (i) the computational method used to compute the $pp$ cross section in momentum space, (ii) the statistical uncertainties in the low-energy coupling constants of $\\chi$EFT, (iii) the systematic uncertainty due to the $\\chi$EFT cutoff, and (iv) systematic variations in the database used to calibrate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We also examine the robustness of the polynomial extrapolation procedure, which is commonly used to extract the threshold $S$-factor and its energy-derivatives. By performing a statistical analysis of the polynomial fit of the energy-dependent $S$-factor at several different energy intervals, we eliminate a systematic uncertainty that can arise from the choice of the fit interval in our calculations. In addition, we explore the s...

  6. Uncertainty quantification for proton-proton fusion in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B.; Carlsson, B. D.; Ekström, A.; Forssén, C.; Platter, L.

    2016-09-01

    We compute the S-factor of the proton-proton (pp) fusion reaction using chiral effective field theory (χEFT) up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) and perform a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the results. We quantify the uncertainties due to (i) the computational method used to compute the pp cross section in momentum space, (ii) the statistical uncertainties in the low-energy coupling constants of χEFT, (iii) the systematic uncertainty due to the χEFT cutoff, and (iv) systematic variations in the database used to calibrate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We also examine the robustness of the polynomial extrapolation procedure, which is commonly used to extract the threshold S-factor and its energy-derivatives. By performing a statistical analysis of the polynomial fit of the energy-dependent S-factor at several different energy intervals, we eliminate a systematic uncertainty that can arise from the choice of the fit interval in our calculations. In addition, we explore the statistical correlations between the S-factor and few-nucleon observables such as the binding energies and point-proton radii of 2,3H and 3He as well as the D-state probability and quadrupole moment of 2H, and the β-decay of 3H. We find that, with the state-of-the-art optimization of the nuclear Hamiltonian, the statistical uncertainty in the threshold S-factor cannot be reduced beyond 0.7%.

  7. Quantification of regional V/Q ratios in humans by use of PET. I. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C G; Valind, S O; Brudin, L H; Wollmer, P E; Jones, T; Hughes, J M

    1989-04-01

    With positron emission tomography, quantitative measurements of regional alveolar and mixed venous concentrations of positron-emitting radioisotopes can be made within a transaxial section through the thorax. This allows the calculation of regional ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q) ratios by use of established tracer dilution theory and the constant intravenous infusion of 13N. This paper considers the effect of the inspiration of dead-space gas on regional V/Q and investigates the relationship between the measured V/Q, physiological V/Q, and V/Q defined conventionally in terms of bulk gas flow (VA/Q). Ventilation has been described in terms of net gas transport, and the term effective ventilation has been introduced. A simple two-compartment model has been constructed to allow for the reinspiration of regional (or personal) and common dead-space gas. By use of this model, with parameters representative of normal lung the effective V/Q ratio for 13N [(VA/Q)eff(13N)] is shown to overestimate VA/Q by 18% when VA/Q = 0.1 but underestimate VA/Q by 68% when VA/Q = 10. For physiological gases, the model predicts that the behavior of O2 should be similar to that of 13N, so that, in terms of gas transport, V/Q ratios obtained using the infusion of 13N closely follow those for O2. Values of the effective V/Q ratio for CO2 [(VA/Q)eff(CO2)] lie approximately halfway between (VA/Q)eff(13N) and VA/Q. These results indicate that dead-space ventilation is far less a confounding issue when V/Q is considered in terms of net gas transport (VAeff), rather than bulk flow (VA).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2786522

  8. Uncertainty quantification for proton–proton fusion in chiral effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We compute the S-factor of the proton–proton (pp fusion reaction using chiral effective field theory (χEFT up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO and perform a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the results. We quantify the uncertainties due to (i the computational method used to compute the pp cross section in momentum space, (ii the statistical uncertainties in the low-energy coupling constants of χEFT, (iii the systematic uncertainty due to the χEFT cutoff, and (iv systematic variations in the database used to calibrate the nucleon–nucleon interaction. We also examine the robustness of the polynomial extrapolation procedure, which is commonly used to extract the threshold S-factor and its energy-derivatives. By performing a statistical analysis of the polynomial fit of the energy-dependent S-factor at several different energy intervals, we eliminate a systematic uncertainty that can arise from the choice of the fit interval in our calculations. In addition, we explore the statistical correlations between the S-factor and few-nucleon observables such as the binding energies and point-proton radii of 2,3H and 3He as well as the D-state probability and quadrupole moment of 2H, and the β-decay of 3H. We find that, with the state-of-the-art optimization of the nuclear Hamiltonian, the statistical uncertainty in the threshold S-factor cannot be reduced beyond 0.7%.

  9. Predictions for orientifold field theories from type 0{sup '} string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoni, Adi [Department of Physics, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Imeroni, Emiliano [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.imeroni@phys.uu.nl

    2005-12-29

    Two predictions about finite-N non-supersymmetric 'orientifold field theories' are made by using the dual type 0{sup '} string theory on C{sup 3}/Z{sub 2}xZ{sub 2} orbifold singularity. First, the mass ratio between the lowest pseudoscalar and scalar color-singlets is estimated to be equal to the ratio between the axial anomaly and the scale anomaly at strong coupling, M{sub -}/M{sub +}{approx}C{sub -}/C{sub +}. Second, the ratio between the domain wall tension and the value of the quark condensate is computed.

  10. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Cvetic, Mirjam; /Pennsylvania U.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  11. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  12. A graphical representation of Weisskopf-Wigner type theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the usual (non-existing) Hamiltonian operator H' governing the interaction of a one-electron atom with transverse photons, can be written as the sum of a finite number of self-adjoint and bounded 'partial' interaction Hamiltonians L, where each L has a well defined physical meaning. The simplest of the Weisskopf-Wigner type theories are defined by a single L and practically all model Hamiltonians used in quantum optics are closely related either to a single L or to sums of very few L. The systematic 'Weisskopf-Wigner approximation scheme' introduced previously consists of special sequences of partial sums of L. The system of partial sums of L are here equipped with a system of graphs where each graph defines uniquely a certain Weisskopf-Wigner theory and visualises its physical content in a comparable way to a Feynman graph. Finally some applications are given. (author)

  13. Radiochemical Separation and Quantification of Tritium in Metallic Radwastes Generated from CANDU Type NPP - 13279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, H.J.; Choi, K.C.; Choi, K.S.; Park, T.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    As a destructive quantification method of {sup 3}H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of {sup 3}H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since {sup 3}H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, {sup 3}H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes {sup 3}H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the {sup 3}H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of {sup 3}H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of {sup 3}H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds were

  14. Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balint, Adam; Tenk, Miklós; Deim, Zoltán;

    2009-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated...

  15. Quantification of the N-terminal propeptide of human procollagen type I (PINP): comparison of ELISA and RIA with respect to different molecular forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Hansen, M; Brandt, J;

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares the results of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) quantification by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PINP in serum from a patient with uremic hyperparathyroidism was measured in RIA and ELISA to 20 micrograms l-1 and 116 microg...

  16. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778

  17. Type II fuzzy systems for amyloid plaque segmentation in transgenic mouse brains for Alzheimer's disease quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, April; Hosseinzadeh, Danoush

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques (AP). Using animal models, AP loads have been manually measured from histological specimens to understand disease etiology, as well as response to treatment. Due to the manual nature of these approaches, obtaining the AP load is labourious, subjective and error prone. Automated algorithms can be designed to alleviate these challenges by objectively segmenting AP. In this paper, we focus on the development of a novel algorithm for AP segmentation based on robust preprocessing and a Type II fuzzy system. Type II fuzzy systems are much more advantageous over the traditional Type I fuzzy systems, since ambiguity in the membership function may be modeled and exploited to generate excellent segmentation results. The ambiguity in the membership function is defined as an adaptively changing parameter that is tuned based on the local contrast characteristics of the image. Using transgenic mouse brains with AP ground truth, validation studies were carried out showing a high degree of overlap and low degree of oversegmentation (0.8233 and 0.0917, respectively). The results highlight that such a framework is able to handle plaques of various types (diffuse, punctate), plaques with varying Aβ concentrations as well as intensity variation caused by treatment effects or staining variability.

  18. Quantification and monosaccharide composition of hemicelluloses from different plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Christina; Blöchl, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Hoch, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Hemicelluloses are the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. So far, the chemical heterogeneity of cell-wall hemicelluloses and the relatively large sample-volume required in existing methods represent major obstacles for large-scale, cross-species analyses of this important plant compound. Here, we apply a new micro-extraction method to analyse hemicelluloses and the ratio of 'cellulose and lignin' to hemicelluloses in different tissues of 28 plant species comprising four plant functional types (broad-leaved trees, conifers, grasses and herbs). For this study, the fiber analysis after Van Soest was modified to enable the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative measurements of hemicelluloses in small sample volumes. Total hemicellulose concentrations differed markedly among functional types and tissues with highest concentration in sapwood of broad-leaved trees (31% d.m. in Fraxinus excelsior) and lowest concentration between 10 and 15% d.m. in leaves and bark of woody species as well as in roots of herbs. As for total hemicellulose concentrations, plant functional types and tissues exhibited characteristic ratios between the sum of cellulose plus lignin and hemicelluloses, with very high ratios (>4) in bark of trees and low ratios (plant functional types which exhibited characteristic hemicellulose concentrations and monosaccharide patterns. PMID:19926487

  19. Aspects of Moduli Stabilization in Type IIB String Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactification with fluxes. We focus on KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS. We show that the predicted soft SUSY breaking terms in KKLT model are not phenomenological viable. In LVS, the following result for scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear term is obtained: m0=m1/2=-A0=m3/2, which may account for Higgs mass limit if m3/2~O(1.5 TeV. However, in this case, the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino cannot be consistent with the measured limits. We also study the cosmological consequences of moduli stabilization in both models. In particular, the associated inflation models such as racetrack inflation and Kähler inflation are analyzed. Finally, the problem of moduli destabilization and the effect of string moduli backreaction on the inflation models are discussed.

  20. What is the Nature of a Post-Materialist Paradigm? Three Types of Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    What does it mean to have a post-materialist theory? I propose that there are three classes or categories of theories. (1) Type I post-materialist theories: neo-physical theories that are derived from materialist theories, where the materialist theories are still seen as primary and are viewed as being fundamentally necessary to create "non-material" (yet physical) phenomena such as consciousness. (2) Type II post-materialist theories: post-materialist theories of consciousness existing alongside materialist theories, where each class of theories are seen as primary and are viewed as not being derivable from (i.e. are not reducible to) the other And (3) Type I post-materialist theories: where materialist theories are derived from, and are a subset of, more inclusive post-materialist theories of consciousness; here post-materialist theories are seen as primary and are viewed as the ultimate origin of material systems. Type I theories are the least controversial, Type III are the most controversial. The three types of theories are considered in the context of the history of the emergence of post-materialist science.

  1. Type IIB flux vacua from G-theory II

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Damian, Cesar; Larfors, Magdalena; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We find analytic solutions of type IIB supergravity on geometries that locally take the form $\\text{Mink}\\times M_4\\times \\mathbb{C}$ with $M_4$ a generalised complex manifold. The solutions involve the metric, the dilaton, NSNS and RR flux potentials (oriented along the $M_4$) parametrised by functions varying only over $\\mathbb{C}$. Under this assumption, the supersymmetry equations are solved using the formalism of pure spinors in terms of a finite number of holomorphic functions. Alternatively, the solutions can be viewed as vacua of maximally supersymmetric supergravity in six dimensions with a set of scalar fields varying holomorphically over $\\mathbb{C}$. For a class of solutions characterised by up to five holomorphic functions, we outline how the local solutions can be completed to four-dimensional flux vacua of type IIB theory. A detailed study of this global completion for solutions with two holomorphic functions has been carried out in the companion paper [1]. The fluxes of the global solutions ar...

  2. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje

  3. A new approach to comprehensive quantification of linear landscape elements using biotope types on a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Ulrike; Mewes, Melanie; Meyer, Burghard C.

    The structure of a landscape is highly relevant for research and planning (such as fulfilling the requirements of the Water Framework Directive - WFD - and for implementation of comprehensive catchment planning). There is a high potential for restoration of linear landscape elements in most European landscapes. By implementing the WFD in Germany, the restoration of linear landscape elements could be a valuable measure, for example to reduce nutrient input into rivers. Despite this importance of landscape structures for water and nutrients fluxes, biodiversity and the appearance of a landscape, specific studies of the linear elements are rare for larger catchment areas. Existing studies are limited because they either use remote sensing data, which does not adequately differentiate all types of linear landscape elements, or they focus only on a specific type of linear element. To address these limitations, we developed a framework allowing comprehensive quantification of linear landscape elements for catchment areas, using publicly available biotope type data. We analysed the dependence of landscape structures on natural regions and regional soil characteristics. Three data sets (differing in biotopes, soil parameters and natural regions) were generated for the catchment area of the middle Mulde River (2700 km 2) in Germany, using overlay processes in geographic information systems (GIS), followed by statistical evaluation. The linear landscape components of the total catchment area are divided into roads (55%), flowing water (21%), tree rows (14%), avenues (5%), and hedges (2%). The occurrence of these landscape components varies regionally among natural units and different soil regions. For example, the mixed deciduous stands (3.5 m/ha) are far more frequent in foothills (6 m/ha) than in hill country (0.9 m/ha). In contrast, fruit trees are more frequent in hill country (5.2 m/ha) than in the cooler foothills (0.5 m/ha). Some 70% of avenues, and 40% of tree rows

  4. Type IIA flux compactifications. Vacua, effective theories and cosmological challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koers, Simon

    2009-07-30

    In this thesis, we studied a number of type IIA SU(3)-structure compactifications with 06-planes on nilmanifolds and cosets, which are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the low energy effective theory. In particular we calculated the mass spectrum of the light scalar modes, using N = 1 supergravity techniques. For the torus and the Iwasawa solution, we have also performed an explicit Kaluza-Klein reduction, which led to the same result. For the nilmanifold examples we have found that there are always three unstabilized moduli corresponding to axions in the RR sector. On the other hand, in the coset models, except for SU(2) x SU(2), all moduli are stabilized. We discussed the Kaluza-Klein decoupling for the supersymmetric AdS vacua and found that it requires going to the Nearly-Calabi Yau limited. We searched for non-trivial de Sitter minima in the original flux potential away from the AdS vacuum. Finally, in chapter 7, we focused on a family of three coset spaces and constructed non-supersymmetric vacua on them. (orig.)

  5. Solvable Lie Algebras in Type IIA, Type IIB and M Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Fré, P; Minasian, R; Trigiante, M

    1997-01-01

    We study some applications of solvable Lie algebras in type IIA, type IIB and M theories. RR and NS generators find a natural geometric interpretation in this framework. Special emphasis is given to the counting of the abelian nilpotent ideals (translational symmetries of the scalar manifolds) in arbitrary D dimensions. These are seen to be related, using Dynkin diagram techniques, to one-form counting in D+1 dimensions. A recipy for gauging isometries in this framework is also presented. In particular, we list the gauge groups both for compact and translational isometries. The former agree with some results already existing in gauged supergravity. The latter should be possibly related to the study of partial supersymmetry breaking, as suggested by a similar role played by solvable Lie algebras in N=2 gauged supergravity.

  6. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of a specific MMP-9 mediated degradation fragment of type III collagen--A novel biomarker of atherosclerotic plaque remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Larsen, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of collagen in the arterial wall by matrix metalloproteinases is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. We have developed an ELISA for the quantification of type III collagen degradation mediated by MMP-9 in urine....

  7. Krichever-Novikov type algebras theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Krichever and Novikov introduced certain classes of infinite dimensionalLie algebrasto extend the Virasoro algebra and its related algebras to Riemann surfaces of higher genus. The author of this book generalized and extended them toa more general setting needed by the applications. Examples of applications are Conformal Field Theory, Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models, moduli space problems, integrable systems, Lax operator algebras, and deformation theory of Lie algebra. Furthermore they constitute an important class of infinite dimensional Lie algebras which due to their geometric origin are

  8. A phenomenological Landauer-type theory on colossal magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M.; Tian, G.-S.; Lin, T.-H.

    1996-12-01

    A two-dimensional interacting magnetic domains model is examined to explain the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) recently observed in manganese-oxides. Electrons transport properties were studied by using Landauer's multichannel transport theory and recursive Green's function technique. Colossal magnetoresistance shows up in this system. The temperature dependence of system's MR is also studied.

  9. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bang-Cheng; Cai, Chen-Bo; Shi, Wei; Xu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  10. MASLOV-TYPE INDEX THEORY FOR SYMPLECTIC PATHS AND SPECTRAL FLOW(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the spectral flow and the stratification structures of the symplectic group Sp(2n, C),the Maslov-type index theory and its generalization, the w-index theory parameterized by all w on the unit circle, for arbitrary paths in Sp(2n, C) are established. Then the Bott-type iteration formula of the Maslov-type indices for iterated paths in Sp(2n, C) is proved, and the mean index for any path in Sp(2n, C) is defined. Also, the relation among various Maslov-type index theories is studied.

  11. Conformal field theory and functions of hypergeometric type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-03-15

    Conformal field theory provides a universal description of various phenomena in natural sciences. Its development, swift and successful, belongs to the major highlights of theoretical physics of the late XX century. In contrast, advances of the theory of hypergeometric functions always assumed a slower pace throughout the centuries of its existence. Functional identities studied by this mathematical discipline are fascinating both in their complexity and beauty. This thesis investigates the interrelation of two subjects through a direct analysis of three CFT problems: two-point functions of the 2d strange metal CFT, three-point functions of primaries of the non-rational Toda CFT and kinematical parts of Mellin amplitudes for scalar four-point functions in general dimensions. We flash out various generalizations of hypergeometric functions as a natural mathematical language for two of these problems. Several new methods inspired by extensions of classical results on hypergeometric functions, are presented.

  12. Conformal field theory and functions of hypergeometric type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal field theory provides a universal description of various phenomena in natural sciences. Its development, swift and successful, belongs to the major highlights of theoretical physics of the late XX century. In contrast, advances of the theory of hypergeometric functions always assumed a slower pace throughout the centuries of its existence. Functional identities studied by this mathematical discipline are fascinating both in their complexity and beauty. This thesis investigates the interrelation of two subjects through a direct analysis of three CFT problems: two-point functions of the 2d strange metal CFT, three-point functions of primaries of the non-rational Toda CFT and kinematical parts of Mellin amplitudes for scalar four-point functions in general dimensions. We flash out various generalizations of hypergeometric functions as a natural mathematical language for two of these problems. Several new methods inspired by extensions of classical results on hypergeometric functions, are presented.

  13. Four types of coping with COPD-induced breathlessness in daily living: a grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich;

    2013-01-01

    COPD predominantly cope with breathlessness during daily living. We chose a multimodal grounded theory design that holds the opportunity to combine qualitative and quantitative data to capture and explain the multidimensional coping behaviour among poeple with COPD. The participants' main concern...... comprised distrinctive physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial features constituting coping-type-specific indicators. In theory, four predominant coping types with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective and psychosocial properties are observed among people with COPD. The four coping types...

  14. Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, AM

    2005-01-01

    The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.

  15. Eady Solitary Waves: A Theory of Type B Cyclogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsudera, Humio

    1994-11-01

    Localized baroclinic instability in a weakly nonlinear, long-wave limit using an Eady model is studied. The resulting evolution equations have a form of the KdV type, including extra terms representing linear coupling. Baroclinic instability is triggered locally by the collision between two neutral solitary waves (one trapped at the upper boundary and the other at the lower boundary) if their incident amplitudes are sufficiently large. This characteristic is explained from the viewpoint of resonance when the relative phase speed, which depends on the amplitudes, is less than a critical value. The upper and lower disturbances grow in a coupled manner (resembling a normal-mode structure) initially, but they reverse direction slowly as the amplitudes increase, and eventually separate from each other.The motivation of this study is to investigate a type of extratropical cyclogenesis that involves a preexisting upper trough (termed as Type B development) from the viewpoint of resonant solitary waves. Two cases are of particular interest. First, the author examines a case where an upper disturbance preexists over an undisturbed low-level waveguide. The solitary waves exhibit behavior similar to that conceived by Hoskins et al. for Type B development; the lower disturbance is forced one sidedly by a preexisting upper disturbance initially, but in turn forces the latter once the former attains a sufficient amplitude, thus resulting in mutual reinforcement. Second, if a weak perturbation exists at the surface ahead of the preexisting strong upper disturbance, baroclinic instability is triggered when the two waves interact. Even though the amplitude of the lower disturbance is initially much weaker, it is intensified quickly and catches up with the amplitude of the upper disturbance, so that the coupled vertical structure resembles that of an unstable normal mode eventually. These results describe the observed behavior in Type B atmospheric cyclogenesis quite well.

  16. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K., E-mail: kfarakos@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Metaxas, D., E-mail: metaxas@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2012-02-07

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z=2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z=3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  17. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.

    2012-02-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z = 2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z = 3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  18. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For $z=2$, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one-loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For $z=3$, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one-loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  19. Cosmic web-type classification using decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leclercq, Florent; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a decision criterion for segmenting the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments and clusters) on the basis of their respective probabilities and the strength of data constraints. Our approach is inspired by an analysis of games of chance where the gambler only plays if a positive expected net gain can be achieved based on some degree of privileged information. The result is a general solution for classification problems in the face of uncertainty, including the option of not committing to a class for a candidate object. As an illustration, we produce high-resolution maps of web-type constituents in the nearby Universe as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey main galaxy sample. Other possible applications include the selection and labeling of objects in catalogs derived from astronomical survey data.

  20. Brans-Dicke-type theories and avoidance of the cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I; Cardenas, R; Quiros, Israel; Bonal, Rolando; Cardenas, Rolando

    2000-01-01

    A point of view, based on a postulate about the physical equivalence of conformal representations of a given physical situation in Brans-Dicke-type theories of gravitation is presented, that automatically solves the discussion about the physical equivalence of Jordan frame and Einstein frame formulations of scalar-tensor theory. The cosmological consequences of this viewpoint for general relativity are studied, and its implications for the low-energy limit of string theory outlined.

  1. Energy of the Universe in Bianchi-type I Models in Moller's Tetrad Theory of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This paper has been removed by arXiv administrators because it plagiarizes gr-qc/0011027, "Viscous cosmologies in scalar-tensor theories for Kasner type metrics," by M. Cataldo, S. del Campo and P. Salgado.

  2. Quantum Field Theory Applications of Heun Type Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Birkandan, T

    2016-01-01

    After a brief introduction to Heun type functions we note that the actual solutions of the eigenvalue equation emerging in the calculation of the one loop contribution to QCD from the Belavin-Polyakov-Schwarz-Tyupkin instanton and the similar calculation for a Dirac particle coupled to a scalar $CP^1$ model in two dimensions can be given in terms of confluent Heun equation in their original forms. These equations were previously modified to be solved by more elementary functions. We also show that polynomial solutions with discrete eigenvalues are impossible to find in the unmodified equations.

  3. A matrix model for heterotic Spin(32)/Z sub 2 and type I string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krogh, M

    1999-01-01

    We consider heterotic string theories in the DLCQ. We derive that the matrix model of the Spin(32)/Z sub 2 heterotic theory is the theory living on N D-strings in type I wound on a circle with no Spin(32)/Z sub 2 Wilson line on the circle. This is an O(N) gauge theory. We rederive the matrix model for the E sub 8 xE sub 8 heterotic string theory, explicitly taking care of the Wilson line around the lightlike circle. The result is the same theory as for Spin(32)/Z sub 2 except that now there is a Wilson line on the circle. We also see that the integer N labeling the sector of the O(N) matrix model is not just the momentum around the lightlike circle, but a shifted momentum depending on the Wilson line. We discuss the aspect of level matching, GSO projections and why, from the point of view of matrix theory the E sub 8 xE sub 8 theory, and not the Spin(32)/Z sub 2 , develops an 11th dimension for strong coupling. Furthermore a matrix theory for type I is derived. This is again the O(N) theory living on the D-st...

  4. $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric field theories on 3-manifolds with A-type boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    General half-BPS A-type boundary conditions are formulated for N=2 supersymmetric field theories on compact 3-manifolds with boundary. We observe that under suitable conditions manifolds of the real A-type admitting two complex supersymmetries (related by charge conjugation) possess, besides a contact structure, a natural integrable toric foliation. A boundary, or a general co-dimension-1 defect, can be inserted along any leaf of this preferred foliation to produce manifolds with boundary that have the topology of a solid torus. We show that supersymmetric field theories on such manifolds can be endowed with half-BPS A-type boundary conditions. We specify the natural curved space generalization of the A-type projection of bulk supersymmetries and analyze the resulting A-type boundary conditions in generic 3d non-linear sigma models and YM/CS-matter theories.

  5. Vortex-type half-BPS solitons in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory without and with mass deformation. It is shown that maximally supersymmetry preserving, D-term, and F-term mass deformations of single mass parameter are equivalent. We obtain vortex-type half-BPS equations and the corresponding energy bound. For the undeformed ABJM theory, the resulting half-BPS equation is the same as that in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and no finite energy regular BPS solution is found. For the mass-deformed ABJM theory, the half-BPS equations for U(2)xU(2) case reduce to the vortex equation in Maxwell-Higgs theory, which supports static regular multivortex solutions. In U(N)xU(N) case with N>2 the non-Abelian vortex equation of Yang-Mills-Higgs theory is obtained.

  6. On the usage of classical nucleation theory in quantification of the impact of bacterial INP on weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Maher; Wex, Heike; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Nielsen, Niels W.; Finster, Kai; Sørensen, Jens H.; Stratmann, Frank; Korsholm, Ulrik S.

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial ice-nucleating particles (INP) are present in the atmosphere and efficient in heterogeneous ice-nucleation at temperatures up to -2 °C in mixed-phase clouds. However, due to their low emission rates, their climatic impact was considered insignificant in previous modeling studies. In view of uncertainties about the actual atmospheric emission rates and concentrations of bacterial INP, it is important to re-investigate the threshold fraction of cloud droplets containing bacterial INP for a pronounced effect on ice-nucleation, by using a suitable parameterization that describes the ice-nucleation process by bacterial INP properly. Therefore, we compared two heterogeneous ice-nucleation rate parameterizations, denoted CH08 and HOO10 herein, both of which are based on classical-nucleation-theory and measurements, and use similar equations, but different parameters, to an empirical parameterization, denoted HAR13 herein, which considers implicitly the number of bacterial INP. All parameterizations were used to calculate the ice-nucleation probability offline. HAR13 and HOO10 were implemented and tested in a one-dimensional version of a weather-forecast-model in two meteorological cases. Ice-nucleation-probabilities based on HAR13 and CH08 were similar, in spite of their different derivation, and were higher than those based on HOO10. This study shows the importance of the method of parameterization and of the input variable, number of bacterial INP, for accurately assessing their role in meteorological and climatic processes.

  7. Cherkis bow varieties and Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2016-01-01

    We show that Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$ are Cherkis bow varieties, which have been introduced as ADHM type description of moduli space of instantons on the Taub-NUT space equivariant under a cyclic group action.

  8. Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C;

    2013-01-01

    that nonplasticizing water also influences coalescence of Eudragit RLPO; so there is a need to quantify the different types of water in Eudragit RLPO. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the types of water present in Eudragit RLPO polymer and to investigate the water loss kinetics for these different types...... be differentiated (dipole interaction of water with quaternary ammonium groups, water cluster, and water indirectly and directly binding to the carbonyl groups of the polymer) but it was not possible to distinguish whether the different types of water were lost at different rates. It is suggested that water...

  9. D-branes and dual gauge theories in type 0 strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the type 0 theories, obtained from the closed NSR string by a diagonal GSO projection which excludes space-time fermions, and study the D-branes in these theories. The low-energy dynamics of N coincident D-branes is governed by a U(N) gauge theory coupled to adjoint scalar fields. It is tempting to look for the type 0 string duals of such bosonic gauge theories in the background of the R-R charged p-brane classical solutions. This results in a picture analogous to the one recently proposed by Polyakov (hep-th/9809057). One of the serious problems that needs to be resolved is the closed string tachyon mode which couples to the D-branes and appears to cause an instability. We study the tachyon terms in the type 0 effective action and argue that the background R-R flux provides a positive shift of the (mass)2 of the tachyon. Thus, for sufficiently large flux, the tachyonic instability may be cured, removing the most basic obstacle to constructing the type 0 duals of non-supersymmetric gauge theories. We further find that the tachyon acquires an expectation value in the presence of the R-R flux. This effect is crucial for breaking the conformal invariance in the dual description of the 3 + 1-dimensional non-supersymmetric gauge theory

  10. Theory of chromatography of partially cyclic polymers: Tadpole-type and manacle-type macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, Andrey V; Gorbunov, Alexei A

    2016-02-12

    A theory of chromatography is developed for partially cyclic polymers of tadpole- and manacle-shaped topological structures. We present exact equations for the distribution coefficient K at different adsorption interactions; simpler approximate formulae are also derived, relevant to the conditions of size-exclusion, adsorption, and critical chromatography. Theoretical chromatograms of heterogeneous partially cyclic polymers are simulated, and conditions for good separation by topology are predicted. According to the theory, an effective SEC-radius of tadpoles and manacles is mostly determined by the molar mass M, and by the linear-cyclic composition. In the interactive chromatography, the effect of molecular topology on the retention becomes significant. At the critical interaction point, partial dependences K(Mlin) and K(Mring) are qualitatively different: while being almost independent of Mlin, K increases with Mring. This behavior could be realized in critical chromatography-for separation of partially cyclic polymers by the number and molar mass of cyclic elements.

  11. Theory of chromatography of partially cyclic polymers: Tadpole-type and manacle-type macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, Andrey V; Gorbunov, Alexei A

    2016-02-12

    A theory of chromatography is developed for partially cyclic polymers of tadpole- and manacle-shaped topological structures. We present exact equations for the distribution coefficient K at different adsorption interactions; simpler approximate formulae are also derived, relevant to the conditions of size-exclusion, adsorption, and critical chromatography. Theoretical chromatograms of heterogeneous partially cyclic polymers are simulated, and conditions for good separation by topology are predicted. According to the theory, an effective SEC-radius of tadpoles and manacles is mostly determined by the molar mass M, and by the linear-cyclic composition. In the interactive chromatography, the effect of molecular topology on the retention becomes significant. At the critical interaction point, partial dependences K(Mlin) and K(Mring) are qualitatively different: while being almost independent of Mlin, K increases with Mring. This behavior could be realized in critical chromatography-for separation of partially cyclic polymers by the number and molar mass of cyclic elements. PMID:26803439

  12. Quantification on source/receptor relationship of primary pollutants and secondary aerosols from ground sources. Part 1. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new algorithm has been derived for trajectory models to determine the transfer coefficient of each source along or adjacent to a trajectory and to calculate the concentrations of SO2 NOx, sulfate, nitrate, fine particulate matter (PM) and coarse PM at a receptor. The transfer coefficient tf(sm-1) is defined to be the ratio between the contributed concentration δC(μgm-3) to the receptor from a ground source and the emission rate of the source q (μgm-2s-1) at a grid. i.e. tfidentical toδC/q. The model is developed by combining with a backward trajectory scheme and a circuit-type's parameterization. First, the transfer coefficients of grids along or adjacent a back-trajectory are calculated. Then, the contributed concentration of each emission grid is determined by multiplying its emission rate with the transfer coefficient of the grid. Finally, the concentration at the receptor is determined by the summation of all the contributed concentrations within the domain of simulation. (author)

  13. Digital games for type 1 and type 2 diabetes: underpinning theory with three illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Gammon, Shauna; Dixon, Mavis C; MacRury, Sandra M; Fergusson, Michael J; Miranda Rodrigues, Francisco; Mourinho Baptista, Telmo; Yang, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Digital games are an important class of eHealth interventions in diabetes, made possible by the Internet and a good range of affordable mobile devices (eg, mobile phones and tablets) available to consumers these days. Gamifying disease management can help children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes to better cope with their lifelong condition. Gamification and social in-game components are used to motivate players/patients and positively change their behavior and lifestyle. In this paper, we start by presenting the main challenges facing people with diabetes-children/adolescents and adults-from a clinical perspective, followed by three short illustrative examples of mobile and desktop game apps and platforms designed by Ayogo Health, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada) for type 1 diabetes (one example) and type 2 diabetes (two examples). The games target different age groups with different needs-children with type 1 diabetes versus adults with type 2 diabetes. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all digital game offerings available for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but rather to serve as a taster of a few of the game genres on offer today for both types of diabetes, with a brief discussion of (1) some of the underpinning psychological mechanisms of gamified digital interventions and platforms as self-management adherence tools, and more, in diabetes, and (2) some of the hypothesized potential benefits that might be gained from their routine use by people with diabetes. More research evidence from full-scale evaluation studies is needed and expected in the near future that will quantify, qualify, and establish the evidence base concerning this gamification potential, such as what works in each age group/patient type, what does not, and under which settings and criteria. PMID:25791276

  14. Quantification of age-related changes in the structure model type and trabecular thickness of human tibial cancellous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I

    2000-01-01

    traditionally been measured using model-based histomorphometric methods on two-dimensional (2-D) sections. However, no quantitative study has been published based on three-dimensional (3-D) methods on the age-related changes in structure model type and trabecular thickness for human peripheral (tibial......Structure model type and trabecular thickness are important characteristics in describing cancellous bone architecture. It has been qualitatively observed that a radical change of trabeculae from plate-like to rod-like occurs in aging, bone remodeling, and osteoporosis. Thickness of trabeculae has......, structure model type and trabecular thickness were quantified by means of novel 3-D methods. Structure model type was assessed by calculating the structure model index (SMI). The SMI was quantified based on a differential analysis of the triangulated bone surface of a structure. This technique allows...

