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Sample records for quantiferon-tb gold interferon

  1. Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsi, Payam; Yousefzadeh, Amir; Najafizadeh, Katayoun; Droudinia, Atousa; Bayati, Rouzbeh; Marjani, Majid; Shafaghi, Shadi; Farokhzad, Banafsheh; Javanmard, Pedram; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G) test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD) in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA) in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9%) turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%), and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%). Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.

  2. Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Tabarsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6, culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10, and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9% turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%, and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%. Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.

  3. Comparison of sensitivity of quantiferon-tb gold test and tuberculin skin test in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K.F.; Ambreen, A.; Butt, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity of tuberculin skin test (TST) and quantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: QuantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) was evaluated and compared it with tuberculin skin test (TST) in 50 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, in whom tuberculous infection was suspected on clinical, radiological and microbiological grounds. Sensitivity was determined against positive growth for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Out of 50 cases, 43 were females and 7 were males. The mean age was 41.84 A+- 19.03 years. Sensitivity of QFT-G was 80% while that of TST was 28%. Conclusion: QFT-G has much higher sensitivity than TST for active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is unaffected by prior BCG administration and prior exposure to atypical mycobacteria. A positive QFT-G result can be an adjunct to diagnosis in patients having clinical and radiological data compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  4. [The clinical application of quantiferon TB-2G: its usefulness and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeki; Nagai, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    compromised hosts is essential for TB control, but T cell assay might be influenced by the degree of cell-mediated immunosuppression. The relationship between immunocompetence and specific interferon (IFN)-gamma response in whole blood QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) is uncertain. Immune-related clinical indicators associated with the degree of antigen-specific IFN-gamma production were analysed using a large immunologically-unselected population with obvious TB infection. The absolute number of blood lymphocyte in TB patients was significantly associated with specific IFN-gamma production in a linear regression model. Sensitivity of 2 IFN-gamma Release Assays, QFT and ELISPOT, partly depends on peripheral lymphocyte counts. At low lymphocyte count conditions, ELISPOT assay is superior to whole blood QFT for detecting tuberculosis infection. (4) QuantiFERON TB-2G among staffs in the hospitals of Nationao Hospital Organization: Susumu OGURI, Chihiro NISHIO, Kensuke SUMI, Masayoshi MINAGUCHI, Tomomasa TSUBOI, Atuo SATOU, Osamu TOKUNAGA, Takeshi MIYAMOMAE, Takuya KURASAWA (National Hospital Organization Minami-Kyoto National Hospital) To investigate the infection rate of tuberculosis among staffs working in the hospitals of NHO. Questionnaires were sent to the hospitals and the responses were analyzed. Among the staffs working in the hospitals with tuberculosis wards, positive rate of QuantiFERON TB-2G was 6.9%, probable positive rate was 5.6%. On the other hand, among the staffs working in the hospitals without tuberculosis wards, positive rate was 4.4%, probable positive rate was 3.9%. It is necessary to monitor the infection rate among hospital staffs.

  5. Interferon gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in HIV-infected individuals in a low TB burden country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cheallaigh, Clíona Ní

    2013-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Two IGRAs are commercially available: the Quantiferon TB Gold In Tube (QFT-IT) and the T-SPOT.TB. There is debate as to which test to use in HIV+ individuals. Previous publications from high TB burden countries have raised concerns that the sensitivity of the QFT-IT assay, but not the T-SPOT.TB, may be impaired in HIV+ individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts. We sought to compare the tests in a low TB burden setting.

  6. The impact of HIV infection and CD4 cell count on the performance of an interferon gamma release assay in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G.; Ravn, Pernille; PrayGod, George

    2009-01-01

    pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a TB- and HIV-endemic population and the effect of HIV-infection and CD4 cell count on test performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 161 patients with sputum culture confirmed PTB were subjected to HIV- and QFT-IT testing and measurement of CD4 cell count. The QFT......BACKGROUND: The performance of the tuberculosis specific Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) has not been sufficiently documented in tuberculosis- and HIV-endemic settings. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) in patients with culture confirmed...

  7. [Analysis of tuberculosis infection among foreigners using QuantiFeron TB-2G test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazue; Harada, Nobuyuki; Nagasaka, Yuji; Mori, Toru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contacts of a tuberculosis patient among foreigners using QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT-2G) test. Three index cases in this study were all foreigners. Contacts, who were mostly foreigners and some Japanese, were investigated by a chest X-ray examination, tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT-2G, and all data were compared. Among 48 subjects (30 Vietnamese and 18 Japanese) in case 1, 8 Vietnamese and 2 Japanese were QFT-2G positive. One contacts among 3 most close contacts who lived in the same room with the index case was QFT-2G positive. In case 2, three Chinese among 22 contacts were QFT-2G positive, and a very close contact who lived in the next door to the index case was QFT-2G negative. Seven QFT-2G positive Chinese were identified among 24 contacts in case 3. However, four very close contacts among them were QFT-2G negative. Although it was unclear whether QFT-2G positives in cases 1 and 2 were infected with M. tuberculosis through the index cases, it is possible to speculate that these QFT-2G positives were already infected with M. tuberculosis while they live in their own country based on the prevalence of TB in their countries and the fact that many very close contacts were QFT-2G negative. Also, it was suggested that QFT-2G positives in case 3 may not be infected through the index case, but infected in their country, since all close contacts were QFT-2G negative. The results of this study suggested that using the QFT-2G test for foreigners prior to or soon after their entry to Japan and recommending chemoprophylaxis for those who are QFT-2G positive would be a very efficient control measures against immigrant foreigners with TB infection.

  8. Effect of Pregnancy on Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Detection of Latent TB Infection Among HIV-Infected Women in a High Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Cranmer, Lisa M; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Horne, David J; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-05-01

    Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. HIV-infected women were serially tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay [QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFT)] in pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage. Incidence of test conversion at 6 weeks postpartum was evaluated in baseline TST-/QFT- women. Among 100 HIV-infected women, median age was 26 years, median CD4 was 555 cells per cubic millimeter, and 88% were on antiretrovirals. More women were QFT+ than TST+ in both pregnancy (35.4% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.001) and postpartum (29.6% vs. 14.8%, P pregnancy vs. postpartum, and specifically among persistently QFT+ women (Mtb-Ag: 3.46 vs. 4.48 IU/mL, P = 0.007). QFT indeterminate rate was higher in pregnancy (16%) compared with postpartum (0%) because of lower mitogen response. QFT identified >2-fold more women with LTBI compared with TST in pregnancy and postpartum. Lower QFT Mtb-Ag and mitogen responses in pregnancy compared with postpartum suggest that pregnancy-associated immunologic changes may influence LTBI test performance.

  9. Interferon

    CERN Multimedia

    De Somer,P

    1975-01-01

    Le Prof.Pierre de Somer est né en Belgique et a fait ses études de médecine à l'Université de Louvin où il a obtenu en 1942 son diplôme. En 1961 il a été nommé professeur ordinaire d'hygiène et de microbiologie à cette même Université et depuis 1967 il est recteur de l'Université catholique flamande de Louvin, président de la société belge de microbiologie et expert de l'O.M.S. Il nous parle de l'interferon et de ses perspectives dans le traitement de maladies virales avec présentation des clichées.

  10. Interferon Gamma Release Assay versus Tuberculin Skin Testing among Healthcare Workers of Highly Diverse Origin in a Moderate Tuberculosis Burden Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahal Al Hajoj

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCW's are always at an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB infection. In Saudi Arabia, Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA has not been evaluated as a screening tool for latent TB infection (LTBI among HCW's considering their high demographic diversity. During February 2012 to January 2015 a cross sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary care center with maximum demographically diverse staff population in the capital city-Riyadh. After a short interview and consenting, all the candidates were subjected to tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB gold In-tube test (QFT. A logistic regression analysis was carried out for establishing the associations between putative risk factors and the diagnostic tests. The candidates were classified according to geographical origin and a detailed analysis was conducted on the impact of their origin towards the results of TST and QFT. Of the 1595 candidates enrolled, 90.6% were BCG vaccinated, female (67.9% and mainly nurses (53.2%. Candidates with high risk of suspected or confirmed TB patient exposure were 56.1% and 76.5% of them had <10 year's work experience. TST positivity was observed in 503 (31.5% candidates, while QFT was positive among 399 (25%. Majority of the candidates were non-Saudi (83% and predominantly (52.4% from Western Pacific region. Concordant results were obtained in 14.2% of positive cases and 57.7% negative cases. The disagreements between the two tests were relatively high (kappa co-efficient-0.312±0.026, p value- <0.00001 as TST positive/QFT negative discordance was 54.8% while TST negative/QFT positive discordance was 15.7%. Age of the candidates, BCG vaccination, and South East Asian origin were associated with TST positivity while Occupational TB exposure and geographical origin of the candidates were associated with QFT positivity. A regular follow up on recently TST converted candidates showed no progression to active TB. The putative

  11. Interferon Gamma-Based Detection of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the Border States of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Alatorre-Izaguirre, Gabriela; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Moreno-Treviño, Maria Guadalupe; Garcialuna-Martinez, Javier; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the border states are higher than national rates in both the US and Mexico, with the border accounting for 30% of total registered TB cases in both countries. However, LTBI rates in the general population in Mexican border states are unknown. In this region, LTBI is diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). New methods of detection more specific than TST have been developed, although there is currently no gold standard for LTBI detection. Our objective is to demonstrate utility of the Quantiferon TB gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test compared with the TST to detect LTBI among border populations. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in border areas of the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Participants (n = 210) provided a TST and blood sample for the QFT-GIT. Kappa coefficients assessed the agreement between TST and QFT-GIT. Participant characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Thirty-eight percent of participants were diagnosed with LTBI by QFT-GIT. The proportion of LTBI detected using QFT-GIT was almost double [38% (79/210)] that found by TST [19% (39/210)] (P < 0.001). Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was low (kappa = 0.37). We recommend further studies utilizing the QFT-GIT test to detect LTBI among border populations.

  12. Concordancia de las pruebas de tuberculina e Interferón gamma en población reclusa Concordance of tuberculin tests and Interferon gamma release assays in the prison population

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    A. Marco Mouriño

    2011-06-01

    informed consent form and the study was approved by an independent Ethical Committee. TST (positive 10 > or = mm and IGRA (Quantiferon TB-Gold were performed and standardized data collection was carried out. The agreement between both tests was analysed using the Kappa index. Results: A total of 181 people were included. 62% were foreign-born, 17% had previous BCG vaccination, 8.4% were IDUs and 4% HIV-infected. Foreign born subjects were more frequently vaccinated and presented less drug use and HIV infection than people born in Spain. (p=0.02, p=0.02 and p=0.01 respectively. TST results were positive in 24% and IGRA in 26%. Both tests were performed in 149 people (82%. Discordant results were observed in 15.8%. Agreement of the Kappa coefficient was 0.6 (CI 0.4-0.7. Agreement was better in the native population (K=0.8 and worse in BCG vaccinated (K=0.4 and foreign-born subjects (K=0.8. Conclusion: Overall agreement was moderate and was less amongst vaccinated subjects and those born abroad. Extension of the study could be useful to evaluate which test better predicts the risk of progression to active TB and the cost-benefit of both tests among the prison population.

  13. Evaluation of immune responses in HIV infected patients with pleural tuberculosis by the QuantiFERON® TB-Gold interferon-gamma assay

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    Lekabe Jacob M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of tuberculous (TB pleuritis is difficult and better diagnostic tools are needed. New blood based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ tests are promising, but sensitivity could be low in HIV positive patients. The IFN-γ tests have not yet been validated for use in pleural fluid, a compartment with higher level of immune activation than in blood. Methods The QuantiFERON TB®-Gold (QFT-TB test was analysed in blood and pleural fluid from 34 patients presenting with clinically suspected pleural TB. Clinical data, HIV status and CD4 cell counts were recorded. Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA analysis and TB culture were performed on pleural fluid. Results The patients were categorised as 'confirmed TB' (n = 12, 'probable TB' (n = 16 and 'non-TB' pleuritis (n = 6 based on TB culture results and clinical and biochemical criteria. The majority of the TB patients were HIV infected (82%. The QFT-TB in pleural fluid was positive in 27% and 56% of the 'confirmed TB' and 'probable TB' cases, respectively, whereas the corresponding sensitivities in blood were 58% and 83%. Indeterminate results in blood (25% were caused by low phytohemagglutinin (PHA = positive control IFN-γ responses, significantly lower in the TB patients as compared to the 'non-TB' cases (p = 0.02. Blood PHA responses correlated with CD4 cell count (r = 0.600, p = 0.028. In contrast, in pleural fluid indeterminate results (52% were caused by high Nil (negative control IFN-γ responses in both TB groups. Still, the Nil IFN-γ responses were lower than the TB antigen responses (p Conclusion The QFT-TB test in blood could contribute to the diagnosis of TB pleuritis in the HIV positive population. Still, the number of inconclusive results is too high to recommend the commercial QFT-TB test for routine use in pleural fluid in a TB/HIV endemic resource-limited setting.

  14. Relevance and acceptability of using the Quantiferon gold test (QGIT) to screen CD4 blood draws for latent TB infection among PLHIV in South Africa: formative qualitative research findings from the TEKO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Tudor, Carrie; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Lebina, Limakatso; Qomfu, Cokiswa; Variava, Ebrahim; Chon, Sandy; Martinson, Neil; Golub, Jonathan E

    2018-04-16

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), despite the availability of effective preventive therapy. The TEKO trial is assessing the impact of using a blood test, Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QGIT), to screen for latent TB compared to the Tuberculin Screening Test (TST) among PLHIV in South Africa. Fifty-six qualitative interviews were conducted with PLHIV and clinical providers participating in the TEKO trial. We explored TB screening, diagnosis, and treatment guidelines and processes and the use of the QGIT to screen for latent TB infection at the time of CD4 blood draw. Thematic content analysis was conducted. Considerable variability in TB screening procedures was documented due to lack of personnel and clarity regarding current national TB guidelines for PLHIV. Few clinics had started using the TST per national guidelines and many patients had never heard of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Nearly all participants supported the idea of latent TB screening using routine blood drawn for CD4 counts. Findings indicate that screening for latent TB infection using QGIT from blood drawn for CD4 counts among PLHIV is an acceptable approach to increase latent TB detection given the challenges associated with ensuring systematic latent TB screening in overburdened public clinics. The results presented here were from formative research related to the TEKO trial (Identifier NCT02119130 , registered 10 April 2014).

  15. Interferons, properties and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schellekens (Huub); W. Weimar (Willem)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe main theme of this thesis is the clinical evaluation of interferon. From the biology of the interferon system and animal experiments it can be expected that exogenous interferon will exert its optimum effect when used to prevent acute infections or to modulate chronic

  16. Interferon induction by adenoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beladi, I; Bakay, M; Pusztai, R; Mucsi, I; Tarodi, B [University Medical School, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Microbiology

    1979-02-01

    All human, simian, bovine and avian adenovirus types tested so far and the canine hepatitis virus induce interferon production in chick cells. This finding indicated this property to be characteristic for viruses belonging to the adenovirus group. Trypsin treatment, which had no effect upon the infectivity, diminished or eliminated the interferon-inducing abilities of crude adenoviruses, and thus the need for a trypsin-sensitive protein in interferon induction was suggested. T antigen and interferon were formed simultaneously in chick embryo fibroblast cells infected with human adenovirus type 12, and there-fore the adenovirus-specific T antigen was resitant to the action of endogenous interferon synthetized by the same cells. In chicks inoculated with human types, the appearance of interferon was biphasic: an 'early' and a 'late' interferon could be demonstrated with maximum titre 4 and 10 hr, respectively, after virus infection. In chicks infected with adenoviruses, first interferon production and then a decreased primary immune response to sheep red blood cells was observed. It was assumed that in adenovirus-infected chicks the interferon produced by viral stimulus resulted in a transient immunosuppression.

  17. Radioprotective effect of interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasukhina, G.

    1984-12-18

    A cycle of experiments performed jointly with associations of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute reportedly demonstrated that interferons protect human cells cultivated in a test tube against the action of fast neutrons and gamma radiation. Cells treated in advance with interferon not only survived irradiation but were almost totally protected against harmful effects of fast neutrons on the structure of chromosomes, according to the author. She mentions that the laboratory has also been studying effects produced on cells by compounds of heavy metals and other chemical compounds, including ones which cause breaks in the DNA molecule. Interferon's ability to protect cells against effects of chemical compounds has been studied in this connection. Another direction of the laboratory's work is research on interferon's effects on blood cells of persons suffering from certain hereditary diseases in which restorative processes of cells are impaired. The purpose of this is to develop courses of treatment which will not cause irreversible damages to chromosomes, the author explains. Interferon has been found to stimulate the reparation systems of cells in cases of Marfan's syndrome, for example.

  18. Desarrollo de panuveítis por tuberculosis en paciente con esclerosis múltiple tratado con interferón beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Echevarría Lucas

    2016-09-01

    Los linfocitos CD4+ T, leucocitos, macrófagos y granulocitos, con la producción de sus mediadores interferón gamma, IL-12 o TNF-α son fundamentales para controlar al Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Por ello, antes de introducir Interferón beta 1b, convendría realizar técnicas de screening, como la prueba de Mantoux o el interferon gamma release assay–(quantiferon-TB para detectar posibles tuberculosis latentes potencialmente activables.

  19. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Evaluation of whole blood IFNgamma test using PPD and recombinant antigen challenge for diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantri, Yatiraj; Hemvani, Nanda; Chitnis, D S

    2009-06-01

    Quantiferon TB gold (QFT-G) with recombinant antigen cocktail is well evaluated for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is more difficult due to limitations of conventional techniques. This study compares recombinant antigens based QFT-G and low cost PPD based interferon test for the diagnosis of PTB and EPTB. IFNgamma release, with recombinant antigens and PPD, was assayed by ELISA from 140 cases of EPTB, 100 cases of PTB along with acid fast bacillus (AFB) detection, AFB culture on LJ and MGIT BACTEC. Sensitivity and specificity for QFT-G recombinant antigens was 84.29% and 96%, while for PPD based interferon was 70% and 84% for EPTB group. The sensitivity was far superior to AFB smear and culture for both the antigens. Nine samples were identified as non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM) in the EPTB group and all were negative for QFT-G, but six of them were positive for PPD based test. Results of the study show that QFT-G using recombinant antigen is sensitive and specific for both PTB and EPTB diagnosis. The PPD based test is economic and offers comparable performance for PTB and EPTB diagnosis and also useful for diagnosis of NTM.

  1. Interferon in lyssavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Martina; Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis still claiming more than 50 000 human deaths per year. Typically, human cases are due to infection with rabies virus, the prototype of the Lyssavirus genus, but sporadic cases of rabies-like encephalitis caused by other lyssaviruses have been reported. In contrast to rabies virus, which has an extremely broad host range including many terrestrial warm-blooded animals, rabies-related viruses are associated predominantly with bats and rarely infect terrestrial species. In spite of a very close genetic relationship of rabies and rabies-related viruses, the factors determining the limited host range of rabies-related viruses are not clear. In the past years the importance of viral countermeasures against the host type I interferon system for establishment of an infection became evident. The rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) has emerged as a critical factor required for paralysing the signalling cascades leading to transcriptional activation of interferon genes as well as interferon signalling pathways, thereby limiting expression of antiviral and immune stimulatory genes. Comparative studies would be of interest in order to determine whether differential abilities of the lyssavirus P proteins contribute to the restricted host range of lyssaviruses.