  15. How to obtain a covariant Breit type equation from relativistic Constraint Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad, J.; Sazdjian, H.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that, by an appropriate modification of the structure of the interaction potential, the Breit equation can be incorporated into a set of two compatible manifestly covariant wave equations, derived from the general rules of Constraint Theory. The complementary equation to the covariant Breit type equation determines the evolution law in the relative time variable. The interaction potential can be systematically calculated in perturbation theory from Feynman diagrams. The normalizat...

  16. Frobenius type and CV-structures for Donaldson-Thomas theory and a convergence property

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We rephrase some well-known results in Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of (formal families of) Frobenius type and CV-structures on a vector bundle in the sense of Hertling. We study these structures in an abstract setting, and prove a convergence result which is relevant to the case of triangulated categories. An application to physical field theory is also briefly discussed.

  17. Seiberg-Witten-type Maps for Currents and Energy-Momentum Tensors in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Rabin; Lee, Choonkyu; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2003-01-01

    We derive maps relating the currents and energy-momentum tensors in noncommutative (NC) gauge theories with their commutative equivalents. Some uses of these maps are discussed. Especially, in NC electrodynamics, we obtain a generalization of the Lorentz force law. Also, the same map for anomalous currents relates the Adler-Bell-Jackiw type NC covariant anomaly with the standard commutative-theory anomaly. For the particular case of two dimensions, we discuss the implications of these maps fo...

  18. Preclinical evaluation and quantification of [18F]MK-9470 as a radioligand for PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [18F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist for the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor allowing its use in PET imaging. We characterized the kinetics of [18F]MK-9470 and evaluated its ability to quantify CB1 receptor availability in the rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [18F]MK-9470 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 10 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Displacement and blocking experiments were done using cold MK-9470 and another inverse agonist, SR141716A. The distribution volume (VT) of [18F]MK-9470 was used as a quantitative measure and compared to the use of brain uptake, expressed as SUV, a simplified method of quantification. The percentage of intact [18F]MK-9470 in arterial plasma samples was 80 ± 23 % at 10 min, 38 ± 30 % at 40 min and 13 ± 14 % at 210 min. A polar radiometabolite fraction was detected in plasma and brain tissue. The brain radiometabolite concentration was uniform across the whole brain. Displacement and pretreatment studies showed that 56 % of the tracer binding was specific and reversible. VT values obtained with a one-tissue compartment model plus constrained radiometabolite input had good identifiability (≤10 %). Ignoring the radiometabolite contribution using a one-tissue compartment model alone, i.e. without constrained radiometabolite input, overestimated the [18F]MK-9470 VT, but was correlated. A correlation between [18F]MK-9470 VT and SUV in the brain was also found (R 2 = 0.26-0.33; p ≤ 0.03). While the presence of a brain-penetrating radiometabolite fraction complicates the quantification of [18F]MK-9470 in the rat brain, its tracer kinetics can be modelled using a one-tissue compartment model with and without constrained radiometabolite input. (orig.)

  19. Continuous Wave Spectroscopy with Diffusion Theory for Quantification of Optical Properties: Comparison Between Multi-distance and Multi-wavelength Data Fitting Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Lin, Zhi-Fong; Nioka, Shoko; Chen, Li-Hsin; Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Chung, Pau-Choo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, continuous wave spectroscopy (CWS) can be used to accurately quantify biological tissue optical properties (μ a and μ s ') by employing the diffuse reflectance information acquired at multiple source-detector separations (multi-distance). On the other hand, sample optical properties can also be obtained by fitting multi-wavelength light reflectance acquired at a single source detector separation to the diffusion theory equation. To date, multi-wavelength and multi-distance methods have not yet been rigorously compared for their accuracy in quantification of the sample optical properties. In this investigation, we compared the accuracy of the two above-mentioned quantifying methods in the optical properties recovery. The liquid phantoms had μ a between 0.004 and 0.011 mm(-1) and μ s ' between 0.55 and 1.07 mm(-1) whose optical properties mimic the human breast. Multi-distance data and multi-wavelength data were fitted to the same diffusion equation for consistency. The difference between benchmark μ a and μ s ' and the fitted results, ΔError (ΔE) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the two methods. The results showed that either method yielded ΔE within 15-30 % when values were within certain limits to standard values applicable to μ s ' and μ a for human adipose tissue. Both methods showed no significant differences in ΔE values. Our results suggest that both multi-distance and multi-wavelength methods can yield similar reasonable optical properties in biological tissue with a proper calibration. PMID:27526161

  20. Nonperturbative type IIB model building in the F-theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurke, Benjamin Helmut Friedrich

    2011-02-28

    This dissertation is concerned with the topic of non-perturbative string theory, which is generally considered to be the most promising approach to a consistent description of quantum gravity. The five known 10-dimensional perturbative string theories are all interconnected by numerous dualities, such that an underlying non-perturbative 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, is postulated. Due to several technical obstacles, little is known about the fundamental objects in this theory. There exists an alternative non-perturbative description to type IIB string theory, namely F-theory. Here the SL(2;Z) self-duality of IIB theory is geometrized in the form of an elliptic fibration over the space-time. Moreover, higher-dimensional objects like 7-branes are included via singularities into the geometric picture. This formally elegant description, however, requires significant technical effort for the construction of suitable compactification geometries, as many different aspects necessarily have to be dealt with at the same time. On the other hand, the generation of essential GUT building blocks like certain Yukawa couplings or spinor representations is easier compared to perturbative string theory. The goal of this study is therefore to formulate a unified theory within the framework of F-theory, that satisfies basic phenomenological constraints. Within this thesis, at first E3-brane instantons in type IIB string theory - 4-dimensional objects that are entirely wrapped around the invisible dimensions of space-time - are matched with M5-branes in F-theory. Such objects are of great importance in the generation of critical Yukawa couplings or the stabilization of the free parameters of a theory. Certain properties of M5-branes then allow to derive a new criterion for E3-branes to contribute to the superpotential. In the aftermath of this analysis, several compactification geometries are constructed and checked for basic properties that are relevant for semi

  1. Bianchi Type VI1 Viscous Fluid Cosmological Model in Wesson´s Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadekar, G. S.; Avachar, G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Field equations of a scale invariant theory of gravitation proposed by Wesson [1, 2] are obtained in the presence of viscous fluid with the aid of Bianchi type VIh space-time with the time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). It is found that Bianchi type VIh (h = 1) space-time with viscous fluid is feasible in this theory, whereas Bianchi type VIh (h = -1, 0) space-times are not feasible in this theory, even in the presence of viscosity. For the feasible case, by assuming a relation connecting viscosity and metric coefficient, we have obtained a nonsingular-radiating model. We have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of the models.

  2. Impaired Theory of Mind and psychosocial functioning among pediatric patients with Type I versus Type II bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S; Chamberlain, Todd F; Towne, Terra L

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) have been documented among pediatric patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, fewer studies have directly examined differences between type I and type II patients and whether or not ToM deficits are related to psychosocial difficulties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare type I versus type II pediatric bipolar patients and matched Healthy Controls (HC) on ToM and interpersonal functioning tasks. All participants completed the Revised Mind in the Eyes Task (MET), the Cognitive and Emotional Perspective Taking Task (CEPTT), and the Index of Peer Relations (IPR). Type I BD patients reported greater peer difficulties on the IPR compared to HC, and also performed more poorly on the MET and the cognitive condition of the CEPTT, but did not differ significantly on the emotional condition. There were no significant group differences between type II BD patients and HC. More impaired ToM performance was associated with poorer interpersonal functioning. Type I BD patients show deficits in the ability to understand another's mental state, irrespective of emotional valence. Deficits in understanding others' mental states could be an important treatment target for type I pediatric patients with BD. PMID:24461271

  3. Conference on Geometric Analysis &Conference on Type Theory, Homotopy Theory and Univalent Foundations : Extended Abstracts Fall 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Paul; Gambino, Nicola; Kock, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The two parts of the present volume contain extended conference abstracts corresponding to selected talks given by participants at the "Conference on Geometric Analysis" (thirteen abstracts) and at the "Conference on Type Theory, Homotopy Theory and Univalent Foundations" (seven abstracts), both held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona from July 1st to 5th, 2013, and from September 23th to 27th, 2013, respectively. Most of them are brief articles, containing preliminary presentations of new results not yet published in regular research journals. The articles are the result of a direct collaboration between active researchers in the area after working in a dynamic and productive atmosphere. The first part is about Geometric Analysis and Conformal Geometry; this modern field lies at the intersection of many branches of mathematics (Riemannian, Conformal, Complex or Algebraic Geometry, Calculus of Variations, PDE's, etc) and relates directly to the physical world, since many natural phenomena...

  4. Quantification and implications of two types of soluble organic matter from brackish to saline lake source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yitao; LIAO Yongsheng; ZHANG Shouchun

    2005-01-01

    Two types of soluble organic matter, the free and adsorbed, were obtained and quantified from the brackish to saline lake source rocks. The adsorbed type was extracted with chloroform, solvent mixtures of methanol: acetone:chloroform (MAC) and CS2:N-methyl-2-pyrroli- dinone (CS2/NMP). The total amounts of the two types of soluble organic matter from some immature source rocks are >830 mg/g TOC, more than 63% of the total organic matter in these samples. This result indicates that the majority of the organic matter in the immature source rocks in the brackish to saline lake basin is soluble, and is significant for study of petroleum formation and helpful for petroleum exploration in the brackish to saline lake basin.

  5. Seiberg-Witten-type Maps for Currents and Energy-Momentum Tensors in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, R; Yang, H S; Banerjee, Rabin; Lee, Choonkyu; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2003-01-01

    We derive maps relating the currents and energy-momentum tensors in noncommutative (NC) gauge theories with their commutative equivalents. Some uses of these maps are discussed. Especially, in NC electrodynamics, we obtain a generalization of the Lorentz force law. Also, the same map for anomalous currents relates the Adler-Bell-Jackiw type NC covariant anomaly with the standard commutative-theory anomaly. For the particular case of two dimensions, we discuss the implications of these maps for the Sugawara-type energy-momentum tensor.

  6. Bianchi Type-I, V and VIo models in modified generalized scalar–tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Singh; R Chaubey

    2007-08-01

    In modified generalized scalar–tensor (GST) theory, the cosmological term is a function of the scalar field and its derivatives $\\dot{}^{2}$. We obtain exact solutions of the field equations in Bianchi Type-I, V and VIo space–times. The evolution of the scale factor, the scalar field and the cosmological term has been discussed. The Bianchi Type-I model has been discussed in detail. Further, Bianchi Type-V and VIo models can be studied on the lines similar to Bianchi Type-I model.

  7. Identification of enzymes and quantification of metabolic fluxes in the wild type and in a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    or nitrate as the nitrogen source. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increased with increasing specific growth rate. The fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway were 15 to 26% higher for the recombinant strain than for the wild-type strain....

  8. LRS Bianchi Type-I Dark Energy Cosmological Models in General Scalar Tensor Theory of Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    D. Neelima; V. U. M. Rao

    2013-01-01

    Locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I dark energy cosmological model with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter in (Nordtvedt 1970) general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by (Schwinger 1970) is obtained. It is observed that these anisotropic and isotropic dark energy cosmological models always represent an accelerated universe and are consistent with the recent observations of type-Ia supernovae. Some important features of the m...

  9. GENERAL RELIABILITY THEORY STUDY ON SEMI-FLEXIBLE OUTPUT TYPE AND REPAIRABLE PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云东; 高宏伟

    1996-01-01

    This paper puts forward the conceptions of semi-flexible units and semi-flexible system, and builds up the theory of semi-flexible output type and repairable production system general reliability analysis and general reliability design, which discusses the reliability problems of semi-flexible units and semi-flexible system from three aspects of time, task and capacity.

  10. Precision automation of cell type classification and sub-cellular fluorescence quantification from laser scanning confocal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Craig Hall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While novel whole-plant phenotyping technologies have been successfully implemented into functional genomics and breeding programs, the potential of automated phenotyping with cellular resolution is largely unexploited. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to close this gap by providing spatially highly resolved images containing anatomic as well as chemical information on a subcellular basis. However, in the absence of automated methods, the assessment of the spatial patterns and abundance of fluorescent markers with subcellular resolution is still largely qualitative and time-consuming. Recent advances in image acquisition and analysis, coupled with improvements in microprocessor performance, have brought such automated methods within reach, so that information from thousands of cells per image for hundreds of images may be derived in an experimentally convenient time-frame. Here, we present a MATLAB-based analytical pipeline to 1 segment radial plant organs into individual cells, 2 classify cells into cell type categories based upon random forest classification, 3 divide each cell into sub-regions, and 4 quantify fluorescence intensity to a subcellular degree of precision for a separate fluorescence channel. In this research advance, we demonstrate the precision of this analytical process for the relatively complex tissues of Arabidopsis hypocotyls at various stages of development. High speed and robustness make our approach suitable for phenotyping of large collections of stem-like material and other tissue types.

  11. E$_{6(6)}$ Exceptional Field Theory: Review and Embedding of Type IIB

    CERN Document Server

    Baguet, Arnaud; Samtleben, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We review E$_{6(6)}$ exceptional field theory with a particular emphasis on the embedding of type IIB supergravity, which is obtained by picking the GL$(5)\\times {\\rm SL}(2)$ invariant solution of the section constraint. We work out the precise decomposition of the E$_{6(6)}$ covariant fields on the one hand and the Kaluza-Klein-like decomposition of type IIB supergravity on the other. Matching the symmetries, this allows us to establish the precise dictionary between both sets of fields. Finally, we establish on-shell equivalence. In particular, we show how the self-duality constraint for the four-form potential in type IIB is reconstructed from the duality relations in the off-shell formulation of the E$_{6(6)}$ exceptional field theory.

  12. Thermodynamic limit of the Nekrasov-type formula for E-string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a proof of the Nekrasov-type formula proposed by one of the authors for the Seiberg-Witten prepotential for the E-string theory on ℝ4×T2. We take the thermodynamic limit of the Nekrasov-type formula following the example of Nekrasov-Okounkov and reproduce the Seiberg-Witten description of the prepotential. The Seiberg-Witten curve obtained directly from the Nekrasov-type formula is of genus greater than one. We find that this curve is transformed into the known elliptic curve by a simple map. We consider the cases in which the low energy theory has E8, E7⊕A1 or E6⊕A2 as a global symmetry

  13. Simple and fast quantification of nitisone (NTBC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method in plasma of tyrosinemia type 1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit-Spraul, Anne; Romdhane, Houda; Poggi-Bach, Joséphine

    2012-05-01

    Tyrosinemia type 1, which is caused by a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, is successfully treatable with nitisone (NTBC), an inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase. The recommended average dose of NTBC is 1 mg/kg per day. A rapid liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of NTBC in heparinized human plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by precipitation in acetonitrile. NTBC and the internal standard (IS) were chromatographed on a BEH C18 column. Gradient elution was done with a mixture of 10 mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The analyte was analyzed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry with only 2 min run time. Selected reaction monitoring modes for detection of NTBC and the IS were achieved by using m/z 328 > 281 and 234 > 190, respectively. The LC retention times for NTBC and IS were 0.99 and 0.93 min, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.75-150 µM with r ≥ 0.998. Thus, this method is suitable for follow-up of patients treated with NTBC, because the current therapeutical concentrations range from 20 to 120 µM. PMID:22511487

  14. Generalized N=1 and N=2 structures in M-theory and type II orientifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Graña, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    We consider M-theory and type IIA reductions to four dimensions with N=2 and N=1 supersymmetry and discuss their interconnection. Our work is based on the framework of Exceptional Generalized Geometry (EGG), which extends the tangent bundle to include all symmetries in M-theory and type II string theory, covariantizing the local U-duality group E7. We describe general N=1 and N=2 reductions in terms of SU(7) and SU(6) structures on this bundle and thereby derive the effective four-dimensional N=1 and N=2 couplings, in particular we compute the Kahler and hyper-Kahler potentials as well as the triplet of Killing prepotentials (or the superpotential in the N=1 case). These structures and couplings can be described in terms of forms on an eight-dimensional tangent space where SL(8) contained in E7 acts, which might indicate a description in terms of an eight-dimensional internal space, similar to F-theory. We finally discuss an orbifold action in M-theory and its reduction to O6 orientifolds, and show how the pr...

  15. Preclinical evaluation and quantification of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 as a radioligand for PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteels, Cindy [K.U. Leuven, University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel; Laere, Koen van [K.U. Leuven, University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); Celen, Sofie; Bormans, Guy [K.U. Leuven, MoSAIC, Molecular Small Animal Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist for the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor allowing its use in PET imaging. We characterized the kinetics of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 and evaluated its ability to quantify CB1 receptor availability in the rat brain. Dynamic small-animal PET scans with [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 were performed in Wistar rats on a FOCUS-220 system for up to 10 h. Both plasma and perfused brain homogenates were analysed using HPLC to quantify radiometabolites. Displacement and blocking experiments were done using cold MK-9470 and another inverse agonist, SR141716A. The distribution volume (V{sub T}) of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 was used as a quantitative measure and compared to the use of brain uptake, expressed as SUV, a simplified method of quantification. The percentage of intact [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 in arterial plasma samples was 80 {+-} 23 % at 10 min, 38 {+-} 30 % at 40 min and 13 {+-} 14 % at 210 min. A polar radiometabolite fraction was detected in plasma and brain tissue. The brain radiometabolite concentration was uniform across the whole brain. Displacement and pretreatment studies showed that 56 % of the tracer binding was specific and reversible. V{sub T} values obtained with a one-tissue compartment model plus constrained radiometabolite input had good identifiability ({<=}10 %). Ignoring the radiometabolite contribution using a one-tissue compartment model alone, i.e. without constrained radiometabolite input, overestimated the [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 V{sub T}, but was correlated. A correlation between [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 V{sub T} and SUV in the brain was also found (R {sup 2} = 0.26-0.33; p {<=} 0.03). While the presence of a brain-penetrating radiometabolite fraction complicates the quantification of [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 in the rat brain, its tracer kinetics can be modelled using a one-tissue compartment model with and without constrained radiometabolite input. (orig.)

  16. Systematic quantification of HDR and NHEJ reveals effects of locus, nuclease, and cell type on genome-editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Berman, Jennifer R; Cooper, Samantha B; Mayerl, Steven J; Chan, Amanda H; Zhang, Bin; Karlin-Neumann, George A; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome-editing relies on the repair of sequence-specific nuclease-induced DNA nicking or double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homology-directed repair (HDR). However, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), an error-prone repair, acts concurrently, reducing the rate of high-fidelity edits. The identification of genome-editing conditions that favor HDR over NHEJ has been hindered by the lack of a simple method to measure HDR and NHEJ directly and simultaneously at endogenous loci. To overcome this challenge, we developed a novel, rapid, digital PCR-based assay that can simultaneously detect one HDR or NHEJ event out of 1,000 copies of the genome. Using this assay, we systematically monitored genome-editing outcomes of CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), Cas9 nickases, catalytically dead Cas9 fused to FokI, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease at three disease-associated endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells, HeLa cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cells. Although it is widely thought that NHEJ generally occurs more often than HDR, we found that more HDR than NHEJ was induced under multiple conditions. Surprisingly, the HDR/NHEJ ratios were highly dependent on gene locus, nuclease platform, and cell type. The new assay system, and our findings based on it, will enable mechanistic studies of genome-editing and help improve genome-editing technology. PMID:27030102

  17. Generating Erler-Schnabl-type Solution for Tachyon Vacuum in Cubic Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo, E Aldo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a new class of identity-based solutions in open bosonic string field theory and cubic superstring field theory. Even though these solutions seem to be trivial, it turns out that after performing a suitable gauge transformation, we are left with the known Erler-Schnabl-type solutions which correctly reproduce the value for the D-brane tension. This important result shows explicitly that how a seemingly trivial solution can generate a non-trivial configuration which precisely represents the tachyon vacuum.

  18. Real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of Acanthamoeba species in various types of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Tsai, Hsien-Lung; She, Cheng-Yu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Wen-Chien

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR was developed to detect and quantify Acanthamoeba spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from watershed, water treatment plant, and three thermal spring recreation areas. The overall detection rate was 14.2 % (25/176) for Acanthamoeba spp. The percentages of samples containing Acanthamoeba spp. from river water, raw drinking water, and thermal spring water were 13 % (13/100), 25 % (7/28), and 10.4 % (5/48), respectively. Acanthamoeba spp. concentrations were determined according to SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR. A plasmid-based standard curve was constructed to determine the Acanthamoeba concentration using dilution factors for achieving 1.36 × 10(9) gene copies per PCR for 18S rRNA gene in Acanthamoeba spp. The resulting concentrations varied by the type of water, in the range of 46-2.6 × 10(2) cells/l in positive raw drinking water, 2.7 × 10(2)-1.5 × 10(4) cells/l in river water, and 54-1.7 × 10(3) cells/l in thermal spring water. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the raw drinking water samples was also found to have a significant difference with heterotrophic plate count. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in various aquatic environments may be a potential health hazard and must be further evaluated.

  19. Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voigt Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity

  20. Differential models for B-type open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg theories

    CERN Document Server

    Babalic, Mirela; Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu; Tavakol, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a family of differential models for B-type open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg theories defined by a pair $(X,W)$, where $X$ is any non-compact Calabi-Yau manifold and $W$ is any holomorphic complex-valued function defined on $X$ whose critical set is compact. The models are constructed at cochain level using smooth data, including the twisted Dolbeault algebra of polyvector valued forms and a twisted Dolbeault category of holomorphic factorizations of $W$. We give explicit proposals for cochain level versions of the bulk and boundary traces and for the bulk-boundary and boundary-bulk maps of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. We prove that most of the axioms of an open-closed topological field theory are satisfied on cohomology and conjecture that the remaining axioms are also satisfied.

  1. WKB - type approximations in the theory of vacuum particle creation in strong fields

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyansky, S A; Panferov, A D; Prozorkevich, A V; Blaschke, D; Juchnowski, L

    2014-01-01

    Within the theory of vacuum creation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the strong electric fields acting in the focal spot of counter-propagating laser beams we compare predictions on the basis of different WKB-type approximations with results obtained in the framework of a strict kinetic approach. Such a comparison demonstrates a considerable divergence results. We analyse some reasoning for this observation and conclude that WKB-type approximations have an insufficient foundation for QED in strong nonstationary fields. The results obtained in this work on the basis of the kinetic approach are most optimistic for the observation of an $e^{+}e^{-}$ - plasma in the range of optical and x-ray laser facilities. We discuss also the influence of unphysical features of non-adiabatic field models on the reliability of predictions of the kinetic theory.

  2. Flux vacua in Dirac-Born-Infeld type Einstein-Maxwell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maki, Takuya; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We study compactification of extra dimensions in a theory of Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type gravity. We investigate the solution for Minkowski spacetime with an $S^{2}$ extra space. The solution is derived by the effective potential method in the presence of the magnetic flux on the extra sphere. We find that, in a certain model, the radius of the extra space has a minimum value independent of the higher-dimensional Newton constant in weak-field limit.

  3. The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor in the two-group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor is solved for the first time in the two group neutron transport theory, by singular eingenfunctions expansion, the singular integrals obtained through continuity conditions of angular distributions at the interface are regularized by a recently proposed method. The result is a coupled system of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, this system is solved by an ordinary interactive method. Numerical results that can be utilized as a comparative standard for aproximation methods, are presented

  4. Bianchi type VI1 cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type VIh, II and III cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravity, where the matter field is in the form of perfect fluid and with a time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). A non-singular model for the universe filled with disorder radiation is constructed and some physical behaviors of the model are studied for the feasible VIh (h = 1) space-time.

  5. LRS Bianchi Type-I Inflationary String Cosmological Model in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkateswarlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate locally rotational symmetric (LRS Bianchi type I space time coupled with scalar field. String cosmological models generated by a cloud of strings with particles attached to them are studied in the Brans-Dicke theory. We assume that the expansion scalar is proportional to the shear scalar and also power law ansatz for scalar field. The physical behavior of the resulting model is discussed through different parameters.

  6. Supersymmetry and the Systematics of T-duality Rotations in Type-II Superstring Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, S F

    2001-01-01

    We describe a systematic method of studying the action of the T-duality group O(d,d) on space-time fermions and R-R field strengths and potentials in type-II string theories, based on space-time supersymmetry. The formalism is then used to show that the couplings of non-Abelian D-brane charges to R-R potentials can be described by an appropriate Clifford multiplication.

  7. Cultivating New-type Farmers Based on the Theory of Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of theory of human resources development, this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development on cultivating new-type farmers. Firstly, it increases the input of rural basic education; secondly, it reinforces the vocational education and technology training; thirdly, it promotes the rural medical and public health services; fourthly, it quickens the rural labor transfer. The status quo of China’s rural human resources has been analyzed as follows: in ter...

  8. Specimens: "most of" generic NPs in a contextually flexible type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Retoré, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to compute the meanings associated to sentences with generic NPs corresponding to the most of generalized quantifier. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can be thereafter interpreted in your favorite models. We rather depart from the dominant Fregean single untyped universe and go for type theory with hints from Hilbert epsilon calculus and from medieval philosophy. Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with on going work in lexical semantics. Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class (or a generic element of this class) which is provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, if one adopts a type theoretical view, terms encode the purely semantic meaning component while their typing is pragmatically determined.

  9. Spatially Homogeneous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model in the Scale-Covariant Theory of Gravitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shri Ram; M.K.Verma; Mohd.Zeyauddin

    2009-01-01

    We discuss spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V spacetime filled with a perfect fluid in the framework of the scaie-covariant theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al.By applying the law of variation for Hubble's parameter,exact solutions of the field equations are obtained,which correspond to the model of the universe having a big-bang type singularity at the initial time t=0.The cosmological model,evolving from the initial singularity,expands with power-law expansion and gives essentially an empty space for a large time.The physical and dynamical properties of the model are also discussed.

  10. A Review of Different Types of Subsidies and How They Work in Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson, Kampungu k.; Han, Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review on types of subsidies and how they work in theory. The paper identified three types of subsidies: subsidies that increase revenue, subsidies that lower the cost of production, and subsidies that are not linked to production or input. With the use of graphic examples to describe the partial effects of subsidies on supply and demand, the following findings were obtained: one, for producers to sell more, they will need to produce more, and in order to produce more...

  11. Type Synthesis for 4-DOF Parallel Press Mechanism Using GF Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GAO Feng; MENG Xiangdun; GUO Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Parallel mechanisms is used in the large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint of the traditional redundant actuation. Currently, the researches mainly focus on the performance analysis for some specific parallel press mechanisms. However, the type synthesis and evaluation of parallel press mechanisms is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) press mechanisms. The type synthesis of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms is carried out based on the generalized function(GF) set theory. Five design criteria of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms are firstly proposed. The general procedure of type synthesis of parallel press mechanisms is obtained, which includes number synthesis, symmetrical synthesis of constraint GF sets, decomposition of motion GF sets and design of limbs. Nine combinations of constraint GF sets of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms, ten combinations of GF sets of active limbs, and eleven combinations of GF sets of passive limbs are synthesized. Thirty-eight kinds of press mechanisms are presented and then different structures of kinematic limbs are designed. Finally, the geometrical constraint complexity(GCC), kinematic pair complexity(KPC), and type complexity(TC) are proposed to evaluate the press types and the optimal press type is achieved. The general methodologies of type synthesis and evaluation for parallel press mechanism are suggested.

  12. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  13. Up-type quark masses in SU(5) F-theory models

    CERN Document Server

    Font, Anamaría; Regalado, Diego; Zoccarato, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    F-theory SU(5) unification has been proposed as a scenario where the mass of the top quark is naturally large, as opposed to type II SU(5) models. We analyze this claim from the viewpoint of local SU(5) F-theory models, by explicitly computing the 10 x 10 x 5 Yukawa couplings that are developed in the vicinity of an E6 singularity. Realizing this singularity via T-branes allows for a non-trivial mass for the top quark, while lighter generations of up-type quarks still have vanishing Yukawa couplings. Nevertheless, we show that by taking instanton effects into account non-vanishing Yukawas are induced for all U-quark families, together with a hierarchical structure at the level of the superpotential. Finally, by solving for internal wavefunction profiles we compute physical U-quark Yukawa couplings and show that this F-theory scenario allows to describe the measured top quark mass, as well as the observed quotients of U-quark masses.

  14. Axion-dilaton-modulus gravity theory of Brans-Dicke-type and conformal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I

    2000-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is investigated within the context of axion-dilaton-modulus theory of gravity of Brans-Dicke-type. A distinction is made between general conformal symmetry and invariance under transformations of the physical units. The conformal degree of symmetry of the theory is studied when quantum fermion (lepton) modes with electromagnetic interaction are considered. Based on the requirement of invariance of the physical laws under general transformations of the units of measure, arguments are given that point at a matter action with non-minimal coupling of the dilaton to the matter fields as the most viable description of the world within the context of the model studied. The geometrical implications of the results obtained are discussed.

  15. Social cognitive theory correlates of moderate-intensity exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Valerie J; Petosa, R L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify social cognitive theory (SCT) correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise (MVPA) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 181) participated in the study. Participants were recruited through ResearchMatch.org to complete an online survey. The survey used previously validated instruments to measure dimensions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations, the physical environment, and minutes of MVPA per week. Spearman Rank Correlations were used to determine the relationship between SCT variables and MVPA. Classification and Regression Analysis using a decision tree model was used to determine the amount of variance in MVPA explained by SCT variables. Due to low levels of vigorous activity, only moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) was analyzed. SCT variables explained 42.4% of the variance in MIE. Self-monitoring, social support from family, social support from friends, and self-evaluative outcome expectations all contributed to the variability in MIE. Other contributing variables included self-reward, task self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, overcoming barriers, and self-efficacy for making time for exercise. SCT is a useful theory for identifying correlates of MIE among adults with type 2 diabetes. The SCT correlates can be used to refine diabetes education programs to target the adoption and maintenance of regular exercise.

  16. Axion decay constants at special points in type II string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Masaki; Otsuka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We propose the mechanism to disentangle the decay constant of closed string axion from the string scale in the framework of type II string theory on Calabi-Yau manifold. We find that the quantum and geometrical corrections in the prepotential that arise at some special points in the moduli space widen the window of axion decay constant. In particular, around the small complex structure points, the axion decay constant becomes significantly lower than the string scale. We also discuss the moduli stabilization leading to the phenomenologically attractive low-scale axion decay constant.

  17. General N=1 supersymmetric flux vacua of massive type IIA string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Klaus; Cvetic, Mirjam

    2005-07-01

    We derive conditions for the existence of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric flux vacua of massive type IIA string theory with general supergravity fluxes turned on. For an SU(3) singlet Killing spinor, we show that such flux vacua exist when the internal geometry is nearly Kähler. The geometry is not warped, all the allowed fluxes are proportional to the mass parameter, and the dilaton is fixed by a ratio of (quantized) fluxes. The four-dimensional cosmological constant, while negative, becomes small in the vacuum with the weak string coupling.

  18. Reissner-Nordstr(o)m-de-Sitter-type Solution by a Gauge Theory of Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Enache; Camelia Popa; V. P(a)un; M. Agop

    2008-01-01

    We use the theory based on a gravitational gauge group (Wu's model) to obtain a spherical symmetric solution of the field equations for the gravitational potential on a Minkowski spacetime. The gauge group, the gauge covariant derivative, the strength tensor of the gauge field, the gauge invariant Lagrangean with the cosmological constant, the field equations of the gauge potentials with a gravitational energy-momentum tensor as well as with a tensor of the field of a point like source are determined. Finally, a Reissner-Nordstr(o)m-de Sitter-type metric on the gauge group space is obtained.

  19. T-dualization of type IIB superstring theory in double space

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolić, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we offer the new interpretation of T-dualization procedure of type IIB superstring theory in double space framework. We use the ghost free action of type IIB superstring in pure spinor formulation in approximation of constant background fields up to the quadratic terms. T-dualization along any subset of the initial coordinates, $x^a$, is equivalent to the permutation of this subset with subset of the corresponding T-dual coordinates, $y_a$, in double space coordinate $Z^M=(x^\\mu,y_\\mu)$. Demanding that the T-dual transformation law after exchange $x^a\\leftrightarrow y_a$ has the same form as initial one, we obtain the T-dual NS-NS and NS-R background fields. The T-dual R-R field strength is determined up to one arbitrary constant under some assumptions.

  20. A Global View on The Search for de-Sitter Vacua in (type IIA) String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S -H Henry

    2011-01-01

    The search for classically stable Type IIA de-Sitter vacua typically starts with an ansatz that gives Anti-de-Sitter supersymmetric vacua and then raises the cosmological constant by modifying the compactification. As one raises the cosmological constant, the couplings typically destabilize the classically stable vacuum, so the probability that this approach will lead to a classically stable de-Sitter vacuum is Gaussianly suppressed. This implies that classically stable de-Sitter vacua in string theory (at least in the Type IIA region), especially those with relatively high cosmological constants, are very rare. The probability that a typical de-Sitter extremum is classically stable (i.e., tachyon-free) is argued to be Gaussianly suppressed as a function of the number of moduli.

  1. Energy of the Universe in Bianchi-type I Models in Moller's Tetrad Theory of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, using the energy definition in Moller's tetrad theory of gravity we calculate the total energy of the universe in Bianchi-type I cosmological models which includes both the matter and gravitational fields. The total energy is found to be zero and this result agrees with a previous works of Banerjee-Sen who investigated this problem using the general relativity version of the Einstein energy-momentum complex and Xulu who investigated same problem using the general relativity versions of the Landau-lifshitz, Papapetrou and Weinberg's energy-momentum complexes. The result that total energy of the universe in Bianchi-type I universes is zero supports the viewpoint of Tryon.

  2. On the effective theory of type II string compactifications on nilmanifolds and coset spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviezel, Claudio

    2009-07-30

    In this thesis we analyzed a large number of type IIA strict SU(3)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O6/D6-sources, as well as type IIB static SU(2)-structure compactifications with fluxes and O5/O7-sources. Restricting to structures and fluxes that are constant in the basis of left-invariant one-forms, these models are tractable enough to allow for an explicit derivation of the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory. The six-dimensional compact manifolds we studied in this thesis are nilmanifolds based on nilpotent Lie-algebras, and, on the other hand, coset spaces based on semisimple and U(1)-groups, which admit a left-invariant strict SU(3)- or static SU(2)-structure. In particular, from the set of 34 distinct nilmanifolds we identified two nilmanifolds, the torus and the Iwasawa manifold, that allow for an AdS{sub 4}, N = 1 type IIA strict SU(3)-structure solution and one nilmanifold allowing for an AdS{sub 4}, N = 1 type IIB static SU(2)-structure solution. From the set of all the possible six-dimensional coset spaces, we identified seven coset spaces suitable for strict SU(3)-structure compactifications, four of which also allow for a static SU(2)-structure compactification. For all these models, we calculated the four-dimensional low-energy effective theory using N = 1 supergravity techniques. In order to write down the most general four-dimensional effective action, we also studied how to classify the different disconnected ''bubbles'' in moduli space. (orig.)

  3. Mild to severe social fears: ranking types of feared social situations using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders, and is associated with long term impairment, distress and vulnerability to secondary disorders. Certain types of social fears are more common than others, with public speaking fears typically the most prevalent in epidemiological surveys. The distinction between performance- and interaction-based fears has been the focus of long-standing debate in the literature, with evidence performance-based fears may reflect more mild presentations of social anxiety. This study aims to explicitly test whether different types of social fears differ in underlying social anxiety severity using item response theory techniques. Different types of social fears were assessed using items from three different structured diagnostic interviews in four different epidemiological surveys in the United States (n=2261, n=5411) and Australia (n=1845, n=1497); and ranked using 2-parameter logistic item response theory models. Overall, patterns of underlying severity indicated by different fears were consistent across the four samples with items functioning across a range of social anxiety. Public performance fears and speaking at meetings/classes indicated the lowest levels of social anxiety, with increasing severity indicated by situations such as being assertive or attending parties. Fears of using public bathrooms or eating, drinking or writing in public reflected the highest levels of social anxiety. Understanding differences in the underlying severity of different types of social fears has important implications for the underlying structure of social anxiety, and may also enhance the delivery of social anxiety treatment at a population level. PMID:24873885

  4. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy.

  5. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  6. [Quantification of motor activity in biomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannazzo, E

    1993-01-01

    A computer-assisted analysis of motor activity was carried out using ultrasound waves, that are not invasive and free from any kind of interference, because of their specific characteristics. We worked out the Doppler's effect which determines a frequency variation on the reflected wave from any body in motion. That variation is linked to the velocity of the moving body and the superimposition of the emitted wave with those reflected, results in beats, which have a frequency proportional to the motor activity velocity. Our research group planned and carried out an electronic quantification apparatus that can be interfaced with a personal computer system by means of an Analog to Digital acquisition card. The performed test on the apparatus confirmed that the theory that the number of antinodes detected was proportional to the space covered by the moving body. The equipment was also tested on several types of animals.

  7. A Yang-Mills Type Gauge Theory of Gravity and the Dark Matter and Dark Energy Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    A Yang-Mills type gauge theory of gravity is shown to have a richer structure than the Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. This new structure can give an explanation of the form of the galactic rotation curves, of the amount of intergalactic gravitational lensing, and of the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  8. Demonstration of a viable quantitative theory for interplanetary type II radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2016-03-01

    Between 29 November and 1 December 2013 the two widely separated spacecraft STEREO A and B observed a long lasting, intermittent, type II radio burst for the extended frequency range ≈ 4 MHz to 30 kHz, including an intensification when the shock wave of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) reached STEREO A. We demonstrate for the first time our ability to quantitatively and accurately simulate the fundamental (F) and harmonic (H) emission of type II bursts from the higher corona (near 11 solar radii) to 1 AU. Our modeling requires the combination of data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations for the CME and plasma background, carried out with the BATS-R-US code, with an analytic quantitative kinetic model for both F and H radio emission, including the electron reflection at the shock, growth of Langmuir waves and radio waves, and the radiations propagation to an arbitrary observer. The intensities and frequencies of the observed radio emissions vary hugely by factors ≈ 106 and ≈ 103, respectively; the theoretical predictions are impressively accurate, being typically in error by less than a factor of 10 and 20 %, for both STEREO A and B. We also obtain accurate predictions for the timing and characteristics of the shock and local radio onsets at STEREO A, the lack of such onsets at STEREO B, and the z-component of the magnetic field at STEREO A ahead of the shock, and in the sheath. Very strong support is provided by these multiple agreements for the theory, the efficacy of the BATS-R-US code, and the vision of using type IIs and associated data-theory iterations to predict whether a CME will impact Earth's magnetosphere and drive space weather events.

  9. Simplifying the one loop five graviton amplitude in type IIB string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We consider the D^8 R^5 and D^{10} R^5 terms in the low momentum expansion of the five graviton amplitude in type IIB string theory at one loop. They involve integrals of various modular graph functions over the fundamental domain of SL(2,Z). Unlike the graphs which arise in the four graviton amplitude or at lower orders in the momentum expansion of the five graviton amplitude where the links are given by scalar Green functions, there are several graphs for the D^8 R^5 and D^{10} R^5 terms where two of the links are each given by a derivative of the Green function. Starting with appropriate auxiliary diagrams, we show that these graphs can be expressed in terms of those which do not involve any derivatives. This results in considerable simplification of the amplitude.

  10. Observations and theory of mass loss in late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    1981-01-01

    The presented review is mainly concerned with the ubiquitous mass loss which occurs during most of a star's existence as a cool giant or supergiant. Observations of mass loss are considered, taking into account wind components and kinematics, and the temperature structure of cool winds. Theories of mass loss are examined, giving attention to radiation pressure on dust, radiation pressure in Lyman alpha, and magnetic wave-driven winds. It is pointed out that the study of mass loss from late-type stars appears to be entering a promising new phase. In this phase, the behavior of cool giants and supergiants is considered from a solar perspective, a perspective which contains important implications concerning the nature of solar activity.

  11. From Type II string theory towards BSM/dark sector physics

    CERN Document Server

    Honecker, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Four-dimensional compactifications of string theory provide a controlled set of possible gauge representations accounting for BSM particles and dark sector components. In this review, constraints from perturbative Type II string compactifications in the geometric regime are discussed in detail and then compared to results from heterotic string compactifications and non-perturbative/non-geometric corners. As a prominent example, an open string realization of the QCD axion is presented. The status of deriving the associated low-energy effective action in four dimensions is discussed and open avenues of major phenomenological importance are highlighted. As examples, a mechanism of closed string moduli stabilization by D-brane backreaction as well as one-loop threshold corrections to the gauge couplings and balancing a low string scale $M_{\\text{string}}$ with unisotropic compact dimensions are discussed together with implications on potential future new physics observations. For illustrative purposes, an explici...

  12. Spontaneous N=2 to N=1 Supersymmetry Breaking in Supergravity and Type II String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jan; Triendl, Hagen

    2009-01-01

    Using the embedding tensor formalism we give the general conditions for the existence of N=1 vacua in spontaneously broken N=2 supergravities. Our results confirm the necessity of having both electrically and magnetically charged multiplets in the spectrum, but also show that no further constraints on the special Kahler geometry of the vector multiplets arise. The quaternionic field space of the hypermultiplets must have two commuting isometries, and as an example we discuss the special quaternionic-Kahler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of type II string theories. For these cases we find the general solution for stable Minkowski and AdS N=1 vacua, and determine the charges in terms of the holomorphic prepotentials. We find that the string theory realisation of the N=1 Minkowski vacua requires the presence of non-geometric fluxes, whereas they are not needed for the AdS vacua. We also argue that our results should hold in the presence of spacetime and worldsheet instanton corrections.

  13. Constraining f(R) theories with Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Vincenzo F; Camera, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Fourth - order gravity theories have received much interest in recent years thanks to their ability to provide an accelerated cosmic expansion in a matter only universe. In these theories, the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has the form R + f(R), and the explicit choice of the arbitrary function f(R) must meet the local tests of gravity and the constraints from the primordial abundance of the light elements. Two popular classes of f(R) models, which are expected to fulfill all the above requirements, have recently been proposed. However, neither of these models has ever been quantitatively tested against the available astrophysical data. Here, by combining Type Ia Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts, we investigate the ability of these models to reproduce the observed Hubble diagram over the redshift range (0, 7). We find that both models fit very well this dataset with the present day values of the matter density and deceleration parameters which agree with previous estimates. However, the strong ...

  14. Bianchi type I Universe and instability of new agegraphic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, V.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) in a Bianchi type-I metric (which is a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic) in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. For this purpose, we use the squared sound speed vs2 whose sign determines the stability of the model. We explore the stability of this model in the presence/absence of interaction between dark energy and dark matter in both flat and non-isotropic geometry. The equation of state and the deceleration parameter of the new agegraphic dark energy in a anisotropic Universe is obtained. We show that the combination of Brans-Dicke field and new agegraphic dark energy can accommodate ω_{\\varLambda}=-1 crossing for the equation of state of noninteracting dark energy. When an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is taken into account, the transition of ω_{\\varLambda} to phantom regime can be more easily accounted when the Einstein field equations is being resort. In conclusion, we find evidences that the new agegraphic dark energy in BD theory can not lead to a stable Universe favored by observations at the present time. The anisotropy of the Universe decreases and the Universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW Universe accommodating the present acceleration.

  15. Engineering of Quantum Hall Effect from Type IIA String Theory on The K3 Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, Adil

    2010-01-01

    Using D-brane configurations on the K3 surface, we give six dimensional type IIA stringy realizations of the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) in 1+2 dimensions. Based on the vertical and horizontal lines of the K3 Hodge diamond, we engineer two different stringy realizations. The vertical line presents a realization in terms of D2 and D6-branes wrapping the K3 surface. The horizontal one is associated with hierarchical stringy descriptions obtained from a quiver gauge theory living on a stack of D4-branes wrapping intersecting 2-spheres embedded in the K3 surface with deformed singularities. These geometries are classified by three kinds of the Kac-Moody algebras: ordinary, i.e finite dimensional, affine and indefinite. We find that no stringy QHE in 1+2 dimensions can occur in the quiver gauge theory living on intersecting 2-spheres arranged as affine Dynkin diagrams. Stringy realizations of QHE can be done only for the finite and indefinite geometries. In particular, the finite Lie algebras give models with fracti...

  16. Mirage Models Confront the LHC: II. Flux-Stabilized Type IIB String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider Type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru, et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3 and D7 brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kahler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3 branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3 and D7 branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with PLANCK observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at 8 TeV center-of-mass energies, an...

  17. Cultivating New-type Farmers Based on the Theory of Human Resources Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of theory of human resources development,this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development oncultivating new-type farmers.Firstly,it increases the input of rural basic education;secondly,it reinforces the vocational education and technologytraining;thirdly,it promotes the rural medical and public health services;fourthly,it quickens the rural labor transfer.The status quo of China’s ruralhuman resources has been analyzed as follows:in terms of the quantity of rural human resources,the status quo is large and quick-developed baseof rural human resources,high labor participatory rate,and constitution of low age;in terms of the quality of rural human resources,the status quois the ubiquitous low quality of rural human resources,low technological level of rural human resources,and overall low physical quality of farmers;in terms of the structure of rural human resources,the status quo is the irrational industrial structure distribution and imbalanced regional structuredistribution.The thesis also discusses the edification of theory of human resources development in cultivating new-type farmers.First,in terms ofthe control over quantity of rural human resources,it is to keep the stability of family planning policy,and expedite the transfer of rural surplus la-bor;second,in terms of promoting the quality of rural human resources,it is to bolster the development of reserve rural labor force resources,toconstruct the adult educational training system with Chinese characteristics,and to build rural primary health care system;third,in terms of adjus-ting the structure of rural human resources,it is to perfect rural human resources market,and adjust rural economical structure and talents struc-ture.

  18. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear.

  19. A Review of Different Types of Subsidies and How They Work in Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kampungu; K.Gerson; Han; Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review on types of subsidies and how they work in theory.The paper identified three types of subsidies:subsidies that increase revenue,subsidies that lower the cost of production,and subsidies that are not linked to production or input.With the use of graphic examples to describe the partial effects of subsidies on supply and demand,the following findings were obtained:one,for producers to sell more,they will need to produce more,and in order to produce more,a higher input level is required,which depends on the marginal productivity of the inputs;two,the larger the elasticity for supply and demand of input(the more responsive supply and demand are to changes in the price of the input),the larger quantity of input used for a given level of support,and thereby increasing the associated environmental damage from the use of that particular input;three,for a given demand curve,a shallow supply curve(reflecting a large price elasticity of supply)will yield larger volume effects in response to a certain change in price compared to a steep supply curve and vise a verse.Finally,the study found input subsidy as an example of subsidies that lower the cost of production,and direct income support or unconditional lump sum support to an industry as an example of subsidies that are not linked to production or input.

  20. Understanding physical activity intentions among French Canadians with type 2 diabetes: an extension of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Boudreau François

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Regular physical activity is considered a cornerstone for managing type 2 diabetes. However, in Canada, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet national physical activity recommendations. When designing a theory-based intervention, one should first determine the key determinants of physical activity for this population. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on this aspect among adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to f...

  1. Screening for and validated quantification of phenethylamine-type designer drugs and mescaline in human blood plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrdova, Vilma; Peters, Frank T; Theobald, Denis S; Maurer, Hans H

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, several newer designer drugs of the so-called 2C series such as 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-P, 2C-B, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, and 2C-T-7 have entered the illicit drug market as recreational drugs. Some fatal intoxications involving 2C-T-7 have been reported. Only scarce data have been published about analyses of these substances in human blood and/or plasma. This paper describes a method for screening and simultaneous quantification of the above-mentioned compounds and their analog mescaline in human blood plasma. The analytes were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode, after mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (HCX) and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines. Validation data for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 were unacceptable. For all other analytes, the method was linear from 5 to 500 microg/L and the data for accuracy (bias) and precision (coefficient of variation) were within the acceptance limits of +/-15% and <15%, respectively (within +/-20% and <20% near the limit of quantification of 5 microg/L).

  2. Campbelling-type theory of fission chamber signals generated by neutron chains in a multiplying medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pál, L. [Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest 114, POB 49 (Hungary); Pázsit, I., E-mail: imre@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2015-09-11

    The signals of fission chambers are usually evaluated with the help of the co-called Campbelling techniques. These are based on the Campbell theorem, which states that if the primary incoming events, generating the detector pulses, are independent, then relationships exist between the moments of various orders of the signal in the current mode. This gives the possibility to determine the mean value of the intensity of the detection events, which is proportional to the static flux, from the higher moments of the detector current, which has certain advantages. However, the main application area of fission chambers is measurements in power reactors where, as is well known, the individual detection events are not independent, due to the branching character of the neutron chains (neutron multiplication). Therefore it is of interest to extend the Campbelling-type theory for the case of correlated neutron events. Such a theory could address two questions: partly, to investigate the bias when the traditional Campbell techniques are used for correlated incoming events; and partly, to see whether the correlation properties of the detection events, which carry information on the multiplying medium, could be extracted from the measurements. This paper is devoted to the investigation of these questions. The results show that there is a potential possibility to extract the same information from fission chamber signals in the current mode as with the Rossi- or Feynman-alpha methods, or from coincidence and multiplicity measurements, which so far have required detectors working in the pulse mode. It is also shown that application of the standard Campbelling techniques to neutron detection in multiplying systems does not lead to an error for estimating the stationary flux as long as the detector is calibrated in in situ measurements.

  3. Intellectual style theories: different types of categorizations and their relevance for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    In the 20th century, a large number of psychological theories of intellectual styles were developed. Different reviews mention up to 71 theories of style. In the last 25 years, several suggestions as to how theories of styles may be divided into categories and fields of focus have been offered. Theorists and researchers disagree about the criteria on which categorizations should be based, and about which theories fulfill these criteria. Such disagreements are fruitful at a theoretical level, but also have negative consequences for the intended fields of application of the style theories and the associated instruments for measuring styles, because practitioners seeking the theory and instrument best suited for their intended use/application simply cannot find their way through the jungle of disagreements. The present study seeks to reduce the confusion for practitioners seeking to employ styles, by developing a taxonomy of categorizations of style theories in which all style theories can be placed.

  4. Itinerant type many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Keiichiro

    2004-09-01

    Itinerant type quantum many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions (PSPTs) are reviewed in close connection with various recent experimental results related to this new optical phenomenon. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I) rarr neutral (N) phase transition in the organic charge transfer (CT) crystal, TTF-CA, as a typical example for this type of transition, we, at first, theoretically show an adiabatic path which starts from CT excitons in the I-phase, but finally reaches an N-domain with a macroscopic size. In connection with this I-N transition, the concept of the initial condition sensitivity is also developed so as to clarify experimentally observed nonlinear characteristics of this material. In the next, using a more simplified model for the many-exciton system, we theoretically study the early time quantum dynamics of the exciton proliferation, which finally results in the formation of a domain with a large number of excitons. For this purpose, we derive a stepwise iterative equation to describe the exciton proliferation, and clarify the origin of the initial condition sensitivity. Possible differences between a photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and an equilibrium phase at high temperatures are also clarified from general and conceptional points of view, in connection with recent experiments on the photo-induced phase transition in an organo-metallic complex crystal. It will be shown that the photo-induced phase can make a new interaction appear as a broken symmetry only in this phase, even when this interaction is almost completely hidden in all the equilibrium phases, such as the ground state and other high-temperature phases. The relation between the photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and the hysteresis induced nonequilibrium one is also qualitatively discussed. We will be concerned with a macroscopic parity violation

  5. Itinerant type many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Keiichiro [Solid State Theory Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Graduate University for Advanced Study, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Itinerant type quantum many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions (PSPTs) are reviewed in close connection with various recent experimental results related to this new optical phenomenon. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I) {yields} neutral (N) phase transition in the organic charge transfer (CT) crystal, TTF-CA, as a typical example for this type of transition, we, at first, theoretically show an adiabatic path which starts from CT excitons in the I-phase, but finally reaches an N-domain with a macroscopic size. In connection with this I-N transition, the concept of the initial condition sensitivity is also developed so as to clarify experimentally observed nonlinear characteristics of this material. In the next, using a more simplified model for the many-exciton system, we theoretically study the early time quantum dynamics of the exciton proliferation, which finally results in the formation of a domain with a large number of excitons. For this purpose, we derive a stepwise iterative equation to describe the exciton proliferation, and clarify the origin of the initial condition sensitivity. Possible differences between a photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and an equilibrium phase at high temperatures are also clarified from general and conceptional points of view, in connection with recent experiments on the photo-induced phase transition in an organo-metallic complex crystal. It will be shown that the photo-induced phase can make a new interaction appear as a broken symmetry only in this phase, even when this interaction is almost completely hidden in all the equilibrium phases, such as the ground state and other high-temperature phases. The relation between the photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and the hysteresis induced nonequilibrium one is also qualitatively discussed. We will be concerned with a macroscopic parity

  6. MAMA Software Features: Visual Examples of Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-20

    This document shows examples of the results from quantifying objects of certain sizes and types in the software. It is intended to give users a better feel for some of the quantification calculations, and, more importantly, to help users understand the challenges with using a small set of ‘shape’ quantification calculations for objects that can vary widely in shapes and features. We will add more examples to this in the coming year.

  7. (2,2) and (0,4) Supersymmetric Boundary Conditions in 3d N = 4 Theories and Type IIB Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Hee-Joong

    2016-01-01

    The half-BPS boundary conditions preserving N = (2,2) and N = (0,4) supersymmetry in 3d N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theories are examined. The BPS equations admit decomposition of the bulk supermultiplets into specific boundary supermultiplets of preserved supersymmetry. Bogomolony-like equations and Nahm-like equations arise in the vector multiplet BPS boundary conditions and Robin-type boundary conditions appear for the hypermultiplet coupled to vector multiplet. The half-BPS boundary conditions are realized in the brane configurations of Type IIB string theory.

  8. From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2006-01-01

    In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracke...

  9. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  10. Algebraic Signal Processing Theory: Cooley-Tukey Type Algorithms for Polynomial Transforms Based on Induction

    CERN Document Server

    Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Pueschel, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A polynomial transform is the multiplication of an input vector $x\\in\\C^n$ by a matrix $\\PT_{b,\\alpha}\\in\\C^{n\\times n},$ whose $(k,\\ell)$-th element is defined as $p_\\ell(\\alpha_k)$ for polynomials $p_\\ell(x)\\in\\C[x]$ from a list $b=\\{p_0(x),\\dots,p_{n-1}(x)\\}$ and sample points $\\alpha_k\\in\\C$ from a list $\\alpha=\\{\\alpha_0,\\dots,\\alpha_{n-1}\\}$. Such transforms find applications in the areas of signal processing, data compression, and function interpolation. Important examples include the discrete Fourier and cosine transforms. In this paper we introduce a novel technique to derive fast algorithms for polynomial transforms. The technique uses the relationship between polynomial transforms and the representation theory of polynomial algebras. Specifically, we derive algorithms by decomposing the regular modules of these algebras as a stepwise induction. As an application, we derive novel $O(n\\log{n})$ general-radix algorithms for the discrete Fourier transform and the discrete cosine transform of type 4.

  11. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized.

  12. Quantification of human responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  13. Kendall's Shape Statistics as a Classical Realization of Barbour-type Timeless Records Theory approach to Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    I already showed that Kendall's shape geometry work was the geometrical description of Barbour's relational mechanics' reduced configuration spaces (alias shape spaces). I now describe the extent to which Kendall's subsequent statistical application to such as the `standing stones problem' realizes further ideas along the lines of Barbour-type timeless records theories, albeit just at the classical level.

  14. Kendall's Shape Statistics as a Classical Realization of Barbour-type Timeless Records Theory approach to Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    I previously showed that Kendall's work on shape geometry is in fact also the geometrical description of Barbour's relational mechanics' reduced configuration spaces (alias shape spaces). I now describe the extent to which Kendall's subsequent statistical application to e.g. the `standing stones problem' realizes further ideas along the lines of Barbour-type timeless records theories, albeit just at the classical level.

  15. Advances in type-2 fuzzy sets and systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry; Tahayori, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    This book explores recent developments in the theoretical foundations and novel applications of general and interval type-2 fuzzy sets and systems, including: algebraic properties of type-2 fuzzy sets, geometric-based definition of type-2 fuzzy set operators, generalizations of the continuous KM algorithm, adaptiveness and novelty of interval type-2 fuzzy logic controllers, relations between conceptual spaces and type-2 fuzzy sets, type-2 fuzzy logic systems versus perceptual computers; modeling human perception of real world concepts with type-2 fuzzy sets, different methods for generating membership functions of interval and general type-2 fuzzy sets, and applications of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to control, machine tooling, image processing and diet.  The applications demonstrate the appropriateness of using type-2 fuzzy sets and systems in real world problems that are characterized by different degrees of uncertainty.

  16. Construction of a Kaluza-Klein type Theory from One Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, David J

    2016-01-01

    We describe how a physical theory incorporating the properties of fields deriving from extra-dimensional structures over a four-dimensional spacetime manifold can in principle be obtained through the analysis of a simple initial structure consisting of the one dimension of time alone, as represented by the real line. The simplicity of this starting point leads to symmetries of multi-dimensional forms of time, from which a geometrical structure can be derived which is similar to the framework employed in non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein theories. This leads to a relationship between the external and internal curvature on the spacetime manifold unified through the underlying constraint of the one dimension of time for the theory presented here. We also describe how the symmetry breaking structure is compatible with the Coleman-Mandula theorem for the subsequent quantisation of the theory.

  17. Two types of conservation laws. Connection of physical fields with material systems. Peculiarities of field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova, L I

    2008-01-01

    Historically it happen so that in branches of physics connected with field theory and of physics of material systems (continuous media) the concept of "conservation laws" has a different meaning. In field theory "conservation laws" are those that claim the existence of conservative physical quantities or objects. These are conservation laws for physical fields. In contrast to that in physics (and mechanics) of material systems the concept of "conservation laws" relates to conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and mass that establish the balance between the change of physical quantities and external action. In the paper presented it is proved that there exist a connection between of conservation laws for physical fields and those for material systems. This points to the fact that physical fields are connected with material systems. Such results has an unique significance for field theories. This enables one to substantiate many basic principles of field theories, such as, for example...

  18. Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain a general class of polynomial potentials for which the Schroedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schroedinger operators. This is the first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.

  19. Spectral analysis of polynomial potentials and its relation with ABJ/M-type theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, M.P., E-mail: garciamormaria@uniovi.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Martin, I., E-mail: isbeliam@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Navarro, L., E-mail: lnavarro@ma.usb.v [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perez, A.J., E-mail: ajperez@ma.usb.v [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Restuccia, A., E-mail: arestu@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    We obtain a general class of polynomial potentials for which the Schroedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We provide a proof of the discreteness of the spectrum of the associated Schroedinger operators. This is the first step in order to analyze BLG and ABJM supersymmetric theories from a non-perturbative point of view.

  20. Two types of conservation laws. Connection of physical fields with material systems. Peculiarities of field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Historically it happen so that in branches of physics connected with field theory and of physics of material systems (continuous media) the concept of "conservation laws" has a different meaning. In field theory "conservation laws" are those that claim the existence of conservative physical quantities or objects. These are conservation laws for physical fields. In contrast to that in physics (and mechanics) of material systems the concept of "conservation laws" relates to conservation laws fo...

  1. Fitting the luminosity data from type Ia supernovae in the frame of the Cosmic Defect theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, A; Cardone, V; Radicella, N

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Defect (CD) theory is reviewed and used to fit the data for the accelerated expansion of the universe, obtained from the apparent luminosity of 192 SnIa's. The fit from CD is compared with the one obtained by means of $\\Lambda $CDM. The results from both theories are in good agreement and the fits are satisfactory. The correspondence between both approaches is discussed and interpreted.

  2. Understanding physical activity intentions among French Canadians with type 2 diabetes: an extension of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, François; Godin, Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity is considered a cornerstone for managing type 2 diabetes. However, in Canada, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet national physical activity recommendations. When designing a theory-based intervention, one should first determine the key determinants of physical activity for this population. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on this aspect among adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to fill this gap using an extended version of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as reference. Methods A total of 501 individuals with type 2 diabetes residing in the Province of Quebec (Canada) completed the study. Questionnaires were sent and returned by mail. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TPB variables explained 60% of the variance in intention. The addition of other psychosocial variables in the model added 7% of the explained variance. The final model included perceived behavioral control (β = .38, p < .0001), moral norm (β = .29, p < .0001), and attitude (β = .14, p < .01). Conclusion The findings suggest that interventions aimed at individuals with type 2 diabetes should ensure that people have the necessary resources to overcome potential obstacles to behavioral performance. Interventions should also favor the development of feelings of personal responsibility to exercise and promote the advantages of exercising for individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:19531261

  3. Understanding physical activity intentions among French Canadians with type 2 diabetes: an extension of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity is considered a cornerstone for managing type 2 diabetes. However, in Canada, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet national physical activity recommendations. When designing a theory-based intervention, one should first determine the key determinants of physical activity for this population. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on this aspect among adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to fill this gap using an extended version of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as reference. Methods A total of 501 individuals with type 2 diabetes residing in the Province of Quebec (Canada completed the study. Questionnaires were sent and returned by mail. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TPB variables explained 60% of the variance in intention. The addition of other psychosocial variables in the model added 7% of the explained variance. The final model included perceived behavioral control (β = .38, p Conclusion The findings suggest that interventions aimed at individuals with type 2 diabetes should ensure that people have the necessary resources to overcome potential obstacles to behavioral performance. Interventions should also favor the development of feelings of personal responsibility to exercise and promote the advantages of exercising for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Comparison of two high-throughput assays for quantification of adenovirus type 5 neutralizing antibodies in a population of donors in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of various levels of Adenovirus serotype 5 neutralizing antibodies (Ad5NAb is thought to contribute to the inconsistent clinical results obtained from vaccination and gene therapy studies. Currently, two platforms based on high-throughput technology are available for Ad5NAb quantification, chemiluminescence- and fluorescence-based assays. The aim of this study was to compare the results of two assays in the seroepidemiology of Ad5NAb in a local population of donors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fluorescence-based neutralizing antibody detection test (FRNT using recombinant Ad5-EGFP virus and the chemiluminescence-based neutralizing antibody test (CLNT using Ad5-Fluc were developed and standardized for detecting the presence of Ad5NAb in serum samples from the population of donors in Beijing and Anhui provinces, China. First, the overall percentage of people positive for Ad5NAb performed by CLNT was higher than that obtained by FRNT (85.4 vs 69.9%, p<0.001. There was an 84.5% concordance between the two assays for the 206 samples tested (144 positive in both assays and 30 negative in both assays. All 32 discordant sera were CLNT-positive/FRNT-negative and were confirmed positive by western blot. Secondly, for all 144 sera positive by both assays, the two assays showed high correlation (r = 0.94, p<0.001 and close agreement (mean difference: 0.395 log(10, 95% CI: -0.054 log(10 to 0.845 log(10. Finally, it was found by both assays that there was no significant difference observed for titer or prevalence by gender (p = 0.503 vs 0.818, for two assays; however, age range (p = 0.049 vs 0.010 and geographic origin (p = 0.007 vs 0.011 were correlated with Ad5NAb prevalence in northern regions of China. CONCLUSION: The CLNT assay was relatively more simple and had higher sensitivity than the FRNT assay for determining Ad5NAb titers. It is strongly suggested that the CLNT assay be used for future

  5. Efficacy of an Intervention Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior on Foot Care Performance in Type II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beiranvand; Asadizaker; Fayazi; Yaralizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background It is known that health education on foot care is a common strategy for preventing diabetic foot and reducing the rate of lower limb amputation. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention based on the theory of planned behavior for improving foot care in patients with type II diabetes in 2013 in Ahvaz, Iran. Patients and Methods In this clinical trial, 69 pat...

  6. In situ wave phenomena in the upstream and downstream regions of interplanetary shocks: Implications for type 2 burst theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Vinas, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The results are presented of in situ waves observed by the Ulyssess unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) in the upstream and downstream regions of a large number of interplanetary shocks. The Langmuir waves which are the most essential ingredients for the type 2 radio emission are observed only in the upstream regions of a limited number of shocks. On the other hand, the ion-acoustic-like waves (0.5 to 5 kHz) are observed near most of the interplanetary shocks. Implications of observations made for the electron acceleration mechanisms at the collisionless shocks and for type 2 burst theories are presented.