  2. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

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    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  3. Ribavirin plus interferon versus interferon for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Standard therapy is ribavirin plus pegylated interferon to achieve undetectable level of virus in the blood, but the effect on clinical outcomes is controversial.......Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Standard therapy is ribavirin plus pegylated interferon to achieve undetectable level of virus in the blood, but the effect on clinical outcomes is controversial....

  4. A comparison of interferon-γ and IP-10 for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Line Lindebo; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Kimaro, Godfather

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interferon-γ and IP-10 release assays are diagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection. We have compared the accuracy of IP-10 and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube [QFT-IT] in Tanzanian children suspected of having active tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Hospitalized Tanzanian children...

  5. Comparison of two interferon-gamma assays and tuberculin skin test for tracing tuberculosis contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arend, Sandra M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Leyten, Eliane M. S.; Bouwman, John J. M.; Franken, Willeke P. J.; Koster, Ben F. P. J.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; van Houte, Arend-Jan; Bossink, Ailko W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) has low specificity. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) and T-SPOT.TB are based on interferon (IFN)-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A novel in-tube format of QFT-G (QFT-GIT) offers logistical advantages. To compare TST, QFT-GIT, and T-SPOT.TB

  6. Interferons: between structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bandurska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a family of proteins that are released by a variety of cells in response to infections caused by viruses. Currently, we distinguish three types of interferons. They are classified based on the nucleotide sequence, interaction with specific receptors, chromosomal location, structure and physicochemical properties. The following interferons are classified as type I: α, β, ω, κ, ε, ζ, τ, δ, ν. They are recognized and bound by a receptor formed by two peptides, IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2. Representative of type II interferons is interferon-γ. It binds to a receptor composed of chains IFNGR-1 and IFNGR-2. The recently classified type III interferons comprise IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, and IFN-λ3. They act on receptors formed by λR1 IFN-and IL-10R2 subunits. A high level of antiviral protection is achieved by IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ. Antiviral activity of interferons is based on the induction and regulation of innate and acquired immune mechanisms. By binding to transmembrane receptors, IFN interacts with target cells mainly by activating the JAK/STAT, but also other signaling pathways. This leads to induction and activation of many antiviral agents, such as protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR, ribonuclease 2-5A pathway, and Mx proteins, as well as numerous apoptotic pathways. As a result of the protective effect of interferons, the virus binding to cells and viral particles penetration into cells is stopped, and the release of the nucleocapsid from an envelope is suppressed. Disruption of transcription and translation processes of the structural proteins prevents the formation of virions or budding of viruses, and as a result degradation of the viral mRNA; the started processes inhibit the chain synthesis of viral proteins and therefore further stimulate the immune system cells.

  7. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  8. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent.

  9. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  10. Interferon Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic, Azra; Deljo, Dervis; Alajbegovic, Salem; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Todorovic, Ljubica; Tiric-Campara, Merita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) differ: treatment of relapse, treatment slow the progression of the disease (immunomodulators and immunosuppression), and symptomatic treatment. The aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the application of interferon therapy in the treatment of MS-E: Process the disease, patients with multiple sclerosis who have passed the commission for multiple sclerosis at the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University as a refere...

  11. Gold monetization and gold discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a study of the price level and relative price effects of a policy to monetize gold and fix its price at a given future time and at the then prevailing nominal price. Price movements are analyzed both during the transition to the gold standard and during the post-monetization period. The paper also explores the adjustments to fiat money which are necessary to ensure that this type of gold monetization is non-inflationary. Finally, some conditions which produce a run on the governm...

  12. Type 1 Diabetes and Interferon Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Kan; Kawasaki, Eiji; Imagawa, Akihisa; Awata, Takuya; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Uchigata, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Shimada, Akira; Nakanishi, Koji; Makino, Hideichi; Maruyama, Taro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Interferon therapy can trigger induction of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. To assess the clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of type 1 diabetes induced by interferon therapy, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Clinical characteristics, anti-islet autoantibodies, and HLA-DR typing were examined in 91 patients for whom type 1 diabetes developed during or shortly after interferon therapy. RESULTS Median ...

  13. DMPD: Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily of transcription factors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979567 Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily...ng) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily...orrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factorfamily of transcription factors. Authors Honda K

  14. Gold Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    2003-01-01

    On 22 december 1939, the Banco de la República, the Central Bank of Colombia, purchased a 23.5 centimetres high pre-Columbian gold arte fact weighing 777·7 grams that was to become the Gold M useum's foundation stone. Described as a Quimbaya poporo, it is a masterpiece of pre-Hispanic goldwork, an object of beauty whose brightly burnished body and neck, crowned with four sphere-like or naments, rest on an exquisite cast metal tiligree base and which seems to ftoat in a space of its own. The b...

  15. Interferon-α treatment in systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2011-01-01

    classification need treatment. This review on interferon treatment in systemic mastocytosis documents an effect of this biological agent in some patients with mastocytosis. However, the place of interferon-a, as mono- or combination therapy, in the treatment algorithm may only be definitely established...

  16. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  17. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  18. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  19. Studies on Brucella interferon: Chromatographic behaviour and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet-Ucla, C.; Wietzerbin, J.; Falcoff, E.

    1980-01-01

    Interferon was induced by infecting mice with Brucella suis. Serum containing interferon activity was analyzed by chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose and Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B columns. Antiviral activity was completely retained by the lectin column indicating that all the interferon molecules are glycosylated. The chromatographic behaviour of Brucella interferon on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B show that, like other interferons, Brucella interferon displays hydrophobic properties. However, the hydrophobicity of the interferon molecule was masked in the crude preparation and was only detectable when purified Brucella interferon was used for chromatography. The antigenic properties of Brucella interferon provided the means for developing an affinity chromatographic method resulting in about 60.000 fold purification. As in the case of viral interferon, treatment of L cells with Brucella interferon induced specific enhanced in vitro phosphorylation of a 67.000 molecular weight protein after incubation of cell extracts with doublestranded RNA and [γ- 32 p]ATP. (auth.)

  20. Interferon alpha for the adjuvant treatment of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lens, Marko B; Pasquali, Sandro; Pilati, Pierluigi; Chiarion Sileni, Vanna

    2013-06-18

    Interferon alpha is the only agent approved for the postoperative adjuvant treatment of high-risk cutaneous melanoma. However, the survival advantage associated with this treatment is unclear, especially in terms of overall survival. Thus, adjuvant interferon is not universally considered a gold standard treatment by all oncologists. To assess the disease-free survival and overall survival effects of interferon alpha as adjuvant treatment for people with high-risk cutaneous melanoma. We searched the following databases up to August 2012: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, issue 8), MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2010), AMED (from 1985), and LILACS (from 1982). We also searched trials databases in 2011, and proceedings of the ASCO annual meeting from 2000 to 2011. We checked the reference lists of selected articles for further references to relevant trials. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing interferon alpha to observation (or any other treatment) for the postoperative (adjuvant) treatment of patients with high-risk skin melanoma, that is, people with regional lymph node metastasis (American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM (tumour, lymph node, metastasis) stage III) undergoing radical lymph node dissection, or people without nodal disease but with primary tumour thickness greater than 1 mm (AJCC TNM stage II). Two authors extracted data, and a third author independently verified the extracted data. The main outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR), which is the ratio of the risk of the event occurring in the treatment arm (adjuvant interferon) compared to the control arm (no adjuvant interferon). The survival data were either entered directly into Review Manager (RevMan) or extrapolated from Kaplan-Meier plots and then entered into RevMan. Based on the presence of between-study heterogeneity, we applied a fixed-effect or random-effects model for calculating the pooled estimates

  1. Determination of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keedy, C.R.; Parson, L.; Shen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The gold content of placer gold flakes and gold bearing ores was determined by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis, respectively. It was discovered that significant errors result in the instrumental method for gold flakes as small as 10 mg due to sample self-absorption of neutrons during irradiation. Reliable results were obtained for both ore samples and gold flakes by dissolving the samples in aqua regia prior to irradiation. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Interferon-induced central retinal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, L.; Husain, A.; Haroon, W.; Shaikh, M.I.; Mirza, S.A.; Khan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    A middle-aged lady presented with sudden onset of unilateral central retinal vein thrombosis after completing 6 months course of interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C infection. She had no risk factors and all her thrombophilia workup was normal, however, she was found to be dyslipidemic which may have contributed to atherosclerosis and predispose to thrombosis. Despite anticoagulation, her visual acuity deteriorated. This case illustrates the possibility of unpredictable visual complication of interferon. Frequent eye examination should be undertaken in patients having underlying risk factors like diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia undergoing interferon therapy. (author)

  3. Interferon-induced central retinal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, L; Husain, A; Haroon, W; Shaikh, M I; Mirza, S A; Khan, Z

    2012-11-15

    A middle-aged lady presented with sudden onset of unilateral central retinal vein thrombosis after completing 6 months course of interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C infection. She had no risk factors and all her thrombophilia workup was normal, however, she was found to be dyslipidemic which may have contributed to atherosclerosis and predispose to thrombosis. Despite anticoagulation, her visual acuity deteriorated. This case illustrates the possibility of unpredictable visual complication of interferon. Frequent eye examination should be undertaken in patients having underlying risk factors like diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia undergoing interferon therapy. (author)

  4. Clinical Success With Imiquimod Alone and In Combination With Intralesional Interferon In Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common type of skin cancer in humans. Surgery is still the gold standart for treatment of BCCs. However, there are also less-invasive, nonsurgical therapies such as imiquimod cream and intralesional interferon (IFN alpha-2b for the patients who are poor candidates for surgery and who care cosmetic outcomes. Objective: We report 11 BCC cases with various subtypes successfully treated with either imiquimod alone or in combination with interferon alfa-2b. Methods: Patients with various subtypes of histopathologically proven BCCs who were treated with imiquimod or combination of imiquimod and IFN alpha-2b between 2005-2010 years at our outpatient clinic are included in this report. Results: Of 11 patients we reported, only 4 patients (3 infiltrative, 1 solid types recieved intralesional interferon alpha-2b 3 million IU, 3 times a week combined with topical imiquimod. The rest 7 patients recieved only imiquimod 5% cream. All patients were cured with these regimens. Conclusion: Imiquimod is found to be effective not only in superficial, but also infiltrative, solid, and nodular types. Intralesional interferon alpha-2b is also known to be effective in BCCs and it has a synergistic effect when combined with imiquimod.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoub, B.D.; Lyons, S.F.; Crespi, M.; Chiu, M.-N.; Lomnitzer, R.

    1983-01-01

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial therapeutic interferon preparations were assayed in a laboratory. The antiviral and antiproliferative activities of each preparation were relatively similar, but an unexpectedly high NKC stimulatory activity was found in one of them. In-house determination of antiviral activity and evaluation of the antiproliferative and NKC stimulation potential of interferon preparations are essential before rational clinical trials of this agent are carried out

  6. Is pegylated interferon superior to interferon, with ribavarin, in chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2/3?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ijaz S Jamall; Shafaq Yusuf; Maimoona Azhar; Selene Jamall

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade,significant improvements have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C(CHC),especially with the introduction of combined therapy using both interferon and ribavarin.The optimal dose and duration of treatment is still a matter of debate and,importantly,the efficacy of this combined treatment varies with the viral genotype responsible for infection.In general,patients infected with viral genotypes 2 or 3 more readily achieve a sustained viral response than those infected with viral genotype 1.The introduction of a pegylated version of interferon in the past decade has produced better clinical outcomes in patients infected with viral genotype 1.However,the published literature shows no improvement in clinical outcomes in patients infected with viral genotypes 2 or 3 when they are treated with pegylated interferon as opposed to nonpegylated interferon,both given in combination with ribavarin.This is significant because the cost of a 24-wk treatment with pegylated interferon in lessdeveloped countries is between six and 30 times greater than that of treatment with interferon.Thus,clinicians need to carefully consider the cost-versusbenefit of using pegylated interferon to treat CHC,particularly when there is no evidence for clinically measurable benefits in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 infections.

  7. Interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.......To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C....

  8. Some biological properties of the human amniotic membrane interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. P. Ferreira

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic interferon was investigated to define the species specificity of its antiviral action and compare its anti-cellular and NK cell stimulating activities with those of other human interferons. The antiviral effect was titrated in bovine (RV-IAL and monkey (VERO cells. Amniotic interferon exhibited, in bovine cells, 5% of the activity seen in monkey cells, while alpha interferon displayed 200%. No effect was detected with either beta or gamma interferon in bovine cells. Daudi cells were exposed to different concentrations of various interferons and the cell numbers were determined. The anticellular effect of the amniotic interferon reached its peak on the third day of incubation. Results suggested a higher activity for alpha and gamma interferons and a lower activity for beta when compared to amniotic interferon. Using total mononuclear cells as effector cells and K 562 as target cell in a 51Cr release assay, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of amniotic interferon consistently stimulated NK cell activity in cells derived from several donors, the results indicating a higher level of activity with this interferon than with alpha and beta interferons.

  9. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudick, R.A.; Stuart, W.H.; Calabresi, P.A.; Confavreux, C.; Galetta, S.L.; Radue, E.W.; Lublin, F.D.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Wynn, D.R.; Lynn, F.; Panzara, M.A.; Sandrock, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon beta is used to modify the course of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Despite interferon beta therapy, many patients have relapses. Natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin antagonist, appeared to be safe and effective alone and when added to interferon beta-1a in preliminary studies.

  10. [Pegylation and interferons in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Centonze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pegylation is a procedure used for drug development since the 1970s and consists of the conjugation of a polyethylene glycol molecule (PEG to a drug. PEG has shown to be safe and effective in improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of drugs. Recently, a 20 kDa linear chain of PEG was conjugated to interferon beta-1a with the aim to offer a new treatment option to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients. Due to a prolonged bioavailability, this new drug can be administered less frequently (every two weeks than the other interferons beta available, thus allowing to hypothesize a better adherence to the treatment, which, in turn, should result in better clinical and economic outcomes. A phase III clinical trial has proven its effectiveness compared to placebo in RRMS patients, as well as a safety profile comparable to that found in other interferon beta preparations. The immunogenicity of this new molecule is < 1%, thus minimizing the suppression or reduction of interferon beta biological activity that could come from the development of Neutralizing Antibodies (NAbs. [Article in Italian

  11. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  12. Interferon alpha association with neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Voss, Anne; Steenstrup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN- α ) has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN- α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients from a population...

  13. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  14. Effects of Interferon Therapy on Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, A. W. K.; Ali, S. A.; Nisar, S.; Ahmad, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Around 185 million people are suffering from HCV infection all over the world, out of which 10 million people are residing in Pakistan. 4.7 percent (2-14 percent by different studies) of Pakistanis are suffering from this deadly disease. Interferon+Ribavarin IFN/RIB is the mainstay of treatment for this infection. Various cardiovascular adverse reactions have been reported of this therapy. We conducted this study at Punjab Institute of cardiology to look for the cardiac safety of interferon therapy in our population. Methods: We studied HCV infected patients planned for interferon therapy between 21st of November 2012 to 20th of August 2014. Echocardiography was performed before, during and after the completion of therapy. Pegylated interferon once a week plus ribavirin therapy was given to the patients. Patients received 16-40 injections of pegylated interferon depending upon the decision of hepatologist. Patients with prior structural heart disease, patients who did not start the treatment or patients who did not turn up on follow up were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 102 patients planned to have interferon therapy were screened echocardiographically. One patient died after 5 injections due to infection (a non-cardiac cause). 46 patients completed the treatment and the follow up. None of the patients had any acute cardiac event. All patients had normal biventricular systolic function at the end of study. None of the patients had significant valvular heart disease or pulmonary hypertension. Reversal of E/A ratio or E/A ratio>2, parameters of diastolic dysfunction and mild pericardial effusion were noted in a statistically significant number of patients. Conclusion: Interferon therapy for HCV infection is cardiac safe in patients who have structurally normal heart. Female patients have propensity of adverse events like severe diastolic dysfunction and mild pericardial

  15. Gamma Interferon Release Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkinger, Claudia M.; Kik, Sandra V.; Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Zwerling, Alice; Oxlade, Olivia; Metcalfe, John Z.; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Dowdy, David W.; Dheda, Keertan; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can substantially reduce the risk of developing active disease. However, there is no diagnostic gold standard for LTBI. Two tests are available for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). Evidence suggests that both TST and IGRA are acceptable but imperfect tests. They represent indirect markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. Neither test can accurately differentiate between LTBI and active TB, distinguish reactivation from reinfection, or resolve the various stages within the spectrum of M. tuberculosis infection. Both TST and IGRA have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised patients and have low predictive value for progression to active TB. To maximize the positive predictive value of existing tests, LTBI screening should be reserved for those who are at sufficiently high risk of progressing to disease. Such high-risk individuals may be identifiable by using multivariable risk prediction models that incorporate test results with risk factors and using serial testing to resolve underlying phenotypes. In the longer term, basic research is necessary to identify highly predictive biomarkers. PMID:24396134

  16. Literature systematic review on the ophthalmological side effects of interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.

  17. Cystic craniopharyngioma: intratumoral chemotherapy with alpha interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alessandra Dastoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the cystic craniopharyngiomas can be controlled with the use of intratumoral applications of interferon alpha. METHOD: Nineteen patients with the diagnosis of cystic craniopharyngioma were treated with intratumoral chemotherapy with interferon alpha from January 2002 to April 2006. All patients underwent placement of an intracystic catheter connected to an Ommaya reservoir. Through this reservoir were made applications during chemotherapy cycles. Each cycle corresponded to application of 3,000,000 units of interferon alpha three times per week on alternate days totalizing 36,000,000 units. Response to treatment was evaluated by calculating the tumor volume on MRI control after one, three and six months after the end of each cycle. Patients who developed worsening of symptoms or who had insignificant reduction in tumor volume during follow-up underwent repeat cycle chemotherapy. RESULTS: Four patients received four cycles of chemotherapy, three patients received three cycles, six patients received two cycles and six patients received one. The lower percentage of reduction in tumor volume was 60% and the bigger reduction was 98.37%. Eleven patients had a reduction greater than 90%. Five patients had a tumor reduction between 75 and 90% and in three patients the tumors were reduced by less than 75%. No deaths occurred during treatment and side effects of interferon alpha were well tolerated. No treatment was discontinued. Follow-up after the last application ranged from one year and five months to three years and nine months. CONCLUSION: The intratumoral chemotherapy with interferon alpha decreases the volume of cystic craniopharyngiomas and so far can be considered a new therapeutic alternative.

  18. Similarities of cellular receptors for interferon and cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipic, B.; Schauer, P.; Likar, M.

    1977-01-01

    Cellular receptors are molecules located on the cell membrane. Their function is to bind different molecules to the cell surface. These molecules can penetrate into the cytoplasm and trigger cellular changes. One kind of such bound molecules are interferons and corticosteroids. Until very recently very little was known about interferon's receptors on the cell surface, mechanisms of interferon's binding to them or about kinetics of such binding. On the basis of results published elsewhere and on the basis of experimental results, the authors suggest: receptors for interferon and cortisol are glycoproteins located on the cell surface, in analogy with PHA receptors they are chemically sialoglycoproteins, binding kinetics of cortisol and interferon is similar, interferon and cortisol compete for cellular receptors, binding of cortisol or interferon is dependent on allosteric configuration of receptor molecules. (author)

  19. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  20. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  1. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred W. Beilharz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNa therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.