  7. A new antisymmetric bilinear map for type-I gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Giampiero

    2007-01-01

    In the case of gauge theories, which are ruled by an infinite-dimensional invariance group, various choices of antisymmetric bilinear maps on field functionals are indeed available. This paper proves first that, within this broad framework, the Peierls map (not yet the bracket) is a member of a larger family. At that stage, restriction to gauge-invariant functionals of the fields, with the associated Ward identities and geometric structure of the space of histories, make it possible to prove that the new map is indeed a Poisson bracket in the simple but relevant case of Maxwell theory. The building blocks are available for gauge theories only: vector fields that leave the action functional invariant; the invertible gauge-field operator, and the Green function of the ghost operator.

  8. Inflation and Singularity of a Bianchi Type-Ⅶ0 Universe with a Dirac Field in the Einstein-Cartan Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zeng-Guang; FANG Wei; LU Hui-Qing

    2011-01-01

    @@ We discuss Bianchi type-Ⅶ0 cosmology with a Dirac field in the Einstein-Cartan(E-C) theory and obtain the equations of the Dirac and gravitational fields in the E-C theory.A Bianchi type-Ⅶ0 inflationary solution is found.When(3/16)S2-σ2>0, the Universe may avoid singularity.

  9. Communication: Cosolvency and cononsolvency explained in terms of a Flory-Huggins type theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudowicz, Jacek, E-mail: dudowicz@jfi.uchicago.edu; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Standard Flory-Huggins (FH) theory is utilized to describe the enigmatic cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena for systems of polymers dissolved in mixed solvents. In particular, phase boundaries (specifically upper critical solution temperature spinodals) are calculated for solutions of homopolymers B in pure solvents and in binary mixtures of small molecule liquids A and C. The miscibility (or immiscibility) patterns for the ternary systems are classified in terms of the FH binary interaction parameters (χ{sub αβ}) and the ratio r = ϕ{sub A}/ϕ{sub C} of the concentrations ϕ{sub A} and ϕ{sub C} of the two solvents. The trends in miscibility are compared to those observed for blends of random copolymers (A{sub x}C{sub 1−x}) with homopolymers (B) and to those deduced for A/B/C solutions of polymers B in liquid mixtures of small molecules A and C that associate into polymeric clusters (A{sub p}C{sub q}){sub i}, (i = 1, 2, …, ∞). Although the classic FH theory is able to explain cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena, the theory does not include a consideration of the mutual association of the solvent molecules and the competitive association between the solvent molecules and the polymer. These interactions can be incorporated in refinements of the FH theory, and the present paper provides a foundation for such extensions for modeling the rich thermodynamics of polymers in mixed solvents.

  10. Communication: Cosolvency and cononsolvency explained in terms of a Flory-Huggins type theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard Flory-Huggins (FH) theory is utilized to describe the enigmatic cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena for systems of polymers dissolved in mixed solvents. In particular, phase boundaries (specifically upper critical solution temperature spinodals) are calculated for solutions of homopolymers B in pure solvents and in binary mixtures of small molecule liquids A and C. The miscibility (or immiscibility) patterns for the ternary systems are classified in terms of the FH binary interaction parameters (χαβ) and the ratio r = ϕA/ϕC of the concentrations ϕA and ϕC of the two solvents. The trends in miscibility are compared to those observed for blends of random copolymers (AxC1−x) with homopolymers (B) and to those deduced for A/B/C solutions of polymers B in liquid mixtures of small molecules A and C that associate into polymeric clusters (ApCq)i, (i = 1, 2, …, ∞). Although the classic FH theory is able to explain cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena, the theory does not include a consideration of the mutual association of the solvent molecules and the competitive association between the solvent molecules and the polymer. These interactions can be incorporated in refinements of the FH theory, and the present paper provides a foundation for such extensions for modeling the rich thermodynamics of polymers in mixed solvents

  11. Communication: Cosolvency and cononsolvency explained in terms of a Flory-Huggins type theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-10-01

    Standard Flory-Huggins (FH) theory is utilized to describe the enigmatic cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena for systems of polymers dissolved in mixed solvents. In particular, phase boundaries (specifically upper critical solution temperature spinodals) are calculated for solutions of homopolymers B in pure solvents and in binary mixtures of small molecule liquids A and C. The miscibility (or immiscibility) patterns for the ternary systems are classified in terms of the FH binary interaction parameters {χαβ} and the ratio r = ϕ A /ϕ C of the concentrations ϕ A and ϕ C of the two solvents. The trends in miscibility are compared to those observed for blends of random copolymers (AxC1-x) with homopolymers (B) and to those deduced for A/B/C solutions of polymers B in liquid mixtures of small molecules A and C that associate into polymeric clusters {ApCq}i, (i = 1, 2, …, ∞). Although the classic FH theory is able to explain cosolvency and cononsolvency phenomena, the theory does not include a consideration of the mutual association of the solvent molecules and the competitive association between the solvent molecules and the polymer. These interactions can be incorporated in refinements of the FH theory, and the present paper provides a foundation for such extensions for modeling the rich thermodynamics of polymers in mixed solvents.

  12. Physical activity and diabetes: an application of the theory of planned behaviour to explain physical activity for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in an adult population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lippke, Sonia; Courneya, Kerry; Birkett, Nicholas; Sigal, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) plays a key role in the management of Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) but there are few theory-based, effective programs to promote PA for individuals with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in understanding PA in an adult population with T1D or T2D. A total of 2311 individuals (691 T1D; 1614 T2D) completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), intention and PA at baseline and 1717 (524 T1D; 1123 T2D) completed the PA measure again at 6-month follow-up. Multi-group Structural Equation Modelling was conducted to: (1) test the fit of the TPB structure (2) determine the TPB structural invariance between the two types of diabetes and (3) to examine the explained variances in PA and compare the strength of associations of the TPB constructs in the two types of diabetes. The TPB constructs explained > or =40% of the variance in intentions for both diabetes groups. In cross-sectional models, the TPB accounted for 23 and 19% of the variance in PA for T1D and T2D, respectively. In prospective models, the TPB explained 13 and 8% of the variance in PA for T1D and T2D, respectively. When adjusting for past PA behaviour, the impact of PBC and intention on behaviour was reduced in both groups. The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB for the design of PA promotion interventions for adults with either T1D or T2D. PMID:20391204

  13. Quantification and Three-Dimensional Imaging of the Insulitis-Induced Destruction of β-Cells in Murine Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Alanentalo, Tomas; Hörnblad, Andreas; Mayans, Sofia; Karin Nilsson, Anna; Sharpe, James; Larefalk, Åsa; Ahlgren, Ulf; Holmberg, Dan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to refine the information regarding the quantitative and spatial dynamics of infiltrating lymphocytes and remaining β-cell volume during the progression of type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of the disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using an ex vivo technique, optical projection tomography (OPT), we quantified and assessed the three-dimensional spatial development and progression of insulitis and β-cell destruction in pancreata fro...

  14. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent z = 2, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  15. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent $z=2$, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one-loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  16. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K., E-mail: kfarakos@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Metaxas, D., E-mail: metaxas@central.ntua.gr [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2012-05-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent z=2, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  17. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES(Ⅶ)-INCREMENTAL RATE TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴安民

    2003-01-01

    The purpose is to establish the rather complete equations of motion, boundary conditions and equation of energy rate of incremental rate type for micropolar continua. To this end the rather complete definitions for rates of deformation gradient and its inverse are made. The new relations between various stress and couple stress rate tensors are derived.Finally, the coupled equations of motion, boundary conditions and equation of energy rate of incremental rate type for continuum mechanics are obtained as a special case.

  18. Cyclic uniaxial and biaxial hardening of type 304 stainless steel modeled by the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, David; Krempl, Erhard

    1988-01-01

    The isotropic theory of viscoplasticity based on overstress does not use a yield surface or a loading and unloading criterion. The inelastic strain rate depends on overstress, the difference between the stress and the equilibrium stress, and is assumed to be rate dependent. Special attention is paid to the modeling of elastic regions. For the modeling of cyclic hardening, such as observed in annealed Type 304 stainless steel, and additional growth law for a scalar quantity which represents the rate independent asymptotic value of the equilibrium stress is added. It is made to increase with inelastic deformation using a new scalar measure which differentiates between nonproportional and proportional loading. The theory is applied to correlate uniaxial data under two step amplitude loading including the effect of further hardening at the high amplitude and proportional and nonproportional cyclic loadings. Results are compared with corresponding experiments.

  19. Can galaxy clusters, type Ia supernovae and cosmic microwave background ruled out a class of modified gravity theories?

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study cosmological signatures of modified gravity theories that can be written as a coupling between a extra scalar field and the electromagnetic part of the usual Lagrangian for the matter fields. In these frameworks all the electromagnetic sector of the theory is affected and variations of fundamental constants, of the cosmic distance duality relation and of the evolution law of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) are expected and are related each other. In order to search these variations we perform jointly analyses with angular diameter distances of galaxy clusters, luminosity distances of type Ia supernovae and $T_{CMB}(z)$ measurements. We obtain tight constraints with no indication of violation of the standard framework.

  20. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    CERN Document Server

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  1. Communication: Two types of flat-planes conditions in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotian Derrick; Patel, Anand H G; Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain; Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Ayers, Paul W

    2016-07-21

    Using results from atomic spectroscopy, we show that there are two types of flat-planes conditions. The first type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy as a function of the number of electrons of each spin, Nα and Nβ, has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the number of electrons, Nα + Nβ, is an integer. The second type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the spin polarization, Nα - Nβ, is an integer, but does not have a discontinuity associated with an integer number of electrons. Type 2 flat planes are rare-we observed just 15 type 2 flat-planes conditions out of the 4884 cases we tested-but their mere existence has implications for the design of exchange-correlation energy density functionals. To facilitate the development of functionals that have the correct behavior with respect to both fractional number of electrons and fractional spin polarization, we present a dataset for the chromium atom and its ions that can be used to test new functionals.

  2. Communication: Two types of flat-planes conditions in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotian Derrick; Patel, Anand H. G.; Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain; Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; González-Espinoza, Cristina E.; Ayers, Paul W.

    2016-07-01

    Using results from atomic spectroscopy, we show that there are two types of flat-planes conditions. The first type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy as a function of the number of electrons of each spin, Nα and Nβ, has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the number of electrons, Nα + Nβ, is an integer. The second type of flat-planes condition occurs when the energy has a derivative discontinuity on a line segment where the spin polarization, Nα - Nβ, is an integer, but does not have a discontinuity associated with an integer number of electrons. Type 2 flat planes are rare—we observed just 15 type 2 flat-planes conditions out of the 4884 cases we tested—but their mere existence has implications for the design of exchange-correlation energy density functionals. To facilitate the development of functionals that have the correct behavior with respect to both fractional number of electrons and fractional spin polarization, we present a dataset for the chromium atom and its ions that can be used to test new functionals.

  3. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne;

    2007-01-01

    or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8......In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...

  4. Introduction to uncertainty quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, T J

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification is a topic of increasing practical importance at the intersection of applied mathematics, statistics, computation, and numerous application areas in science and engineering. This text provides a framework in which the main objectives of the field of uncertainty quantification are defined, and an overview of the range of mathematical methods by which they can be achieved. Complete with exercises throughout, the book will equip readers with both theoretical understanding and practical experience of the key mathematical and algorithmic tools underlying the treatment of uncertainty in modern applied mathematics. Students and readers alike are encouraged to apply the mathematical methods discussed in this book to their own favourite problems to understand their strengths and weaknesses, also making the text suitable as a self-study. This text is designed as an introduction to uncertainty quantification for senior undergraduate and graduate students with a mathematical or statistical back...

  5. Massless particles, orthosymplectic symmetry and another type of Kaluza-Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superalgebra osp(8/1) is intimately related to the twistor program. Its most singular representation has the following property: restricted to the conformal subalgebra it contains each and every massless representation exactly once. In other words, one irreducible representation of osp(8/1) describes all massless particles with maximal efficiency. It is believed that such unification is required if massless fields of high spins are to have self-consistent interactions. There are other reasons for studying massless particles of all spins simultaneously. There is a very appealing model in which massless particles are viewed as states of two so(3,2) singletons. The astounding fact is that all free two-singleton states are precisely massless. The most singular representation of osp(8/2) is irreducible on osp(8/1) and completely determined by the latter representation. It finds direct application in supergravity theories. The most interesting Sp(8/R) homogeneous space is 10-dimensional. The action of the conformal subgroup leaves invariant a unique 4-dimensional submanifold that can be identified with space time. Kaluza-Klein expansion of the scalar field on 10-space, around this 4-dimensional manifold, leads to a field theory of massless particles with all integer spins on space time. A supersymmetric extension is also possible. (Auth.)

  6. Uncertainty quantification of effective nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We give a brief review on the development of phenomenological NN interactions and the corresponding quantification of statistical uncertainties. We look into the uncertainty of effective interactions broadly used in mean field calculations through the Skyrme parameters and effective field theory counter-terms by estimating both statistical and systematic uncertainties stemming from the NN interaction. We also comment on the role played by different fitting strategies on the light of recent developments.

  7. Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in bimetric theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Katore; R S Rane; K S Wankhade

    2011-04-01

    Bianchi type-I massive string cosmological model for perfect fluid distribution in the presence of magnetic field is investigated in Rosen’s [Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 4, 435 (1973)] bimetric theory of gravitation. To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time, we have used the condition $A = (B C)^n$, where n is a constant, between the metric potentials. The magnetic field is due to the electric current produced along the -axis with infinite electrical conductivity. Some physical and geometrical properties of the exhibited model are discussed and studied.

  8. Types of two-dimensional = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abbas Ali

    2003-12-01

    Various types of = 4 superconformal symmetries in two dimensions are considered. It is proposed that apart from the well-known cases of (2) and (2)× (2)× (1), their Kac–Moody symmetry can also be (2)× ((1))4. Operator product expansions for the last case are derived. A complete free field realization for the same is obtained.

  9. Theory of Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers in the Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type

    OpenAIRE

    Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we announce some results obtained for certain algebraic functions, which we call of cyclotomic type. The main results properly resemble von Staudt-Clausen's theorem and Kummer's congruence for the Bernoulli numbers, and such theorems for the Hurwitz numbers.

  10. Theory of vesicles and droplet type microemulsions : Configurational entropy, size distribution, and measurable properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Reiss, H.

    1996-01-01

    A model of vesicles and droplet type microemulsions is presented. It is shown that the size distribution of the droplets (either vesicles or microemulsions) coexisting with excess fluid is determined in general by only two terms : the free energy of the interface between the drops and the continuous

  11. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    2011-01-01

    Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from...... the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure...... DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4- qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six...

  12. TH-C-19A-09: Quantification of Transmission and Backscatter Factors as a function of Distance to Inhomogeneity Interface for Three Types of Surgical Implant Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Carbon fiber materials have been increasingly used clinically, mainly in orthopedics, as an alternative to metallic implants because of their minimal artifacts on CT and MRI images. This study characterizes the transmission and backscatter property of carbon fiber plates (CarboFix Orthopedics, Herzeliya, Israel) with measurements for radiation therapy applications, and compares them to traditional Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) metal materials. Methods: For the transmission measurements, 1-mm-thick test plate was placed upstream from a plane parallel Markus chamber, separated by various thicknesses of polystyrene plates in 0.5 cm increments between 0 and 5 cm. With this setup, we quantified the radiation transmission as a function of distance to the inhomogeneity interface. The LINAC source to detector distance was maintained at 100 cm and 200 MU was delivered for each measurement. Two 3-cm solid water phantoms were placed at the top and bottom to provide build up. All the measurements were performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photons. The backscatter measurements had the identical setup, except that the test plate was downstream of the chamber from radiation. Results: The carbon fiber plates did not introduce any measureable inhomogeneity effect on the transmission and backscatter factor because of its low atomic number. In contrast, traditional metal implant materials caused up to 15% dose difference at upstream and 25% backscatter at downstream from radiation. Such differences decrease as the distance to the inhomogeneity interface increases and become unmeasurable at distance of 3 cm and 1 cm for upstream and downstream, respectively. Conclusion: A new type of carbon fiber implant plate was evaluated and found to have minimal inhomogeneity effect in MV radiation beams. Patients would benefit from a carbon based implant over metal for radiation therapy due to their minimal backscatter and imaging artifacts

  13. TH-C-19A-09: Quantification of Transmission and Backscatter Factors as a function of Distance to Inhomogeneity Interface for Three Types of Surgical Implant Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D; Mills, M; Wang, B [University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Carbon fiber materials have been increasingly used clinically, mainly in orthopedics, as an alternative to metallic implants because of their minimal artifacts on CT and MRI images. This study characterizes the transmission and backscatter property of carbon fiber plates (CarboFix Orthopedics, Herzeliya, Israel) with measurements for radiation therapy applications, and compares them to traditional Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) metal materials. Methods: For the transmission measurements, 1-mm-thick test plate was placed upstream from a plane parallel Markus chamber, separated by various thicknesses of polystyrene plates in 0.5 cm increments between 0 and 5 cm. With this setup, we quantified the radiation transmission as a function of distance to the inhomogeneity interface. The LINAC source to detector distance was maintained at 100 cm and 200 MU was delivered for each measurement. Two 3-cm solid water phantoms were placed at the top and bottom to provide build up. All the measurements were performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photons. The backscatter measurements had the identical setup, except that the test plate was downstream of the chamber from radiation. Results: The carbon fiber plates did not introduce any measureable inhomogeneity effect on the transmission and backscatter factor because of its low atomic number. In contrast, traditional metal implant materials caused up to 15% dose difference at upstream and 25% backscatter at downstream from radiation. Such differences decrease as the distance to the inhomogeneity interface increases and become unmeasurable at distance of 3 cm and 1 cm for upstream and downstream, respectively. Conclusion: A new type of carbon fiber implant plate was evaluated and found to have minimal inhomogeneity effect in MV radiation beams. Patients would benefit from a carbon based implant over metal for radiation therapy due to their minimal backscatter and imaging artifacts.

  14. A cluster randomised pragmatic trial applying Self-determination theory to type 2 diabetes care in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Lise; Maindal, Helle T; Zoffmann, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes complications often require radical and life-long health behaviour changes. Observational studies based on Self-determination theory (SDT) propose substantial factors for the maintenance of behaviour changes and concomitant......, and well-being among a diabetes population, 2) the actual intervention to a level of detail that allows its replication, and 3) the connection between SDT recommendations for health care-provider behaviour and the content of the training course. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a cluster...... intervention will be assessed on the diabetes populations with regard to well-being (PAID, SF-12), HbA1c- and cholesterol-levels, perceived autonomy support (HCCQ), type of motivation (TSRQ), and perceived competence for diabetes care (PCD) 15-21 months after the core course; the completion of the second...

  15. Noether-type theory for discrete mechanico-electrical dynamical systems with nonregular lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We investigate Noether symmetries and conservation laws of the discrete mechanico-electrical systems with nonregular lattices.The operators of discrete transformation and discrete differentiation to the right and left are introduced for the systems.Based on the invariance of discrete Hamilton action on nonregular lattices of the systems with the dissipation forces under the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the time,generalized coordinates and generalized charge quantities,we work out the discrete analog of the generalized variational formula.From this formula we derive the discrete analog of generalized Noether-type identity,and then we present the generalized quasi-extremal equations and properties of these equations for the systems.We also obtain the discrete analog of Noether-type conserved laws and the discrete analog of generalized Noether theorems for the systems.Finally we use an example to illustrate these results.

  16. Le rapport paradoxal de l'économie scientifique à la quantification des phénomènes économiques le cas de la "positive accounting theory"

    OpenAIRE

    Chiapello, Eve; Desrosières, A.

    2004-01-01

    International audience Nous traitons dans cet article de la quantification économique Et de son utilisation par la recherche en économie, en embrassant ses différentes sources qu'elles soient comptables ou statistiques. Diverses interrogations nous ont guidés. La première est la méconnaissance qu'ont souvent les économistes des opérations de quantification de l'économie notamment comptables qui leur sont pourtant utiles dans leurs travaux empiriques. La seconde est l'accroissement historiq...

  17. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for the determination of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 mRNA in primary tumor tissue of breast cancer patients: comparison to antigen quantification by ELISA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, J.C.; Holzscheiter, L.; Kotzsch, M.; Luther, T.; Kiechle-Bahat, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Span, P.N.; Schmitt, M.; Magdolen, V.

    2008-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumor-associated processes such as the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, tissue remodeling, cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. High antigen levels of uPA an

  18. Wave Concept in the Theory of Hydrodynamical Dispersion - a Maxwellian Type Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kronberg, A.E.; Benneker, A.H.; Dil'man, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to the modelling of chemical reactors and contactors is discussed. This approach argues that the dispersion should, under most circumstances, be based on Maxwell's, rather than Fick's diffusion law. As a pair of first-order partial differential equations of the hyperbolic type and requiring only inlet conditions, the wave model is more realistic physically, has a much wider range of validity and in many practical cases is simpler mathematically. Only mass transfer problems are ...

  19. A Global View on The Search for de-Sitter Vacua in (type IIA) String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xingang; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2011-01-01

    The search for classically stable Type IIA de-Sitter vacua typically starts with an ansatz that gives Anti-de-Sitter supersymmetric vacua and then raises the cosmological constant by modifying the compactification. As one raises the cosmological constant, the couplings typically destabilize the classically stable vacuum, so the probability that this approach will lead to a classically stable de-Sitter vacuum is Gaussianly suppressed. This suggests that classically stable de-Sitter vacua in st...

  20. An analysis of the openehr archetype semantics based on a typed lambda theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Akimichi; Shinohara, Emiko Y; Kawazoe, Yoshimasa; Imai, Takeshi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The openEHR has adopted the dual model architecture consisting of Reference Model and Archetype. The specification, however, lacks formal definitions of archetype semantics, so that its behaviors have remained ambiguous. The objective of this poster is to analyze semantics of the openEHR archetypes: its variance and mutability. We use a typed lambda calculus as an analyzing tool. As a result, we have reached the conclusion that archetypes should be 1) covariant and 2) immutable schema.

  1. Theory of the normal modes of vibrations in the lanthanide type crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Roberto [Instituto de Ciencias Basicas. Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Soto-Bubert, Andres, E-mail: roberto.acevedo@umayor.cl

    2008-11-01

    For the lanthanide type crystals, a vast and rich, though incomplete amount of experimental data has been accumulated, from linear and non linear optics, during the last decades. The main goal of the current research work is to report a new methodology and strategy to put forward a more representative approach to account for the normal modes of vibrations for a complex N-body system. For illustrative purposes, the chloride lanthanide type crystals Cs{sub 2}NaLnCl{sub 6} have been chosen and we develop new convergence tests as well as a criterion to deal with the details of the F-matrix (potential energy matrix). A novel and useful concept of natural potential energy distributions (NPED) is introduced and examined throughout the course of this work. The diagonal and non diagonal contributions to these NPED-values, are evaluated for a series of these crystals explicitly. Our model is based upon a total of seventy two internal coordinates and ninety eight internal Hooke type force constants. An optimization mathematical procedure is applied with reference to the series of chloride lanthanide crystals and it is shown that the strategy and model adopted is sound from both a chemical and a physical viewpoints. We can argue that the current model is able to accommodate a number of interactions and to provide us with a very useful physical insight. The limitations and advantages of the current model and the most likely sources for improvements are discussed in detail.

  2. Recent progress on Kubas-type hydrogen-storage nanomaterials: from theories to experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, ChiHye; Ihm, Jisoon; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2015-06-01

    Transition-metal (TM) atoms are known to form TM-H2 complexes, which are collectively called Kubas dihydrogen complexes. The TM-H2 complexes are formed through the hybridization of the TM d orbitals with the H2 σ and σ* orbitals. The adsorption energy of H2 molecules in the TM-H2 complexes is usually within the range of energy required for reversible H2 storage at room temperature and ambient pressure (-0.4 ~ -0.2 eV/H2). Thus, TM-H2 complexes have been investigated as potential Kubas-type hydrogen-storage materials. Recently, TM-decorated nanomaterials have attracted much attention because of their promising high capacity and reversibility as Kubas-type hydrogen-storage materials. The hydrogen storage capacity of TM-decorated nanomaterials is expected to be as large as ~9 wt%, which is suitable for certain vehicular applications. However, in the TM-decorated nanostructures, the TM atoms prefer to form clusters because of the large cohesive energy (approximately 4 eV), which leads to a significant reduction in the hydrogen-storage capacity. On the other hand, Ca atoms can form complexes with H2 molecules via Kubas-like interactions. Ca atoms attached to nanomaterials have been reported to be able to adsorb as many H2 molecules as TM atoms. Ca atoms tend to cluster less because of the small cohesive energy of bulk Ca (1.83 eV), which is much smaller than those of bulk TMs. These observations suggest thatKubas interactions can occur in d orbital-free elements, thereby making Ca a more suitable element for attracting H2 in hydrogen-storage materials. Recently, Kubas-type TM-based, hydrogen- stor ge materials were experimentally synthesized, and the Kubas-type interactions were measured to be stronger than the van der Waals interactions. In this review, the recent progress of Kubas-type hydrogen- storage materials will be discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints.

  3. Disease quantification in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very ...

  4. Integrating theory and data to create an online self-management programme for adults with type 2 diabetes: HeLP-Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Pal

    2015-10-01

    This protocol demonstrates a multi-disciplinary approach to combining evidence from multiple sources to create ’HeLP-Diabetes’: a theory and evidence based online self-management intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Six-Dimensional Superconformal Theories and their Compactifications from Type IIA Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rota, Andrea; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    We describe three analytic classes of infinitely many AdSd supersymmetric solutions of massive IIA supergravity, for d =7 ,5 ,4 . The three classes are related by simple universal maps. For example, the AdS7×M3 solutions (where M3 is topologically S3 ) are mapped to AdS5×Σ2×M3' , where Σ2 is a Riemann surface of genus g ≥2 and the metric on M3' is obtained by distorting M3 in a certain way. The solutions can have localized D6 or O6 sources, as well as an arbitrary number of D8-branes. The AdS7 case (previously known only numerically) is conjecturally dual to an NS5-D6-D8 system. The field theories in three and four dimensions are not known, but their number of degrees of freedom can be computed in the supergravity approximation. The AdS4 solutions have numerical "attractor" generalizations that might be useful for flux compactification purposes.

  6. Supersymmetric Intersecting D6-Branes and Fluxes in Massive Type IIA String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Behrndt, K.; Cvetic, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study N=1 supersymmetric four-dimensional solutions of massive Type IIA supergravity with intersecting D6-branes in the presence NS-NS three-form fluxes. We derive N=1 supersymmetry conditions for the D6-brane and flux configurations in an internal manifold $X_6$ and derive the intrinsic torsion (or SU(3)-structure) related to the fluxes. In the absence of fluxes, N=1 supersymmetry implies that D6-branes wrap supersymmetric three-cycles of $X_6$ that intersect at angles of SU(3) rotations ...

  7. [Genetic and humoral autoimmunity markers of type 1 diabetes: from theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da; Mory, Denise; Davini, Elaine

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 A diabetes mellitus (T1AD) results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells. The largest contribution to genetic susceptibility comes from several genes located in the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p21.3 (IDDM1 locus), accounting for at least 40% of the family aggregation of this disease. The highest-risk human leukocyte antigen HLA genotype for T1AD is DR3-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201/DR4-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, whereas -DR15-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 haplotype is associated with dominant protection. Three other T1D loci associated with predisposition are the Variable Number for Tandem Repeats (VNTR) near the insulin gene (IDDM2), which accounts to 10% of genetic susceptibility, the Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-associated Antigen (CTLA-4)(IDDM 12) and the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatasis Nonreceptor-type 22 (PTPN22). Many other gene suspected to predispose to autoimmunity have been investigated. T1AD is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease, celiac disase, Addison s disease and many other autoimmune diseases, characterized by organ-specific autoantibodies and related to the same genetic background. Using these autoantibodies, organ specific autoimmunity may be detected before the development of clinical disease preventing significant morbidity. PMID:18438527

  8. Mushroom-type structures with the wires connected through diodes: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, Ali; Kaipa, Chandra S. R.; Yakovlev, Alexander B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we establish a general formalism to quantify the interaction of electromagnetic waves with mushroom-type structures (high impedance surface and bi-layer) with diodes inserted along the direction of the wires. The analysis is carried out using the nonlocal homogenization model for the mushroom structure with the generalized additional boundary conditions at the connection of the wires to diodes. We calculate numerically the magnitude and phase of the reflected/transmitted fields in the presence of an ideal and realistic PIN diodes. It is observed that the reflection/transmission characteristics of the mushroom-type structures can be controlled by tuning the working states of the integrated PIN diodes. We realize a structure with a multi-diode switch to minimize the undesired transmission for a particular incident angle. In addition, a dual-band subwavelength imaging lens is designed based on the resonant amplification of evanescent waves, wherein the operating frequency can be tuned by changing the states of the PIN diodes. The analytical results are verified with the full-wave electromagnetic solver CST Microwave Studio, showing a good agreement.

  9. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  10. Contiguous triple spinal dysraphism associated with Chiari malformation Type II and hydrocephalus: an embryological conundrum between the unified theory of Pang and the unified theory of McLone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Srinivasan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Triple spinal dysraphism is extremely rare. There are published reports of multiple discrete neural tube defects with intervening normal segments that are explained by the multisite closure theory of primary neurulation, having an association with Chiari malformation Type II consistent with the unified theory of McLone. The authors report on a 1-year-old child with contiguous myelomeningocele and lipomyelomeningocele centered on Type I split cord malformation with Chiari malformation Type II and hydrocephalus. This composite anomaly is probably due to select abnormalities of the neurenteric canal during gastrulation, with a contiguous cascading impact on both dysjunction of the neural tube and closure of the neuropore, resulting in a small posterior fossa, probably bringing the unified theory of McLone closer to the unified theory of Pang.

  11. Type Ia Supernovae and their Environment: Theory and Applications to SN 2014J

    CERN Document Server

    Dragulin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE (Supernovae Progenitor Interaction Calculator for parameterized Environments, available on request), assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Pi-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia (SN~Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M_Ch explosions,the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM l...

  12. Type Ia Supernovae and Their Environment:Theory and Applications to SN 2014J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulin, Paul; Hoeflich, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE, assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Π-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For MCh explosions, the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across, surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM lines Doppler shifted by 10-100 km s-1, and equivalent widths of ≈100 mÅ and ≈1 mÅ in cases of ambient environments with constant density and produced by prior mass loss, respectively. For SN2014J, both mergers and MCh mass explosions have been suggested based on radio and narrow lines. As a consistent and most likely solution, we find an AD wind running into an environment produced by the red giant wind of the progenitor during the pre-WD stage, and a short delay, 0.013-1.4 Myr, between the WD formation and the explosion. Our framework may be applied more generally to stellar winds and star formation feedback in large scale galactic evolution simulations.

  13. On B-type open-closed Landau-Ginzburg theories defined on Calabi-Yau Stein manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Babalic, Mirela; Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu; Tavakol, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bulk algebra and topological D-brane category arising from the differential model of the open-closed B-type topological Landau-Ginzburg theory defined by a pair $(X,W)$, where $X$ is a non-compact Calabi-Yau manifold and $W$ has compact critical set. When $X$ is a Stein manifold (but not restricted to be a domain of holomorphy), we extract equivalent descriptions of the bulk algebra and of the category of topological D-branes which are constructed using only the analytic space associated to $X$. In particular, we show that the D-brane category is described by projective matrix factorizations defined over the ring of holomorphic functions of $X$. We also discuss simplifications of the analytic models which arise when $X$ is holomorphically parallelizable and illustrate these analytic models in a few classes of examples.

  14. Bianchi Type-I Massive String Magnetized Barotropic Perfect Fluid Cosmological Model in the Bimetric Theory of Gravitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. P. Gaikwad; M. S. Borkar; S. S. Charjan

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier(1979,1980) and Stachel(1983).To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution.The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed.By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al.(2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T=0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al.starts with a big bang at T=0.Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al.(2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions using extended R-matrix theory picturing surrogate-type WFCF features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouland, Olivier H.

    2016-03-01

    This article supplies an overview of issues related to the interpretation of surrogate measurement results for neutron-incident cross section predictions; difficulties that are somehow masked by the historical conversion route based on Weisskopf-Ewing approximation. Our proposal is to handle the various difficulties by using a more rigorous approach relying on Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions with extended R-matrix theory. The multiple deficiencies of the historical surrogate treatment are recalled but only one is examined in some details here; meaning the calculation of in-out-going channel Width Fluctuation Correction Factors (WFCF) which behavior witness partly the failure of Niels Bohr's compound nucleus theoretical landmark. Relevant WFCF calculations according to neutron-induced surrogate- and cross section-types as a function of neutron-induced fluctuating energy range [0 - 2.1 MeV] are presented and commented in the case of the 240Pu* and 241Pu* compound nucleus isotopes.