  2. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  3. Interferon synthesis in mouse peritoneal cells damaged by x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szolgay, E; T' alas, M

    1976-01-01

    NDV-induced interferon of peritoneal cells of irradiated (x-rays, 400 R) and control mice was investigated in vitro. Irradiation or treatment with hydroxyurea (10(-5) M) and mitomycin C (25 microng/ml) did not change interferon synthesis in spite of an 80 to 90% inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation. Increased doses of mitomycin C and treatment with actinomycin D and puromycin blocked interferon production. De novo interferon synthesis occurred in cells with damaged replicative activity of DNA caused by irradiation or by treatment with antimetabolites.

  4. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  5. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)

    1998-12-15

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.

  6. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed

  7. CXCL10/IP10 is a novel potential in vitro marker of TB infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Sauzullo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction IFN-γ is a pivotal cytokine in the immune response to Myc. tuberculosis, infact this is the key cytokine produced in response to antigens specific following tuberculosis exposure causing either active or latent tuberculosis (TB and this observation forms the basis of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA, but there are alternative or additional cytokines and chemokines that could be used to improve detection of Myc. tuberculosis infection.The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of chemokine CXCL10/IP-10 as biomarker of active TB and to compare the results with classical QuantiFERON-Gold assay . Methods CXCL10/IP-10 and IFN-γ responses to stimulation with ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were evaluated in 21 patients with active tuberculosis and in 6 healthy unexposed subjects with no history of TB or TB contact were used as controls healthy controls. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G, Cellestis was used for the measurement of IFN-γ levels; CXCL10/IP-10 was detected by ELISA (R&D Systems . Results Of the 21 TB patients included, 11 had a QFT-G positive and 10 had negative QFT-G results.All QFT-G positive patients had increased levels of CXCL10/IP-10 (median, pg/ml in both ESAT-6 and CFP-10 stimulated samples patients compared to healthy controls (1807 and 1111 vs 251 and 188 of controls, respectively (p<0.001 for both. The patients with active TB and QFT-G negative exhibited higher concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 following antigen stimulation (837 pg/ml for ESAT-6;1674 pg/ml for CFP-10 (p<0.001. Conclusion Our study showed that in all patients with active TB, the CXCL10/IP-10 is expressed in higher amounts than IFN-γ following Myc. tuberculosis antigen-specific stimulation, and CXCL10/IP-10 appeared to be even more sensitive than QuantiFERON TB-Gold in TB patients with negative IFN-γ response. The measurement of chemokine CXCL10/IP-10, although not specific for tuberculosis, may have potential as an alternative or additional marker

  8. Deregulation of Interferon Signaling in Malignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas C. Platanias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are a family of cytokines with potent antiproliferative, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties. Much has been learned about IFNs and IFN-activated signaling cascades over the last 50 years. Due to their potent antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, recombinant IFNs have been used extensively over the years, alone or in combination with other drugs, for the treatment of various malignancies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on IFN signaling components and pathways that are deregulated in human malignancies. The relevance of deregulation of IFN signaling pathways in defective innate immune surveillance and tumorigenesis are discussed.

  9. Renal failure after treatment with interferon alpha 2b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeloffzen, WWH; Hospers, GAP; De Vries, EGE; Navis, GJ

    2002-01-01

    Although there has been considerable experience with interferons in the treatment of malignancy and viral illnesses, acute renal failure as a side-effect of interferon treatment has rarely been reported. We present the case of a patient who developed acute on chronic renal failure 16 months after

  10. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, T B; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta).......To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta)....

  11. BROOKHAVEN: High energy gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1992-01-01

    On April 24, Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) started to deliver gold ions at 11.4 GeV per nucleon (2,000 GeV per ion) to experimenters who were delighted not only to receive the world's highest energy gold beam but also to receive it on schedule

  12. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, T.L.; Joshua, D.; Gibson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Interferons are soluble proteins produced naturally by cells in response to viruses. It has both anti-proliferative and immunomodulating properties and is one of the first examples of a biological response modifier use to treat the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma. Interferon has been used......-induction agent with other chemotherapy regimens, and as maintenance therapy after conventional chemotherapy or complete remission after autologous or allogeneic transplantation. Interferon as a single induction agent or co-induction agent with other chemotherapy agents appears only to have minimal benefit...... in myeloma. Its role as maintenance therapy in the plateau phase of myeloma also remains uncertain. More recently, the use of interferon must now compete with the "new drugs" - thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib in myeloma treatment. Will there be a future role of interferon in the treatment...

  13. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  14. Sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K; Mathurin, P

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has serious effects on morbidity and mortality. Alfa interferon has been shown to increase the rates of HBeAg-clearance as well as seroconversion to anti-HBe, but response rates are unsatisfactory. Glucocorticosteroid pretreatment may increase the response to alfa interferon....

  15. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  16. Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053

  17. Acute liver failure during treatment of interferon alpha 2a chronic hepatitis B and coinfection of parvovirus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala-Szczygieł, Barbara; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Kępa, Lucjan; Oczko-Grzesik, Barbara; Piotrowski, Damian; Stolarz, Wojciech

    Parvovirus B19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations among which some are well known but others remain controversial. The role of this infection as a cause of acute hepatitis or exacerbation of chronic liver disease requires discussion regarding its significance in a strategy of prevention and treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. Clinical importance of this infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a is still unclear but exactly in this population significant complications during treatment may arise. Parvovirus B19 infection is not rare among persons with chronic hepatitis B, therefore searching for co-infection should be placed in standard diagnostic procedures especially in case of exacerbation of chronic hepatitis, pancytopaenia or anaemia of unknown origin. Pegylated interferon alpha 2a still remains a gold standard of therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B according to European (EASL) and Polish guidelines. We present a case of 35 years old woman treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a who developed acute liver failure in 23rd week of chronic hepatitis B therapy. An exacerbation of hepatitis with encephalopathy and pancytopaenia have been observed. Parvovirus B19 and HBV co-infection does not increase the frequency of liver function abnormalities in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further investigations should be done to describe the natural course of co-infection with parvovirus B19 and HBV and to establish possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and chronic hepatitis B and also the influence of interferon alpha 2a on the infections course.

  18. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  19. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  20. Comparative therapeutic response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin versus interferon alpha-2b in chronic hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Nazir, G.; Khan, S.A.; Fatima, F.; Iram, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is an epidemic worldwide since discovery in 1989. Conventional interferon alpha-2b plus Ribavirin therapy was started in 1998 but over all sustained viral response (SVR) rates are much below the desired rates to eradicate the diseases and stopping its epidemic. This study was conducted to access the therapeutic and cost-effectiveness of long acting pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus Ribavirin therapy verses conventional interferon alpha-2b plus Ribavirin. Methods: This comparative study was done at PAF Hospital Shorkot Cantt from July 2005 to July 2008. One hundred anti-HCV positive patients were selected randomly for the study according to willingness due to cost afford ability of the patients for conventional interferon. Group-A was labelled as pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus Ribavirin group, and Group-B interferon alpha-2b plus Ribavirin group. Both groups were given treatment for 24 weeks. Early virological response (EVR) was accessed at 12 weeks of the treatment. Sustained virological response (SVR) in both the groups was done at 24 week during the treatment and 6 monthly after treatment for 2 years. Initially non-responders and relapsed patients within 2 years of treatment were re-treated for 24 weeks with the same treatment. In both groups non-responders and relapsed patients were labelled as resistant patients. Both groups were followed with same protocol for 2 years. Results: Out of 100 patients included in the study, 34% were females and 66% were males. Group-A patients over all showed 94% SVR as compare to 80% in Group-B in 2 year follow-up. Group-A showed 6% resistant patients as compare to Group-B (20%). Conventional interferons were better tolerated. Higher incidence of side-effects was seen in Group-A. Conclusion: Pegylated interferon plus Ribavirin showed 94% SVR in 2 years. Pegylated interferon plus Ribavirin is the treatment of choice.

  1. Facts and Fantasies about Gold

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of gold as an investment the demand for effective risk management techniques for gold investments has increased as well. In this paper we analyze several drivers of the price of gold that have been proposed in the past. Our analysis indicates that short-term volatility of the price of gold remains rather unpredictable with many of the explanations like the fund flows in physical gold ETF either unreliable or unstable over time. Our analysis suggests that there...

  2. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using diatoms-silica-gold and EPS-gold bionanocomposite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröfel, Adam; Kratošová, Gabriela; Bohunická, Markéta; Dobročka, Edmund; Vávra, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles, EPS-gold, and silica-gold bionanocomposites by biologically driven processes employing two diatom strains (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica) is described. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction analysis (SAED) revealed a presence of gold nanoparticles in the experimental solutions of the diatom culture mixed with tetrachloroaureate. Nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron m...

  3. Interferon α subtypes in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Kathrin; Dickow, Julia; Dittmer, Ulf

    2018-02-13

    Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities. Up to date only one IFNα subtype (IFNα2) is being used in clinical treatment against chronic virus infections, however its therapeutic success rate is rather limited, especially during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Recent studies addressed the important question if other IFNα subtypes would be more potent against retroviral infections in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Indeed, very potent IFNα subtypes were defined and their antiviral and immunomodulatory properties were characterized. In this review we summarize the recent findings on the role of individual IFNα subtypes during HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This includes their induction during HIV/SIV infection, their antiretroviral activity and the regulation of immune response against HIV by different IFNα subtypes. The findings might facilitate novel strategies for HIV cure or functional cure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  5. Interferon Alpha Association with Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Asgari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN-α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS patients from a population-based retrospective case series were included. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score and MRI findings determined disease activity. Linear regression was used to assess the effects of the level of IFN-α on disability (EDSS. IFN-α was determined by sensitive ELISA assays. IFN-α was detectable in sera from 9/36 NMO patients, significantly more often than in the MS group (2/41 (P=0.0197. A higher frequency of IFN-α was observed in NMO patients with acute relapse compared to NMO patients in remission (P<0.001 and compared to the MS patients with relapse (P=0.010. In NMO patients, the levels of IFN-α were significantly associated with EDSS (P=0.0062. It may be concluded that IFN-α was detectable in a subgroup of NMO patients. Association of IFN-α levels with clinical disease activity and severity suggests a role for IFN-α in disease perpetuation and may provide a plausible explanation for a negative effect of IFN-1 treatment in NMO patients.

  6. How Ebola virus counters the interferon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, A; Pöhlmann, S

    2012-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) to humans causes a severe haemorrhagic fever in afflicted individuals with high case-fatality rates. Neither vaccines nor therapeutics are at present available to combat EBOV infection, making the virus a potential threat to public health. To devise antiviral strategies, it is important to understand which components of the immune system could be effective against EBOV infection. The interferon (IFN) system constitutes a key innate defence against viral infections and prevents development of lethal disease in mice infected with EBOV strains not adapted to this host. Recent research revealed that expression of the host cell IFN-inducible transmembrane proteins 1-3 (IFITM1-3) and tetherin is induced by IFN and restricts EBOV infection, at least in cell culture model systems. IFITMs, tetherin and other effector molecules of the IFN system could thus pose a potent barrier against EBOV spread in humans. However, EBOV interferes with signalling events required for human cells to express these proteins. Here, we will review the strategies employed by EBOV to fight the IFN system, and we will discuss how IFITM proteins and tetherin inhibit EBOV infection. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  8. Opposing roles for interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3 and type I interferon signaling during plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami A Patel

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. For bacterial infection, IFN-I signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis of disease while in others contributing to host defense. In this work, we addressed the role of type I IFN during Yersinia pestis infection in a murine model of septicemic plague. Transcription of IFN-β was induced in vitro and in vivo and contributed to pathogenesis. Mice lacking the IFN-I receptor, Ifnar, were less sensitive to disease and harbored more neutrophils in the later stage of infection which correlated with protection from lethality. In contrast, IRF-3, a transcription factor commonly involved in inducing IFN-β following bacterial infection, was not necessary for IFN production but instead contributed to host defense. In vitro, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by macrophages and neutrophils was more effective in the presence of IRF-3 and was not affected by IFN-β signaling. This activity correlated with limited bacterial growth in vivo in the presence of IRF-3. Together the data demonstrate that IRF-3 is able to activate pathways of innate immunity against bacterial infection that extend beyond regulation of IFN-β production.

  9. Gold film with gold nitride - A conductor but harder than gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siller, L.; Peltekis, N.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Chao, Y.; Bull, S.J.; Hunt, M.R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of surface nitrides on gold films is a particularly attractive proposition, addressing the need to produce harder, but still conductive, gold coatings which reduce wear but avoid the pollution associated with conventional additives. Here we report production of large area gold nitride films on silicon substrates, using reactive ion sputtering and plasma etching, without the need for ultrahigh vacuum. Nanoindentation data show that gold nitride films have a hardness ∼50% greater than that of pure gold. These results are important for large-scale applications of gold nitride in coatings and electronics

  10. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  11. Randomized trial of interferon-alpha plus ursodeoxycholic acid versus interferon plus placebo in patients with chronic hepatitis C resistant to interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poupon, R. E.; Bonnand, A. M.; Queneau, P. E.; Trépo, C.; Zarski, J. P. A.; Vetter, D.; Raabe, J. J.; Thieffin, G.; Larrey, D.; Grangé, J. D.; Capron, J. P.; Serfaty, L.; Chrétien, Y.; St Marc Girardin, M. F.; Mathiex-Fortunet, H.; Zafrani, E. S.; Guéchot, J.; Beuers, U.; Paumgartner, G.; Poupon, R.

    2000-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) could potentiate the effect of interferon (IFN) in patients with chronic hepatitis C resistant to IFN. We compared the efficacy of IFN with that of a combination of IFN and UDCA. Patients were randomized to receive UDCA (13-15 mg/kg/day) (n = 47) or placebo (n = 44) plus

  12. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S E Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-herpesviruses colonise lymphocytes. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 infects B cells via epithelial to myeloid to lymphoid transfer. This indirect route entails exposure to host defences, and type I interferons (IFN-I limit infection while viral evasion promotes it. To understand how IFN-I and its evasion both control infection outcomes, we used Mx1-cre mice to tag floxed viral genomes in IFN-I responding cells. Epithelial-derived MuHV-4 showed low IFN-I exposure, and neither disrupting viral evasion nor blocking IFN-I signalling markedly affected acute viral replication in the lungs. Maximising IFN-I induction with poly(I:C increased virus tagging in lung macrophages, but the tagged virus spread poorly. Lymphoid-derived MuHV-4 showed contrastingly high IFN-I exposure. This occurred mainly in B cells. IFN-I induction increased tagging without reducing viral loads; disrupting viral evasion caused marked attenuation; and blocking IFN-I signalling opened up new lytic spread between macrophages. Thus, the impact of IFN-I on viral replication was strongly cell type-dependent: epithelial infection induced little response; IFN-I largely suppressed macrophage infection; and viral evasion allowed passage through B cells despite IFN-I responses. As a result, IFN-I and its evasion promoted a switch in infection from acutely lytic in myeloid cells to chronically latent in B cells. Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization.

  13. T-cell homeostasis in chronic HCV-infected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin or an interferon-free regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Birch, Carsten; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antiviral has replaced pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin-based treatment in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. While interferon-α is immune modulating and causes lymphopenia, interferon-free regimens seem to be well-tolerated. This study aimed to compare T......-cell homeostasis before, during, and after HCV treatment with or without interferon-α in patients with chronic HCV infection. A total of 20 patients with chronic HCV infection were treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin, and six patients were treated with an interferon-free regimen. All patients were...... compared to prior treatment values. Finally, a proportion of CD8+ effector memory was lower while proportion of apoptotic T cells was higher after sustained virologic response compared to prior treatment. Despite lymphopenia during interferon, alterations in T-cell homeostasis during treatment were...

  14. Endogenous interferon-β-inducible gene expression and interferon-β-treatment are associated with reduced T cell responses to myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnsen, Lars; Christensen, Jeppe Romme; Ratzer, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive CD4+ T-cells are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, exogenous and endogenous type I interferons restrict disease severity. Recombinant interferon-β is used for......-induced CD4+ T-cell autoreactivity in interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients may be mediated by monocyte-derived interleukin-10.......Autoreactive CD4+ T-cells are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, exogenous and endogenous type I interferons restrict disease severity. Recombinant interferon-β is used...... for treatment of multiple sclerosis, and some untreated multiple sclerosis patients have increased expression levels of type I interferon-inducible genes in immune cells. The role of endogenous type I interferons in multiple sclerosis is controversial: some studies found an association of high expression levels...

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Spectroscopic diagnostic of gold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a simulation of a gold-aluminium alloy target irradiated by laser are presented. FCI code has been used with a processing out of LTE of atomic physics of gold and of multigroup photonics. Emission and reabsorption of gold and aluminium lines are included [fr

  17. Spectroscopic diagnostic of gold plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, M.

    1986-06-01

    Results of a simulation of a gold-aluminium alloy target irradiated by laser are presented. FCI code has been used with a processing out of LTE of atomic physics of gold and of multigroup photonics. Emission and reabsorption of gold and aluminium lines are included.

  18. Efficacy of peg-interferon based treatment in patients with hepatitis C refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Devrajani, B.R.; Kalhoro, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of peg-interferon-based therapy in patients refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment and factors predicting sustained viral response (SVR). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, from July 2009 to June 2011. Methodology: This study included consecutive patients of hepatitis C who were previously treated with conventional interferon-based treatment for 6 months but were either non-responders, relapsed or had virologic breakthrough and stage = 2 with fibrosis on liver biopsy. All eligible patients were provided peg-interferon at the dosage of 180 mu g weekly with ribavirin thrice a day for 6 months. Sustained Viral Response (SVR) was defined as absence of HCV RNA at twenty four week after treatment. All data was processed on SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 450 patients enrolled in the study, 192 were excluded from the study on the basis of minimal fibrosis (stage 0 and 1). Two hundred and fifty eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 247 completed the course of peg-interferon treatment. One hundred and sixty one (62.4%) were males and 97 (37.6%) were females. The mean age was 39.9 +- 6.1 years, haemoglobin was 11.49 +- 2.45 g/dl, platelet count was 127.2 +- 50.6 10/sup 3/ /mm/sup 3/, ALT was 99 +- 65 IU/L. SVR was achieved in 84 (32.6%). The strong association was found between SVR and the pattern of response (p = 0. 001), degree of fibrosis and early viral response (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Peg-interferon based treatment is an effective and safe treatment option for patients refractory to conventional interferon-based treatment. (author)

  19. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  20. Bioassisted Phytomining of Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluckov, Biljana S.

    2015-05-01

    Bioassisted phytomining implies targeted use of microorganisms and plants for the selective recovery of the metal. Metals from undissolved compounds are dissolved by applying specially chosen microorganisms and therefore become available to the hyperaccumulating plants. In the article, the selective extraction method of base metals and the precious metal gold by using microorganisms and plants is discussed.

  1. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  2. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  3. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  4. Bilateral Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Developed under Interferon Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Selcukbiricik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Interferon is a glycoprotein produced by assigned cells of immune system. It has been used in many different diseases. Although flu-like syndrome, myalgia, rash, hypotension, thrombocytopenia and peripheral neuropathy due to interferon use are encountered frequently, ocular side effects are rare, generally mild and transient. Case Report. 47-year-old female patient, presented with a mass lesion in right renal pelvis. Right radical nephrectomy was applied and the histopathological examination was consistent with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Interferon alpha treatment was started subcutaneously at the dose of 5 MIU/3 times in a week. Four weeks after the interferon therapy, suddenly bilateral visual loss developed. We discussed the diagnosis, followup, and treatment of the patient who developed irreversible ischemic optic neuropathy and had no previous known primary systemic disease to cause this condition. Conclusion. We suggest that patients should be screened for risk factors causing optic ischemic neuropathy, before interferon therapy. Although there was no adequate information in the literature for the followup, patients should be monitorized before, 1 month after, and 2 months after the treatment. And if there is no complication, we suggest that they should be followed up at 3-month intervals.

  5. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  6. Stability of human interferon-beta 1: oligomeric human interferon-beta 1 is inactive but is reactivated by monomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, J; Yamazaki, S; Kawaguchi, K; Kimura, S; Shimizu, H

    1989-10-05

    Human interferon-beta 1 is extremely stable is a low ionic strength solution of pH 2 such as 10 mM HCl at 37 degrees C. However, the presence of 0.15 M NaCl led to a remarkable loss of antiviral activity. The molecular-sieve high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that, whereas completely active human interferon-beta 1 eluted as a 25 kDa species (monomeric form), the inactivated preparation eluted primarily as a 90 kDa species (oligomeric form). The specific activity (units per mg protein) of the oligomeric form was approx. 10% of that of the monomeric form. This observation shows that oligomeric human interferon-beta 1 is apparently in an inactive form. When the oligomeric eluate was resolved by polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), it appeared to be monomeric under non-reducing conditions. Monomerization of the oligomeric human interferon-beta 1 by treatment with 1% SDS, fully regenerated its antiviral activity. These results suggest that the inactivation of the human interferon-beta 1 preparation was caused by its oligomerization via hydrophobic interactions without the formation of intermolecular disulphide bonds. These oligomers can be dissociated by SDS to restore biological activity.

  7. Hepatitis C virus and the controversial role of the interferon sensitivity determining region in the response to interferon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Puente, Manuela; Cuevas, José M; Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Bracho, María A; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Carnicer, Fernando; del Olmo, Juan; Ortega, Enrique; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2008-02-01

    The degree of variability of the interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR) in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome has been postulated to predict the response to interferon therapy, mainly in patients infected with subtype 1b, although this prediction has been the subject of a long controversy. This prediction has been tested by analyzing a cohort of 67 Spanish patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 23 of which were infected with subtype 1a and 44 with subtype 1b. A sample previous to therapy with alpha-interferon plus ribavirin was obtained and several clones (between 25 and 96) including the ISDR were sequenced from each patient. A significant correlation between mutations at the ISDR and response to treatment for subtype 1b patients, but not for those infected with subtype 1a, has been detected. Although the results suggest that the same relationship holds true for subtype 1a, lack of statistical power because of the small sample size of this subtype prevented firmer conclusions. However, identical ISDR sequences were found in responder and non-responder patients, suggesting that the stability of the ISDR sequence can occasionally help HCV to evade interferon therapy, although this is not a sufficient condition. More complex interactions, including the ISDR or not, are likely to exist and govern the HCV response to interferon treatment. (Copyright) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Interferons and their potential in the treatment of ocular inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Mackensen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Friederike Mackensen,1 Regina Max,2 Matthias D Becker31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Interdisciplinary Uveitis Center, University of Heidelberg, Germany; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Triemli Hospital Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: Since their discovery in the 1950s interferons have been the scope of investigation in many diseases as therapeutic as well as pathogenetic factors. We know they have immune stimulatory and immune regulatory effects. This apparently counter-intuitive mechanism can be summarized as immunomodulatory action and seems to be very effective in a number of ocular inflammatory diseases. We review the current knowledge of interferons in immunity and autoimmunity and show their use in clinical ophthalmologic practice.Keywords: interferon, uveitis, treatment, inflammation

  9. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  10. Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR. Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLR. Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses.

  11. Detecting a low prevalence of latent tuberculosis among health care workers in Denmark detected by M. tuberculosis specific IFN-gamma whole-blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase B; Larsen, Helle K

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate prevalence of tuberculosis infection among health care workers, using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the new M. tuberculosis specific diagnostic whole-blood test and to identify possible risk factors. Employees at 2 departments of infectious diseases...... as the remaining 45 TST positive participants showed no sign of active tuberculous disease and were allocated to 6-month clinical follow-up, without medical therapy. Today, 1.5 y later, all remain healthy. The high rate of positive TST among health care workers was most probably due to BCG vaccination...... TST whereas only 2 of 139 (1%) had a positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold test (QFT-TB). 42 of 106 (40%) BCG vaccinated had positive TST (> or =12 mm) compared with 2 of 27 (7%) unvaccinated persons. Among 47 persons with positive TST, 42 (89%) were BCG- vaccinated. The 2 QFT-TB positive participants as well...

  12. The dynamics of immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during different stages of natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Soborg, Bolette; Diaz, Lars Jorge

    2017-01-01

    during different stages of infection over time and to observe sustainability of immunity. METHODS: In a cohort study comprising East Greenlanders aged 17-22 years (2012 to 2014) who had either; undetectable Mtb infection, ongoing or prior Mtb infection at enrolment, we measured immunity to 15 antigens...... over a one-year period. Quantiferon-TB Gold testing (QFT) defined Mtb infection status (undetected/detected). The eligible study population of East Greenlanders aged 17-22 years was identified from the entire population using the Civil Registration System. From the source population 65 participants......-infected. Immunity to Mtb infection fluctuated with high annual risk of conversion (range: 6-69%) and reversion (range: 5-95%). During follow-up, five (8%) participants were notified with TB; neither conversion nor reversion was associated with an increased risk of progressing to TB. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings...

  13. Moessbauerspectroscopy on Gold Ruby Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslbeck, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical states of gold and the physical mechanisms of the growing process of the particles under the influence of additional ingredients like tin, lead, antimony and selenium before, during and after the colouring process are investigated by using the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 197 Au, 119 Sn and 121 Sb, optical spectroscopy and X-ray-diffraction. Gold in an unnealed, colourless state of the glasses consists of monovalent forming linear bonds to two neighbouring oxygen atoms. The Lamb-Moessbauer factor of these gold oxide bondings is observed as 0.095 at 4.2 K. The gold in it's oxide state transforms to gold particles with a diameter of 3 nm to 60 nm. The size of the gold particles is quite definable within the optical spectra and certain sizes are also discernable within the Moessbauer spectra. One component of the Moessbauer spectra is assigned to the surface layer of the gold particles. By comparing this surface component with the amount of the bulk metallic core, one can calculate the size of the gold particles. In the Moessbauer spectra of the colourless glass one also can find parts of bulk metallic gold. Investigations with X-ray diffraction show that these are gold particles with a diameter of 100 nm to 300 nm and therefore have no additional colouring effect within the visible spectrum. The Moessbauer spectra on gold of the remelt glasses are similar to those which have been measured on the initial colourless glasses

  14. For the love of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Gold is found in minute quantities and gold mining generates enormous amounts of waste materials and long history of environmental destruction: mercury in tailing, eroded land, and acid mine drainage are legacies of the past. The problem has become worse in recent years in North America, Australia, the Amazon basin, Philippines. This paper describes the economics of gold and the changes in the world economy which has precipitated the new gold rushes. Current technology uses a cyanide solution for leaching small amounts of gold from tons of waste, and mercury remains a toxic waste of gold mining. Both short and long term results of gold mining, on the environment and on indiginous populations are described

  15. Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2′5′-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  16. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered. First, the IFNLR is not ubiquitously expressed: in particular, immune cells show significant variation in the expression levels of and susceptibilities to IFN-λs. Second, the binding affinities of individual IFN-λs to the IFNLR varies greatly and are generally lower compared to the binding affinities of IFN-α to its receptor. Finally, genetic variation in the form of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to genes involved in the IFN-λ signaling cascade has been described and associated with the clinical course and treatment outcomes of hepatitis B and C virus infection. The clinical impact of IFN-λ signaling and the SNP variations may, however, reach far beyond viral hepatitis. Recent publications show important roles for IFN-λs in a broad range of viral infections such as human T-cell leukemia type-1 virus, rotaviruses, and influenza virus. IFN-λ also potentially modulates the course of bacterial colonization and infections as shown for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Although the immunological processes involved in controlling viral and bacterial infections are distinct, IFN-λs may interfere at various levels: as an innate immune cytokine with direct antiviral effects; or as a modulator of IFN-α-induced signaling via the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 inhibitory feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage

  17. Interferon-γ inhibits ghrelin expression and secretion via a somatostatin-mediated mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Døssing, Kristina B V; Aabakke, Anna JM

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if and how the proinflammatory cytokine interferon ¿ (IFN¿) affects ghrelin expression in mice.......To investigate if and how the proinflammatory cytokine interferon ¿ (IFN¿) affects ghrelin expression in mice....

  18. Interferon-γ inhibits ghrelin expression and secretion via a somatostatin-mediated mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Døssing, Kristina B V; Aabakke, Anna JM

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if and how the proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ) affects ghrelin expression in mice.......To investigate if and how the proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ) affects ghrelin expression in mice....

  19. Rushing for gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    2009-01-01

    African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sit...... affluent than the others, suggesting that movement can be rewarding for those willing to 'try their luck' with the hard work and social networking demands of mining another site.......African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sites...

  20. Gold' 82 - technical sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viewing, K.

    1983-01-01

    Sulphur-isotope studies had been applied by Dr. I. Lambert to a number of deposits in Western Australia and also to certain samples from Vubachickwe and other deposits in Zimbabwe. A study of the sulphur isotopes at the Dickenson Mine, revealed a wide spread of values in the mineralised zones. Metamorphic processes were likely to be significant in the concentration of gold. The iron formations at the Old Jardine Mine had been unfolded by Dr. W.S. Hallager and the pattern of sedimentation was unraveled. A gold-rich zone was separated by a barren gap from the other part of the mineralised zone. Research was also done on the effects of the metamorphic processes, and the ages of mineralisation

  1. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086388 Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Ko....csml) Show Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. PubmedID 18086388 Title ...Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Authors K

  2. Interferon gamma peptidomimetic targeted to interstitial myofibroblasts attenuates renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poosti, Fariba; Bansal, Ruchi; Yazdani, Saleh; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Poelstra, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis cannot be adequately treated since anti-fibrotic treatment is lacking. Interferon-gamma is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-fibrotic properties. Clinical use of interferon-gamma is hampered due to inflammation-mediated systemic side effects. We used an interferon-gamma

  3. Kaposi's sarcoma after alpha-interferon treatment for HIV-negative T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although interferon was successful in controlling the lymphoma the clinical course was complicated by the rapid development of aggressive, fatal Kaposi's sarcoma shortly after cessation of interferon treatment. It is suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of interferon therapy (or the T -cell lymphoma or both) may have ...

  4. DMPD: Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16095970 Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. Jefferies CA, Fit...zgerald KA. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Sep;11(9):403-11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferon gene regulation: not all roads... lead to Tolls. PubmedID 16095970 Title Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to

  5. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  6. Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Tovey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are class II cytokines that are key components of the innate immune response to virus infection. Three IFN sub-families, type I, II, and III IFNs have been identified in man, Recombinant analogues of type I IFNs, in particular IFNα2 and IFNβ1, have found wide application for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis respectively. Type II IFN, or IFN gamma, is used principally for the treatment of chronic granulomatous disease, while the recently discovered type III IFNs, also known as IFN lambda or IL-28/29, are currently being evaluated for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. IFNs are in general well tolerated and the most common adverse events observed with IFNα or IFNβ therapy are “flu-like” symptoms such as fever, headache, chills, and myalgia. Prolonged treatment is associated with more serious adverse events including leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased hepatic transaminases, and neuropsychiatric effects. Type I IFNs bind to high-affinity cell surface receptors, composed of two transmembrane polypeptides IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, resulting in activation of the Janus kinases Jak1 and Tyk2, phosphorylation and activation of the latent cytoplasmic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1 and STAT2, formation of a transcription complex together with IRF9, and activation of a specific set of genes that encode the effector molecules responsible for mediating the biological activities of type I IFNs. Systemic administration of type I IFN results in activation of IFN receptors present on essentially all types of nucleated cells, including neurons and hematopoietic stem cells, in addition to target cells. This may well explain the wide spectrum of IFN associated toxicities. Recent reports suggest that certain polymorphisms in type I IFN signaling molecules are associated with IFN-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C. IFN

  7. Interferon alpha for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with interferon-alpha (IFN-a) was introduced in the early 1980s. Several clinical trials showed a survival advantage for patients treated with IFN-a compared to conventional chemotherapy. Some patients achieved longstanding complete cytogenetic remissions...

  8. Osteopontin as a marker for response to pegylated interferon Alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteopontin as a marker for response to pegylated interferon Alpha-2b treatment in Chronic HCV Saudi patients. Yousri Mostafa Hussein1,2, Ayman Alhazmi1, Saad Alzahrani3, Ahmad El-Askary1,4,. Abdulrahman Alghamdy5, Eman Bayomy4, Assmaa Selim6, Mohammed Alghamdy1. 1. Medical Laboratories Department ...

  9. Antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferon-λ2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferon-λ2 expressed in stably ... The representing 26 kDa protein band of IFN-λ2 was detected by SDS-PAGE and ... The antiproliferative activity of hIFN-λ2 was determined by MTT assay.

  10. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta). METHODS: The CCR5 Delta32 allele and a CCR5 promoter polymorphism associated with cell surface expression of CCR5 were...

  11. Tumor inherent interferons: Impact on immune reactivity and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockwell, Natasha K; Parker, Belinda S

    2018-04-19

    Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, with sustained responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors reported in a number of malignancies. Such therapeutics are now being trialed in aggressive or advanced cancers that are heavily reliant on untargeted therapies, such as triple negative breast cancer. However, responses have been underwhelming to date and are very difficult to predict, leading to an inability to accurately weigh up the benefit-to-risk ratio for their implementation. The tumor immune microenvironment has been closely linked to immunotherapeutic response, with superior responses observed in patients with T cell-inflamed or 'hot' tumors. One class of cytokines, the type I interferons, are a major dictator of tumor immune infiltration and activation. Tumor cell inherent interferon signaling dramatically influences the immune microenvironment and the expression of immune checkpoint proteins, hence regulators and targets of this pathway are candidate biomarkers of immunotherapeutic response. In support of a link between IFN signaling and immunotherapeutic response, the combination of type I interferon inducers with checkpoint immunotherapy has recently been demonstrated critical for a sustained anti-tumor response in aggressive breast cancer models. Here we review evidence that links type I interferons with a hot tumor immune microenvironment, response to checkpoint inhibitors and reduced risk of metastasis that supports their use as biomarkers and therapeutics in oncology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Interferon-gamma treatment kinetics among patients with active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is essential for defence against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, levels in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and changes during treatment have not been documented in our tuberculosis patients in Nigeria, hence this study has been carried out. Objective: To determine variations, ...

  13. Interferon α treatment of molluscum contagiosum in immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hourihane, J.; Hodges, E.; Smith, J.; Keefe, M.; Jones, A.; Connett, G.

    1999-01-01

    A sister (aged 6 years) and brother (aged 8 years) presented four months apart with severe molluscum contagiosum. Both children demonstrated clinical and laboratory evidence of combined immunodeficiency. The extent of skin involvement by molluscum contagiosum precluded conventional treatment as well as intralesional interferon α (IFNα). Both subjects responded well to subcutaneous IFNα.



  14. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-λs regulate a similar set of genes as type I IFNs, but whereas type I IFNs act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain...

  15. Interferon-gamma response to the treatment of active pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Shi, R; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, G; Wang, W; Wang, J; England, K; Via, L E; Cai, Y; Goldfeder, L C; Dodd, L E; Barry, C E; Chen, R Y

    2017-10-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The QuantiFERON® TB-Gold assay was run on collected blood samples. Participants received a follow-up telephone call at 24 months to determine relapse status. Of the 152 TB patients enrolled, 135 were eligible for this analysis: 118 pulmonary (PTB) and 17 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. IFN-γ levels declined significantly over time among all patients (P = 0.002), with this decline driven by PTB patients (P = 0.001), largely during the initial 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.019). IFN-γ levels did not change among EPTB patients over time or against baseline culture or drug resistance status. After 6 months of effective anti-tuberculosis treatment, IFN-γ levels decreased significantly in PTB patients, largely over the initial 8 weeks of treatment. IFN-γ concentrations may offer some value for monitoring anti-tuberculosis treatment response among PTB patients.

  16. Newer Clinical Strategies for Combining Interferon and Cytotoxic Agents Against Solid Tumours and Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wadler

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of interferons in the treatment of cancer continues to evolve. Despite limited single agent activity against solid tumours, interferons now appear to have an important role as modulators of the activity of a variety of cytotoxic drugs. Clinical benefits have been observed for combinations of interferons and alkylating agents against low grade lymphomas, interferons and dacarbazine against malignant melanoma, and interferons and 5-fluorouracil against gastrointestinal and genitourinary malignancies. Further progress will depend on a grealer understanding of the biology of the interaction.

  17. Neuromyelitis optica-like pathology is dependent on type I interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Asgari, Nasrin; Owens, Trevor

    2013-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Reports have suggested that interferon beta which is beneficial for multiple sclerosis, exacerbates neuromyelitis optica. Our aim was to determine whether type I interferon plays a role in the formation of neuromyelitis optica lesions. Immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was injected intracerebrally with human complement to type I interferon receptor deficient and wildtype mice. Loss of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein was reduced in type I interferon receptor deficient mice brain. Our findings suggest that type I interferon signaling contributes to neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  19. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D. [University of Lubumbashi, Zaire, Gecamines Metallurgical Research Centre, Likasi, Zaire, c/o Gecamines Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-15

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  20. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  1. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied

  2. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  3. Differential expression of interferon-gamma and interferon-gamma-inducing cytokines in Thai patients with scrub typhus or leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chierakul, Wirongrong; de Fost, Maaike; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Limpaiboon, Roongreung; Dondorp, Arjen; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma plays an important role in the induction of a type 1 immune response against intracellular pathogens. We compared the plasma levels of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines in adult Thai patients with scrub typhus, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia

  4. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays. Ot...

  5. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays...

  6. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wuqi; Kao, Wenping; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway

  7. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued before January 30, 1934, are exchangeable, as provided...

  8. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  9. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  10. Determination of Gold from Gold Matrix of North Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research paper presents analytical results of Au, Mn and V concentrations of some Nigerian gold ores using two techniques: epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fourteen samples were collected from gold fields of North Western Nigeria, prepared separately to a ...