  16. Flux-induced Soft Terms on Type IIB/F-theory Matter Curves and Hypercharge Dependent Scalar Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Camara, Pablo G; Valenzuela, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Closed string fluxes induce generically SUSY-breaking soft terms on supersymmetric type IIB orientifold compactifications with D3/D7 branes. This was studied in the past by inserting those fluxes on the DBI+CS actions for adjoint D3/D7 fields, where D7-branes had no magnetic fluxes. In the present work we generalise those computations to the phenomenologically more relevant case of chiral bi-fundamental fields laying at 7-brane intersections and F-theory local matter curves. We also include the effect of 7-brane magnetic flux as well as more general closed string backgrounds, including the effect of distant (anti-)D3-branes. We discuss several applications of our results. We find that squark/slepton masses become in general flux-dependent in F-theory GUT's. Hypercharge-dependent non-universal scalar masses with a characteristic sfermion hierarchy m_E^2 < m_L^2 < m_Q^2 < m_D^2 < m_U^2 are obtained. There are also flavor-violating soft terms both for matter fields living at intersecting 7-branes or ...

  17. Factors Influencing Physical Activity Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Didarloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFindings of most studies indicate that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating effects is through the continuous performance of self-care behaviors. Physical activity is a non-pharmacological method of diabetes treatment and because of its positive effects on diabetic patients, it is being increasingly considered by researchers and practitioners. This study aimed at determining factors influencing physical activity among diabetic women in Iran, using the extended theory of reasoned action in Iran.MethodsA sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the desired variables (knowledge of diabetes, personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention and physical activity behavior. The reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by inferential statistical techniques (independent t-test, correlations and regressions using the SPSS package.ResultsThe findings of this investigation indicated that among the constructs of the model, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes and both directly and indirectly affected physical activity. In addition to self efficacy, diabetic patients' physical activity also was influenced by other variables of the model and sociodemographic factors.ConclusionOur findings suggest that the high ability of the theory of reasoned action extended by self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining physical activity can be a base for educational intervention. Educational interventions based on the proposed model are necessary for improving diabetics' physical activity behavior and controlling disease.

  18. Positron emission tomographic imaging of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor system with [¹¹C]OMAR ([¹¹C]JHU75528): improvements in image quantification using wild-type and knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herance, Raúl; Rojas, Santiago; Abad, Sergio; Jiménez, Xavier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Millán, Olga; Martín-García, Elena; Burokas, Aurelijus; Serra, Miquel Àngel; Maldonado, Rafael; Pareto, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using positron emission tomography (PET) and the tracer [¹¹C]OMAR ([¹¹C]JHU75528), an analogue of rimonabant, to study the brain cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor system. Wild-type (WT) and CB1 knockout (KO) animals were imaged at baseline and after pretreatment with blocking doses of rimonabant. Brain uptake in WT animals was higher (50%) than in KO animals in baseline conditions. After pretreatment with rimonabant, WT uptake lowered to the level of KO animals. The results of this study support the feasibility of using PET with the radiotracer [¹¹C]JHU75528 to image the brain CB1 receptor system in mice. In addition, this methodology can be used to assess the effect of new drugs in preclinical studies using genetically manipulated animals.

  19. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariyoshi, K; Berry, N; Cham, F;

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects...... infected with HIV-2 alone (212 vs. 724 copies/mL; P=.02). Adjusted for age, sex, and HIV status, the risk of death increased with HTLV-I provirus load; mortality hazard ratio was 1.59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2...

  20. Theory, design, and simulation of LINA: A path forward for QCA-type nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Loyd Reed, IV

    advanced logical constructs which are crucial to the QCA proposals. However, LINA designs also provide significant improvements over traditional QCA. For example, the continuous correction of faults, due to LINA's integrated-signal approach, provides reliability improvements to enable room-temperature operation with cells which are potentially up to 20nm and fault tolerance to layout, patterning, stray-charge, and stuck-at-faults. In terms of fabrication, LINA's lattice-based structure allows precise relative placement through the use of self-assembly techniques seen in current nanoparticle research. LINA also allows for large enough wire and logic structures to enable use of widely available photo-lithographical patterning technologies. These aspects of the LINA designs, along with power, timing, and clocking results, have been verified through the use of new and/or modified simulation tools specifically developed for this purpose. To summarize, the LINA designs and results, presented in this dissertation, provide a path to realization of QCA-type VLSI nanoelectronic circuitry. Furthermore, they offer a renewed viability of the paradigm to replace CMOS and advance computing technologies beyond the next decade.

  1. Motivational Profiles for Physical Activity Practice in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Trouilloud, David; Boiché, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations). Participants with "High Combined" and "Self-Determined" profiles reported higher perceived competence and longer leisure-time PA practice in comparison to those with a "Moderate" profile. This study highlights the necessity of adopting a person-centered approach to better understand motivation toward PA among type 2 diabetics.

  2. Motivational Profiles for Physical Activity Practice in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Trouilloud, David; Boiché, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations). Participants with "High Combined" and "Self-Determined" profiles reported higher perceived competence and longer leisure-time PA practice in comparison to those with a "Moderate" profile. This study highlights the necessity of adopting a person-centered approach to better understand motivation toward PA among type 2 diabetics. PMID:25961448

  3. Effectiveness of training on preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the female adolescents: Examination of theory of planned behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. Methods: In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention group, an educational program was designed based on the theory of planned behavior and presented in 6 workshop sessions to prevent type-2 diabetes. The data were collected before and two months after the workshops using a valid and reliable (α=0.72 and r=0.80) authormade questionnaire based on Ajzens TPB questionnaire manual. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test and analysis of covariance. Results: Findings indicate that the two groups were homogeneous regarding the demographic characteristics before education, but the mean score of the theory components (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) was higher in the control group. Also, results showed all of the theory components significantly increased after the education in the intervention group (p=0.000). Conclusion: Training based on the theory of planned behavior enhances the intention to adherence preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the studied female adolescents. PMID:27390718

  4. Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification with MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifried, Jeffrey E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This work serves to quantify the instantaneous uncertainties in neutron transport simulations born from nuclear data and statistical counting uncertainties. Perturbation and adjoint theories are used to derive implicit sensitivity expressions. These expressions are transformed into forms that are convenient for construction with MCNP6, creating the ability to perform adjoint-based uncertainty quantification with MCNP6. These new tools are exercised on the depleted-uranium hybrid LIFE blanket, quantifying its sensitivities and uncertainties to important figures of merit. Overall, these uncertainty estimates are small (< 2%). Having quantified the sensitivities and uncertainties, physical understanding of the system is gained and some confidence in the simulation is acquired.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions using extended R-matrix theory picturing surrogate-type WFCF features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouland Olivier H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article supplies an overview of issues related to the interpretation of surrogate measurement results for neutron-incident cross section predictions; difficulties that are somehow masked by the historical conversion route based on Weisskopf-Ewing approximation. Our proposal is to handle the various difficulties by using a more rigorous approach relying on Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions with extended R-matrix theory. The multiple deficiencies of the historical surrogate treatment are recalled but only one is examined in some details here; meaning the calculation of in-out-going channel Width Fluctuation Correction Factors (WFCF which behavior witness partly the failure of Niels Bohr’s compound nucleus theoretical landmark. Relevant WFCF calculations according to neutron-induced surrogate- and cross section-types as a function of neutron-induced fluctuating energy range [0 - 2.1 MeV] are presented and commented in the case of the 240Pu* and 241Pu* compound nucleus isotopes.

  6. Selection of Treatment Strategies among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lan Low

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a multifaceted chronic illness and its life-long treatment process requires patients to continuously engage with the healthcare system. The understanding of how patients manoeuvre through the healthcare system for treatment is crucial in assisting them to optimise their disease management. This study aims to explore issues determining patients' treatment strategies and the process of patients manoeuvring through the current healthcare system in selecting their choice of treatment for T2DM.The Grounded Theory methodology was used. Twelve patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, nine family members and five healthcare providers from the primary care clinics were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Three focus group discussions were conducted among thirteen healthcare providers from public primary care clinics. Both purposive and theoretical samplings were used for data collection. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, followed by line-by-line coding and constant comparison to identify the categories and core category.The concept of "experimentation" was observed in patients' help-seeking behaviour. The "experimentation" process required triggers, followed by information seeking related to treatment characteristics from trusted family members, friends and healthcare providers to enable decisions to be made on the choice of treatment modalities. The whole process was dynamic and iterative through interaction with the healthcare system. The decision-making process in choosing the types of treatment was complex with an element of trial-and-error. The anchor of this process was the desire to fulfil the patient's expected outcome.Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus continuously used "experimentation" in their treatment strategies and help-seeking process. The "experimentation" process was experiential, with continuous evaluation, information seeking and decision-making tinged with the element

  7. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie,Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external varia...

  8. Prediction of Self-Management Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action along with Self-Efficacy (ETRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Didarloo, A R; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji ASL, R; Habibzadeh, H; Niknami, Sh; Pourali, R

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuous performing of diabetes self-care behaviors was shown to be an effective strategy to control diabetes and to prevent or reduce its- related complications. This study aimed to investigate predictors of self-care behavior based on the extended theory of reasoned action by self efficacy (ETRA) among women with type 2 diabetes in Iran. Methods A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran using the nonprobability sampling was enrolle...

  9. Effectiveness of training on preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the female adolescents: Examination of theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. Methods: In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention gro...

  10. [Remarks on application of acupuncture instruments in acupuncture quantification and normalization studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Fan, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Shu; Shi, Xue-Min

    2009-01-01

    Acupuncture manipulation quantification is an important link of acupuncture normalization study. Because traditional acupuncture manipulation are complicated with difficulty of quantification, acupuncture instruments provide a new way for acupuncture manipulation quantification and acupuncture normalization. It is necessary to increase the understanding of the importance of developing acupuncture instruments, strengthen the study of related theory and development of acupuncture measurement instruments and acupuncture imitation instruments, enlarge serviceable range, verify efficacy, develop the theory of acupuncture manipulation, richen the study methods of acupuncture normalization, so as to promote internationalization of acupuncture.

  11. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  12. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrisos, S.; Eccles, M.P.; Francis, J.J.; Bosch, M.C.; Dijkstra, R.F.; Johnston, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kaner, E.F.; Steen, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theori

  13. Non-existence of non-topological solitons in some types of gauge field theories in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the conditions, under which non-topological solitons are absent in Yang-Mills theory coupled to a non-linear scalar field in Minkowski space, are obtained. It is also shown that non-topological solitons are absent in a theory describing massive complex vector field coupled to electromagnetic field in Minkowski space.

  14. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  15. Understanding the p-Type Conduction Properties of the Transparent Conducting Oxide CuBO2: A Density Functional Theory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Graeme; Scanlon, David

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED CuCrO2 is the most promising Cu-based delafossite for p-type optoelectronic devices. Despite this, little is known about the p-type conduction mechanism of this material, with both CuI/CuII and CrIII/CrIV hole mechanisms being proposed. In this article we examine the electronic structure, thermodynamic stability and the p-type defect chemistry of this ternary compound using density functional theory with three different approaches to the exchange and correlation; the generalized-...

  16. Automated Template Quantification for DNA Sequencing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanetich, Kathryn M.; Yan, Wilson; Wunderlich, Kathleen M.; Weston, Jennifer; Walkup, Ward G.; Simeon, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The quantification of plasmid DNA by the PicoGreen dye binding assay has been automated, and the effect of quantification of user-submitted templates on DNA sequence quality in a core laboratory has been assessed. The protocol pipets, mixes and reads standards, blanks and up to 88 unknowns, generates a standard curve, and calculates template concentrations. For pUC19 replicates at five concentrations, coefficients of variance were 0.1, and percent errors were from 1% to 7% (n = 198). Standard curves with pUC19 DNA were nonlinear over the 1 to 1733 ng/μL concentration range required to assay the majority (98.7%) of user-submitted templates. Over 35,000 templates have been quantified using the protocol. For 1350 user-submitted plasmids, 87% deviated by ≥ 20% from the requested concentration (500 ng/μL). Based on data from 418 sequencing reactions, quantification of user-submitted templates was shown to significantly improve DNA sequence quality. The protocol is applicable to all types of double-stranded DNA, is unaffected by primer (1 pmol/μL), and is user modifiable. The protocol takes 30 min, saves 1 h of technical time, and costs approximately $0.20 per unknown. PMID:16461949

  17. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Agricultural Research Service 2011), which aim to improve consistency of field measurement and data collection for soil carbon sequestration and soil nitrous oxide fluxes. Often these national-level activity data and emissions factors are the basis for regional and smaller-scale applications. Such data are used for model-based estimates of changes in GHGs at a project or regional level (Olander et al 2011). To complement national data for regional-, landscape-, or field-level applications, new data are often collected through farmer knowledge or records and field sampling. Ideally such data could be collected in a standardized manner, perhaps through some type of crowd sourcing model to improve regional—and national—level data, as well as to improve consistency of locally collected data. Data can also be collected by companies working with agricultural suppliers and in country networks, within efforts aimed at understanding firm and product (supply-chain) sustainability and risks (FAO 2009). Such data may feed into various certification processes or reporting requirements from buyers. Unfortunately, this data is likely proprietary. A new process is needed to aggregate and share private data in a way that would not be a competitive concern so such data could complement or supplement national data and add value. A number of papers in this focus issue discuss issues surrounding quantification methods and systems at large scales, global and national levels, while others explore landscape- and field-scale approaches. A few explore the intersection of top-down and bottom-up data measurement and modeling approaches. 5. The agricultural greenhouse gas quantification project and ERL focus issue Important land management decisions are often made with poor or few data, especially in developing countries. Current systems for quantifying GHG emissions are inadequate in most low-income countries, due to a lack of funding, human resources, and infrastructure. Most non-Annex 1 countries

  18. A Leonard-Sanders-Budiansky-Koiter-Type Nonlinear Shell Theory with a Hierarchy of Transverse-Shearing Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed exposition on a refined nonlinear shell theory suitable for nonlinear buckling analyses of laminated-composite shell structures is presented. This shell theory includes the classical nonlinear shell theory attributed to Leonard, Sanders, Koiter, and Budiansky as an explicit proper subset. This approach is used in order to leverage the exisiting experience base and to make the theory attractive to industry. In addition, the formalism of general tensors is avoided in order to expose the details needed to fully understand and use the theory. The shell theory is based on "small" strains and "moderate" rotations, and no shell-thinness approximations are used. As a result, the strain-displacement relations are exact within the presumptions of "small" strains and "moderate" rotations. The effects of transverse-shearing deformations are included in the theory by using analyst-defined functions to describe the through-the-thickness distributions of transverse-shearing strains. Constitutive equations for laminated-composite shells are derived without using any shell-thinness approximations, and simplified forms and special cases are presented.

  19. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  20. Nitrogen quantification with SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschnick, J.; Natzeck, C.; Sommer, M.

    1999-04-01

    Plasma-based secondary neutral mass spectrometry (plasma SNMS) is a powerful analytical method for determining the elemental concentrations of almost any kind of material at low cost by using a cheap quadrupole mass filter. However, a quadrupole-based mass spectrometer is limited to nominal mass resolution. Atomic signals are sometimes superimposed by molecular signals (2 or 3 atomic clusters such as CH +, CH 2+ or metal oxide clusters) and/or intensities of double-charged species. Especially in the case of nitrogen several interferences can impede the quantification. This article reports on methods to recognize and deconvolute superpositions of N + with CH 2+, Li 2+, and Si 2+ at mass 14 D (Debye) occurring during analysis of organic and inorganic substances. The recognition is based on the signal pattern of N +, Li +, CH +, and Si +. The latter serve as indicators for a probable interference of molecular or double-charged species with N on mass 14 D. The subsequent deconvolution use different shapes of atomic and cluster kinetic energy distributions (kEDs) to determine the quantities of the intensity components by a linear fit of N + and non-atomic kEDs obtained from several organic and inorganic standards into the measured kED. The atomic intensity fraction yields a much better nitrogen concentration than the total intensity of mass 14 D after correction.

  1. On a singular Fredholm-type integral equation arising in N=2 super-Yang–Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study the Nekrasov–Shatashvili limit of the Nekrasov instanton partition function of Yang–Mills field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and gauge group SU(Nc). The theories are coupled with Nf flavors of fundamental matter. The equation that determines the density of eigenvalues at the leading order in the saddle-point approximation is exactly solved when Nf=2Nc. The dominating contribution to the instanton free energy is computed. The requirement that this energy is finite imposes quantization conditions on the parameters of the theory that are in agreement with analogous conditions that have been derived in previous works. The instanton energy and thus the instanton contribution to the prepotential of the gauge theory is computed in closed form.

  2. The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Robert M.; TAGER–FLUSBERG, HELEN

    2004-01-01

    Although neurocognitive impairments in theory of mind and in executive functions have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism, there has been little research investigating the explanatory power of these impairments with regard to autistic symptomatology. The present study examined the degree to which individual differences in theory of mind and executive functions could explain variations in the severity of autism symptoms. Participants included 31 verbal, school-aged children ...

  3. Uncertainty quantification and stochastic modeling with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Souza de Cursi, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a relatively new research area which describes the methods and approaches used to supply quantitative descriptions of the effects of uncertainty, variability and errors in simulation problems and models. It is rapidly becoming a field of increasing importance, with many real-world applications within statistics, mathematics, probability and engineering, but also within the natural sciences. Literature on the topic has up until now been largely based on polynomial chaos, which raises difficulties when considering different types of approximation and does no

  4. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  5. Finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS4xCP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS4xCP3, which is the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). The string states we consider are in the RxS2xS2 subspace of AdS4xCP3 with an angular momentum J on CP3 being large. We compute the finite-size corrections using two different methods, one is to consider curvature corrections to the Penrose limit giving an expansion in 1/J, the other by considering a low energy expansion in λ'=λ/J2 of the string theory sigma-model, λ being the 't Hooft coupling of the dual ABJM theory. For both methods there are interesting issues to deal with. In the near-pp-wave method there is a 1/√(J) interaction term for which we use zeta-function regularization in order to compute the 1/J correction to the energy. For the low energy sigma-model expansion we have to take into account a non-trivial coupling to a non-dynamical transverse direction. We find agreement between the two methods. At order λ' and λ'2, for small λ', our results are analogous to the ones for the SU(2) sector in type IIB string theory on AdS5xS5. Instead at order λ'3 there are interactions between the two two-spheres. We compare our results with the recently proposed all-loop Bethe ansatz of Gromov and Vieira and find agreement

  6. The field and Killing spinor equations of M-theory and type IIA/IIB supergravity in coordinate-free notation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, M J D

    2016-01-01

    We review the actions of the supergravity theory in eleven dimensions as well as the type IIA and IIB supergravities in ten dimensions and derive the bosonic equations of motion in a coordinate-free notation. We also consider the existence of supersymmetries and the associated generalized Killing spinor equations. The aim of this note is to serve as a formulary and make the equations of supergravity more easily accessible to mathematicians.

  7. Application of the perturbation theory-differential formalism-for sensitivity analysis in steam generators of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.)

  8. Curing theory of A_f-A_g type free radical polymerization (Ⅱ)——Characterization of network structural parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 吕中元; 黄旭日; 李泽生; 唐敖庆

    1999-01-01

    By means of the polymer statistical theory, the A_f-A_g type nonlinear free radical polymerization is investigated to give the number of effective elastic chains, the number of effective elastic mers and the average length for the elastic chains. The corresponding quantities for the dangling chains, the number of effective cross-linkage and the modulus are also obtained. Furthermore, the number- and weight-fractions of elastic chains are deduced.

  9. Aharonov-Bohm Effect for Bound States on the Confinement of a Relativistic Scalar Particle to a Coulomb-Type Potential in Kaluza-Klein Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. B. Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kaluza-Klein theory, we study the Aharonov-Bohm effect for bound states for a relativistic scalar particle subject to a Coulomb-type potential. We introduce this scalar potential as a modification of the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, and a magnetic flux through the line element of the Minkowski spacetime in five dimensions. Then, we obtain the relativistic bound states solutions and calculate the persistent currents.

  10. Curing theory of A_f-A_g type free radical polymerization (Ⅲ)——The evaluation of network defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 巴信武; 赵敏; 李泽生

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of defects in the polymer network is important to characterize the polymer materials, in which there always exist the defects that affect the physical and chemical properties of polymer network. Taking Af-Ag type nonlinear free radical polymerization as an example, one type of defects called dangling loops in the gel network is investigated by means of the statistical theory of polymeric reactions. The number of dangling loops and the probability of its formation are obtained by analyzing the polymer network structure in detail.

  11. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor

  12. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng;

    2006-01-01

    Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS...

  13. Theory of The Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz Numbers for The Algebraic Functions of Cyclotomic Type and The Universal Bernoulli Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    Hurwitz numbers are the Laurent coefficients of an elliptic function $\\wp(u)$ of cyclotomic type, and they are natural generalization of the Bernoulli numbers. This paper gives new generalization of Bernoulli and Hurwitz numbers for higher genus cases. They satisfy completely von Staudt-Clausen type theorem, an extension of von Staudt second theorem, and Kummer type congruence relation. The present paper is revised and combined version of math.NT/0304377 and math.NT/0312178 containing many nu...

  14. Acoustical Measurement and Biot Model for Coral Reef Detection and Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry M. Manik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are coastal resources and very useful for marine ecosystems. Nowadays, the existence of coral reefs is seriously threatened due to the activities of blast fishing, coral mining, marine sedimentation, pollution, and global climate change. To determine the existence of coral reefs, it is necessary to study them comprehensively. One method to study a coral reef by using a propagation of sound waves is proposed. In this research, the measurement of reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient, acoustic backscattering, hardness, and roughness of coral reefs has been conducted using acoustic instruments and numerical modeling using Biot theory. The results showed that the quantification of the acoustic backscatter can classify the type of coral reef.

  15. Perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

  16. Statistical Mechanics Of Cracks Dualities In Supersymmetric Field Theories Orientifolds Of Type Iib Strings With Discrete B Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, A S

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we study a class of models for brittle fracture: elastic theory models which allow for cracks but not for plastic flow. We show that these models exhibit, at all finite temperatures, a transition to fracture under applied load. We study this transition at low temperature for small tension. We discuss the appropriate thermodynamic limit of these theories: a large class of boundary conditions is identified for which the energy release for a crack becomes independent of the macroscopic shape of the material. We prove that the energy release in an isotropically stretched material due to the creation of an arbitrary curvy cut is the same to cubic order as the energy release for the straight cut with the same end points...

  17. Application of perturbation theory to sensitivity calculations of PWR type reactor cores using the two-channel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute...... to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible...... quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and...

  19. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  20. MAMA Software Features: Quantification Verification Documentation-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-21

    This document reviews the verification of the basic shape quantification attributes in the MAMA software against hand calculations in order to show that the calculations are implemented mathematically correctly and give the expected quantification results.

  1. Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in Saez–Ballester theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shri Ram; M Zeyauddin; C P Singh

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the variation law for Hubble's parameter with average scale factor in a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time model, which yields constant value of the deceleration parameter. We derive two laws of variation of the average scale factor with cosmic time, one is of power-law type and the other is of exponential form. Exact solutions of Einstein field equations with perfect fluid and heat conduction are obtained for Bianchi type-V space-time in these two types of cosmologies. In the cosmology with the power-law, the solutions correspond to a cosmological model which starts expanding from the singular state with positive deceleration parameter. In the case of exponential cosmology, we present an accelerating non-singular model of the Universe. We find that the constant value of deceleration parameter is reasonable for the present day Universe and gives an appropriate description of evolution of Universe. We have also discussed different types of physical and kinematical behaviour of the models in these two types of cosmologies.

  2. The Types of Axisymmetric Exact Solutions Closely Related to n-SOLITONS for Yang-Mills Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zai Zhe

    In this letter, we point out that if a symmetric 2×2 real matrix M(ρ,z) obeys the Belinsky-Zakharov equation and |det(M)|=1, then an axisymmetric Bogomol'nyi field exact solution for the Yang-Mills-Higgs theory can be given. By using the inverse scattering technique, some special Bogomol'nyi field exact solutions, which are closely related to the true solitons, are generated. In particular, the Schwarzschild-like solution is a two-soliton-like solution.

  3. A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model. (paper)

  4. Effects of gender, age, and diabetes duration on dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stéphanie; Senécal, Caroline; Guay, Frédéric; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-09-01

    This study tests a model derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 2000) to explain the mechanisms by which non-modifiable factors influence dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 289). SEM analyses adjusted for HbA1c levels revealed that longer diabetes duration and female gender were indicative of poorer dietary self-care. This effect was mediated by contextual and motivational factors as posited by SDT. Poorer autonomy support from practitioners was predominant in girls with longer diabetes duration. Perceived autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were indicative of greater autonomy support, and led to better dietary self-care.

  5. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. II - Static response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdeir, A. A.; Librescu, L.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, by using the static counterparts of the governing equations derived in Librescu (1989), the static response of shallow composite shell-type panels subjected to a sinusoidal transverse load is investigated. The numerical applications, encompassing a large number of boundary conditions and various lamination schemes, allow one to obtain some conclusions which are formulated in the paper.

  6. Finding Balance : self-regulation in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes: from theory to a pilot intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Sasja Deborah

    2008-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis was to examine the role of self-regulation principles in predicting and changing self-care behaviors of diabetes type 2 patients. Overall, the results in this thesis indicate that self-regulation cognitions and skills might be important intervention targets of future

  7. Theory of quantum frequency conversion and type-II parametric down-conversion in the high-gain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency conversion (FC) and type-II parametric down-conversion (PDC) processes serve as basic building blocks for the implementation of quantum optical experiments: type-II PDC enables the efficient creation of quantum states such as photon-number states and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-states. FC gives rise to technologies enabling efficient atom–photon coupling, ultrafast pulse gates and enhanced detection schemes. However, despite their widespread deployment, their theoretical treatment remains challenging. Especially the multi-photon components in the high-gain regime as well as the explicit time-dependence of the involved Hamiltonians hamper an efficient theoretical description of these nonlinear optical processes. In this paper, we investigate these effects and put forward two models that enable a full description of FC and type-II PDC in the high-gain regime. We present a rigorous numerical model relying on the solution of coupled integro-differential equations that covers the complete dynamics of the process. As an alternative, we develop a simplified model that, at the expense of neglecting time-ordering effects, enables an analytical solution. While the simplified model approximates the correct solution with high fidelity in a broad parameter range, sufficient for many experimental situations, such as FC with low efficiency, entangled photon-pair generation and the heralding of single photons from type-II PDC, our investigations reveal that the rigorous model predicts a decreased performance for FC processes in quantum pulse gate applications and an enhanced EPR-state generation rate during type-II PDC, when EPR squeezing values above 12 dB are considered. (paper)

  8. Quantification of the contribution of GLP-1 to mediating insulinotropic effects of DPP-4 inhibition with vildagliptin in healthy subjects and type 2-diabetic patients using exendin [9-39] as a GLP-1 receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Kind, J; Köthe, Lars D;

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the contribution of GLP-1 as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition (vildagliptin) by using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin [9-39] in patients with type 2 diabetes and in healthy subjects. Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and...

  9. An analysis of EH- type linear based on two- dimensional heterotic system string theory%对杂化弦EH型线性系统的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏益焕

    2011-01-01

    由文献[4]中方程(2.25)-(2.31b)给出了对杂化弦EH型线性系统的分析。结果表明该线性系统等同于由文献[4]中方程(2.17)-(2.24b)给出的EH型线性系统。%An analysis is made of the EH - type linear system based on two - dimensional heterotic string theory, as is indicated in the equation of (2.25) - (2.31 b) in Bibliography [ 4 ]. The result shows that this system is equivalent to the EH -type linear system in the equations of (2.17) - (2.24b) in Bibliography [4].

  10. First-order theory of electrical focusing in cyclotron-type two-dimensional lenses with static and time-varying potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential distribution in cyclotron-type gaps with liner (outer electrodes at ground potential) is determined via Schwarz-Christoffel transformation as well as by computer analysis (relaxation method). First-order focusing formulas for both static as well as time-varying potentials are derived. In addition exact calculations were carried out by direct numerical integration of the equations of motion with a computer program. The numerical data permitted an accurate evaluation of the validity of the analytical approximation as well as further improvement of the theoretical formulas. Focusing relations are presented in a generalized form which shows the scaling laws and is readily applicable to different types of particles, energies or lens geometries. As an example, the theory is applied in the axial motion of ions in a cyclotron

  11. Effectiveness of a brief theory-based health promotion intervention among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Lise; Andersen, Vibeke Just; Arnoldsen, Jette;

    2016-01-01

    Dette studie evaluerer effekten af et kort gruppebaseret kommunalt kursusforløb til personer med høj risiko for at udvikle type 2-diabetes. Deltagerne blev rekrutteret via almen praksis og randomiseret til at deltage i kurset (intervention) eller efter 12 måneder (kontrol). Effekten blev målt efter....... Interventionsgruppen rapporterede dog positive ændringer ved 3 måneders opfølgning i forhold til oplevet handlekompetence, fysisk aktivitet og energiindtag. Der er tale om interessante og positive resultater i forhold til forebyggelse af type 2-diabetes. Studiet bygger på data fra 127 borgere og er lavet i tæt...

  12. Structure and electronic properties of MoVO type mixed-metal oxides - a combined view by experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Vogt, Thomas; Zhao, Lili; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker

    2015-08-21

    In this review we address recent efforts from experimental and theoretical side to study MoVO-type mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and their properties. We illustrate how structures of MMOs have been evaluated using a large variety of experimental techniques, such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we discuss the current view on structure-catalysis correlations, derived from recent experiments. In a second part, we examine useful tools of theoretical chemistry for exploring MoVO-type systems. We discuss the need for using hybrid DFT methods and we analyze how, in the context of MMOs studies, semi-local DFT approximations can encounter problems due to a notable self-interaction error when describing oxidic species and reactions on them. In addition, we discuss various aspects of the model that are important when attempting to map complex MMO systems. PMID:26126874

  13. Preference for a Vanishingly Small Cosmological Constant in Supersymmetric Vacua in a Type IIB String Theory Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sumitomo, Yoske

    2012-01-01

    We study the probability distribution P(\\Lambda) of the cosmological constant \\Lambda in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. P(\\Lambda) is divergent at \\Lambda =0^- and the likely value of \\Lambda drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h^{2,1} increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass squared matrix) approaches unity as h^{2,1} increases.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION THEORY AND THE LEADERSHIP TYPES: AN APPLICATION IN BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Recep; Çoban, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the effects of leadership types on personal motivation in banking sector. The methodology used is survey based. In this study, the group who fill the survey is consist of bank employees in Bandırma. The group was selected randomly. In this study, Herzberg’s two factor of Motive and Hygiene applied seperately. Firstly, the effects of leadership styles on motive factors was tested. Then the effects of leadership styles on hygiene factors was tested. Correlation analyz...

  15. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~107/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R=48+-12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, th...

  16. Preference for a vanishingly small cosmological constant in supersymmetric vacua in a Type IIB string theory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the probability distribution P(Λ) of the cosmological constant Λ in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P(Λ) behaves divergent at Λ=0− and the median magnitude of Λ drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h2,1 increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass-squared matrix) approaches unity as h2,1 increases

  17. Rogers-Schur-Ramanujan Type Identities for the $M(p,p')$ minimal models of Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovich, A; Schilling, A

    1996-01-01

    We present and prove Rogers--Schur--Ramanujan (Bose/Fermi) type identities for the Virasoro characters of the minimal model $M(p,p').$ The proof uses the continued fraction decomposition of $p'/p$ introduced by Takahashi and Suzuki for the study of the Bethe's Ansatz equations of the XXZ model and gives a general method to construct polynomial generalizations of the fermionic form of the characters which satisfy the same recursion relations as the bosonic polynomials of Forrester and Baxter. We use this method to get fermionic representations of the characters $\\chi_{r,s}^{(p,p')}$ for many classes of $r$ and $s.$

  18. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type (Ⅱ): Properties of hydrogen bonding networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiJun; HONG XiaoZhong; GU Fang; BA XinWu

    2007-01-01

    Making use of the invariant property of the equilibrium size distribution of the hydrogen bonding clusters formed in hydrogen bonding system of AaDd type, the analytical expressions of the free energy in pregel and postgel regimes are obtained. Then the gel free energy and the scaling behavior of the number of hydrogen bonds in gel phase near the critical point are investigated to give the corresponding scaling exponents and scaling law. Meanwhile, some properties of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the system, sol and gel phases are discussed. As a result, the explicit relationship between the number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and hydrogen bonding degree is obtained.

  19. An explanatory model of adjustment to type I diabetes based on attachment, coping, and self-regulation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazian, S; Besharat, M A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a model of adjustment to type I diabetes. Three hundred young adults (172 females and 128 males) with type I diabetes were asked to complete the Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), Task-oriented subscale of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), D-39, and well-being subscale of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI). HbA1c was obtained from laboratory examination. Results from structural equation analysis partly supported the hypothesized model. Secure and avoidant attachment styles were found to have effects on illness perception, ambivalent attachment style did not have significant effect on illness perception. Three attachment styles had significant effect on task-oriented coping strategy. Avoidant attachment had negative direct effect on adjustment too. Regression effects of illness perception and task-oriented coping strategy on adjustment were positive. Therefore, positive illness perception and more usage of task-oriented coping strategy predict better adjustment to diabetes. So, the results confirmed the theoretical bases and empirical evidence of effectiveness of attachment styles in adjustment to chronic disease and can be helpful in devising preventive policies, determining high-risk maladjusted patients, and planning special psychological treatment. PMID:21678193

  20. Risk Quantification and Evaluation Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Manmohan Singh; M.D. Jaybhaye; S. K. Basu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper authors have discussed risk quantification methods and evaluation of risks and decision parameter to be used for deciding on ranking of the critical items, for prioritization of condition monitoring based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM). As time passes any equipment or any product degrades into lower effectiveness and the rate of failure or malfunctioning increases, thereby lowering the reliability. Thus with the passage of time or a number of active tests or ...

  1. Predictive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

  2. An uncertainty inventory demonstration - a primary step in uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Issac F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2009-01-01

    Tools, methods, and theories for assessing and quantifying uncertainties vary by application. Uncertainty quantification tasks have unique desiderata and circumstances. To realistically assess uncertainty requires the engineer/scientist to specify mathematical models, the physical phenomena of interest, and the theory or framework for assessments. For example, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) specifically identifies uncertainties using probability theory, and therefore, PRA's lack formal procedures for quantifying uncertainties that are not probabilistic. The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) proceeds by ranking phenomena using scoring criteria that results in linguistic descriptors, such as importance ranked with words, 'High/Medium/Low.' The use of words allows PIRT to be flexible, but the analysis may then be difficult to combine with other uncertainty theories. We propose that a necessary step for the development of a procedure or protocol for uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the application of an Uncertainty Inventory. An Uncertainty Inventory should be considered and performed in the earliest stages of UQ.

  3. The theory of the measurement of the London penetration depth in uniaxial type II superconductors by muon spin rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of anisotropy on the measurement, by muon spin rotation, of the London penetration depth in the high Tc uniaxial type II superconductors is considered in detail. Expressions are derived which will allow the principal penetration depths, λ1 and λ2, to be determined using measurements of the μSR line width from single crystals. For polycrystalline, powder or sintered, samples an expression is derived which will allow an effective penetration depth, λeff, to be determined from the measured μSR line width. Further, it is shown that for all anisotropy ratios, λ2/λ1, greater than five λ1 ∼ 0.81λeff. (author)

  4. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-01

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results. PMID:22565763

  5. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type (I): The geometrical phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haijun; HONG Xiaozhong; GU Fang; BA Xinwu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen bonds on the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type is investigated from two viewpoints by the principle of statistical mechanics. In detail, we proposed two new ways that can be used to obtain the equilibrium size distribution of the hydrogen bonding clusters, and derived the analytical expression of a relationship between the hydrogen bonding free energy and hydrogen bonding degree. For the nonlinear hydrogen bonding systems, it is shown that the sol-gel phase transition can take place under proper conditions, which is further proven to be a kind of geometrical phase transition rather than a thermodynamic one. Moreover, several problems associated with the geometrical phase transition and liquid-solid phase transition in nonlinear hydrogen bonding systems are discussed.

  6. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type (Ⅲ): Equation of state and fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiJun; GU Fang; HONG XiaoZhong; BA XinWu

    2007-01-01

    The equation of the state of the hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type is studied by the principle of statistical mechanics. The influences of hydrogen bonds on the equation of state of the system are obtained based on the change in volume due to hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the number density fluctuations of both molecules and hydrogen bonds as well as their spatial correlation property are investigated. Furthermore, an equation describing relation between the number density correlation function of "molecules-hydrogen bonds" and that of molecules and hydrogen bonds is derived. As application,taking the van der Waals hydrogen bonding fluid as an example, we considered the effect of hydrogen bonds on its relevant statistical properties.

  7. 基于蒙特卡罗仿真法的研究型项目风险量化分析技术%Risk Quantification and Analysis for the Research-typed Projects Based on MCS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建伟

    2012-01-01

    With standardization, informatization, scientificness, and rationalization are more and more popular in the research project management, the risk management becomes more and more important. In risk management, risks in research project should be ordered by their importance, and the influence of risks on project schedule and cost should be also analyzed. A Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS)-based method for quantifying the risk in research project is developed in order to analyze the importance, schedule as well as the cost of the project. Firstly, the method for risk data capturing and processing is developed on basis of the triangle distribution. Secondly, the circle and cost models are developed separately on basis of Earliest Start Time (EST), Earliest Finish Time (EFT) as well as the Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS). Thirdly, the sampling algorithm and flow based on MCS is defined, the analysis method for probabilistic risk error is also proposed. Finally, a leveled risk analysis method is also developed on basis of the risk quantification; the total risk is divided into the risk of project and risks of subprojects. A method for computing completion probability of appointive deadline constraint-oriented project is discussed; in the meantime, the method for analyzing subproject progress-oriented risks is developed by using the index of key targets which are Key Probability (KP) and Key Importance (KI).%科学研究型项目的执行过程正逐步走向规范化、信息化、科学化和理性化,这就要求项目风险的评估和量化方式必须深入,不仅需要分析此类项目风险的重要度排序,还必须分析相关项目风险将会对进度和成本造成的影响,也就是对研究型项目进行风险量化管理.本文着重研究面向研究型项目的风险量化技术,提出了基于蒙特卡罗仿真法的项目定量风险量化技术,基于三角分布模型构建了相关风险数据的采集与处理方法,基于最早开始时间和最

  8. Quantum theory of open systems based on stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basharov, A. M., E-mail: basharov@gmail.com [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

  9. Quantum theory of open systems based on stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are "locked" inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

  10. Effective field theory and Ab-initio calculation of p-type (Ga, Fe)N within LDA and SIC approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmani, E. [LMPHE, associe au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Mounkachi, O. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Ez-Zahraouy, H., E-mail: ezahamid@fsr.ac.ma [LMPHE, associe au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); El Kenz, A. [LMPHE, associe au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE, associe au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2013-03-15

    Based on first-principles spin-density functional calculations, using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of (Ga, Fe)N co-doped with carbon within the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation. Mechanism of hybridization and interaction between magnetic ions in p-type (Ga, Fe)N is investigated. Stability energy of ferromagnetic and disorder local moment states was calculated for different carbon concentration. The local density and the self-interaction-corrected approximations have been used to explain the strong ferromagnetic interaction observed and the mechanism that stabilizes this state. The transition temperature to the ferromagnetic state has been calculated within the effective field theory, with a Honmura-Kaneyoshi differential operator technique. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper focus on the study the magnetic properties and electronic structure of p-type (Ga, Fe)N within LDA and SIC approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These methods allow us to explain the strong ferromagnetic interaction observed and the mechanism for its stability and the mechanism of hybridization and interaction between magnetic ions in p-type (Ga, Fe). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results obtained are interesting and can be serve as a reference in the field of dilute magnetic semi conductor.

  11. Toward a theory of distinct types of "impulsive" behaviors: A meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Markon, Kristian E; Clark, Lee Anna

    2014-03-01

    Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity

  12. Effective field theory and Ab-initio calculation of p-type (Ga, Fe)N within LDA and SIC approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, E.; Mounkachi, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; El Kenz, A.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.

    2013-03-01

    Based on first-principles spin-density functional calculations, using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of (Ga, Fe)N co-doped with carbon within the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation. Mechanism of hybridization and interaction between magnetic ions in p-type (Ga, Fe)N is investigated. Stability energy of ferromagnetic and disorder local moment states was calculated for different carbon concentration. The local density and the self-interaction-corrected approximations have been used to explain the strong ferromagnetic interaction observed and the mechanism that stabilizes this state. The transition temperature to the ferromagnetic state has been calculated within the effective field theory, with a Honmura-Kaneyoshi differential operator technique.

  13. D-A-D-type narrow-bandgap small-molecule photovoltaic donors: pre-synthesis virtual screening using density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Yeongrok; Kim, Daekyeom; Kyeong, Minkyu; Byun, Seunghwan; Park, Yuri; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Heejoo; Hong, Sukwon; Lansac, Yves; Jang, Yun Hee

    2016-06-01

    A new series of D-A-D-type small-molecule photovoltaic donors are designed and virtually screened before synthesis using time-dependent density functional theory calculations carefully validated against various polymeric and molecular donors. In this series of new design, benzodithiophene is kept as D to achieve the optimum highest-occupied molecular orbital energy level, while thienopyrroledione is initially chosen as A but later replaced by difluorinated benzodiathiazole or its selenide derivative to achieve the optimum band gap. The D-A-D core is end-capped by pyridone units which could not only enhance their self-assembly via hydrogen bonds but also play a role as an acceptor (A') to form an extended A'-D-A-D-A' small-molecule donor. PMID:27193426

  14. Magnetism in olivine-type LiCo(1-x)Fe(x)PO4 cathode materials: bridging theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Gershinsky, Yelena; Kosa, Monica; Dixit, Mudit; Zitoun, David; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-12-14

    In the current paper, we present a non-aqueous sol-gel synthesis of olivine type LiCo1-xFexPO4 compounds (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The magnetic properties of the olivines are measured experimentally and calculated using first-principles theory. Specifically, the electronic and magnetic properties are studied in detail with standard density functional theory (DFT), as well as by including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which couples the spin to the crystal structure. We find that the Co(2+) ions exhibit strong orbital moment in the pure LiCoPO4 system, which is partially quenched upon substitution of Co(2+) by Fe(2+). Interestingly, we also observe a non-negligible orbital moment on the Fe(2+) ion. We underscore that the inclusion of SOC in the calculations is essential to obtain qualitative agreement with the observed effective magnetic moments. Additionally, Wannier functions were used to understand the experimentally observed rising trend in the Néel temperature, which is directly related to the magnetic exchange interaction paths in the materials. We suggest that out of layer M-O-P-O-M magnetic interactions (J⊥) are present in the studied materials. The current findings shed light on important differences observed in the electrochemistry of the cathode material LiCoPO4 compared to the already mature olivine material LiFePO4. PMID:26548581

  15. Quantification of the Contribution of GLP-1 to Mediating Insulinotropic Effects of DPP-4 Inhibition With Vildagliptin in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using Exendin [9-39] as a GLP-1 Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Michael A; Kind, Joachim; Köthe, Lars D; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Broschag, Matthias; He, Yan Ling; Kjems, Lise; Foley, James

    2016-08-01

    We quantified the contribution of GLP-1 as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition (vildagliptin) by using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin [9-39] in patients with type 2 diabetes and in healthy subjects. Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 age- and weight-matched healthy control subjects were treated in randomized order with 100 mg once daily vildagliptin or placebo for 10 days. Meal tests were performed (days 9 and 10) without and with a high-dose intravenous infusion of exendin [9-39]. The main end point was the ratio of the areas under the curve (AUCs) of integrated insulin secretion rates (total AUCISR) and glucose (total AUCglucose) over 4 h after the meal. Vildagliptin treatment more than doubled responses of intact GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and lowered glucose responses without changing AUCISR/AUCglucose in healthy subjects. Vildagliptin significantly increased this ratio by 10.5% in patients with type 2 diabetes, and exendin [9-39] reduced it (both P 39] was significantly smaller after vildagliptin treatment than after placebo treatment (P = 0.026) and was equivalent to 47 ± 5% of the increments due to vildagliptin. Thus, other mediators appear to contribute significantly to the therapeutic effects of DPP-4 inhibition. PMID:27207543

  16. Two symmetric n-type interfaces SrTiO3/LaAlO3 in perovskite: Electronic properties from density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A. H.; Abu-Jafar, M. S.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The first principles study of the (001) two symmetric n-type interfaces between two insulating perovskites, the nonpolar SrTiO3 (STO), and the polar LaAlO3 (LAO) was performed. We have analyzed the formation of metallic interface states between the STO and LAO heterointerfaces by using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave approach based on the density functional theory, within the local density approximation, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA), and the Engel-Vosko GGA (EVGGA) formalism. It has been found that some bands cross the Fermi energy level (EF), forming a metallic nature of two symmetric n-type 6.5STO/1.5LAO interfaces with density of states at EF, N(EF) of about 3.56 (state/eV/unit cell), and bare electronic specific heat coefficient (γ) of about 0.62 mJ/(mol cell K2). The electronic band stature and the partial density of states in the vicinity of EF are mainly originated from Ti1,2,3,4-3dxy orbitals. These bands are responsible for the metallic behavior and the forming of the Fermi surface of the two symmetric n-type 6.5STO/1.5LAO interfaces. To obtain a clear map of the valence band electronic charge density distribution of the two symmetric n-type 6.5STO/1.5LAO interfaces, we have investigated the bond's nature and the interactions between the atoms. It reveals that the charge is attracted towards O atoms as it is clear that the O atoms are surrounded by uniform blue spheres which indicate the maximum charge accumulation.

  17. An EPGPT-based approach for uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, North Caroline State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) has been widely used by many scientific disciplines to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. This manuscript employs recent developments in GPT theory, collectively referred to as Exact-to-Precision Generalized Perturbation Theory (EPGPT), to enable uncertainty quantification for computationally challenging models, e.g. nonlinear models associated with many input parameters and many output responses and with general non-Gaussian parameters distributions. The core difference between EPGPT and existing GPT is in the way the problem is formulated. GPT formulates an adjoint problem that is dependent on the response of interest. It tries to capture via the adjoint solution the relationship between the response of interest and the constraints on the state variations. EPGPT recasts the problem in terms of a smaller set of what is referred to as the 'active' responses which are solely dependent on the physics model and the boundary and initial conditions rather than on the responses of interest. The objective of this work is to apply an EPGPT methodology to propagate cross-sections variations in typical reactor design calculations. The goal is to illustrate its use and the associated impact for situations where the typical Gaussian assumption for parameters uncertainties is not valid and when nonlinear behavior must be considered. To allow this demonstration, exaggerated variations will be employed to stimulate nonlinear behavior in simple prototypical neutronics models. (authors)

  18. An EPGPT-based approach for uncertainty quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) has been widely used by many scientific disciplines to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. This manuscript employs recent developments in GPT theory, collectively referred to as Exact-to-Precision Generalized Perturbation Theory (EPGPT), to enable uncertainty quantification for computationally challenging models, e.g. nonlinear models associated with many input parameters and many output responses and with general non-Gaussian parameters distributions. The core difference between EPGPT and existing GPT is in the way the problem is formulated. GPT formulates an adjoint problem that is dependent on the response of interest. It tries to capture via the adjoint solution the relationship between the response of interest and the constraints on the state variations. EPGPT recasts the problem in terms of a smaller set of what is referred to as the 'active' responses which are solely dependent on the physics model and the boundary and initial conditions rather than on the responses of interest. The objective of this work is to apply an EPGPT methodology to propagate cross-sections variations in typical reactor design calculations. The goal is to illustrate its use and the associated impact for situations where the typical Gaussian assumption for parameters uncertainties is not valid and when nonlinear behavior must be considered. To allow this demonstration, exaggerated variations will be employed to stimulate nonlinear behavior in simple prototypical neutronics models. (authors)

  19. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  20. Quantification of wastewater sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Samuel J; Studer, Lindsay J; Dixon, David R; Hillis, Peter; Rees, Catherine A; Wall, Rachael C; Cavalida, Raul G; Usher, Shane P; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Quantification and comparison of the dewatering characteristics of fifteen sewage sludges from a range of digestion scenarios are described. The method proposed uses laboratory dewatering measurements and integrity analysis of the extracted material properties. These properties were used as inputs into a model of filtration, the output of which provides the dewatering comparison. This method is shown to be necessary for quantification and comparison of dewaterability as the permeability and compressibility of the sludges varies by up to ten orders of magnitude in the range of solids concentration of interest to industry. This causes a high sensitivity of the dewaterability comparison to the starting concentration of laboratory tests, thus simple dewaterability comparison based on parameters such as the specific resistance to filtration is difficult. The new approach is demonstrated to be robust relative to traditional methods such as specific resistance to filtration analysis and has an in-built integrity check. Comparison of the quantified dewaterability of the fifteen sludges to the relative volatile solids content showed a very strong correlation in the volatile solids range from 40 to 80%. The data indicate that the volatile solids parameter is a strong indicator of the dewatering behaviour of sewage sludges. PMID:26003332

  1. A pH and solvent optimized reverse-phase ion-paring-LC–MS/MS method that leverages multiple scan-types for targeted absolute quantification of intracellular metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Gangoiti, Jon A.; Palsson, Bernhard O.;

    2015-01-01

    to the understanding of intracellular metabolism. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS and LC–MS/MS) has become a reliable means with which to quantify a multitude of intracellular metabolites in parallel with great specificity and accuracy. This work details a method that builds and extends upon...... existing reverse phase ion-paring liquid chromatography methods for separation and detection of polar and anionic compounds that comprise key nodes of intracellular metabolism by optimizing pH and solvent composition. In addition, the presented method utilizes multiple scan types provided by hybrid...... instrumentation to improve confidence in compound identification. The developed method was validated for a broad coverage of polar and anionic metabolites of intracellular metabolism...

  2. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  3. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] −10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  4. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection).

  6. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language

  7. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...... of defect size by width, and it is shown that both definitions can be used to give unbiased findings for the comparison between fibre types. Finally, considerations are given with respect to true measures of defect content, number of determinations, and number of significant figures used for the descriptive...

  8. Rapid and specific high-performance liquid chromatography for the in vitro quantification of D-Lys6-GnRH in a microemulsion-type formulation in the presence of peptide oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Alexandra P; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assay of d-Lys(6)-GnRH contained in a microemulsion-type formulation is described. The peptide is extracted from the microemulsion matrix and quantified using a two-step gradient method. Separation from microemulsion compounds and potential peptide oxidation products was achieved on a Jupiter C(18) column at 40 degrees C, using a gradient of 10-35% CH(3)CN for peptide elution. The correlation of peak intensity measured at 220 nm and peptide concentration was linear over the range 2.5-60 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and a y-intercept not significantly different from zero (p > 0.05). Intraday and interday variability of the assay was less than 5% for multiple injections of samples containing 7.5, 30 and 60 microg/mL. The lower limit of quantitation was calculated to be 0.38 microg/mL, and the lower limit of detection was 0.13 microg/mL. The assay was applied to samples that were stressed under physiological conditions (37 degrees C, pH 7.4) over 4 days. Three degradation peaks were well resolved from the parent peptide, demonstrating the selectivity of the assay. Off-line MALDI TOF mass spectrometry was applied to identify these degradation species as oxidation products of the peptide.

  9. Multicenter comparison of Roche COBAS AMPLICOR MONITOR version 1.5, Organon Teknika NucliSens QT with Extractor, and Bayer Quantiplex version 3.0 for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D G; Côté, L; Fauvel, M; René, P; Vincelette, J

    2000-11-01

    The performance and characteristics of Roche COBAS AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR version 1.5 (CA MONITOR 1.5) UltraSensitive (usCA MONITOR 1. 5) and Standard (stCA MONITOR 1.5) procedures, Organon Teknika NucliSens HIV-1 RNA QT with Extractor (NucliSens), and Bayer Quantiplex HIV RNA version 3.0 (bDNA 3.0) were compared in a multicenter trial. Samples used in this study included 460 plasma specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons, 100 plasma specimens from HIV antibody (anti-HIV)-negative persons, and culture supernatants of HIV-1 subtype A to E isolates diluted in anti-HIV-negative plasma. Overall, bDNA 3.0 showed the least variation in RNA measures upon repeat testing. For the Roche assays, usCA MONITOR 1.5 displayed less variation in RNA measures than stCA MONITOR 1.5. NucliSens, at an input volume of 2 ml, showed the best sensitivity. Deming regression analysis indicated that the results of all three assays were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001). However, the mean difference in values between CA MONITOR 1.5 and bDNA 3.0 (0.274 log(10) RNA copies/ml; 95% confidence interval, 0.192 to 0.356) was significantly different from 0, indicating that CA MONITOR 1.5 values were regularly higher than bDNA 3.0 values. Upon testing of 100 anti-HIV-negative plasma specimens, usCA MONITOR 1.5 and NucliSens displayed 100% specificity, while bDNA 3.0 showed 98% specificity. NucliSens quantified 2 of 10 non-subtype B viral isolates at 1 log(10) lower than both CA MONITOR 1.5 and bDNA 3.0. For NucliSens, testing of specimens with greater than 1,000 RNA copies/ml at input volumes of 0.1, 0.2, and 2.0 ml did not affect the quality of results. Additional factors differing between assays included specimen throughput and volume requirements, limit of detection, ease of execution, instrument work space, and costs of disposal. These characteristics, along with assay performance, should be considered when one is selecting a viral load assay.

  10. Experimento para quantificar a eficiência de aspersão de líquidos: aplicação em distribuidores espinha de peixe Liquid aspersion efficiency quantification experiment: application in ladder-type distributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Silva de Moraes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto descreve um equipamento na escala-piloto e um método simples para comparar a eficiência de distribuidores de líquido. A técnica consiste basicamente em analisar a massa do líquido coletado em 21 tubos verticais de 52mm de diâmetro interno e 800 mm de comprimento dispostos em arranjo quadrático colocados abaixo do distribuidor. Uma manta acrílica que não dispersa o líquido com 50 mm de espessura foi fixada entre o distribuidor e o banco de tubos para evitar respingos. Como exemplo de aplicação foram realizados ensaios com nove distribuidores do tipo espinha de peixe de 4 tubos paralelos cada, para uma coluna com 400 mm de diâmetro. Variaram-se o número (n de furos (95, 127 e 159 furos/m², o diâmetro (d dos furos (2, 3 e 4 mm e as vazões (q de (1,2; 1,4 e 1,6m³/h. A melhor eficiência de espalhamento pelo menor desvio-padrão foi obtida com n de 159, d de 2 e q de 1,4 indicando as limitações de regras práticas de projeto. A pressão (p, na entrada do distribuidor, para essa condição, foi de apenas 51000 Pa (0,51 kgf/cm² e a velocidade média (v em cada orifício foi de 6,3 m/s.This paper describes a device developed on the pilot scale and a simple approach to compare liquid distributor efficiencies. The technique consists basically of analyzing the mass of the liquid collected in 21 vertical pipes measuring 52 mm in internal diameter and 800 mm in length placed in a quadratic arrangement and positioned below the distributor. A 50 mm thick acrylic blanket that does not disperse liquids was placed between the distributor and the pipe bank to avoid splashes. Assays were carried out with ladder-type distributors equipped with 4 parallel pipes each for a column measuring 400 mm in diameter as an example of the application. The number (n of orifices (95, 127, and 159 orifices/m², orifice diameter (d (2, 3, and 4 mm and the flowrate (q (1.2; 1.4; and 1.6 m3/h were varied. The best spread efficiency, which

  11. The thermodynamic, electronic and elastic properties of the early-transition-metal diborides with AlB2-type structure: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic characters of TMB2 have been firstly studied using the QHA method. • WB2 and TaB2 are good candidates for the structural application at high temperature. • Most of the early-transition-metal diborides cannot be easily machined. • The correlations between elastic constants and VECs of TMB2 have been discussed. - Abstract: The thermodynamic, electronic and elastic properties of a class of early-transition-metal diborides (TMB2, TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W) with AlB2-type structure have been investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model and the ab initio calculation based on the density functional theory, respectively. According to the characters of temperature dependent bulk modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion, the TMB2 compounds can be divided into three groups. The results also indicate that 4d- and 5d-TMB2 compounds are good high-temperature structural materials. The five independent stiffness coefficients, bulk and shear moduli of the diborides are obtained and well agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. The correlations between elastic properties and electronic structure are discussed in detail. Due to the high values of hardness, the VIB-transition-metal diborides with relatively high B/G and B/C44 ratios are still difficult to machine with usual methods

  12. Secular Dynamics of S-type Planetary Orbits in Binary Star Systems: Applicability Domains of First- and Second-Order Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade-Ines, Eduardo; Michtchenko, Tatiana; Robutel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the secular dynamics of planets on S-type coplanar orbits in tight binary systems, based on first- and second-order analytical models, and compare their predictions with full N-body simulations. The perturbation parameter adopted for the development of these models depends on the masses of the stars and on the semimajor axis ratio between the planet and the binary. We show that each model has both advantages and limitations. While the first-order analytical model is algebraically simple and easy to implement, it is only applicable in regions of the parameter space where the perturbations are sufficiently small. The second-order model, although more complex, has a larger range of validity and must be taken into account for dynamical studies of some real exoplanetary systems such as $\\gamma$-Cephei and HD 41004A. However, in some extreme cases, neither of these analytical models yields quantitatively correct results, requiring either higher-order theories or direct numerical simulations. Finally, we ...

  13. ["A Little Bit of Switzerland, a Little Bit of Kosovo". Swiss Immigrants from Former Yugoslavia with Type 2 Diabetes. A Qualitative Study' in Analogy to Grounded Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, A; Mischke, C

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is on the increase among the Swiss immigrants. The cultural background of patients presents new linguistic and sociocultural barriers and gains in importance for health care. In order to develop patient-centred care, it is necessary to focus on different sociocultural aspects in everyday life and experiences of immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia with diabetes who have rarely been studied in Switzerland. Based on these insights the needs for counselling can be identified and nursing interventions can be designed accordingly. Using the Grounded Theory approach, 5 interviews were analysed according to the Corbin and Strauss coding paradigm. The central phenomenon found is the experience to live in 2 different cultures. The complexity arises from the tension living in 2 cultural backgrounds at the same time. It turns out that in the country of origin the immigrants adjust their disease management. The changing daily rhythm and the more traditional role model affect aspects of their disease management such as diet and/or drug therapy. The different strategies impact the person's roles, emotions, their everyday lives and their families. It provides an insight into the perspective of Swiss immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia suffering from diabetes. Many questions are still unanswered and further research will be required.

  14. Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

  15. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  16. Quantification of perceived macro-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Youn; Bang, Yousun; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2011-01-01

    Macro-uniformity refers to the subjective impression of overall uniformity in the print sample. By the efforts of INCITS W1.1 team, macro-uniformity is categorized into five types of attributes: banding, streaks, mottle, gradients, and moiré patterns, and the ruler samples are generated with perceptual scales. W1.1 macro-uniformity ruler is useful for judging the levels of print defect, but it is not an easy task to reproduce the samples having the same perceptual scales at different times in different places. An objective quantification method is more helpful and convenient for developers to analyze print quality and design printing system components. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring perceived macro-uniformity for a given print using a flat-bed scanner. First, banding, 2D noise, and gradients are separately measured, and they are converted to the perceptual scales based on subjective results of each attribute. The correlation coefficients between the measured values of the attributes and the perceptual scales are 0.92, 0.97, and 0.86, respectively. Another subjective test is performed to find the relationship between the overall macro-uniformity and the three attributes. The weighting factors are obtained by the experimental result, and the final macro-uniformity grade is determined by the weighted sums of each attribute.

  17. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  18. A fast and robust hepatocyte quantification algorithm including vein processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeyer André

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of different types of cells is often needed for analysis of histological images. In our project, we compute the relative number of proliferating hepatocytes for the evaluation of the regeneration process after partial hepatectomy in normal rat livers. Results Our presented automatic approach for hepatocyte (HC quantification is suitable for the analysis of an entire digitized histological section given in form of a series of images. It is the main part of an automatic hepatocyte quantification tool that allows for the computation of the ratio between the number of proliferating HC-nuclei and the total number of all HC-nuclei for a series of images in one processing run. The processing pipeline allows us to obtain desired and valuable results for a wide range of images with different properties without additional parameter adjustment. Comparing the obtained segmentation results with a manually retrieved segmentation mask which is considered to be the ground truth, we achieve results with sensitivity above 90% and false positive fraction below 15%. Conclusions The proposed automatic procedure gives results with high sensitivity and low false positive fraction and can be applied to process entire stained sections.

  19. Evaluation of vehicle damage involved in road crashes based on quantificated model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yan-hui; XU Hong-guo; JIANG Hua-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on economics theory, social value loss caused by vehicle involved in crashes as well as various factors influencing on it were analyzed, the corresponding micro-econometrics model was theoretically given. Moreover, the practicability of the model,the veracity and rationality of quantification were analyzed. Based on probability theory and mathematical statistical theory, macro approach to evaluating vehicle damage in crashes was presented, and the corresponding macro-econometrics model was constructed. In addition, the macro-econometrics model was utilized to assess economic loss from statistical data of vehicle damaged in crashes, which has shown that the model can meet the demand of quantification analysis of vehicle damage, and be applied to the evaluation of economic loss caused by crashes. The results in this paper will be of practical significance for scientific, comprehensive and rational evaluating socio-economic loss caused by road crashes.

  20. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. Methods A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB investigated health professionals' (HPs' cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet. General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. Results In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p 2 = .40, p Conclusion Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two clinical behaviours, providing a rationale for the development of targeted interventions. However, we did not observe a relationship

  1. A shear deformable theory of laminated composite shallow shell-type panels and their response analysis. I - Free vibration and buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librescu, L.; Khdeir, A. A.; Frederick, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the substantiation of a shear deformable theory of cross-ply laminated composite shallow shells. While the developed theory preserves all the advantages of the first order transverse shear deformation theory it succeeds in eliminating some of its basic shortcomings. The theory is further employed in the analysis of the eigenvibration and static buckling problems of doubly curved shallow panels. In this context, the state space concept is used in conjunction with the Levy method, allowing one to analyze these problems in a unified manner, for a variety of boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented and some pertinent conclusions are formulated.

  2. Uncertainty Quantification in Aerodynamics Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work (Phases I and II) is to develop uncertainty quantification methodologies and software suitable for use in CFD simulations of...

  3. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  4. Supersymmetric Gauge Theories from String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this thesis are various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain subcycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. In particular, the low energy effective superpotential...

  5. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  6. Topological Domain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents Topological Domain Theory as a powerful and flexible framework for denotational semantics. Topological Domain Theory models a wide range of type constructions and can interpret many computational features. Furthermore, it has close connections to established frameworks for denotational semantics, as well as to well-studied mathematical theories, such as topology and computable analysis.

  7. Superspace conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  8. Risk Quantification and Evaluation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors have discussed risk quantification methods and evaluation of risks and decision parameter to be used for deciding on ranking of the critical items, for prioritization of condition monitoring based risk and reliability centered maintenance (CBRRCM. As time passes any equipment or any product degrades into lower effectiveness and the rate of failure or malfunctioning increases, thereby lowering the reliability. Thus with the passage of time or a number of active tests or periods of work, the reliability of the product or the system, may fall down to a low value known as a threshold value, below which the reliability should not be allowed to dip. Hence, it is necessary to fix up the normal basis for determining the appropriate points in the product life cycle where predictive preventive maintenance may be applied in the programme so that the reliability (the probability of successful functioning can be enhanced, preferably to its original value, by reducing the failure rate and increasing the mean time between failure. It is very important for defence application where reliability is a prime work. An attempt is made to develop mathematical model for risk assessment and ranking them. Based on likeliness coefficient β1 and risk coefficient β2 ranking of the sub-systems can be modelled and used for CBRRCM.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4, July 2014, pp. 378-384, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6366 

  9. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  10. Lung involvement quantification in chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an infectious disease which remains a global health problem. The chest radiography is the commonly method employed to assess the TB's evolution. The methods for quantification of abnormalities of chest are usually performed on CT scans (CT). This quantification is important to assess the TB evolution and treatment and comparing different treatments. However, precise quantification is not feasible for the amount of CT scans required. The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for quantification of lung damage caused by TB through chest radiographs. It was developed an algorithm for computational processing of exams in Matlab, which creates a lungs' 3D representation, with compromised dilated regions inside. The quantification of lung lesions was also made for the same patients through CT scans. The measurements from the two methods were compared and resulting in strong correlation. Applying statistical Bland and Altman, all samples were within the limits of agreement, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed an average variation of around 13% between the two quantification methods. The results suggest the effectiveness and applicability of the method developed, providing better risk-benefit to the patient and cost-benefit ratio for the institution. (author)

  11. Matrix Theory on Non-Orientable Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Gysbert

    1997-01-01

    We construct the Matrix theory descriptions of M-theory on the Mobius strip and the Klein bottle. In a limit, these provide the matrix string theories for the CHL string and an orbifold of type IIA string theory.