  11. Activation analysis in gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear techniques and methods were, are, and will be very important for many fields of science, agriculture, industry, etc. Among other examples one can remember role of the nuclear medicine (radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic methods) or semiconductors (communication, computing, information, etc.) which industrial production has been on initial stage based on activation analysis. One of very illustrative examples is application of nuclear methods in gold industry. This is given by favorable nuclear properties of gold. Uzbekistan is one of the main producers of gold. Open-cast mining and hydro metallurgic extraction (using leaching by cyanide and sorption by ion-exchange resin) is the mostly used technology. The typical gold ores are sulfide and contain elevated concentration of As and Sb. That needs special technology of gold extraction. Importance of gold for Uzbekistan economy is a reason why for many years there are carried out studies concerning to gold production. These studies include also nuclear methods and their results are successfully used in gold industry. The present paper gives a brief overview for period of 25 years. For many reasons most of these studies were not published before completely. Despite some results are obtained decades ago we decided to present the overview as an example how nuclear methods can cover requirements of the whole process. We are trying to sort these studies according to methods and applications

  12. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  13. Interferon-Inducible CD169/Siglec1 Attenuates Anti-HIV-1 Effects of Alpha Interferon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hisashi; Ramirez, Nora-Guadalupe Pina; Gibson, Gregory; Kline, Christopher; Watkins, Simon; Ambrose, Zandrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vivo is chronic immune activation concomitant with type I interferon (IFN) production. Although type I IFN induces an antiviral state in many cell types, HIV-1 can replicate in vivo via mechanisms that have remained unclear. We have recently identified a type I IFN-inducible protein, CD169, as the HIV-1 attachment factor on dendritic cells (DCs) that can mediate robust infection of CD4+ T cells in trans. Since CD169 expression on macrophages is also induced by type I IFN, we hypothesized that type I IFN-inducible CD169 could facilitate productive HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells in cis and CD4+ T cells in trans and thus offset antiviral effects of type I IFN. In support of this hypothesis, infection of HIV-1 or murine leukemia virus Env (MLV-Env)-pseudotyped HIV-1 particles was enhanced in IFN-α-treated THP-1 monocytoid cells, and this enhancement was primarily dependent on CD169-mediated enhancement at the virus entry step, a phenomenon phenocopied in HIV-1 infections of IFN-α-treated primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Furthermore, expression of CD169, a marker of type I IFN-induced immune activation in vivo, was enhanced in lymph nodes from pigtailed macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) carrying HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT-SHIV), compared to uninfected macaques, and interestingly, there was extensive colocalization of p27gag and CD169, suggesting productive infection of CD169+ myeloid cells in vivo. While cell-free HIV-1 infection of IFN-α-treated CD4+ T cells was robustly decreased, initiation of infection in trans via coculture with CD169+ IFN-α-treated DCs restored infection, suggesting that HIV-1 exploits CD169 in cis and in trans to attenuate a type I IFN-induced antiviral state. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection in humans causes immune activation characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFN

  14. Kallikrein–Kinin System Suppresses Type I Interferon Responses: A Novel Pathway of Interferon Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia Seliga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kallikrein–Kinin System (KKS, comprised of kallikreins (klks, bradykinins (BKs angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, and many other molecules, regulates a number of physiological processes, including inflammation, coagulation, angiogenesis, and control of blood pressure. In this report, we show that KKS regulates Type I IFN responses, thought to be important in lupus pathogenesis. We used CpG (TLR9 ligand, R848 (TLR7 ligand, or recombinant IFN-α to induce interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and proteins, and observed that this response was markedly diminished by BKs, klk1 (tissue kallikrein, or captopril (an ACE inhibitor. BKs significantly decreased the ISGs induced by TLRs in vitro and in vivo (in normal and lupus-prone mice, and in human PBMCs, especially the induction of Irf7 gene (p < 0.05, the master regulator of Type I IFNs. ISGs induced by IFN-α were also suppressed by the KKS. MHC Class I upregulation, a classic response to Type I IFNs, was reduced by BKs in murine dendritic cells (DCs. BKs decreased phosphorylation of STAT2 molecules that mediate IFN signaling. Among the secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines analyzed (IL-6, IL12p70, and CXCL10, the strongest suppressive effect was on CXCL10, a highly Type I IFN-dependent cytokine, upon CpG stimulation, both in normal and lupus-prone DCs. klks that break down into BKs, also suppressed CpG-induced ISGs in murine DCs. Captopril, a drug that inhibits ACE and increases BK, suppressed ISGs, both in mouse DCs and human PBMCs. The effects of BK were reversed with indomethacin (compound that inhibits production of PGE2, suggesting that BK suppression of IFN responses may be mediated via prostaglandins. These results highlight a novel regulatory mechanism in which members of the KKS control the Type I IFN response and suggest a role for modulators of IFNs in the pathogenesis of lupus and interferonopathies.

  15. Regulation of interferon receptor expression in human blood lymphocytes in vitro and during interferon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, A.S.; Hannigan, G.E.; Freedman, M.H.; Williams, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with 125 I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus, the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy

  16. Persistent interferon transgene expression by RNA interference-mediated silencing of interferon receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Vikman, Elin; Nishikawa, Makiya; Ando, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2010-09-01

    The in vivo half-life of interferons (IFNs) is very short, and its extension would produce a better therapeutic outcome in IFN-based therapy. Delivery of IFN genes is one solution for providing a sustained supply. IFNs have a variety of functions, including the suppression of transgene expression, through interaction with IFN receptors (IFNRs). This suppression could prevent IFNs from being expressed from vectors delivered. Silencing the expression of IFNAR and IFNGR, the receptors for type I and II IFNs, respectively, in cells expressing IFNs may prolong transgene expression of IFNs. Mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells or mouse liver were selected as a site expressing IFNs (not a target for IFN gene therapy) and IFN-expressing plasmid DNA was delivered with or without small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IFNRs. Transfection of B16-BL6 cells with siRNA targeting IFNAR1 subunit (IFNAR1) resulted in the reduced expression of IFNAR on the cell surface. This silencing significantly increased the IFN-beta production in cells that were transfected with IFN-beta-expressing plasmid DNA. Similar results were obtained with the combination of IFN-gamma and IFNGR. Co-injection of IFN-beta-expressing plasmid DNA with siRNA targeting IFNAR1 into mice resulted in sustained plasma concentration of IFN-beta. These results provide experimental evidence that the RNAi-mediated silencing of IFNRs in cells expressing IFN, such as hepatocytes, is an effective approach for improving transgene expression of IFNs when their therapeutic target comprises cells other than those expressing IFNs.

  17. TREX1 Knockdown Induces an Interferon Response to HIV that Delays Viral Infection in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Adam Wheeler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite their antiviral effect, the in vivo effect of interferons on HIV transmission is difficult to predict, because interferons also activate and recruit HIV-susceptible cells to sites of infection. HIV does not normally induce type I interferons in infected cells, but does if TREX1 is knocked down. Here, we investigated the effect of topical TREX1 knockdown and local interferon production on HIV transmission in human cervicovaginal explants and humanized mice. In explants in which TREX1 was knocked down, HIV induced interferons, which blocked infection. In humanized mice, even though TREX1 knockdown increased infiltrating immune cells, it delayed viral replication for 3–4 weeks. Similarly intravaginal application of type I interferons the day before HIV infection induced interferon responsive genes, reduced inflammation, and decreased viral replication. However, intravenous interferon enhanced inflammation and infection. Thus, in models of human sexual transmission, a localized interferon response inhibits HIV transmission but systemic interferons do not.

  18. Prediction of response to interferon therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding interferon response factor (IRF)-5, IRF-8 and glypican-5 (GPC5) have been associated with disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon (IFN)-β. We analysed whether SNPs in the IRF5, IRF8 and GPC5...... genes are associated with clinical disease activity in MS patients beginning de novo treatment with IFN-β. METHODS: The SNPs rs2004640, rs3807306 and rs4728142 in IRF5, rs13333054 and rs17445836 in IRF8 and rs10492503 in GPC5 were genotyped in 575 patients with relapsing-remitting MS followed...... prospectively after the initiation of their first treatment with IFN-β. RESULTS: 62% of patients experienced relapses during the first 2 years of treatment, and 32% had disability progression during the first 5 years of treatment. Patients with a pretreatment annualized relapse rate >1 had an increased risk...

  19. Hypothyroidism In Hepatitis C Patients On Pegylated Interferon Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Muhammad Asim; Mehmood, Asif; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Tayyab, Ghias Un Nabi; Haq Toor, Israr Ul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis has become a major health problem all over the world especially in the third world countries. The most common cause of chronic hepatitis in Pakistan is hepatitis C which can lead Toliver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Pakistan Pegylated Interferon Alpha is still corner stone of therapy for chronic hepatitis C. One of the major side effects of this therapy is the development of thyroid dysfunction, i.e., hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. This study was done to assess the frequency of hypothyroidism in hepatitis C patients after three months of pegylated interferon therapy. This study was conducted from 1st October 2013 to 31st march 2014 at outpatients department (OPD) of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lahore General Hospital Lahore. Descriptive case series study design was used. The sample of 200 patients was taken from the patients who visited OPD and fulfil the inclusion criteria of the study. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) was done before and after completion of three months therapy at centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM) laboratory, Mayo Hospital, Lahore by immune-radiometric assay (IRMA) and patients having TSH>4.0 mIU/L (normal range: 0.2-4.0 mIU/L) were considered hypothyroid. The mean age of the patients was 36.29±8.5 years. One hundred and twenty-three (61.5%) were male and 77 (38.5%) were female. After 3 months of interferon therapy, 163 (81.5%) patients were euthyroid and 37(18.5%) patients were having thyroid dysfunction. There were total 29 (14.5%) hypothyroid patients; 8 (27.6%) were male and 21 (72.4%) female. It is concluded from this study that frequency of hypothyroidism in patients with chronic hepatitis C was 14.5% after treatment with pegylated interferon therapy for 3 months. Female patients were more prone to develop hypothyroidism as compared to male patients.

  20. Interferon γ-inducible protein (IFI) 16 transcriptionally regulates type i interferons and other interferon-stimulated genes and controls the interferon response to both DNA and RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mikayla R; Sharma, Shruti; Atianand, Maninjay; Jensen, Søren B; Carpenter, Susan; Knipe, David M; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A

    2014-08-22

    The interferon γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) has recently been linked to the detection of nuclear and cytosolic DNA during infection with herpes simplex virus-1 and HIV. IFI16 binds dsDNA via HIN200 domains and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator)-binding kinase-1 (TBK1)-dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and transcription of type I interferons (IFNs) and related genes. To better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as cyclic dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to DNA ligands and viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB-regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β was unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of IFN-α and the IFN-stimulated gene retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in response to cyclic GMP-AMP, a second messenger produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in these cells, suggesting that transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is dependent on IFI16. These results indicate a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in antiviral immunity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  2. Peripheral Vasculitis, Intermediate Uveitis and Interferon Use in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Esgin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. A 40-year-old female patient with a 12-year history of MS was admitted to our clinic with blurred vision and floaters in her right eye for about 1 month. Here, we share the findings and the management of intermediate uveitis and retinal periphlebitis in an MS case being treated with interferon beta-1a for 7 years.

  3. Interferon Lambda Genetics and Biology in Regulation of Viral Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Hemann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type III interferons, also known as interferon lambdas (IFNλs, are the most recent addition to the IFN family following their discovery in 2003. Initially, IFNλ was demonstrated to induce expression of interferon-stimulated genes and exert antiviral properties in a similar manner to type I IFNs. However, while IFNλ has been described to have largely overlapping expression and function with type I IFNs, it has become increasingly clear that type III IFNs also have distinct functions from type I IFNs. In contrast to type I IFNs, whose receptor is ubiquitously expressed, type III IFNs signal and function largely at barrier epithelial surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as the blood–brain barrier. In further support of unique functions for type III IFNs, single nucleotide polymorphisms in IFNL genes in humans are strongly associated with outcomes to viral infection. These biological linkages have also been more directly supported by studies in mice highlighting roles of IFNλ in promoting antiviral immune responses. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of type III IFNs, and how their functions are similar to, and different from, type I IFN in various immune cell subtypes and viral infections.

  4. How Flaviviruses Activate and Suppress the Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Fredericksen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The flavivirus genus includes viruses with a remarkable ability to produce disease on a large scale. The expansion and increased endemicity of dengue and West Nile viruses in the Americas exemplifies their medical and epidemiological importance. The rapid detection of viral infection and induction of the innate antiviral response are crucial to determining the outcome of infection. The intracellular pathogen receptors RIG-I and MDA5 play a central role in detecting flavivirus infections and initiating a robust antiviral response. Yet, these viruses are still capable of producing acute illness in humans. It is now clear that flaviviruses utilize a variety of mechanisms to modulate the interferon response. The non-structural proteins of the various flaviviruses reduce expression of interferon dependent genes by blocking phosphorylation, enhancing degradation or down-regulating expression of major components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Recent studies indicate that interferon modulation is an important factor in the development of severe flaviviral illness. This suggests that an increased understanding of viral-host interactions will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics to treat these viral infections and improved biological models to study flavivirus pathogenesis.

  5. Two Modes of the Axonal Interferon Response Limit Alphaherpesvirus Neuroinvasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV and pseudorabies virus (PRV, typically begins at epithelial surfaces and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to invasion of the PNS. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which includes the interferons (IFNs. The fundamental question is how do PNS cell bodies respond to these distant, potentially damaging events experienced by axons. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, we found that pretreating isolated axons with beta interferon (IFN-β or gamma interferon (IFN-γ significantly diminished the number of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and PRV particles moving in axons toward the cell bodies in a receptor-dependent manner. Exposing axons to IFN-β induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1 only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFN-γ induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated antiviral effects induced by IFN-γ, but not those induced by IFN-β. Proteomic analysis of IFN-β- or IFN-γ-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore, unlike treatment with IFN-γ, IFN-β induces a noncanonical, local antiviral response in axons. The activation of a local IFN response in axons represents a new paradigm for cytokine control of neuroinvasion.

  6. Stealing the Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, S G

    2005-01-01

    Stealing the Gold presents a survey of some of the most exciting topics in condensed matter physics today, from the perspective of the pioneering work of Sam Edwards. Original articles from leaders in the field, including several Nobel laureates, highlight the historical development as well as new and emerging areas. This book would be of interest to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, statistical physics and theoretical physics. Over the course of nearly half a century, Sam Edwards has led the field of condensed matter physics in new directions, ranging from the electronic and statistical properties of disordered materials to the mechanical properties of granular materials. Along the way he has provided seminal contributions to fluid mechanics, polymer science, surface science and statistical mechanics. This volume celebrates the immense scope of his influence by presenting a collection of original articles by recognized leaders in theoretical physics, including two Nobel laureates and a Fields medalist, which describe the genesis, evolution and future prospects of the various sub-fields of condensed matter theory, along with reprints of a selection of Edwards' seminal papers that helped give birth to the subject. Stealing the Gold, Edwards' favourite caricature of the relationship between theoretical physicists and nature, will be of singular interest to graduate students looking for an overview of some of the most exciting areas of theoretical physics, as well as to researchers in condensed matter physics looking for a comprehensive, broad and uniquely incisive snapshot of their subject at the dawn of the 21st century. (book review)

  7. Assessment of Type I Interferon Signaling in Pediatric Inflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian I; Melki, Isabelle; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Briggs, Tracy A; Rodero, Mathieu P; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Oojageer, Anthony; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Belot, Alexandre; Bodemer, Christine; Quartier, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J

    2017-02-01

    Increased type I interferon is considered relevant to the pathology of a number of monogenic and complex disorders spanning pediatric rheumatology, neurology, and dermatology. However, no test exists in routine clinical practice to identify enhanced interferon signaling, thus limiting the ability to diagnose and monitor treatment of these diseases. Here, we set out to investigate the use of an assay measuring the expression of a panel of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in children affected by a range of inflammatory diseases. A cohort study was conducted between 2011 and 2016 at the University of Manchester, UK, and the Institut Imagine, Paris, France. RNA PAXgene blood samples and clinical data were collected from controls and symptomatic patients with a genetically confirmed or clinically well-defined inflammatory phenotype. The expression of six ISGs was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the median fold change was used to calculate an interferon score (IS) for each subject compared to a previously derived panel of 29 controls (where +2 SD of the control data, an IS of >2.466, is considered as abnormal). Results were correlated with genetic and clinical data. Nine hundred ninety-two samples were analyzed from 630 individuals comprising symptomatic patients across 24 inflammatory genotypes/phenotypes, unaffected heterozygous carriers, and controls. A consistent upregulation of ISG expression was seen in 13 monogenic conditions (455 samples, 265 patients; median IS 10.73, interquartile range (IQR) 5.90-18.41), juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (78 samples, 55 patients; median IS 10.60, IQR 3.99-17.27), and juvenile dermatomyositis (101 samples, 59 patients; median IS 9.02, IQR 2.51-21.73) compared to controls (78 samples, 65 subjects; median IS 0.688, IQR 0.427-1.196), heterozygous mutation carriers (89 samples, 76 subjects; median IS 0.862, IQR 0.493-1.942), and individuals with non-molecularly defined autoinflammation (89 samples, 69

  8. Response of interferon alone and with ribavirin inpatients of chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the response of interferon alone and interferon plus ribavirin in patients of chronic hepatitis C. Results: At completion of treatment HCV-RNA levels in serum were not detectable in 15 of 20 (75%) patients who received interferon alpha and ribavirin combination therapy as compared to 10 of 20 (50%) patients who received interferon alpha alone. Only 1 patient became HCV RNA negative in the control group. Normalization of ALT concentration and histologic response was proportionate to the virological response. Conclusion: Combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin is more effective than treatment with interferon alone for minimizing viral load, improving ALT levels and histology. (author)

  9. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  10. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  11. Enhancement of gold recovery using bioleaching from gold concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The gold in refractory ores is encapsulated as fine particles (sometimes at a molecular level) in the crystal structure of the sulfide (typically pyrite with or without arsenopyrite) matrix. This makes it impossible to extract a significant amount of refractory gold by cyanidation since the cyanide solution cannot penetrate the pyrite/arsenopyrite crystals and dissolve gold particles, even after fine grinding. To effectively extract gold from these ores, an oxidative pretreatment is necessary to break down the sulfide matrix. The most popular methods of pretreatment include nitric acid oxidation, roasting, pressure oxidation and biological oxidation by microorganisms. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of Au concentrate under batch experimental conditions (adaptation cycles and chemical composition adaptation) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from gold mine leachate in Sunsin gold mine, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at two different chemical composition (CuSO4 and ZnSO4), two different adaptation cycles 1'st (3 weeks) and 2'nd (6 weeks). The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample decreased than initial condition and Eh increased. In the chemical composition adaptation case, the leached accumulation content of Fe and Pb was exhibited in CuSO4 adaptation bacteria sample more than in ZnSO4 adaptation bacteria samples, possibly due to pre-adaptation effect on chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) in gold concentrate. And after 21 days on the CuSO4 adaptation cycles case, content of Fe and Pb was appeared at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 1.82 and Pb - 25.81 times per control sample) lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 2.87 and Pb - 62.05 times per control sample). This study indicates that adaptation chemical composition and adaptation cycles can play an important role in bioleaching of gold concentrate in eco-/economic metallurgy process.

  12. Interferon Response and Viral Evasion by Members of the Family Rhabdoviridae

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias J. Schnell; Elizabeth J. Faul; Douglas S. Lyles

    2009-01-01

    Like many animal viruses, those of the Rhabdoviridae family, are able to antagonize the type I interferon response and cause disease in mammalian hosts. Though these negative-stranded RNA viruses are very simple and code for as few as five proteins, they have been seen to completely abrogate the type I interferon response early in infection. In this review, we will discuss the viral organization and type I interferon evasion of rhabdoviruses, focusing on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and r...

  13. Interferon induction in bovine and feline monolayer cultures by four bluetongue virus serotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Pearson, N J

    1982-01-01

    The interferon inducing ability of bluetongue viruses was studied in bovine and feline monolayer cultures inoculated with each of four bluetongue virus serotypes. Interferon was assayed by a plaque reduction method in monolayer cultures with vesicular stomatitis virus as challenge virus. Interferon was produced by bovine turbinate, Georgia bovine kidney, and Crandell feline kidney monolayer cultures in response to bluetongue virus serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17. The antiviral substances produced...

  14. Mechanisms of regulation in the interferon factor 3 (IRF- 3) pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Limmer, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) plays a critical role in the host cell response to both bacterial and viral infection. IRF-3 is activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytoplasmic nucleic acid sensors, and serves to upregulate interferon beta and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), thereby providing a quick and effective response to infection. In this work, two novel mechanisms of regulation in the IRF-3 pathway are revealed. The first part of this thesis work shows that upon bindi...