  12. ALinguisticandStylisticAnalysisoftheChineseTranslationofObama’sSpeechattheFirstMeetingoftheStrategicandEconomicDialoguebetweentheUnitedStatesandChina--ThroughtheLensofReiss’sTextTypeTheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付端凌

    2014-01-01

    AccordingtoReiss’sTextTypetheory,akeypartofthefunctionalistapproachintranslationstudies,thesourcetextcanbeassignedtoatexttypeandtoagenre.Inmakingthisassignment,thetranslatorcandecideonthehierarchyofpostulateswhichhastobeobservedduringtarget-textproduction(Mona,2005).ThisessayintendstoconductalinguisticandstylisticanalysisoftheChinesetranslationofObama’sspeechtoexplorethegeneralapproachofthetranslatorifthereisone),bycomparingtherespectiveresultsofthetwoanalysesfromtheperspectiveofKatharinaReiss’sTextTypetheory.Indoingso,criticaljudgmentswillaccordinglybemadeastowhethersuchanapproachisjustifiableornot.

  13. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...

  14. Uncertainty Quantification for Safeguards Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the scientific method requires all calculated and measured results to be accompanied by a description that meets user needs and provides an adequate statement of the confidence one can have in the results. The scientific art of generating quantitative uncertainty statements is closely related to the mathematical disciplines of applied statistics, sensitivity analysis, optimization, and inversion, but in the field of non-destructive assay, also often draws heavily on expert judgment based on experience. We call this process uncertainty quantification, (UQ). Philosophical approaches to UQ along with the formal tools available for UQ have advanced considerably over recent years and these advances, we feel, may be useful to include in the analysis of data gathered from safeguards instruments. This paper sets out what we hope to achieve during a three year US DOE NNSA research project recently launched to address the potential of advanced UQ to improve safeguards conclusions. By way of illustration we discuss measurement of uranium enrichment by the enrichment meter principle (also known as the infinite thickness technique), that relies on gamma counts near the 186 keV peak directly from 235U. This method has strong foundations in fundamental physics and so we have a basis for the choice of response model — although in some implementations, peak area extraction may result in a bias when applied over a wide dynamic range. It also allows us to describe a common but usually neglected aspect of applying a calibration curve, namely the error structure in the predictors. We illustrate this using a combination of measured data and simulation. (author)

  15. High photocatalytic performance of a type-II α-MoO3@MoS2 heterojunction: from theory to experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglin; Yu, Ke; Tang, Zheng; Fu, Hao; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2016-05-18

    For the first time, a systematic study using density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to survey the synergistic effect of α-MoO3@MoS2 with the aim of gaining insights into the role of this heterogeneous structure in a relevant photocatalytic reaction. The geometry, electronic structures and the band edge positions of the α-MoO3@MoS2 composite were computed to explore the characteristics of the heterojunction. This revealed that the established heterogeneous structure could facilitate the separation of the photoinduced carriers into two parts around the interface. The photoinduced electron carriers injected into the conduction band minimum (CBM) of α-MoO3 from the CBM of MoS2 while the hole carriers transferred from the valence band maximum (VBM) of α-MoO3 to the VBM of MoS2. This separation process could markedly restrain the photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination and was further verified by photocurrent and photoluminescence (PL) surveys. Based on the results obtained from computation, we then synthesized the α-MoO3@MoS2 hybrid rod@sphere structure via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. A reasonable formation mechanism of this rod@sphere structured composite was proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic performance originated from the synergistic effect between α-MoO3 and MoS2. On the one hand, the unique structural characteristics of the composite possessed massive MoS2 spheres closely attached to α-MoO3 rods. On the other hand, the staggered type-II band formation also contributed to the effective separation of photoinduced carriers and thus the corresponding photocatalytic activity was far superior to that of the pristine α-MoO3/MoS2 structures. In brief, the general analyses could fully explain the inner mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of the composite structure and provide a reference for the research of composite structures in the future.

  16. Division of afforestation site type in the watershed of Wangjiagou,West Shanxi through GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liangxin; LIU Yuecui

    2006-01-01

    Using quantification theory I,an analysis of the relation of soil water and qualitative factors,such as,slope degree,slope aspect,slope position,and soil in Wangjiagou watershed area has been done.The study aims to quantify the factors influencing soil water,the descending order of the factors being the slope aspect,soil,slope degree,and slope position,thereby scientifically facilitating division of afforestation site types and afforestation site products digitally on geographical information system (GIS).

  17. Entanglement quantification by local unitaries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Monras; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.

    2011-01-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitaries play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as "mirror entanglement". They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-S...

  18. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23177152

  19. Finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astolfi, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: astolfi@pg.infn.it; Puletti, Valentina Giangreco M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: valentina.giangreco@fysast.uu.se; Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: gianluca.grignani@pg.infn.it; Harmark, Troels [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: harmark@nbi.dk; Orselli, Marta [The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: orselli@nbi.dk

    2009-03-21

    We consider finite-size corrections in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector of type IIA string theory on AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3}, which is the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). The string states we consider are in the RxS{sup 2}xS{sup 2} subspace of AdS{sub 4}xCP{sup 3} with an angular momentum J on CP{sup 3} being large. We compute the finite-size corrections using two different methods, one is to consider curvature corrections to the Penrose limit giving an expansion in 1/J, the other by considering a low energy expansion in {lambda}'={lambda}/J{sup 2} of the string theory sigma-model, {lambda} being the 't Hooft coupling of the dual ABJM theory. For both methods there are interesting issues to deal with. In the near-pp-wave method there is a 1/{radical}(J) interaction term for which we use zeta-function regularization in order to compute the 1/J correction to the energy. For the low energy sigma-model expansion we have to take into account a non-trivial coupling to a non-dynamical transverse direction. We find agreement between the two methods. At order {lambda}' and {lambda}'{sup 2}, for small {lambda}', our results are analogous to the ones for the SU(2) sector in type IIB string theory on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. Instead at order {lambda}'{sup 3} there are interactions between the two two-spheres. We compare our results with the recently proposed all-loop Bethe ansatz of Gromov and Vieira and find agreement.

  20. Comparison of five DNA quantification methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hedman, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    Six commercial preparations of human genomic DNA were quantified using five quantification methods: UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot hybridization with the probe D17Z1, Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit and RB1 rt-PCR. All methods measured higher DNA concentrations than...... expected based on the information by the manufacturers. UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot and RB1 rt-PCR gave 39, 27, 11 and 12%, respectively, higher concentrations than expected based on the manufacturers' information. The DNA preparations were quantified using the Quantifiler Human DNA...... Quantification kit in two experiments. The measured DNA concentrations with Quantifiler were 125 and 160% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. When the Quantifiler human DNA standard (Raji cell line) was replaced by the commercial human DNA preparation G147A (Promega) to generate the DNA...

  1. Xinhe Mine water inrush risk assessment based on quantification theoretical models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; JING Guo-xun; CAI Zheng-long; OU Jian-chun

    2010-01-01

    Taking the Xinhe mine's structure, mine pressure, structural fissure, fault and fault displacement, the distance between fault and water inrush point, thickness of block,water pressure those geological factors which influenced the water inrush as the independent variable, based on these data of water inrush point and water uninrush point, using the method of quantification theory( Ⅰ, Ⅱ ), it would quantitatively disposes the qualitative variable, applied to calculation to evaluate the risk of Xinhe's water inrush.

  2. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  3. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Validation of Quantification Method for Lycopene Extracted from Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefali, Letícia Caramori; Cazedey, Edith Cristina Laignier; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana Maria; Correa, Marcos Antônio; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes; Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene is a carotenoid found in tomatoes with potent antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to obtain an extract containing lycopene from four types of tomatoes, validate a quantification method for the extracts by HPLC, and assess its antioxidant activity. Results revealed that the tomatoes analyzed contained lycopene and antioxidant activity. Salad tomato presented the highest concentration of this carotenoid and antioxidant activity. The quantification method exhibited linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. Tests for the assessment of precision, accuracy, and robustness achieved coefficients with variation of less than 5%. The LOD and LOQ were 0.0012 and 0.0039 μg/mL, respectively. Salad tomato can be used as a source of lycopene for the development of topical formulations, and based on performed tests, the chosen method for the identification and quantification of lycopene was considered to be linear, precise, exact, selective, and robust. PMID:26525253

  5. RNAontheBENCH: computational and empirical resources for benchmarking RNAseq quantification and differential expression methods

    KAUST Repository

    Germain, Pierre-Luc

    2016-06-20

    RNA sequencing (RNAseq) has become the method of choice for transcriptome analysis, yet no consensus exists as to the most appropriate pipeline for its analysis, with current benchmarks suffering important limitations. Here, we address these challenges through a rich benchmarking resource harnessing (i) two RNAseq datasets including ERCC ExFold spike-ins; (ii) Nanostring measurements of a panel of 150 genes on the same samples; (iii) a set of internal, genetically-determined controls; (iv) a reanalysis of the SEQC dataset; and (v) a focus on relative quantification (i.e. across-samples). We use this resource to compare different approaches to each step of RNAseq analysis, from alignment to differential expression testing. We show that methods providing the best absolute quantification do not necessarily provide good relative quantification across samples, that count-based methods are superior for gene-level relative quantification, and that the new generation of pseudo-alignment-based software performs as well as established methods, at a fraction of the computing time. We also assess the impact of library type and size on quantification and differential expression analysis. Finally, we have created a R package and a web platform to enable the simple and streamlined application of this resource to the benchmarking of future methods.

  6. WaveletQuant, an improved quantification software based on wavelet signal threshold de-noising for labeled quantitative proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative proteomics technologies have been developed to comprehensively identify and quantify proteins in two or more complex samples. Quantitative proteomics based on differential stable isotope labeling is one of the proteomics quantification technologies. Mass spectrometric data generated for peptide quantification are often noisy, and peak detection and definition require various smoothing filters to remove noise in order to achieve accurate peptide quantification. Many traditional smoothing filters, such as the moving average filter, Savitzky-Golay filter and Gaussian filter, have been used to reduce noise in MS peaks. However, limitations of these filtering approaches often result in inaccurate peptide quantification. Here we present the WaveletQuant program, based on wavelet theory, for better or alternative MS-based proteomic quantification. Results We developed a novel discrete wavelet transform (DWT and a 'Spatial Adaptive Algorithm' to remove noise and to identify true peaks. We programmed and compiled WaveletQuant using Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition. We then incorporated the WaveletQuant program in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP, a commonly used open source proteomics analysis pipeline. Conclusions We showed that WaveletQuant was able to quantify more proteins and to quantify them more accurately than the ASAPRatio, a program that performs quantification in the TPP pipeline, first using known mixed ratios of yeast extracts and then using a data set from ovarian cancer cell lysates. The program and its documentation can be downloaded from our website at http://systemsbiozju.org/data/WaveletQuant.

  7. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  8. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  9. Entanglement quantification by local unitaries

    CERN Document Server

    Monras, A; Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Davies, G B; Illuminati, F

    2011-01-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitaries play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as "shield entanglement". They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert- Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary. To the action of each different local unitary there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitaries with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these shield entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary f...

  10. Quantification of resonance interference effect for multi-group effective cross-section in lattice physics calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the quantification of resonance interference effect for multi-group effective cross-section in lattice physics calculation. In the resonance self-shielding method based on the equivalence theory, the resonance interference effect among multiple nuclides cannot be treated directly to the multi-group effective cross-section. The continuous energy or the ultra-fine-group treatment can directly consider the effect, but the application to the fuel assembly geometry is not realistic with practical computation time. In the present study, the resonance interference effect to the multi-group effective cross-section is simply quantified by the resonance interference factor (RIF) in order to confirm the benefit for considering the effect. The RIF is generated for the typical pin-cell geometry of water moderated system. The multi-group effective cross-sections with and without RIFs are compared with the continuous energy Monte-Carlo result. As a result, the significant impact for considering the resonance interference effect is confirmed to the limited nuclide, reaction type and energy group. Fortunately, these have small effect on k-infinity because the resonance interference effect is mainly induced by the wide resonances of 238U to the other minor nuclides (e.g., 235U, 239Pu) in the limited resonance energy ranges. The results also show that the effect is small to the absorption cross-section of 238U, which is the dominant resonance nuclide in the fuel. The quantification results in the present study indicate a useful material to investigate the more advanced resonance treatment for the next generation lattice physics code. (author)

  11. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nicolas Kaufmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

  12. Quantifications and Modeling of Human Failure Events in a Fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    USNRC and EPRI developed guidance, 'Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines, NUREG-1921', for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs) for HFEs under fire conditions. NUREG-1921 classifies HFEs into four types associated with the following human actions: - Type 1: New and existing Main Control Room (MCR) actions - Type 2: New and existing ex-MCR actions - Type 3: Actions associated with using alternate shutdown means (ASD) - Type 4: Actions relating to the error of commissions (EOCs) or error of omissions (EOOs) as a result of incorrect indications (SPI) In this paper, approaches for the quantifications and modeling of HFEs related to Type 1, 2 and 3 human actions are introduced. This paper introduced the human reliability analysis process for a fire PSA of Hanul Unit 3. A multiplier of 10 was used to re-estimate the HEPs for the preexisting internal human actions. The HEPs for all ex- MCR actions were assumed to be one. New MCR human actions were quantified using the scoping analysis method of NUREG-1921. If the quantified human action were identified to be risk-significant, detailed approaches (modeling and quantification) were used for incorporating fire situations into them. Multiple HFEs for single human action were defined and they were separately and were separately quantified to incorporate the specific fire situations into them. From this study, we can confirm that the modeling as well as quantifications of human actions is very important to appropriately treat them in PSA logic structures

  13. Quantifications and Modeling of Human Failure Events in a Fire PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    USNRC and EPRI developed guidance, 'Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines, NUREG-1921', for estimating human error probabilities (HEPs) for HFEs under fire conditions. NUREG-1921 classifies HFEs into four types associated with the following human actions: - Type 1: New and existing Main Control Room (MCR) actions - Type 2: New and existing ex-MCR actions - Type 3: Actions associated with using alternate shutdown means (ASD) - Type 4: Actions relating to the error of commissions (EOCs) or error of omissions (EOOs) as a result of incorrect indications (SPI) In this paper, approaches for the quantifications and modeling of HFEs related to Type 1, 2 and 3 human actions are introduced. This paper introduced the human reliability analysis process for a fire PSA of Hanul Unit 3. A multiplier of 10 was used to re-estimate the HEPs for the preexisting internal human actions. The HEPs for all ex- MCR actions were assumed to be one. New MCR human actions were quantified using the scoping analysis method of NUREG-1921. If the quantified human action were identified to be risk-significant, detailed approaches (modeling and quantification) were used for incorporating fire situations into them. Multiple HFEs for single human action were defined and they were separately and were separately quantified to incorporate the specific fire situations into them. From this study, we can confirm that the modeling as well as quantifications of human actions is very important to appropriately treat them in PSA logic structures.

  14. Efficient uncertainty quantification in unsteady aeroelastic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, J.A.S.; Bijl, H.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient uncertainty quantification method for unsteady problems is presented in order to achieve a constant accuracy in time for a constant number of samples. The approach is applied to the aeroelastic problems of a transonic airfoil flutter system and the AGARD 445.6 wing benchmark with uncert

  15. Quantification of topological concepts using ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lowen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce certain ideals of real-valued functions as a natural generalization of filters. We show that these ideals establish a canonical framework for the quantification of topological concepts, such as closedness, adherence, and compactness, in the setting of approach spaces.

  16. Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Rasmussen, Carl Edward;

    2002-01-01

    The quantification of perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) requires deconvolution to obtain the residual impulse response function (IRF). In this work, a method using the Gaussian process for deconvolution (GPD) is proposed. The fact that the IRF is smooth is incorporated...

  17. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero

  18. HPC Analytics Support. Requirements for Uncertainty Quantification Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Luke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report outlines techniques for extending benchmark generation products so they support uncertainty quantification by benchmarked systems. We describe how uncertainty quantification requirements can be presented to candidate analytical tools supporting SPARQL. We describe benchmark data sets for evaluating uncertainty quantification, as well as an approach for using our benchmark generator to produce data sets for generating benchmark data sets.

  19. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanisms of biological systems via quantification of landscape and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Xiakun, Chu; Zhiqiang, Yan; Xiliang, Zheng; Kun, Zhang; Feng, Zhang; Han, Yan; Wei, Wu; Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we explore the physical mechanisms of biological processes such as protein folding and recognition, ligand binding, and systems biology, including cell cycle, stem cell, cancer, evolution, ecology, and neural networks. Our approach is based on the landscape and flux theory for nonequilibrium dynamical systems. This theory provides a unifying principle and foundation for investigating the underlying mechanisms and physical quantification of biological systems. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21190040, 11174105, 91225114, 91430217, and 11305176) and Jilin Province Youth Foundation, China (Grant No. 20150520082JH).

  20. F-theory Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Linch, William D

    2015-01-01

    We consider, at the linearized level, the superspace formulation of lower-dimensional F-theory. In particular, we describe the embedding of 3D Type II supergravity of the superstring, or 4D, N=1 supergravity of M-theory, into the corresponding F-theory in full detail, giving the linearized action and gauge transformations in terms of the prepotential. This manifestly supersymmetric formulation reveals some features not evident from a component treatment, such as Weyl and local S-supersymmetry invariances. The linearized multiplet appears as a super 3-form (just as that for the manifestly T-dual theory is a super 2-form), reflecting the embedding of M-theory (as the T-dual theory embeds Type II supergravity). We also give the embedding of matter multiplets into this superspace, and derive the F-constraint from the gauge invariance of the gauge invariance.

  1. Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are playing more important roles to quantify uncertainties and realize high fidelity simulations in engineering system analyses, such as transients happened in a complex nuclear reactor system. Traditional V&V in the reactor system analysis focused more on the validation part or did not differentiate verification and validation. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a 'black box' approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. The 'black box' method mixes numerical errors with all other uncertainties. It is also not efficient to perform sensitivity analysis. Contrary to the 'black box' method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In these types of approaches equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivities are directly solved for as variables in the simulation. This paper presents the forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical

  2. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  3. Z Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2004-01-01

    We present the evidence for the existence of the topological string analogue of M-theory, which we call Z-theory. The corners of Z-theory moduli space correspond to the Donaldson-Thomas theory, Kodaira-Spencer theory, Gromov-Witten theory, and Donaldson-Witten theory. We discuss the relations of Z-theory with Hitchin's gravities in six and seven dimensions, and make our own proposal, involving spinor generalization of Chern-Simons theory of three-forms. Based on the talk at Strings'04 in Paris.

  4. Integrating theory and data to create an online self-management programme for adults with type 2 diabetes: HeLP-Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kingshuk Pal; Charlotte Dack; Susan Michie

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing and estimates suggest that by 2030 nearly 1 in 10 adults worldwide will be living with this condition. 10% of the NHS budget is spent on treating diabetes and related complications like heart attacks, strokes and blindness. Improving self-management in people living with type 2 diabetes is crucial in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Uptake of group-based self-management training is low and there i...

  5. String Theory Without Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C V

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of solvable models that resemble string theories in many respects but have a strikingly different non-perturbative sector. In particular, there are no exponentially small contributions to perturbation theory in the string coupling, which normally are associated with branes and related objects. Perturbation theory is no longer an asymptotic expansion, and so can be completely re-summed to yield all the non-perturbative physics. We examine a number of other properties of the theories, for example constructing and examining the physics of loop operators, which can be computed exactly, and gain considerable understanding of the difference between these new theories and the more familiar ones, including the possibility of how to interpolate between the two types. Interestingly, the models we exhibit contain a family of zeros of the partition function which suggest a novel phase structure. The theories are defined naturally by starting with models that yield well-understood string theories and al...

  6. Gauge Theories of Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojević, Milutin

    2012-01-01

    During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...

  7. Uncertainty quantification methodology development for the best-estimate safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with two approaches to uncertainty quantification methodology. In the first approach, an uncertainty quantification methodology is proposed and applied to the estimation of nuclear reactor fuel peak cladding temperature (PCT) uncertainty. The proposed method adopts the use of Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). The independency between the input variables is verified through a correlation coefficient test. The uncertainty of the output variables is estimated through a goodness-of-fit test on the sample data. In the application, the approach taken to quantifying the total mean and total 95% probability PCTs is given. Emphasis is placed upon the PCT uncertainty estimation due to models' or correlations' uncertainties with the assumption that significant sources of PCT uncertainty are determined. In the second approach, an uncertainty quantification methodology is proposed for a severe accident analysis which has large uncertainties. The proposed method adopts the concept of probabilistic belief measure to transform an analyst's belief on a top event into the equivalent probability of that top event. For the purpose of comparison, analyses are done by 1) applying probability theory regarding the occurring probability of top event as a physical probability or a frequency, 2) applying fuzzy set theory with fuzzy numbered occurring probability of top event, and 3) transforming the analysts' belief on the top event into equivalent probability by the probabilistic belief measure method

  8. Uncertainty quantification of an inflatable/rigidizable torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in lightweight inflatable structures for space missions. The dynamic testing and model updating of these types of structures present many challenges in terms of model uncertainty and structural nonlinearity. This paper presents an experimental study of uncertainty quantification of a 3m-diameter inflatable torus. Model uncertainty can be thought of as coming from two different sources, uncertainty due to changes in controlled conditions, such as temperature and input force level, and uncertainty associated with others random factors, such as measurement noise, etc. To precisely investigate and quantify model uncertainty from different sources, experiments, using sine-sweep excitation in the specified narrow frequency bands, are conducted to collect frequency response function (FRF) under various test conditions. To model the variation of the identified parameters, a singular value decomposition technique is applied to extract the principal components of the parameter change.

  9. A surrogate accelerated multicanonical Monte Carlo method for uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keyi; Li, Jinglai

    2016-09-01

    In this work we consider a class of uncertainty quantification problems where the system performance or reliability is characterized by a scalar parameter y. The performance parameter y is random due to the presence of various sources of uncertainty in the system, and our goal is to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of y. We propose to use the multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) method, a special type of adaptive importance sampling algorithms, to compute the PDF of interest. Moreover, we develop an adaptive algorithm to construct local Gaussian process surrogates to further accelerate the MMC iterations. With numerical examples we demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve several orders of magnitudes of speedup over the standard Monte Carlo methods.

  10. The effect of surfaces type on vibration behavior of piezoelectric micro-cantilever close to sample surface in a humid environment based on MCS theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Korayem, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been known as an innovative tool in the fields of surface topography, determination of different mechanical properties and manipulation of particles at the micro- and nanoscales. This paper has been concerned with advanced modeling and dynamic simulation of AFM micro-cantilever (MC) in the amplitude mode in the air environment. To increase the accuracy of the governing equations, modified couple stress theory appropriate in micro- and nanoscales has been utilized based on Timoshenko beam theory in the air environment near the sample surface. Also, to discretize the equations, differential quadrature method has been recommended. In modeling, geometric discontinuities due to the presence of a piezoelectric layer enclosed between two electrode layers and the change in MC cross section when connected to the MC have been considered. In addition to the effect of MC modeling on the accuracy of modeling and vibration amplitude during surface topography, understanding and modeling the environmental forces in the air environment, including van der Waals, capillary and contact forces, are important. This paper has been provided more accurate environmental forces modeling and has been investigated the vibration behavior of piezoelectric MC in the humid environment. Moreover, this paper has been examined the maximum and minimum MC amplitude in the air environment close to the surface with different kinds of topography. The results illustrate that kind of surfaces has effect on the maximum and minimum amplitude due to the decrease or increase in equilibrium MC distance.

  11. Uncertainty Quantification with Applications to Engineering Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele

    in measurements, predictions and manufacturing, and we can say that any dynamical system used in engineering is subject to some of these uncertainties. The first part of this work presents an overview of the mathematical framework used in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) analysis and introduces the spectral tensor......The systematic quantification of the uncertainties affecting dynamical systems and the characterization of the uncertainty of their outcomes is critical for engineering design and analysis, where risks must be reduced as much as possible. Uncertainties stem naturally from our limitations......-train (STT) decomposition, a novel high-order method for the effective propagation of uncertainties which aims at providing an exponential convergence rate while tackling the curse of dimensionality. The curse of dimensionality is a problem that afflicts many methods based on meta-models, for which...

  12. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  13. Automated Quantification of Pneumothorax in CT

    OpenAIRE

    Synho Do; Kristen Salvaggio; Supriya Gupta; Mannudeep Kalra; Ali, Nabeel U.; Homer Pien

    2012-01-01

    An automated, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithm for the quantification of pneumothoraces from Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) images has been developed. Algorithm performance was evaluated through comparison to manual segmentation by expert radiologists. A combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional processing techniques was incorporated to reduce required processing time by two-thirds (as compared to similar techniques). Volumetric measurements on relative pneumothor...

  14. A Tableaux Calculus for Ambiguous Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Monz, Christof; de Rijke, Maarten

    2000-01-01

    Coping with ambiguity has recently received a lot of attention in natural language processing. Most work focuses on the semantic representation of ambiguous expressions. In this paper we complement this work in two ways. First, we provide an entailment relation for a language with ambiguous expressions. Second, we give a sound and complete tableaux calculus for reasoning with statements involving ambiguous quantification. The calculus interleaves partial disambiguation steps with steps in a t...

  15. Whitepaper on Uncertainty Quantification for MPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-17

    The MPACT code provides the ability to perform high-fidelity deterministic calculations to obtain a wide variety of detailed results for very complex reactor core models. However MPACT currently does not have the capability to propagate the effects of input data uncertainties to provide uncertainties in the calculated results. This white paper discusses a potential method for MPACT uncertainty quantification (UQ) based on stochastic sampling.

  16. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  17. Automated quantification of synapses by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schätzle, Philipp; Wuttke, René; Ziegler, Urs; Sonderegger, Peter

    2012-02-15

    The quantification of synapses in neuronal cultures is essential in studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Conventional counting of synapses based on morphological or immunocytochemical criteria is extremely work-intensive. We developed a fully automated method which quantifies synaptic elements and complete synapses based on immunocytochemistry. Pre- and postsynaptic elements are detected by their corresponding fluorescence signals and their proximity to dendrites. Synapses are defined as the combination of a pre- and postsynaptic element within a given distance. The analysis is performed in three dimensions and all parameters required for quantification can be easily adjusted by a graphical user interface. The integrated batch processing enables the analysis of large datasets without any further user interaction and is therefore efficient and timesaving. The potential of this method was demonstrated by an extensive quantification of synapses in neuronal cultures from DIV 7 to DIV 21. The method can be applied to all datasets containing a pre- and postsynaptic labeling plus a dendritic or cell surface marker.

  18. AdS{sub 3} x{sub w} (S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 1}) solutions of type IIB string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sicences; Sparks, James [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Mathematical Institute

    2008-10-15

    We analyse a recently constructed class of local solutions of type IIB supergravity that consist of a warped product of AdS{sub 3} with a sevendimensional internal space. In one duality frame the only other nonvanishing fields are the NS three-form and the dilaton. We analyse in detail how these local solutions can be extended to globally well-defined solutions of type IIB string theory, with the internal space having topology S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 1} and with properly quantised three-form flux. We show that many of the dual (0,2) SCFTs are exactly marginal deformations of the (0,2) SCFTs whose holographic duals are warped products of AdS{sub 3} with seven-dimensional manifolds of topology S{sup 3} x S{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. (orig.)

  19. Comparative Analysis for the Urban Metabolic Differences of Two Types of Cities in the Resource-Dependent Region Based on Emergy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban metabolism analysis has become a useful and effective tool to explore urban socio-economic processes. In this research, in order to explore the similarities and differences of metabolic characteristics and variation rules of different types of resource-dependent cities, we selected two cities—Taiyuan and Jincheng, the capital and a traditional resource-dependent city of Shanxi province, respectively, as research subjects, we also established an urban metabolic evaluation framework by employing a set of eight emergy-based indicators from socio-economic data from 2007 to 2014, and compared the similarities and discrepancies from the perspectives of metabolic structure, intensity, pressure, and efficiency, and put forward some suggestions for pursuing sustainable development for both cities and pointed out that more types of resource-dependent cities should be incorporated in future research work.

  20. String theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Beiras, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.

  1. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  2. Participants’ perspectives on making and maintaining behavioural changes in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention: a qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F.; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In a qualitative substudy, we sought to elicit participants’ perspectives of their behavioural change and maintenance of new behaviours towards intervention optimisation. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority, which according to the UK government statistics ranks as 1 of the 10 most socioeconomically deprived areas in England. Participants We recruited 218 adults aged 40–65 years at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (Finnish Di...

  3. Predicting the consumption of foods low in saturated fats among people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The role of planning in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A; Norman, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested the utility of an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour that included a measure of planning, in the prediction of eating foods low in saturated fats among adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants (N=184) completed questionnaires assessing standard theory of planned behaviour measures (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) and the additional volitional variable of planning in relation to eating foods low in saturated fats. Self-report consumption of foods low insaturated fats was assessed 1 month later. In partial support of the theory of planned behaviour, results indicated that attitude and subjective norm predicted intentions to eat foods low in saturated fats and intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted the consumption of foods low in saturated fats. As an additional variable, planning predicted the consumption of foods low in saturated fats directly and also mediated the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships, suggesting an important role for planning as a post-intentional construct determining healthy eating choices. Suggestions are offered for interventions designed to improve adherence to healthy eating recommendations for people diagnosed with these chronic conditions with a specific emphasis on the steps and activities that are required to promote a healthier lifestyle.

  4. Predicting the consumption of foods low in saturated fats among people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The role of planning in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A; Norman, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested the utility of an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour that included a measure of planning, in the prediction of eating foods low in saturated fats among adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants (N=184) completed questionnaires assessing standard theory of planned behaviour measures (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) and the additional volitional variable of planning in relation to eating foods low in saturated fats. Self-report consumption of foods low insaturated fats was assessed 1 month later. In partial support of the theory of planned behaviour, results indicated that attitude and subjective norm predicted intentions to eat foods low in saturated fats and intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted the consumption of foods low in saturated fats. As an additional variable, planning predicted the consumption of foods low in saturated fats directly and also mediated the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships, suggesting an important role for planning as a post-intentional construct determining healthy eating choices. Suggestions are offered for interventions designed to improve adherence to healthy eating recommendations for people diagnosed with these chronic conditions with a specific emphasis on the steps and activities that are required to promote a healthier lifestyle. PMID:20674639

  5. Towards a Mathematical Theory of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Qian Lu

    2005-01-01

    A typed category theory is proposed for the abstract description of knowledge and knowledge processing. It differs from the traditional category theory in two directions: all morphisms have types and the composition of morphisms is not necessary a morphism. Two aspects of application of typed category theory are discussed: cones and limits of knowledge complexity classes and knowledge completion with pseudo-functors.

  6. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution) Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure...

  7. Fluorescence-linked Antigen Quantification (FLAQ) Assay for Fast Quantification of HIV-1 p24Gag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesner, Marianne; Maiti, Mekhala; Grant, Robert; Cavrois, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence-linked antigen quantification (FLAQ) assay allows a fast quantification of HIV-1 p24Gag antigen. Viral supernatant are lysed and incubated with polystyrene microspheres coated with polyclonal antibodies against HIV-1 p24Gag and detector antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes (Figure 1). After washes, the fluorescence of microspheres is measured by flow cytometry and reflects the abundance of the antigen in the lysate. The speed, simplicity, and wide dynamic range of the FLAQ assay are optimum for many applications performed in HIV-1 research laboratories.

  8. Development Research on Leading Type 3PL Based on Incubation Theory%基于孵化理论的领衔式3PL企业发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利; 李白艳; 李健

    2013-01-01

    基于3PL及物流业发展现状和社会经济对物流行业发展的客观要求,提出用孵化理论与方法来培育和发展领衔式3PL企业;论述领衔式3PL含义、功能、发展的必要性与困难性,分析孵化领衔式3PL的可行性,提出孵化领衔式3PL的载体、功能与对象.%Based on the present development situation of 3PL and logistic industry and the objective request of social economy to logistic industry,incubation theory was introduced to cultivate and develop the leading type 3PL enterprise.The definition,function,development necessity and difficulty of leading type 3PL were discussed; the possibility of incubating leading type 3PL was analyzed the carrier,function and object of incubating leading type 3PL were proposed.

  9. F-theory with Worldvolume Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Linch, William D

    2015-01-01

    We describe the worldvolume for the bosonic sector of the lower-dimensional F-theory that embeds 5D, N=1 M-theory and the 4D type II superstring. This theory is a complexification of the fundamental 5-brane theory that embeds the 4D, N=1 M-theory of the 3D type II string in a sense that we make explicit at the level of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations. We find three types of section condition: in spacetime, on the worldvolume, and one tying them together. The 5-brane theory is recovered from the new theory by a double dimensional reduction.

  10. A modified extraction protocol enables detection and quantification of celiac disease-related gluten proteins from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; America, A.H.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Bosch, H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The detection, analysis, and quantification of individual celiac disease (CD) immune responsive gluten proteins in wheat and related cereals (barley, rye) require an adequate and reliable extraction protocol. Because different types of gluten proteins behave differently in terms of solubility, curre

  11. Complexes of type C6H7(+)·L (L = N2 and CO2) studied by explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botschwina, Peter; Oswald, Rainer

    2012-05-28

    Complexes of the benzenium ion (C(6)H(7)(+)) with N(2) or CO(2) have been studied by explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory at the CCSD(T)-F12x (x = a, b) level [T. B. Adler et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 221106 (2007)] and the double-hybrid density functional B2PLYP-D [T. Schwabe and S. Grimme, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 3397 (2007)]. Improved harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for C(6)H(7)(+) have been obtained by CCSD(T∗)-F12a calculations with the VTZ-F12 basis set. Combining them with previous B2PLYP-D anharmonic contributions we arrive at anharmonic wavenumbers which are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data from p-H(2) matrix isolation IR spectroscopy [M. Bahou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154304 (2012)]. The energetically most favourable conformer of C(6)H(7)(+)·N(2) shows a π-bonded structure similar to C(6)H(7)(+)·Rg (Rg = Ne, Ar) [P. Botschwina and R. Oswald, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 13664 (2011)] with D(e) ≈ 870 cm(-1). For C(6)H(7)(+)·CO(2), a slightly lower energy is calculated for a conformer with the CO(2) ligand lying in the ring-plane of the C(6)H(7)(+) moiety (D(e) ≈ 1508 cm(-1)). It may be discriminated from other conformers through a strong band predicted at 1218 cm(-1), red-shifted by 21 cm(-1) from the corresponding band of free C(6)H(7)(+). PMID:22667554

  12. Complexes of type C6H7+.L (L = N2 and CO2) studied by explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botschwina, Peter; Oswald, Rainer

    2012-05-01

    Complexes of the benzenium ion (C_6 H_7^ +) with N2 or CO2 have been studied by explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory at the CCSD(T)-F12x (x = a, b) level [T. B. Adler et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 221106 (2007), 10.1063/1.2817618] and the double-hybrid density functional B2PLYP-D [T. Schwabe and S. Grimme, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 3397 (2007), 10.1039/b704725h]. Improved harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for C_6 H_7^ + have been obtained by CCSD(T*)-F12a calculations with the VTZ-F12 basis set. Combining them with previous B2PLYP-D anharmonic contributions we arrive at anharmonic wavenumbers which are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data from p-H2 matrix isolation IR spectroscopy [M. Bahou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154304 (2012), 10.1063/1.3703502]. The energetically most favourable conformer of C_6 H_7^ +.N2 shows a π-bonded structure similar to C_6 H_7^ +.Rg (Rg = Ne, Ar) [P. Botschwina and R. Oswald, J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 13664 (2011), 10.1021/jp207905t] with De ≈ 870 cm-1. For C_6 H_7^ +.CO2, a slightly lower energy is calculated for a conformer with the CO2 ligand lying in the ring-plane of the C_6 H_7^ + moiety (De ≈ 1508 cm-1). It may be discriminated from other conformers through a strong band predicted at 1218 cm-1, red-shifted by 21 cm-1 from the corresponding band of free C_6 H_7^ +.

  13. Aerodynamic Modeling with Heterogeneous Data Assimilation and Uncertainty Quantification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop an aerodynamic modeling tool that assimilates data from different sources and facilitates uncertainty quantification. The...

  14. Efficient Quantification of Uncertainties in Complex Computer Code Results Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propagation of parameter uncertainties through large computer models can be very resource intensive. Frameworks and tools for uncertainty quantification are...

  15. Efficient Quantification of Uncertainties in Complex Computer Code Results Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses methods for efficient quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) for models that couple multiple, large-scale commercial or...

  16. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of A_aD_d type(II):Properties of hydrogen bonding networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Making use of the invariant property of the equilibrium size distribution of the hydrogen bonding clus- ters formed in hydrogen bonding system of AaDd type,the analytical expressions of the free energy in pregel and postgel regimes are obtained.Then the gel free energy and the scaling behavior of the number of hydrogen bonds in gel phase near the critical point are investigated to give the corre- sponding scaling exponents and scaling law.Meanwhile,some properties of intermolecular and in- tramolecular hydrogen bonds in the system,sol and gel phases are discussed.As a result,the explicit relationship between the number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and hydrogen bonding degree is obtained.

  17. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of A_aD_d type(Ⅲ):Equation of state and fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The equation of the state of the hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type is studied by the principle of statistical mechanics. The influences of hydrogen bonds on the equation of state of the system are obtained based on the change in volume due to hydrogen bonds. Moreover,the number density fluc-tuations of both molecules and hydrogen bonds as well as their spatial correlation property are inves-tigated. Furthermore,an equation describing relation between the number density correlation function of "molecules-hydrogen bonds" and that of molecules and hydrogen bonds is derived. As application,taking the van der Waals hydrogen bonding fluid as an example,we considered the effect of hydrogen bonds on its relevant statistical properties.

  18. Tutorial examples for uncertainty quantification methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bord, Sarah [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report details the work accomplished during my 2015 SULI summer internship at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. During this internship, I worked on multiple tasks with the common goal of making uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods more accessible to the general scientific community. As part of my work, I created a comprehensive numerical integration example to incorporate into the user manual of a UQ software package. Further, I developed examples involving heat transfer through a window to incorporate into tutorial lectures that serve as an introduction to UQ methods.

  19. Nonperturbative Formulations of Superstring Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Motl, Lubos

    2001-01-01

    After a short introduction to Matrix theory, we explain how can one generalize matrix models to describe toroidal compactifications of M-theory and the heterotic vacua with 16 supercharges. This allows us, for the first time in history, to derive the conventional perturbative type IIA string theory known in the 80s within a complete and consistent nonperturbative framework, using the language of orbifold conformal field theory and conformal perturbation methods. A separate chapter is dedicate...

  20. Neural networks and graph theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许进; 保铮

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between artificial neural networks and graph theory are considered in detail. The applications of artificial neural networks to many difficult problems of graph theory, especially NP-complete problems, and the applications of graph theory to artificial neural networks are discussed. For example graph theory is used to study the pattern classification problem on the discrete type feedforward neural networks, and the stability analysis of feedback artificial neural networks etc.

  1. A new approach for the quantification of synchrony of multivariate non-stationary psychophysiological variables during emotion eliciting stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin eKelava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion eliciting situations are accompanied by reactions on multiple response variables on subjective, physiological, and behavioral levels. The quantification of the overall simultaneous synchrony of psychophysiological reactions, plays a major role in emotion theories and has received increasing attention in recent research. From a psychometric perspective, the reactions represent multivariate non-stationary intra-individual time series. In this paper, we present a new time-frequency based latent variable approach for the quantification of the synchrony of the responses. The approach is applied to empirical data collected during an emotion eliciting situation. The results are compared with a complementary inter-individual approach of Hsieh et al. (2011. Finally, the proposed approach is discussed in the context of emotion theories, and possible future applications and limitations are provided.

  2. Theory and Troubleshooting of e Type Electron Beam Evaporation Source%e型电子束蒸发源的原理及维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀海

    2012-01-01

    In virtue of its outstanding advantages, electron beam evaporation ( EBE ) has an increasingly extensive application, and becomes the main technology in the industrial vacuum plating process. The definition of EBE was explained, the main feature and the advantage of the EBE source were described, the structure and the working principle of the e type EBE sources were explained in detail. How the relative installation position between the filament and beam-formming electrode affects the beam current and size were analyzed especially. According to the working experience, the daily maintenance for the e type EBE source was summarized. The announcements and procedure to replace the filament were described. The influence of the cleanliness in the chamber and source on the process quality was analyzed. The fault phenomenon and troubleshooting were introduced.%电子束蒸发由于其显著的优点应用日趋广泛,成为工业镀膜工艺中最主要的技术之一.基于真空镀膜技术,首先对电子束蒸发的定义进行了阐述,介绍了电子束蒸发源的特点及优势,详细说明了e型电子束蒸发源的结构及工作原理.重点分析了电子枪灯丝与聚束极的相对位置对束斑及束流大小的影响.结合维修经验对e型电子束蒸发源的日常维护进行了总结,对更换电子枪灯丝步骤及注意事项进行了细致说明,着重提出了腔室及蒸发源的洁净度对工艺质量的影响.最后对于蒸发过程中常见故障现象及解决方法进行说明.

  3. Supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)

  4. Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)

  5. 软件需求定量分析及其映射的模糊层次分析法%A Quantification Approach to Software Requirements Analysis and Its Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 新藤久和; 渡边喜道

    2005-01-01

    在用数量化理论3类(quantification theory of type 3,简称QT3)定量地分析软件需求的基础上,以质量功能展开(quality function deployment,简称QFD)中的质量屋(house of quality,简称HOQ)系列矩阵为纲领,基于由模糊技术改进后的模糊层次分析法(fuzzy analytic hierarchy process,简称FAHP),提出了一种软件需求定量分析及其向设计实现过程模糊映射的方法.将该方法具体应用于CD-R/RW光盘刻录机软件的开发过程,其有效性得到了验证.

  6. Application of PDCA theory to community intervention on patients with type 2 diabetes%PDCA 理论在2型糖尿病患者社区干预中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学梅; 温士玲; 李红

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨质量管理循环( PDCA)理论在2型糖尿病患者社区干预中的应用方法及临床效果。方法:对50例2型糖尿病出院患者应用PDCA理论进行为期6个月的社区干预,观察比较干预前后患者生活方式、遵医行为及各代谢指标变化情况。结果:本组患者干预后各代谢指标与入院时基线值比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),生活方式和遵医行为较前明显改善(P<0.01)。结论:应用PDCA理论对2型糖尿病出院患者进行社区干预,能巩固住院期间健康教育效果,改善其生活方式,提高遵医治疗依从性,从而达到血糖控制的目的,值得推广应用。%Objective:To explore the approach of application of plan -do-check-action( PDCA) theory to community intervention on patients with type 2 diabetes and investigate the clinical effect .Methods:50 patients with type 2 diabetes were given community intervention for 6 months in the light of PDCA theory ,and then the lifestyle and medical compliance behavior of the patients and the changes of meta -bolic indexes were observed and compared before and after the intervention .Results:There was statistically significant difference in the comparison of the metabolic indexes and baseline values after the intervention and on admission ( P<0.01);the lifestyle and medical compli-ance behavior were significantly improved after the intervention compared with those before the intervention (P<0.01).Conclusion:Applica-tion of PDCA theory in community intervention on the patients with type 2 diabetes can consolidate the effect of health education during hos-pitalization and improve the lifestyle and medical compliance behavior of the patients so as to achieve the control of blood glucose .

  7. The Method of Manufactured Universes for validating uncertainty quantification methods

    KAUST Repository

    Stripling, H.F.

    2011-09-01

    The Method of Manufactured Universes is presented as a validation framework for uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodologies and as a tool for exploring the effects of statistical and modeling assumptions embedded in these methods. The framework calls for a manufactured reality from which experimental data are created (possibly with experimental error), an imperfect model (with uncertain inputs) from which simulation results are created (possibly with numerical error), the application of a system for quantifying uncertainties in model predictions, and an assessment of how accurately those uncertainties are quantified. The application presented in this paper manufactures a particle-transport universe, models it using diffusion theory with uncertain material parameters, and applies both Gaussian process and Bayesian MARS algorithms to make quantitative predictions about new experiments within the manufactured reality. The results of this preliminary study indicate that, even in a simple problem, the improper application of a specific UQ method or unrealized effects of a modeling assumption may produce inaccurate predictions. We conclude that the validation framework presented in this paper is a powerful and flexible tool for the investigation and understanding of UQ methodologies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncertainty Quantification for Airfoil Icing using Polynomial Chaos Expansions

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The formation and accretion of ice on the leading edge of a wing can be detrimental to airplane performance. Complicating this reality is the fact that even a small amount of uncertainty in the shape of the accreted ice may result in a large amount of uncertainty in aerodynamic performance metrics (e.g., stall angle of attack). The main focus of this work concerns using the techniques of Polynomial Chaos Expansions (PCE) to quantify icing uncertainty much more quickly than traditional methods (e.g., Monte Carlo). First, we present a brief survey of the literature concerning the physics of wing icing, with the intention of giving a certain amount of intuition for the physical process. Next, we give a brief overview of the background theory of PCE. Finally, we compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations to PCE-based uncertainty quantification for several different airfoil icing scenarios. The results are in good agreement and confirm that PCE methods are much more efficient for the canonical airfoil icing un...

  9. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa. PMID:25673121

  10. 基于关系理论的高校知识型人才管理策略%Management Strategy of Knowledge-type Talents in Universities Based on Relations Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康志荣

    2011-01-01

    高校知识型人才队伍是学校发展的主体,对教育事业的发展起着主导性作用,是高校核心竞争力的人力因素.文章在解析行为科学的人际关系理论的概念与作用基础上,结合高校知识型人才的特点,提出高校科学有效的管理措施,实现对知识型人才的柔性管理.%Knowledge-type talents in university are subject of school development. They play a dominant role in the development of educational cause, and to be human resources factor of core competence in universities. Based on concept and function of relations theory and combined with characteristics of knowledge-type talents in universities, the article proposes scientific and effective management measures to realize flexible management of knowledge-type talents.

  11. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  12. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  13. Packaging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…

  14. Instantons in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlén, Olof, E-mail: olof.ahlen@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Mühlenberg 1, DE-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R{sup 4}-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.

  15. Birth of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Itoyama, H

    2016-01-01

    This is a brief summary of an introductory lecture for students and scholars in general given by the author at Nambu Memorial Symposium which was held at Osaka City University on September 29, 2015. We review the invention of string theory by Professor Yoichiro Nambu following the discovery of the Veneziano amplitude. We also discuss Professor Nambu's proposal on string theory in the Schild gauge in 1976 which is related to the matrix model of Yang-Mills type.

  16. Theories of Urban Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel García Docampo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing analysis framework for territorial dynamics and urban growth and proposes a taxonomy of interpretive theories as well as a critical review. Specifically, the paper aims to provide four innovations to existing knowledge in this field as follows: firstly, a clear presentation of how the data of population growth of each habitat type have appeared and their academic interpretations; secondly, a reclassification of interpretative theories into three groups: the cou...

  17. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.

  18. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. PMID:26471520

  19. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  20. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  1. Theory of relations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraïssé, R

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter

  2. Fluorometric quantification of polyphosphate in environmental plankton samples: extraction protocols, matrix effects, and nucleic acid interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S

    2013-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference.

  3. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  4. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  5. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  6. Dualities in M-theory and Born-Infeld Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, Daniel, M

    2001-08-01

    We discuss two examples of duality. The first arises in the context of toroidal compactification of the discrete light cone quantization of M-theory. In the presence of nontrivial moduli coming from the M-theory three form, it has been conjectured that the system is described by supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory on a noncommutative torus. We are able to provide evidence for this conjecture, by showing that the dualities of this M-theory compactification, which correspond to T-duality in Type IIA string theory, are also dualities of the noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills description. One can also consider this as evidence for the accuracy of the Matrix Theory description of M-theory in this background. The second type of duality is the self-duality of theories with U(1) gauge fields. After discussing the general theory of duality invariance for theories with complex gauge fields, we are able to find a generalization of the well known U(1) Born-Infeld theory that contains any number of gauge fields and which is invariant under the maximal duality group. We then find a supersymmetric extension of our results, and also show that our results can be extended to find Born-Infeld type actions in any even dimensional spacetime.

  7. Torsion as a source of expansion in a Bianchi type-I universe in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan theory of a perfect fluid with spin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradas, James C.; Fennelly, Alphonsus J.; Smalley, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a generalized (or 'power law') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley (1982, 1983). This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation.

  8. Comparative studies of modern methods for caries detection and quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xie-Qi

    2001-01-01

    In clinical dentistry proper treatment of caries lesions is highly dependent on diagnostic accuracy. Aim The present dissertation aimed at the evaluation and comparisons between several modem methods for caries detection and quantification. Methods The employed methods for detection and quantification of caries lesions may be divided into two categories, namely laser fluorescence based methods and radiographic methods. Laser fluorescence The performance of the...

  9. Development of a VHH-Based Erythropoietin Quantification Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Stefan; Beuchert Kallehauge, Thomas; Adema, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) quantification during cell line selection and bioreactor cultivation has traditionally been performed with ELISA or HPLC. As these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, we developed a novel EPO quantification assay. A camelid single-domain antibody fragment directed against...

  10. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V;

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  11. Results of an explorative research into value quantification methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, M.; Ridder, H. de

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an explorative research into value quantification methods called the Quick Scan. An overview of value quantification methods was needed in order to be able to establish the economically most advantageous tender, which in turn is needed for improvements in the Dutch

  12. An improved competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoassay method for tetrodotoxin quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Amber N; Williams Becky L; French Susannah S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Quantifying tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been a challenge in both ecological and medical research due to the cost, time and training required of most quantification techniques. Here we present a modified Competitive Inhibition Enzymatic Immunoassay for the quantification of TTX, and to aid researchers in the optimization of this technique for widespread use with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability.

  13. An improved competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoassay method for tetrodotoxin quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Amber N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantifying tetrodotoxin (TTX has been a challenge in both ecological and medical research due to the cost, time and training required of most quantification techniques. Here we present a modified Competitive Inhibition Enzymatic Immunoassay for the quantification of TTX, and to aid researchers in the optimization of this technique for widespread use with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability.

  14. An improved competitive inhibition enzymatic immunoassay method for tetrodotoxin quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Amber N; Williams, Becky L; French, Susannah S

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been a challenge in both ecological and medical research due to the cost, time and training required of most quantification techniques. Here we present a modified Competitive Inhibition Enzymatic Immunoassay for the quantification of TTX, and to aid researchers in the optimization of this technique for widespread use with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability.

  15. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3 emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure is the solution to the problem of NH3 emissions quantification. This paper summarizes the results of 4 years of research in this area, determining the emission factors and ways of decreasing emissions from the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry.

  16. Multivariate data analysis for depth resolved chemical classification and quantification of sulfur in SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M.; Goschnick, J.

    2005-09-01

    The quantification of elements in quadrupole based SNMS is hampered by superpositions of atomic and cluster signals. Moreover, the conventional SNMS data evaluation employs only atomic signals to determine elemental concentrations, which not allows any chemical specifications of the determined elements. Improvements in the elemental quantification and additional chemical information can be obtained from kinetic energy analysis and the inclusion of molecular signals into mass spectra evaluation. With the help of multivariate data analysis techniques, the combined information is used for the first time for a quantitative and chemically distinctive determination of sulfur. The kinetic energy analysis, used to solve the interference of sulfur with O 2 at masses 32-34 D, turned out to be highly important for the new type of evaluation.

  17. Toward greener analytical techniques for the absolute quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Mangelings, Debby

    2015-09-10

    Peptide-based biopharmaceuticals represent one of the fastest growing classes of new drug molecules. New reaction types included in the synthesis strategies to reduce the rapid metabolism of peptides, along with the availability of new formulation and delivery technologies, resulted in an increased marketing of peptide drug products. In this regard, the development of analytical methods for quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples is of utmost importance. From the sample preparation step to their analysis by means of chromatographic or electrophoretic methods, many difficulties should be tackled to analyze them. Recent developments in analytical techniques emphasize more and more on the use of green analytical techniques. This review will discuss the progresses in and challenges observed during green analytical method development for the quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples. PMID:25864956

  18. Theory of oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich; Vitt, Aleksandr Adolfovich

    1966-01-01

    Theory of Oscillators presents the applications and exposition of the qualitative theory of differential equations. This book discusses the idea of a discontinuous transition in a dynamic process. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest type of oscillatory system in which the motion is described by a linear differential equation. This text then examines the character of the motion of the representative point along the hyperbola. Other chapters consider examples of two basic types of non-linear non-conservative systems, namely, dissipative systems and self-

  19. Theory of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gel'fand, I M

    1967-01-01

    Generalized Functions, Volume 3: Theory of Differential Equations focuses on the application of generalized functions to problems of the theory of partial differential equations.This book discusses the problems of determining uniqueness and correctness classes for solutions of the Cauchy problem for systems with constant coefficients and eigenfunction expansions for self-adjoint differential operators. The topics covered include the bounded operators in spaces of type W, Cauchy problem in a topological vector space, and theorem of the Phragmén-Lindelöf type. The correctness classes for the Cau

  20. The influence of sampling design on tree-ring-based quantification of forest growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Babst, Flurin; Klesse, Stefan; Nötzli, Magdalena; Bouriaud, Olivier; Neukom, Raphael; Dobbertin, Matthias; Frank, David

    2014-09-01

    Tree-rings offer one of the few possibilities to empirically quantify and reconstruct forest growth dynamics over years to millennia. Contemporaneously with the growing scientific community employing tree-ring parameters, recent research has suggested that commonly applied sampling designs (i.e. how and which trees are selected for dendrochronological sampling) may introduce considerable biases in quantifications of forest responses to environmental change. To date, a systematic assessment of the consequences of sampling design on dendroecological and-climatological conclusions has not yet been performed. Here, we investigate potential biases by sampling a large population of trees and replicating diverse sampling designs. This is achieved by retroactively subsetting the population and specifically testing for biases emerging for climate reconstruction, growth response to climate variability, long-term growth trends, and quantification of forest productivity. We find that commonly applied sampling designs can impart systematic biases of varying magnitude to any type of tree-ring-based investigations, independent of the total number of samples considered. Quantifications of forest growth and productivity are particularly susceptible to biases, whereas growth responses to short-term climate variability are less affected by the choice of sampling design. The world's most frequently applied sampling design, focusing on dominant trees only, can bias absolute growth rates by up to 459% and trends in excess of 200%. Our findings challenge paradigms, where a subset of samples is typically considered to be representative for the entire population. The only two sampling strategies meeting the requirements for all types of investigations are the (i) sampling of all individuals within a fixed area; and (ii) fully randomized selection of trees. This result advertises the consistent implementation of a widely applicable sampling design to simultaneously reduce uncertainties in

  1. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  2. Survey and Evaluate Uncertainty Quantification Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guang; Engel, David W.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2012-02-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions that will develop and deploy state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately the widespread deployment to hundreds of power plants. The CCSI Toolset will provide end users in industry with a comprehensive, integrated suite of scientifically validated models with uncertainty quantification, optimization, risk analysis and decision making capabilities. The CCSI Toolset will incorporate commercial and open-source software currently in use by industry and will also develop new software tools as necessary to fill technology gaps identified during execution of the project. The CCSI Toolset will (1) enable promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of devices and processes; (2) reduce the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes; (3) quantify the technical risk in taking technology from laboratory-scale to commercial-scale; and (4) stabilize deployment costs more quickly by replacing some of the physical operational tests with virtual power plant simulations. The goal of CCSI is to deliver a toolset that can simulate the scale-up of a broad set of new carbon capture technologies from laboratory scale to full commercial scale. To provide a framework around which the toolset can be developed and demonstrated, we will focus on three Industrial Challenge Problems (ICPs) related to carbon capture technologies relevant to U.S. pulverized coal (PC) power plants. Post combustion capture by solid sorbents is the technology focus of the initial ICP (referred to as ICP A). The goal of the uncertainty quantification (UQ) task (Task 6) is to provide a set of capabilities to the user community for the quantification of uncertainties associated with the carbon

  3. Type II universal spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  4. Quantification of Osteon Morphology Using Geometric Histomorphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Scott; Cunningham, Craig; Felts, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Many histological methods in forensic anthropology utilize combinations of traditional histomorphometric parameters which may not accurately describe the morphology of microstructural features. Here, we report the novel application of a geometric morphometric method suitable when considering structures without anatomically homologous landmarks for the quantification of complete secondary osteon size and morphology. The method is tested for its suitability in the measurement of intact secondary osteons using osteons digitized from transverse femoral diaphyseal sections prepared from two human individuals. The results of methodological testing demonstrate the efficacy of the technique when applied to intact secondary osteons. In providing accurate characterization of micromorphology within the robust mathematical framework of geometric morphometrics, this method may surpass traditional histomorphometric variables currently employed in forensic research and practice. A preliminary study of the intersectional histomorphometric variation within the femoral diaphysis is made using this geometric histomorphometric method to demonstrate its potential. PMID:26478136

  5. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  6. On Uncertainty Quantification in Particle Accelerators Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Adelmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Using a cyclotron based model problem, we demonstrate for the first time the applicability and usefulness of a uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach in order to construct surrogate models for quantities such as emittance, energy spread but also the halo parameter, and construct a global sensitivity analysis together with error propagation and $L_{2}$ error analysis. The model problem is selected in a way that it represents a template for general high intensity particle accelerator modelling tasks. The presented physics problem has to be seen as hypothetical, with the aim to demonstrate the usefulness and applicability of the presented UQ approach and not solving a particulate problem. The proposed UQ approach is based on sparse polynomial chaos expansions and relies on a small number of high fidelity particle accelerator simulations. Within this UQ framework, the identification of most important uncertainty sources is achieved by performing a global sensitivity analysis via computing the so-called Sobols' ...

  7. Quantification Methods of Management Skills in Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania can not overcome the financial crisis without business growth, without finding opportunities for economic development and without attracting investment into the country. Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to determine the managerial skills developed by the Romanian fluvial shipping company NAVROM (hereinafter CNFR NAVROM SA, compared with ten other major competitors in the same domain, using financial information of these companies during the years 2005-2010. For carrying out the work it will be used quantification methods of managerial skills to CNFR NAVROM SA Galati, Romania, as example mentioning the analysis of financial performance management based on profitability ratios, net profit margin, suppliers management, turnover.

  8. Uncertainty quantification in DIC with Kriging regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dezhi; DiazDelaO, F. A.; Wang, Weizhuo; Lin, Xiaoshan; Patterson, Eann A.; Mottershead, John E.

    2016-03-01

    A Kriging regression model is developed as a post-processing technique for the treatment of measurement uncertainty in classical subset-based Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Regression is achieved by regularising the sample-point correlation matrix using a local, subset-based, assessment of the measurement error with assumed statistical normality and based on the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) criterion. This leads to a Kriging-regression model in the form of a Gaussian process representing uncertainty on the Kriging estimate of the measured displacement field. The method is demonstrated using numerical and experimental examples. Kriging estimates of displacement fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with 'true' values for the numerical cases and in the experimental example uncertainty quantification is carried out using the Gaussian random process that forms part of the Kriging model. The root mean square error (RMSE) on the estimated displacements is produced and standard deviations on local strain estimates are determined.

  9. Theoretical model and quantification of reflectance photometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua Huang; Youbao Zhang; Chengke Xie; Jianfeng Qu; Huijie Huang; Xiangzhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The surface morphology of lateral flow (LF) strip is examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the diffuse reflection of porous strip with or without nanogold particles is investigated.Based on the scattering and absorption of nanogold particles, a reflectance photometer is developed for quantification of LF strip with nanogold particles as reporter.The integration of reflection optical density is to indicate the signals of test line and control line.As an example, serial dilutions of microalbunminuria (MAU) solution are used to calibrate the performance of the reflectance photometer.The dose response curve is fitted with a four-parameter logistic mathematical model for the determination of an unknown MAU concentration.The response curve spans a dynamic range of 5 to 200 μg/ml.The developed reflectance photometer can realize simple and quantitative detection of analyte on nanogold-labeled LF strip.

  10. Quantification of Condylar Resorption in TMJ Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, LHS; Hajati, A-K; Paniagua, B; Lim, PF; Walker, DG; Palconet, G; Nackley, AG; Styner, M; Ludlow, JB; Zhu, H; Phillips, C

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was performed to determine the condylar morphological variation of osteoarthritic (OA) and asymptomatic temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and to determine its correlation with pain intensity and duration. STUDY DESIGN Three dimensional surface models of mandibular condyles were constructed from Cone-Beam CT images of 29 female patients with TMJ OA (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Group III) and 36 female asymptomatic subjects. Shape Correspondence was used to localize and quantify the condylar morphology. Statistical analysis was performed with MANCOVA analysis using Hotelling T2 metric based on covariance matrices, and Pearson correlation. RESULTS OA condylar morphology was statistically significantly different from the asymptomatic condyles (p<0.05). 3D morphological variation of the OA condyles was significantly correlated with pain intensity and duration. CONCLUSION 3D quantification of condylar morphology revealed profound differences between OA and asymptomatic condyles and the extent of the resorptive changes paralleled pain severity and duration. PMID:20382043

  11. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  12. Translating Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

  13. Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David A

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

  14. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  15. Estimating influence of cofragmentation on peptide quantification and identification in iTRAQ experiments by simulating multiplexed spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglan; Hwang, Kyu-Baek; Mun, Dong-Gi; Kim, Hokeun; Lee, Hangyeore; Lee, Sang-Won; Paek, Eunok

    2014-07-01

    Isobaric tag-based quantification such as iTRAQ and TMT is a promising approach to mass spectrometry-based quantification in proteomics as it provides wide proteome coverage with greatly increased experimental throughput. However, it is known to suffer from inaccurate quantification and identification of a target peptide due to cofragmentation of multiple peptides, which likely leads to under-estimation of differentially expressed peptides (DEPs). A simple method of filtering out cofragmented spectra with less than 100% precursor isolation purity (PIP) would decrease the coverage of iTRAQ/TMT experiments. In order to estimate the impact of cofragmentation on quantification and identification of iTRAQ-labeled peptide samples, we generated multiplexed spectra with varying degrees of PIP by mixing the two MS/MS spectra of 100% PIP obtained in global proteome profiling experiments on gastric tumor-normal tissue pair proteomes labeled by 4-plex iTRAQ. Despite cofragmentation, the simulation experiments showed that more than 99% of multiplexed spectra with PIP greater than 80% were correctly identified by three different database search engines-MODa, MS-GF+, and Proteome Discoverer. Using the multiplexed spectra that have been correctly identified, we estimated the effect of cofragmentation on peptide quantification. In 74% of the multiplexed spectra, however, the cancer-to-normal expression ratio was compressed, and a fair number of spectra showed the "ratio inflation" phenomenon. On the basis of the estimated distribution of distortions on quantification, we were able to calculate cutoff values for DEP detection from cofragmented spectra, which were corrected according to a specific PIP and probability of type I (or type II) error. When we applied these corrected cutoff values to real cofragmented spectra with PIP larger than or equal to 70%, we were able to identify reliable DEPs by removing about 25% of DEPs, which are highly likely to be false positives. Our

  16. Did natural selection make the Dutch taller? A cautionary note on the importance of quantification in understanding evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarka, Maja; Bolstad, Geir H; Wacker, Sebastian; Räsänen, Katja; Hansen, Thomas F; Pélabon, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    One of the main achievements of the modern synthesis is a rigorous mathematical theory for evolution by natural selection. Combining this theory with statistical models makes it possible to estimate the relevant parameters so as to quantify selection and evolution in nature. Although quantification is a sign of a mature science, statistical models are unfortunately often interpreted independently of the motivating mathematical theory. Without a link to theory, numerical results do not represent proper quantifications, because they lack the connections that designate their biological meaning. Here, we want to raise awareness and exemplify this problem by examining a recent study on natural selection in a contemporary human population. Stulp et al. (2015) concluded that natural selection may partly explain the increasing stature of the Dutch population. This conclusion was based on a qualitative assessment of the presence of selection on height. Here, we provide a quantitative interpretation of these results using standard evolutionary theory to show that natural selection has had a minuscule effect.

  17. Advanced theories of hypoid gears

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop more efficient types of gears, further investigation into the theories of engagement is necessary. Up until now most of the research work on the theories of engagement has been carried out separately on different groups, and based on individual types of profiles. This book aims at developing some universal theories, which can not only be used for all types of gears, but can also be utilized in other fields such as sculptured surfaces. The book has four characteristics: the investigations are concentrated on mismatched tooth surfaces; all the problems are dealt with from a

  18. Problems in particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the Institute have worked on a number of problems including the following: acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field, and gauge and spin theories, based on changes of variables specific to lattices of dimension 2ell; construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory; wave functions for paired Hall states; black hole quantum mechanics; generalized target-space duality in curved string backgrounds; gauge symnmetry algebra of the N = 2 string; two-dimensional quantum gravity and associated string theories; organizing principles from which the signal processing of neural networks in the retina and cortex can be deduced; integrable systems of KdV type; and a theory for Kondo insulators

  19. Personality Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (1) situationism, (2) interactionism, and (3) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approaches have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (i) type…

  20. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...