  15. In harmony with gold and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A profile is given on Mr Clive Knobbs as managing director of Harmony gold mine. From March 1 1983 he succeeded as deputy chairman of the group's gold and uranium division, and became the Rand Mines representative on the Gold Producers Committee and the Executive Committee of the Chamber of Mines. The article also takes a look at gold and uranium mining in general

  16. 41 CFR 101-45.002 - Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gold. 101-45.002 Section... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.002 Gold. (a) Gold will be sold in accordance with this section and part 102-38 of the Federal Management Regulation. (b) Sales of gold shall be processed to— (1) Use the sealed bid...

  17. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite ...

  18. Rhabdomyolysis following interferon-beta treatment in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Tsakiri, Anna; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system for which there is currently no cure. Interferon-beta-1-alpha is worldwide one of the most widely used treatments in multiple sclerosis. To our knowledge there is one previous reported case of rhabdomyolysis...... associated with Interferon-beta treatment. Case presentation We describe a 30 year old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who developed rhabdomyolysis and increased creatine kinase following Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. After the medication was discontinued, the patient rapidly improved...... Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis....

  19. Gold--a controversial sensitizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate were published at the beginning of the 1990s, the allergic nature of the reported positive patch test reactions to gold was questioned. The major argument for such questioning was the lack of demonstrable clinical relevance in most positive reactors. A major reason......Until recently, gold allergy was considered to be extremely rare. Gold has been used and worshipped for thousands of years without any obvious complaints of skin problems, either in those participating in mining and other ways of prospecting, or in those wearing jewellery. When studies on contact...... for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment...

  20. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2016-05-01

    Gold and currency markets form a unique pair with specific interactions and dynamics. We focus on the efficiency ranking of gold markets with respect to the currency of purchase. By utilizing the Efficiency Index (EI) based on fractal dimension, approximate entropy and long-term memory on a wide portfolio of 142 gold price series for different currencies, we construct the efficiency ranking based on the extended EI methodology we provide. Rather unexpected results are uncovered as the gold prices in major currencies lay among the least efficient ones whereas very minor currencies are among the most efficient ones. We argue that such counterintuitive results can be partly attributed to a unique period of examination (2011-2014) characteristic by quantitative easing and rather unorthodox monetary policies together with the investigated illegal collusion of major foreign exchange market participants, as well as some other factors discussed in some detail.

  1. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  2. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  3. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Lev A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be...

  4. Biosensors based on gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Vidotti,Marcio; Carvalhal,Rafaela F.; Mendes,Renata K.; Ferreira,Danielle C. M.; Kubota,Lauro T.

    2011-01-01

    The present review discusses the latest advances in biosensor technology achieved by the assembly of biomolecules associated with gold nanoparticles in analytical devices. This review is divided in sections according to the biomolecule employed in the biosensor development: (i) immunocompounds; (ii) DNA/RNA and functional DNA/RNA; and (iii) enzymes and Heme proteins. In order to facilitate the comprehension each section was subdivided according to the transduction mode. Gold nanoparticles bas...

  5. Characterisation of gold from Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Naden, Jon; Henney, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in chemistry and inclusion mineralogy of bedrock and placer gold from Fiji. It forms part of a large project, undertaking gold characterisation from a wide range of geological environments in Ecuador, Zimbabwe, Malaysia and Fiji. The work was carried out under the Overseas Development AdministratiodBritish Geological Survey Technology Development and Research programme (Project R5549) as part of the British Government’s provision of technical...

  6. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  7. Polymorphism in the interferon-{alpha} gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovleva, I.; Lundgren, E.; Beckman, L. [Univ. of Umea (Sweden); Kandefer-Szerszen, M. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin (Poland)

    1996-09-01

    A pronounced genetic polymorphism of the interferon type I gene family has been assumed on the basis of RFLP analysis of the genomic region as well as the large number of sequences published compared to the number of loci. However, IFNA2 is the only locus that has been carefully analyzed concerning gene frequency, and only naturally occurring rare alleles have been found. We have extended the studies on a variation of expressed sequences by studying the IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, and IFNA17 genes. Genomic white-blood-cell DNA from a population sample of blood donors and from a family material were screened by single-nucleotide primer extension (allele-specific primer extension) of PCR fragments. Because of sequence similarities, in some cases {open_quotes}nested{close_quotes} PCR was used, and, when applicable, restriction analysis or control sequencing was performed. All individuals carried the interferon-{alpha} 1 and interferon-{alpha} 13 variants but not the LeIF D variant. At the IFNA2 and IFNA14 loci only one sequence variant was found, while in the IFNA10 and IFNA17 groups two alleles were detected in each group. The IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles segregated in families and showed a close fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles. The fact that the extent of genetic polymorphism was lower than expected suggests that a majority of the previously described gene sequences represent nonpolymorphic rare mutants that may have arisen in tumor cell lines. 44 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Acetaminophen modulates the transcriptional response to recombinant interferon-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Farnsworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant interferon treatment can result in several common side effects including fever and injection-site pain. Patients are often advised to use acetaminophen or other over-the-counter pain medications as needed. Little is known regarding the transcriptional changes induced by such co-administration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether the administration of acetaminophen causes a change in the response normally induced by interferon-beta treatment. CD-1 mice were administered acetaminophen (APAP, interferon-beta (IFN-beta or a combination of IFN-beta+APAP and liver and serum samples were collected for analysis. Differential gene expression was determined using an Agilent 22 k whole mouse genome microarray. Data were analyzed by several methods including Gene Ontology term clustering and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. We observed a significant change in the transcription profile of hepatic cells when APAP was co-administered with IFN-beta. These transcriptional changes included a marked up-regulation of genes involved in signal transduction and cell differentiation and down-regulation of genes involved in cellular metabolism, trafficking and the IkappaBK/NF-kappaB cascade. Additionally, we observed a large decrease in the expression of several IFN-induced genes including Ifit-3, Isg-15, Oasl1, Zbp1 and predicted gene EG634650 at both early and late time points. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A significant change in the transcriptional response was observed following co-administration of IFN-beta+APAP relative to IFN-beta treatment alone. These results suggest that administration of acetaminophen has the potential to modify the efficacy of IFN-beta treatment.

  9. Type I interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezalel, Shira; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Asher, Ilan; Sthoeger, Zev Moshe

    2014-04-01

    Type I interferons (IFN) are primarily regarded as an inhibitor of viral replication. However, type I IFN, mainly IFNalpha, plays a major role in activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multi-systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. SLE is characterized by dysregulation of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. An increased expression of type I IFN-regulated genes, termed IFN signature, has been reported in patients with SLE. We review here the role of IFNalpha in the pathogenesis and course of SLE and the possible role of IFNalpha inhibition as a novel treatment for lupus patients.

  10. The Role of Interferons in Inflammation and Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitar-Jerala, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential physiological process, which enables survival during infection and maintains tissue homeostasis. Interferons (IFNs) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are crucial for appropriate response to pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants in inflammatory response. The inflammasom is multiprotein complex, which initiates cleavage of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 into active forms. In addition, inflammasomes initiate pyroptotic cell death. In the present review, I summarize and analyze recent findings regarding the cross talk of IFNs and inflammasomes.

  11. The Role of Interferons in Inflammation and Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Kopitar-Jerala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an essential physiological process, which enables survival during infection and maintains tissue homeostasis. Interferons (IFNs and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are crucial for appropriate response to pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants in inflammatory response. The inflammasom is multiprotein complex, which initiates cleavage of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 into active forms. In addition, inflammasomes initiate pyroptotic cell death. In the present review, I summarize and analyze recent findings regarding the cross talk of IFNs and inflammasomes.

  12. Interferon in chronic myeloid leukaemia: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, François; Roy, Lydia; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Guilhot, Joëlle

    2009-09-01

    Imatinib has revolutionized the therapy of chronic myeloid leukaemia. However the complete eradication of leukaemic stem cells is still a matter of discussion. Interferon (IFN) has been used in the past with success. However the proportion of patients who achieved sustained complete cytogenetic response was small. Recently, in addition to its direct antineoplastic effect and immunomodulatory activity, IFN has been shown to stimulate the quiescent leukaemic stem cells. Thus there is now a rational for combining Imatinib and IFN. Large prospective phase III trials are in good progress to demonstrate in humans the usefullness of a combination therapy using Imatinib and IFN.

  13. Hypothyroidism in hepatitis c patients on pegylated interferon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, M.A.; Mehmood, A.; Farooq, M.A.; Nabi, G.U.; Toor, I. H.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis has become a major health problem all over the world especially in the third world countries. The most common cause of chronic hepatitis in Pakistan is hepatitis C which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Pakistan Pegylated Interferon Alpha is still corner stone of therapy for chronic hepatitis C. One of the major side effect of this therapy is the development of thyroid dysfunction, i.e., hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. This study was done to assess the frequency of hypothyroidism in hepatitis C patients after three months of pegylated interferon therapy. Method: This study was conducted from 1st October 2013 to 31st march 2014 at outpatients department (OPD) of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lahore General Hospital Lahore. Descriptive case series study design was used. The sample of 200 patients was taken from the patients who visited OPD and fulfil the inclusion criteria of the study. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) was done before and after completion of three months therapy at centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM) laboratory, Mayo Hospital, Lahore by immune-radiometric assay (IRMA) and patients having TSH>4.0 mIU/L (normal range: 0.2-4.0 mIU/L) were considered hypothyroid. Results: The mean age of the patients was 36.29+-8.5 years. One hundred and twenty-three (61.5 percent) were male and 77 (38.5 percent) were female. After 3 months of interferon therapy, 163 (81.5 percent) patients were euthyroid and 37(18.5 percent) patients were having thyroid dysfunction. There were total 29 (14.5 percent) hypothyroid patients; 8 (27.6 percent) were male and 21 (72.4 percent) female. Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that frequency of hypothyroidism in patients with chronic hepatitis C was 14.5 percent after treatment with pegylated interferon therapy for 3 months. Female patients were more prone to develop hypothyroidism as compared to male patients. (author)

  14. [Solubilization Specificities Interferon beta-1b from Inclusion Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravko, A S; Kononova, N V; Bobruskin, A I

    2015-01-01

    A new solubilization method of recombinant interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) from the inclusion bodies was developed. This method allows to extract the target protein selectively in the solutions of different alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol and isopropanol. It was shown that the more effective IFNβ-1b solubilization was achieved in the 55% propanol solution. This method allowed to extract the target protein from inclusion bodies around 85-90%, and significantly reduced Escherichia coli content in the solubilizate, in comparison with standard methods.

  15. Structure and bonding in gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in chemical applications of 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy are reviewed. For gold(I) and gold(III), systematic variations in isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are seen as the ligands are changed; the effects of change in coordination number of the gold atoms are also systematic. Data for gold(II) systems involving gold-gold bonds lie between those for corresponding gold(I) and gold(III) materials, showing a small increase in isomer shift and a larger increase in quadrupole splitting as the oxidation state decreases; these trends are explained in terms of the structures. Data for mixed-metal cluster compounds are much more sensitive to structural effects than in homonuclear clusters. Both sets of data show systematic changes with increase in the number of metal atoms to which the gold atom is bound. The connectivity also influences the recoil-free fraction. (orig.)

  16. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 in chronic myeloid leukemia: correlation with response to interferon alfa therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Hochhaus, A; König-Merediz, S A; Brendel, C; Proba, J; Hoppe, G J; Wittig, B; Ehninger, G; Hehlmann, R; Neubauer, A

    2000-10-01

    Mice experiments have established an important role for interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members in hematopoiesis. We wanted to study the expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in various hematologic disorders, especially chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and its association with response to interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment in CML. Blood samples from various hematopoietic cell lines, different leukemia patients (70 CML, 29 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 10 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia [CMMoL], 10 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 10 chronic lymphoid leukemia patients), and 33 healthy volunteers were monitored for IRF4 expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Then, with a focus on CML, the IRF4 level was determined in sorted cell subpopulations from CML patients and healthy volunteers and in in vitro-stimulated CML cells. Furthermore, IRF4 expression was compared in the CML samples taken before IFN-alpha therapy and in 47 additional CML samples taken during IFN-alpha therapy. IRF4 expression was then correlated with cytogenetic response to IFN-alpha. IRF4 expression was significantly impaired in CML, AML, and CMMoL samples. The downregulation of IRF4 in CML samples was predominantly found in T cells. In CML patients during IFN-alpha therapy, a significant increase in IRF4 levels was detected, and this was also observed in sorted T cells from CML patients. The increase seen during IFN-alpha therapy was not due to different blood counts. In regard to the cytogenetic response with IFN-alpha, a good response was associated with high IRF4 expression. IRF4 expression is downregulated in T cells of CML patients, and its increase is associated with a good response to IFN-alpha therapy. These data suggest IRF4 expression as a useful marker to monitor, if not predict, response to IFN-alpha in CML.

  17. Neuromyelitis optica-like pathology is dependent on type I interferon response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Asgari, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Reports have suggested that interferon beta which is beneficial for multiple sclerosis, exacerbates neuromyelitis optica. Our aim was to determine whether type I interferon plays a role in ...

  18. DMPD: Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17904888 Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Edwards M...hways mediating type I interferon gene expression. PubmedID 17904888 Title Signalling pathways...R, Slater L, Johnston SL. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep;9(11):1245-51. Epub 2007 Jul 1. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signalling pat

  19. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Pubm...edID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  20. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m. 2007 May 25;282(21):15319-23. Epub 2007 Mar 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Pub...medID 17395581 Title Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Authors Uematsu S,

  1. Delirium after interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon therapy for renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Steijn, JHM; Nieboer, P; Hospers, GAP; De Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    2001-01-01

    A 55-year-old man receiving alpha-interferon and interieukin-2 therapy for renal cell carcinoma presented with seizures and delirium. A CT-scan of the cerebrum did not reveal any disorder. Both alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 were stopped Treatment with steroids led to complete regression of

  2. Use of interferon-gamma release assays in a health care worker screening program: experience from a tertiary care centre in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Monson, Thomas P; Woods, Gail L

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-gamma release assays including the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT [Cellestis Ltd, Australia]) may be used in place of the tuberculin skin test (TST) in surveillance programs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection control. However, data on performance and practicality of the QFT-GIT in such programs for health care workers (HCWs) are limited. To assess the performance, practicality and reversion rate of the QFT-GIT among HCWs at a tertiary health care institution in the United States. Retrospective chart review of HCWs at Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System (Arkansas, USA) who underwent QFT-GIT testing as a part of their employee screening between November 1, 2008 and October 31, 2009. QFT-GIT was used to screen 3290 HCWs. The initial QFT-GIT was interpreted as positive for 129 (3.9%) HCWs, negative for 3155 (95.9%) and indeterminate for six (0.2%). Testing with QFT-GIT was repeated in 45 HCWs who had positive results on the initial test. The QFT-GIT reverted to negative in 18 (40.0%) HCWs, all of whom had negative TST status and initial interferon-gamma values of 0.35 IU⁄mL to 2.0 IU⁄mL. The QFT-GIT test is feasible in large health care setting as an alternative to TST for M tuberculosis infection screening in HCWs but is not free from challenges. The major concerns are the high number of positive test results and high reversion rates on repeat testing, illustrating poor short-term reproducibility of positive QFT-GIT test results. These results suggest adopting a borderline zone between interferon-gamma values of 0.35 IU⁄mL to 2.0 IU⁄mL, and cautious clinical interpretation of values in this range.

  3. Dampened STING-Dependent Interferon Activation in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiazheng; Li, Yang; Shen, Xurui; Goh, Geraldine; Zhu, Yan; Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-14

    Compared with terrestrial mammals, bats have a longer lifespan and greater capacity to co-exist with a variety of viruses. In addition to cytosolic DNA generated by these viral infections, the metabolic demands of flight cause DNA damage and the release of self-DNA into the cytoplasm. However, whether bats have an altered DNA sensing/defense system to balance high cytosolic DNA levels remains an open question. We demonstrate that bats have a dampened interferon response due to the replacement of the highly conserved serine residue (S358) in STING, an essential adaptor protein in multiple DNA sensing pathways. Reversing this mutation by introducing S358 restored STING functionality, resulting in interferon activation and virus inhibition. Combined with previous reports on bat-specific changes of other DNA sensors such as TLR9, IFI16, and AIM2, our findings shed light on bat adaptation to flight, their long lifespan, and their unique capacity to serve as a virus reservoir. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne fulminans (AF is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique.

  5. The interferon response to intracellular DNA: why so many receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterholzner, Leonie

    2013-11-01

    The detection of intracellular DNA has emerged to be a key event in the innate immune response to viruses and intracellular bacteria, and during conditions of sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. One of the consequences of the detection of DNA as a 'stranger' and a 'danger' signal is the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Much work has been dedicated to the elucidation of the signalling cascades that activate this DNA-induced gene expression programme. However, while many proteins have been proposed to act as sensors for intracellular DNA in recent years, none has been met with universal acceptance, and a theory linking all the recent observations is, as yet, lacking. This review presents the evidence for the various interferon-inducing DNA receptors proposed to date, and examines the hypotheses that might explain why so many different receptors appear to be involved in the innate immune recognition of intracellular DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Interferon Action on Parental Semliki Forest Virus Ribonucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert M.; Fantes, Karl H.; Levy, Hilton B.; Carter, William B.

    1967-01-01

    Actinomycin D-treated chick fibroblasts were infected with purified 32P-labeled Semliki forest virus, and ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted after 1 or 2 hr. Within 1 hr, viral RNA forms sedimenting in sucrose gradients at 42S, 30S, and 16S were present. The 42S form corresponded to the RNA of the virion. The 16S form appeared to be a double-stranded template for the formation of new viral RNA, since nascent RNA was associated with it and the molecule could be heat-denatured and subsequently reannealed by slow cooling. Interferon treatment before infection, or puromycin (50 μg/ml) or cycloheximide (200 μg/ml) added at the time of virus infection, had no effect on the formation of the 30S RNA but inhibited the production of the 16S form. Several findings made it unlikely that these results were due to breakdown of parental RNA and reincorporation of 32P into progeny structures. The results suggested that the mechanism of interferon action involves inhibition of protein synthesis by parental viral RNA, since a specific viral RNA polymerase had previously been demonstrated to be necessary for production of 16S RNA. No protein synthesis appears necessary for formation of 30S RNA from parental virus RNA. PMID:5621488

  7. Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J; Zhang, Lifan; Ding, Bo; Lunney, Joan K; Liu, Bang; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals.

  8. Environmental triggers of thyroiditis: hepatitis C and interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, F; Hasham, A; Tomer, Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are postulated to develop as a result of a complex interplay between several genetic and environmental influences. The pathogenesis of AITD is still not clearly defined. However, among the implicated triggers (e.g. iodine, infections, medications), more recent data confirmed strong associations of AITD with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon-α (IFNα) therapy. Moreover, it is likely that HCV and IFN act in synergism to trigger AITD in patients. Indeed, approximately 40% of HCV patients develop either clinical or subclinical disease while receiving IFNα. Interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) can manifest as non-autoimmune thyroiditis (presenting as destructive thyroiditis, or non-autoimmune hypothyroidism), or autoimmune thyroiditis [presenting with clinical features of Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)]. Although not yet clearly understood, it is thought that IFNα can induce thyroiditis via both immune stimulatory and direct toxic effects on the thyroid. In view of the high frequency of IIT, routine screening and surveillance of HCV patients receiving IFNα is recommended to avoid the complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias, associated with thyrotoxicosis. In summary, IIT is a common clinical problem that can be readily diagnosed with routine thyroid function screening of HCV patients receiving IFN. The treatment of IIT consists of the standard therapy for differing clinical manifestations of IIT such as GD, HT, or destructive thyroiditis. However, anti-thyroid medications are not recommended in this setting since they can potentially be hepatotoxic.

  9. Interferon Lambda: A New Sword in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Abushahba, Walid; Balan, Murugabaskar; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) family has considerably contributed to our understanding of the role of interferon not only in viral infections but also in cancer. IFN-λ proteins belong to the new type III IFN group. Type III IFN is structurally similar to type II IFN (IFN-γ) but functionally identical to type I IFN (IFN-α/β). However, in contrast to type I or type II IFNs, the response to type III IFN is highly cell-type specific. Only epithelial-like cells and to a lesser extent some immune cells respond to IFN-λ. This particular pattern of response is controlled by the differential expression of the IFN-λ receptor, which, in contrast to IFN-α, should result in limited side effects in patients. Recently, we and other groups have shown in several animal models a potent antitumor role of IFN-λ that will open a new challenging era for the current IFN therapy. PMID:22190970

  10. Annealing relaxation of ultrasmall gold nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Except serving as an excellent gift on proper occasions, gold finds applications in life sciences, particularly in diagnostics and therapeutics. These applications were made possible by gold nanoparticles, which differ drastically from macroscopic gold. Versatile surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles allows coating with small molecules, polymers, biological recognition molecules. Theoretical investigation of nanoscale gold is not trivial, because of numerous metastable states in these systems. Unlike elsewhere, this work obtains equilibrium structures using annealing simulations within the recently introduced PM7-MD method. Geometries of the ultrasmall gold nanostructures with chalcogen coverage are described at finite temperature, for the first time.

  11. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2012-02-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  12. Role for herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 in the inhibition of type I interferon signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Song, Byeongwoon; Knipe, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Host cells respond to viral infection by many mechanisms, including the production of type I interferons which act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to induce the expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Viruses have evolved means to inhibit interferon signaling to avoid induction of the innate immune response. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has several mechanisms to inhibit type I interferon production, the activities of ISGs, and the interferon signaling pathway itself. We report that the inhibition of the Jak/STAT pathway by HSV-1 requires viral gene expression and that viral immediate-early protein ICP27 plays a role in downregulating STAT-1 phosphorylation and in preventing the accumulation of STAT-1 in the nucleus. We also show that expression of ICP27 by transfection causes an inhibition of IFN-induced STAT-1 nuclear accumulation. Therefore, ICP27 is necessary and sufficient for at least some of the effects of HSV infection on STAT-1

  13. Rhabdomyolysis following interferon-beta treatment in a patient with multiple sclerosis - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system for which there is currently no cure. Interferon-beta-1-alpha is worldwide one of the most widely used treatments in multiple sclerosis. To our knowledge there is one previous reported case of rhabdomyolysis associated with Interferon-beta treatment. We describe a 30 year old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who developed rhabdomyolysis and increased creatine kinase following Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. After the medication was discontinued, the patient rapidly improved. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of rhabdomyolysis occurring during Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. In cases where patients complain of severe myalgia, and in particular if weakness is reported, creatine kinase activity should be measured to prevent irreversible rhabdomyolysis during Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2009-08-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  15. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  16. DMPD: The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502370 The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of acti....html) (.csml) Show The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. PubmedID 1...7502370 Title The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism

  17. DMPD: Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18049472 Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. Bor...975-90. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine.... PubmedID 18049472 Title Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine

  18. Inhibition of interferon production in human fibroblasts by a tumor promoting phorbol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfort, H.M.; Vilcek, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the induction of interferon in cultures of human fibroblasts was examined. TPA was found to inhibit polyinosinate-polycytidylate [poly(I) X poly(C)]-induced interferon production when added either before or with the inducer. A 3-hour pretreatment of FS-4 cells with TPA produced the greatest ihibitory effect. Partially inhibitory treatments with TPA caused a delay in interferon production. On the other hand, interferon yields were slightly enhanced by TPA added at 1 1/2 or 3 hours postinduction. No gross metabolic perturbations (e.g., inhibition of cellular protein or RNA synthesis) were detected which would explain the phenomenon. The inhibition of interferon production was a stereospecific event: biologically inactive derivatives of TPA (4-0-methyl TPA, 4-α-phorbol-12, 13-didecanoate and phorbol-12, 13-diacetate) had no effect on interferon production. Cellular proteases or nucleases did not appear to be involved in this process. The binding of labeled poly(I) X poly(C) to FS-4 cells was unaltered in TPA-treated cultures. In superinduced cultures (i.e., after enhancement of interferon yields by actinomycin D and cycloheximide), interferon production was generally less inhibited by TPA than after simple induction. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-induced interferon synthesis in GM-258 cells was also inhibited by the phorbol ester. Both α (leukocyte) and β (fibroblast) interferon production was inhibited to a similar degree in TPA-treated cells inoculated with 0.1 or 1 plaque forming unit (PFU) of NDV per cell. Increasing the multiplicity of infection with NDV to 10 PFU per cell overcame the inhibitory action of TPA. We conclude that the site of TPA action is either the triggering (generation of the hypothetical inducing signal) or transcription of the interferom mRNA. (Author)

  19. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Silva, Andressa A. da; Leal, Jessica; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory has been growing the interest in studying gold nanoparticles and for this reason, the aim of this work is report the first results of the effect of chitosan as stabilizer in gold nanoparticle formulation. AuNPs were synthesized by reducing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) using NaBH 4 or gamma irradiation (25kGy) as reduction agent. The chitosan (3 mol L -1 ) was added at 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mL. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their physical stability was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer over one week during storage at room temperature. Absorption measurements indicated that the plasmon resonance wavelength appears at a wavelength around 530 nm. Has been observed that Chitosan in such quantities were not effective in stabilizing the AuNPs. (author)

  20. Japanese encephalitis virus non-coding RNA inhibits activation of interferon by blocking nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruey-Yi; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Chen, Yen-Lin; Liu, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Yi-Jer; Lin, Yun-Tong; Chen, Yi-Shiuan; Fan, Yi-Hsin

    2013-09-27

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) plays a critical role in modulating a broad range of diseases. All arthropod-borne flaviviruses produce short fragment ncRNA (sfRNA) collinear with highly conserved regions of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in the viral genome. We show that the molar ratio of sfRNA to genomic RNA in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) persistently infected cells is greater than that in acutely infected cells, indicating an sfRNA role in establishing persistent infection. Transfecting excess quantities of sfRNA into JEV-infected cells reduced interferon-β (IFN-β) promoter activity by 57% and IFN-β mRNA levels by 52%, compared to mock-transfected cells. Transfection of sfRNA into JEV-infected cells also reduced phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), the IFN-β upstream regulator, and blocked roughly 30% of IRF-3 nuclear localization. Furthermore, JEV-infected sfRNA transfected cells produced 23% less IFN-β-stimulated apoptosis than mock-transfected groups did. Taken together, these results suggest that sfRNA plays a role against host-cell antiviral responses, prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis, and thus contributes to viral persistence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasmonic Horizon in Gold Nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cynthia; Sivun, Dmitry; Ziegler, Johannes; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Hrelescu, Calin; Klar, Thomas A

    2018-02-14

    An electromagnetic wave impinging on a gold nanosponge coherently excites many electromagnetic hot-spots inside the nanosponge, yielding a polarization-dependent scattering spectrum. In contrast, a hole, recombining with an electron, can locally excite plasmonic hot-spots only within a horizon given by the lifetime of localized plasmons and the speed carrying the information that a plasmon has been created. This horizon is about 57 nm, decreasing with increasing size of the nanosponge. Consequently, photoluminescence from large gold nanosponges appears unpolarized.

  2. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  3. A Novel Strategy for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle Self Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; van Veen, Henk A.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle self assemblies are one-dimensional structures of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle self assemblies exhibit unique physical properties and find applications in the development of biosensors. Methodologies currently available for lab-scale and commercial synthesis of gold

  4. Ligations of Gold Atoms with Iron Porphyrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ulstrup, Jens

    Gold is an exotic material with d-electrons deciding electronic mappings andconfigurations of adsorbed molecules. The specific interaction of Au atoms and S-, Ncappedmolecules make gold nanoparticles widely applied in the medicine transport andimmunoassay. Density functional theory demonstrates t...

  5. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    . In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  6. Tratamento de hemangioma gigante com interferon alfa: relato de dois casos Treatment of giant hemangioma with interferon-alpha: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Julia Balau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é descrever o uso de interferon alfa no tratamento de pacientes com hemangioma gigante. Os autores relatam e analisam dois casos de hemangioma gigante em tratamento com interferon alfa. IBS, 3 anos, em acompanhamento no Ambulatório de Hematologia desde um ano de idade com quadro de lesão angiomatosa em praticamente toda hemiface direita, acompanhada de sangramentos gengivais importantes. Após a realização de exames complementares (Angiorressonância magnética e feito o diagnóstico de hemangioma gigante em face, foi iniciado tratamento com prednisona e, posteriormente, associação com interferon alfa e observada importante melhora do quadro, resultando na diminuição dos episódios de sangramento e no tamanho do tumor. C.N.P., 12 anos, apresentando nódulo em região lateral de joelho esquerdo há 2 anos, com aumento progressivo do tamanho e dor local. Fez uso de prednisona e, sem melhora do quadro, introduzido interferon alfa com regressão importante do tamanho do tumor. O tratamento com interferon alfa deve ser considerado no tratamento de hemangiomas, pois apresenta bons resultados em relação à diminuição do tamanho do tumor e, conseqüentemente, reduz as intercorrências clínicas associadas à sua presença, principalmente os sangramentos.The aim of this study is to describe the treatment using interferon-alpha of giant hemangiomas in children. The authors report two cases of children presenting with giant hemangiomas treated using interferon-alpha and analyze the results. IBS, 3 years-old, has been followed up in Famema Hemathology Service since she was 1 year-old with a tumor on the face and persistent bleeding. After clinical and radiologic evaluations and suggested the diagnosis of giant hemangioma, she started treatment with interferon-alpha. A great clinical improvement was observed a reducing of the number of episodes of bleedings and a decrease in of the tumor size. CNP, 12 years-old, came to

  7. Evasion of interferon responses by Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Christopher F; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2009-09-01

    The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause frequently lethal viral hemorrhagic fever. These infections induce potent cytokine production, yet these host responses fail to prevent systemic virus replication. Consistent with this, filoviruses have been found to encode proteins VP35 and VP24 that block host interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta production and inhibit signaling downstream of the IFN-alpha/beta and the IFN-gamma receptors, respectively. VP35, which is a component of the viral nucleocapsid complex and plays an essential role in viral RNA synthesis, acts as a pseudosubstrate for the cellular kinases IKK-epsilon and TBK-1, which phosphorylate and activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7). VP35 also promotes SUMOylation of IRF-7, repressing IFN gene transcription. In addition, VP35 is a dsRNA-binding protein, and mutations that disrupt dsRNA binding impair VP35 IFN-antagonist activity while leaving its RNA replication functions intact. The phenotypes of recombinant EBOV bearing mutant VP35s unable to inhibit IFN-alpha/beta demonstrate that VP35 IFN-antagonist activity is critical for full virulence of these lethal pathogens. The structure of the VP35 dsRNA-binding domain, which has recently become available, is expected to provide insight into how VP35 IFN-antagonist and dsRNA-binding functions are related. The EBOV VP24 protein inhibits IFN signaling through an interaction with select host cell karyopherin-alpha proteins, preventing the nuclear import of otherwise activated STAT1. It remains to be determined to what extent VP24 may also modulate the nuclear import of other host cell factors and to what extent this may influence the outcome of infection. Notably, the Marburg virus VP24 protein does not detectably block STAT1 nuclear import, and, unlike EBOV, MARV infection inhibits STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation. Thus, despite their similarities, there are fundamental differences by which

  8. Imatinib mesylate--gold standards and silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, K

    2004-09-01

    Imatinib mesylate represents the first of a new generation of molecularly targeted therapies engineered to disrupt signal transduction pathways. It is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with relatively selective activity against the Abelson (ABL) proto-oncogene, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-KIT receptor. Deregulated tyrosine kinase activity has been implicated as a central pathogenic event in a number of human malignancies, most notably chronic myeloid leukemia. In this myeloproliferative disorder the t(9;22) reciprocal translocation results in the generation of a novel fusion oncoprotein, BCR-ABL, with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Imatinib inhibits this activity, inducing remarkable rates of hematological and cytogenetic remission in excess of those seen with alternative medical therapies. Following a large phase III study comparing its efficacy with the combination of interferon alpha and low-dose cytarabine, it has emerged as the current gold standard therapy for patients with chronic-phase disease without a potential bone marrow donor and those considered unsuitable for bone marrow transplantation. Its integration into the management of those patients who might be considered for transplantation, which has historically been considered the only potentially curative approach, remains a major challenge. The increasing recognition and subsequent molecular characterization of resistance mechanisms has reinforced the need to exercise caution against deferring a proven curative therapy in favor of a treatment approach that is still investigational, with the spectre of increased numbers of patients progressing to sudden-onset blast crisis remaining the potential dark cloud in the silver lining for imatinib.

  9. The geology of the gold deposits of Prestea gold belt of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the geology of the gold deposits along the Prestea gold belt of Ghana to assist exploration work for new orebodies along the belt. Prestea district is the third largest gold producer in West Africa after Obuasi and Tarkwa districts (over 250 metric tonnes Au during the last century). The gold deposits are ...

  10. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Phototherapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; He, Y.; Xin, J.; Wang, S.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit very unique physiochemical and optical properties, which now are extensively studied in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In particular, gold nanoparticles show promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. This review will provide insights into the four different cancer treatments such as photothermal therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided photodynamic therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy, and their use as drug carrier. We also discuss the mechanism of every method and the adverse effects and its limitations

  11. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  13. Cancer caused by radioactive gold rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callary, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent cases of skin cancer caused by radioactive gold rings are described. The gold was contaminated with radon daughters from hollow goldseeds used to hold radon, back in the 1930s or possibly later. Other radioactive gold rings are probably being worn. The Canadian AECB offers free testing

  14. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-γ release assay versus chest X-ray for tuberculosis screening of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowada, Akiko

    2011-12-01

    Currently, an annual chest X-ray examination (CXR) for detection of active tuberculosis (TB) in employees aged ≥40 years is recommended in the guidelines of the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Law. Interferon-γ release assays are new alternatives to the tuberculin skin test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, with higher specificity than the tuberculin skin test and without cross-reactivity with the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of employee TB screening using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) versus CXR. Markov models were constructed. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 40-year-old individuals, using a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. In a base-case analysis, the QFT strategy was the most cost-effective ($US 262.84; 22.87049 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) compared with no screening ($448.38; 22.85452 QALYs) and CXR ($543.50; 22.85453 QALYs) [year 2009 values]. The QFT strategy is currently robust for screening Bacille Calmette-Guérin- vaccinated employees in Japan. There appears to be little role for CXR. These findings may be applicable to other countries in terms of choosing optimal TB screening for employees. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  16. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...

  17. Oxidative Modification of Blood Serum Proteins in Multiple Sclerosis after Interferon Beta and Melatonin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Adamczyk-Sowa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease involving oxidative stress (OS. This study was aimed at examination of the effect of melatonin supplementation on OS parameters, especially oxidative protein modifications of blood serum proteins, in MS patients. The study included 11 control subjects, 14 de novo diagnosed MS patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS, 36 patients with RRMS receiving interferon beta-1b (250 μg every other day, and 25 RRMS patients receiving interferon beta-1b plus melatonin (5 mg daily. The levels of N′-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, dityrosine, carbonyl groups, advanced glycation products (AGEs, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, and malondialdehyde were elevated in nontreated RRSM patients. N′-Formylkynurenine, kynurenine, AGEs, and carbonyl contents were decreased only in the group treated with interferon beta plus melatonin, while dityrosine and AOPP contents were decreased both in the group of patients treated with interferon beta and in the group treated with interferon beta-1b plus melatonin. These results demonstrate that melatonin ameliorates OS in MS patients supporting the view that combined administration of interferon beta-1b and melatonin can be more effective in reducing OS in MS patients than interferon beta-1b alone.

  18. Influence of Interferon-Alpha Combined with Chemo (Radio Therapy on Immunological Parameters in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Karakhanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is particularly poor. A combination of chemotherapy with immunotherapy could be an option for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to perform an immunomonitoring of 17 patients with pancreatic cancer from the CapRI-2 study, and tumor-bearing mice treated with combination of chemo (radio therapies with interferon-2α. Low doses of interferon-2α led to a decrease in total leukocyte and an increase in monocyte counts. Furthermore, we observed a positive effect of interferon-2α therapy on the dendritic cells and NK (natural killer cell activation immediately after the first injection. In addition, we recorded an increased amount of interferon-γ and IL-10 in the serum following the interferon-2α therapy. These data clearly demonstrate that pancreatic carcinoma patients also show an immunomodulatory response to interferon-2α therapy. Analysis of immunosuppressive cells in the Panc02 orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer revealed an accumulation of the myeloid-derived suppressor cells in spleens and tumors of the mice treated with interferon-2α and 5-fluorouracil. The direct effect of the drugs on myeloid-derived suppressor cells was also registered in vitro. These data expose the importance of immunosuppressive mechanisms induced by combined chemo-immunotherapy.

  19. The highly virulent variola and monkeypox viruses express secreted inhibitors of type I interferon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, María del Mar; Alejo, Alí; Hudson, Paul; Damon, Inger K.; Alcami, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Variola virus (VARV) caused smallpox, one of the most devastating human diseases and the first to be eradicated, but its deliberate release represents a dangerous threat. Virulent orthopoxviruses infecting humans, such as monkeypox virus (MPXV), could fill the niche left by smallpox eradication and the cessation of vaccination. However, immunomodulatory activities and virulence determinants of VARV and MPXV remain largely unexplored. We report the molecular characterization of the VARV- and MPXV-secreted type I interferon-binding proteins, which interact with the cell surface after secretion and prevent type I interferon responses. The proteins expressed in the baculovirus system have been purified, and their interferon-binding properties characterized by surface plasmon resonance. The ability of these proteins to inhibit a broad range of interferons was investigated to identify potential adaptation to the human immune system. Furthermore, we demonstrate by Western blot and activity assays the expression of the type I interferon inhibitor during VARV and MPXV infections. These findings are relevant for the design of new vaccines and therapeutics to smallpox and emergent virulent orthopoxviruses because the type I interferon-binding protein is a major virulence factor in animal models, vaccination with this protein induces protective immunity, and its neutralization prevents disease progression.—Fernández de Marco, M. M., Alejo, A., Hudson, P., Damon, I. K., Alcami, A. The highly virulent variola and monkeypox viruses express secreted inhibitors of type I interferon. PMID:20019241

  20. Cutaneous Adverse Events Associated with Interferon-β Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kolb-Mäurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are widely used platform therapies as disease-modifying treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Although interferons are usually safe and well tolerated, they frequently cause dermatological side effects. Here, we present a multiple sclerosis (MS patient treated with interferon-β who developed new-onset psoriasis. Both her MS as well as her psoriasis finally responded to treatment with fumarates. This case illustrates that interferons not only cause local but also systemic adverse events of the skin. These systemic side effects might indicate that the Th17/IL-17 axis plays a prominent role in the immunopathogenesis of this individual case and that the autoimmune process might be deteriorated by further administration of interferons. In conclusion, we think that neurologists should be aware of systemic cutaneous side effects and have a closer look on interferon-associated skin lesions. Detection of psoriasiform lesions might indicate that interferons are probably not beneficial in the individual situation. We suggest that skin lesions may serve as biomarkers to allocate MS patients to adequate disease-modifying drugs.

  1. Interferon treatment of neuroendocrine tumour xenografts as monitored by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvin, A.; Oeberg, K.; Lindgren, P.G.; Lundkvist, M.; Wilander, E.; Ericsson, A.; Hemmingsson, A.

    1994-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-differentiated colonic carcinoma cell line (LCC-18) was transplanted to 29 nude mice (Balb/c). The purpose of the present study was to establish an animal model that would allow monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of changes induced by interferon (IFN) therapy and to evaluate whether the therapeutic response, as expressed by changes in MR signal characteristics and tumour proliferative activity, could be modulated by different IFN dosages. IFN did not seem to have any obvious antiproliferative effect on the LCC-18 tumour cell line transplanted to nude mice and no convincing treatment-related changes in rho values or T1 and T2 relaxation values were observed. The animal model was probably unsuitable for demonstration of IFN effects. (orig.)

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus mechanisms to interfere with type 1 interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family that consists of viruses with nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome. Infection by these viruses triggers the innate antiviral response of the host, mainly type I interferon (IFN). Essentially all other viruses of this family produce IFN suppressor functions by co-transcriptional RNA editing. In contrast, RSV has evolved two unique nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2, to effectively serve this purpose. Together, NS1 and NS2 degrade or sequester multiple signaling proteins that affect both IFN induction and IFN effector functions. While the mechanism of action of NS1 and NS2 is a subject of active research, their effect on adaptive immunity is also being recognized. In this review, we discuss various aspects of NS1 and NS2 function with implications for vaccine design.

  3. Interferon regulatory factor-7 modulates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Mony, Jyothi T; Lobner, Morten

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, IRF7-deficient mice developed more severe disease. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the extent of leukocyte infiltration into the CNS was higher in IRF7-deficient mice with significantly higher number of infiltrating macrophages and T cells, and the distribution of infiltrates within......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with unknown etiology. Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), a member of the type I IFN family, is used as a therapeutic for MS and the IFN signaling pathway is implicated in MS susceptibility...... of MS-like disease in mice. Methods The role of IRF7 in development of EAE was studied by immunizing IRF7-KO and C57BL/6 (WT) mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein using a standard protocol for the induction of EAE. We measured leukocyte infiltration and localization in the CNS using flow...

  4. Immune activation in multiple sclerosis and interferon-beta therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The PhD dissertation emanated from the Danish MS Research Centre, Rigshosptalet, Copenhagen. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS. Inflammatory responses by T helper (Th)-lymphocytes are characterised by distinct cytokine expression profiles. In MS, activated Th1...... of inflammation or secondary lymphatic organs. Chemokine receptors are differentially expressed in T cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, indicating their role for in T-cell-recruitment to the CNS. Interferon (IFN)-beta is a first-line treatment for MS. The mechanism of action is unclear, but probably includes...... changes in lymphocyte activation, cytokine secretion, and trafficking. The aim of the studies was to shed more light on T-cell immunology in MS and IFN-beta treatment, as well as identifying putative biomarkers of treatment response and/or disease activity. In one study we identified a Th-cell subset...

  5. Induction of interferon by levamisole in mice. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, S.; Suzuki, F.; Ishida, N.

    1979-03-01

    Viral inhibitor(s) with the properties of interferon (IF) was found in the sera of DDI mice injected intraperitoneally with 5 to 10 mg/kg of levamisole. A significant level of IF activity appeared by 20 hr and reached a peak by 24 hr after the injection. The induction was abrogated when the mice were pretreated with either whole-body x irradiation of more than 500 R or 2.5 mg of hydrocortisone acetate but was not affected by macrophage-specific depressors such as carrageenan and trypan blue. Also, no induction was detected in thymus-defective nude mice. These results suggest that thymus-derived lymphocytes in the mouse may be required for IF induction by levamisole.

  6. [Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma: paradoxical response to interferon eyedrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, E; Conesa, E; Castro, M; Martínez, L; de Pablo, C; González, M L

    2014-07-01

    A 67 year-old male seen for a longstanding corneal-conjunctival tumor. topical interferon α2b (IFN-α2b) 10 U/ml. A significant increase in lesion size was observed after 8 weeks. A surgical excision with cryotherapy was then performed. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. At this time the patient was found to have a positive HIV serology. Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a pre-cancerous lesion of the ocular surface. Medical treatment of CIN is essentially with IFN-α2b due to its antiviral/antitumor properties. In patients with HIV, treatment response could be paradoxical. We recommend serology for HIV before treatment with topical IFN-α2b. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Interferon and the fear of needles: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maria; Moreno, Laura; Dosal, Angelina; Pujol, Marta Maria; Vergara, Mercedes; Gil, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of viral hepatitis C infection uses a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Psychological preparation of the patient is vital to ensure adherence to the treatment. In our center, the nurse prepares this treatment according to an established educative protocol; however, some patients have special needs that require individualized attention. One such situation observed by the nurse is that the patients frequently admit to the fear of needle puncture (the peginterferon treatment is administered subcutaneously) and are unable to inject themselves. We describe a representative case and the care plan to manage the patient's fear so that the patient acquires confidence in his or her ability to self-inject. This facilitates autonomy and coresponsibility for the treatment, and the nurse can develop care approaches to combat the patient's fear of needles.

  8. Type I Interferon in the Pathogenesis of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have applied insights from studies of the innate immune response to define type I interferon (IFN-I), with IFN-α the dominant mediator, as central to the pathogenesis of this prototype systemic autoimmune disease. Genetic association data identify regulators of nucleic acid degradation and components of TLR-independent, endosomal TLR-dependent, and IFN-I signaling pathways as contributors to lupus disease susceptibility. Together with a gene expression signature characterized by IFNI-induced gene transcripts in lupus blood and tissue, those data support the conclusion that many of the immunologic and pathologic features of this disease are a consequence of a persistent self-directed immune reaction driven by IFN-I and mimicking a sustained anti-virus response. This expanding knowledge of the role of IFN-I and the innate immune response suggests candidate therapeutic targets that are being tested in lupus patients. PMID:24907379

  9. Targeting Interferon Regulatory Factor for Cardiometabolic Diseases: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxing; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    The pathological activation of innate immune system may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members, which are the major transcription factors in innate immune signaling, are implicated in cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this review is to summary the current knowledge of the biological functions of IRFs in innate immune responses and immune cell development, and highlight our contemporary understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of IRFs in metabolic diseases, cardiovascular remodeling, and stroke. IRFs are the essential regulators of cardiometabolic diseases via immune-dependent and - independent manners. IRFs signaling is the promising target to manage the initiation and progression of cardiometabolic disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Baldridge, Megan T

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  11. Interferon lambda inhibits dengue virus replication in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Ocampo, Helen K; Flores-Alonso, Juan C; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2015-09-28

    In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IFN-III or IFN-λ), is a complementary pathway to the antiviral response by IFN-I. This work analyzed the IFN-λ (IFN-III) mediated antiviral response against DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection. Dengue fever patients were sampled to determine their IFN-λ levels by ELISA. To study the IFN-λ response during DENV infection we selected the epithelial cell line C33-A, and we demonstrated that it is permissive to DENV-2 infection. The effect of IFN-λ on virus replication was determined in these cells, in parallel to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS), genes measured by RT-qPCR. We found increased (~1.8 times) serological IFN-λ in dengue fever patients compared to healthy blood donors. IFN-λ inhibited DENV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The reduction of viral titer corresponded with increased ISG mRNA levels (MX1 and OAS1), with the highest inhibition occurring at ISG's peak expression. Presence of IFN-negative regulators, SOCS1 and SOCS3, during DENV-2 infection was associated with reduced IFN-λ1 expression. Evidence described here suggests that IFN-λ is a good candidate inhibitor of viral replication in dengue infection. Mechanisms for the cellular and organismal interplay between DENV and IFN- λ need to be further studied as they could provide insights into strategies to treat this disease. Furthermore, we report a novel epithelial model to study dengue infection in vitro.

  12. Interferon-alpha administration enhances CD8+ T cell activation in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Manion

    Full Text Available Type I interferons play important roles in innate immune defense. In HIV infection, type I interferons may delay disease progression by inhibiting viral replication while at the same time accelerating disease progression by contributing to chronic immune activation.To investigate the effects of type I interferons in HIV-infection, we obtained cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 10 subjects who participated in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5192, a trial investigating the activity of systemic administration of IFNα for twelve weeks to patients with untreated HIV infection. Using flow cytometry, we examined changes in cell cycle status and expression of activation antigens by circulating T cells and their maturation subsets before, during and after IFNα treatment.The proportion of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells increased from a mean of 11.7% at baseline to 24.1% after twelve weeks of interferon treatment (p = 0.006. These frequencies dropped to an average of 20.1% six weeks after the end of treatment. In contrast to CD8+ T cells, the frequencies of activated CD4+ T cells did not change with administration of type I interferon (mean percentage of CD38+DR+ cells = 2.62% at baseline and 2.17% after 12 weeks of interferon therapy. As plasma HIV levels fell with interferon therapy, this was correlated with a "paradoxical" increase in CD8+ T cell activation (p<0.001.Administration of type I interferon increased expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA DR on CD8+ T cells but not on CD4+ T cells of HIV+ persons. These observations suggest that type I interferons may contribute to the high levels of CD8+ T cell activation that occur during HIV infection.

  13. The innovative development in interferon beta treatments of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of interferon beta therapies more than 20 years ago marked a milestone in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with a significant impact on the approach to modern multiple sclerosis (MS) care. Key learnings and perspectives from the early days of disease...... modifying therapies in MS have improved the knowledge base of MS, need for treatment, and patient care. The continuous development of interferons over the past two decades outlines a journey with increased understanding of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic mechanisms of interferons, leading...

  14. Interferon status at the women with recurrent genital herpes in combined liposomal RNA treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Makhmutkhodzhayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the estimation of the influence of liposomal ribonucleic acid (RNA medicine «Liprina» on interferon status of women with recurrent genital herpes. In this study 60 women were included, who combined (acyclovir and Liprina, n = 40 or monoterapy with acyclovir (n = 20 were received. The levels of serum interferon alpha and gamma along with cervical virus elimination were estimated. The medicine «Liprina» increased the therapy efficiency of the women with genital herpes, that perhaps related with endogen interferon production amplification.

  15. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, V; Pascual, E; Avia, M; Rangel, G; de Molina, A; Alejo, A; Sevilla, N

    2016-01-06

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  17. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed.

  18. Gold and not so real gold in Medieval treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrenka Bogovic-Zeskoski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evidence diverse materials and processes used by artisans (and alchemists required to synthesize a visually viable replacement for gold. The emphasis of the research is upon the production of mosaic gold or porporina, a pigment that has survived into modern times, which was used as ink and as paint. Base metals, mostly tin, but also alloys were used both into foils coated with glazes and varnishes and as pigment. The research focuses upon recipes documented in treatises dating from Antiquity to the late Medieval period (ca. 1500 and an attempt is made to answer two questions. In the first place, why was there a need for a surrogate? Secondly, why are there so few tangible examples detected on surviving artifacts? In conclusion, an argument is offered pointing out that, although much can be learned by scientific examination of artifacts, textual analysis is equally important and necessary to unravel mysteries of ancient technologies

  19. Therapeutic effectiveness of biosimilar standard interferon versus pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 or 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonzalez Vigani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN and standard interferon (IFN play a significant role in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Biosimilar standard IFN is widely available in Brazil for the treatment of HCV infection genotypes 2 or 3, but its efficacy compared to Peg-IFN is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sustained virological response (SVR rates following treatment with biosimilar standard IFN plus ribavirin (RBV versus Peg-IFN plus RBV in patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 infection treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV or with Peg-IFN plus RBV. SVR rates of the two treatments were compared. RESULTS: From January 2005 to December 2010, 172 patients with a mean age of 44 +/- 9.3 years were included. There were eight (4.7% patients with HCV genotype 2 infections. One hundred fourteen (66.3% were treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV, whist 58 (33.7% patients were treated with Peg-IFN plus RBV. Between the two groups, there were no significant differences regarding age, gender, glucose level, platelet count, hepatic necroinflammatory grade, and hepatic fibrosis stage. Overall, 59.3% (102/172 patients had SVR. In patients treated with Peg-IFN plus RBV, 79.3% (46/58 had SVR compared to 49.1% (56/114 among those treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 infection, a higher SVR was observed in patients receiving Peg-IFN plus RBV related to patients treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV.

  20. Nanotoxicity of gold and gold-cobalt nanoalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, E; Khalil, W K B; Emam, A N; Mohamed, M B; Rao, K V

    2012-05-21

    Nanotoxicology test of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoalloy is an important step in their safety evaluation for biomedical applications. The Au and Au-Co NPs were prepared by reducing the metal ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping material. The average size and shape of the nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cobalt presence in the nanoalloy was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, and the magnetic properties of these particles were determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Gold and gold-cobalt NPs of average size 15 ± 1.5 nm were administered orally to mice with a dose of 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg per body weight (bw) using gavages. Samples were collected after 7 and 14 days of the treatment. The results indicated that the Au-Co NPs were able to induce significant alteration in the tumor-initiating genes associated with an increase of micronuclei (MNs) formation and generation of DNA adduct (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) as well as a reduction in the glutathione peroxidase activity. This action of Au-Co NPs was observed using 160 and 320 mg/kg bw at both time intervals. However, Au NPs had much lower effects than Au-Co NPs on alteration in the tumor-initiating genes, frequency of MNs, and generation of 8-OHdG as well as glutathione peroxidase activity except with the highest dose of Au NPs. This study suggests that the potential to cause in vivo genetic and antioxidant enzyme alterations due to the treatment by Au-Co nanoalloy may be attributed to the increase in oxidative stress in mice.

  1. Identifying Predictors of Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Pediatric Latent Tuberculosis: A Protective Role of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Altet-Gómez, Neus; Tsolia, Maria; Ruga, Ezia; Velizarova, Svetlana; Kampmann, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays are widely used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults, but their performance in children remains incompletely evaluated to date. Objectives: To investigate factors influencing results of IFN-γ release assays in children using a large European data set. Methods: The Pediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials group pooled and analyzed data from five sites across Europe comprising 1,128 children who were all investigated for latent tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test and at least one IFN-γ release assay. Multivariate analyses examined age, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status, and sex as predictor variables of results. Subgroup analyses included children who were household contacts. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,093 children had a QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and 382 had a T-SPOT.TB IFN-γ release assay. Age was positively correlated with a positive blood result (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube: odds ratio [OR], 1.08 per year increasing age [P 5 yr). Conclusions: Our data show that BCG vaccination may be effective in protecting children against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To restrict use of IFN-γ release assays to children with positive skin tests risks underestimating latent infection. PMID:22700862

  2. Reproducibility of Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ) Release Assays. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagmouti, Saloua; Slater, Madeline; Benedetti, Andrea; Kik, Sandra V.; Banaei, Niaz; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Metcalfe, John; Dowdy, David; van Zyl Smit, Richard; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays for latent tuberculosis infection result in a larger-than-expected number of conversions and reversions in occupational screening programs, and reproducibility of test results is a concern. Objectives: Knowledge of the relative contribution and extent of the individual sources of variability (immunological, preanalytical, or analytical) could help optimize testing protocols. Methods: We performed a systematic review of studies published by October 2013 on all potential sources of variability of commercial IFN-γ release assays (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB). The included studies assessed test variability under identical conditions and under different conditions (the latter both overall and stratified by individual sources of variability). Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate within-subject SD. Measurements and Main Results: We identified a total of 26 articles, including 7 studies analyzing variability under the same conditions, 10 studies analyzing variability with repeat testing over time under different conditions, and 19 studies reporting individual sources of variability. Most data were on QuantiFERON (only three studies on T-SPOT.TB). A considerable number of conversions and reversions were seen around the manufacturer-recommended cut-point. The estimated range of variability of IFN-γ response in QuantiFERON under identical conditions was ±0.47 IU/ml (coefficient of variation, 13%) and ±0.26 IU/ml (30%) for individuals with an initial IFN-γ response in the borderline range (0.25–0.80 IU/ml). The estimated range of variability in noncontrolled settings was substantially larger (±1.4 IU/ml; 60%). Blood volume inoculated into QuantiFERON tubes and preanalytic delay were identified as key sources of variability. Conclusions: This systematic review shows substantial variability with repeat IFN-γ release assays testing even under identical conditions, suggesting that reversions

  3. Serial interferon-gamma release assays during treatment of active tuberculosis in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Choon-Taek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA in monitoring responses to anti-tuberculosis (TB treatment is not clear. We evaluated the results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT assay over time during the anti-TB treatment of adults with no underlying disease. Methods We enrolled soldiers who were newly diagnosed with active TB and admitted to the central referral military hospital in South Korea between May 1, 2008 and September 30, 2009. For each participant, we preformed QFT-GIT assay before treatment (baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after initiating anti-TB medication. Results Of 67 eligible patients, 59 (88.1% completed the study protocol. All participants were males who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-negative and had no chronic diseases. Their median age was 21 years (range, 20-48. Initially, 57 (96.6% patients had positive QFT-GIT results, and 53 (89.8%, 42 (71.2%, and 39 (66.1% had positive QFT-GIT results at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The IFN-γ level at baseline was 5.31 ± 5.34 IU/ml, and the levels at 1, 3, and 6 months were 3.95 ± 4.30, 1.82 ± 2.14, and 1.50 ± 2.12 IU/ml, respectively. All patients had clinical and radiologic improvements after treatment and were cured. A lower IFN-γ level, C-reactive protein ≥ 3 mg/dl, and the presence of fever (≥ 38.3°C at diagnosis were associated with negative reversion of the QFT-GIT assay. Conclusion Although the IFN-γ level measured by QFT-GIT assay decreased after successful anti-TB treatment in most participants, less than half of them exhibited QFT-GIT reversion. Thus, the reversion to negativity of the QFT-GIT assay may not be a good surrogate for treatment response in otherwise healthy young patients with TB.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain mutant proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Daisy W.; Borek, Dominika; Farahbakhsh, Mina; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Nix, Jay C.; Wang, Tianjiao; Prins, Kathleen C.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Honzatko, Richard B.; Helgeson, Luke A.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2010-01-01

    Three mutant forms of Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain were crystallized in three different space groups. VP35 is one of seven structural proteins encoded by the Ebola viral genome and mediates viral replication, nucleocapsid formation and host immune suppression. The C-terminal interferon inhibitory domain (IID) of VP35 is critical for dsRNA binding and interferon inhibition. The wild-type VP35 IID structure revealed several conserved residues that are important for dsRNA binding and interferon antagonism. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant Zaire Ebola VP35 IID mutants R312A, K319A/R322A and K339A in space groups P6 1 22, P2 1 2 1 2 1 and P2 1 , respectively, are described. Diffraction data were collected using synchrotron sources at the Advanced Light Source and the Advanced Photon Source

  5. An Assay in Microtitre Plates for Absolute Abundance of Chicken Interferon Alpha Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Novak Kujundžić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression of commercial chickens is a serious animal health and economic problem in the poultry industry. The major causes of the immunosuppression are viruses that suppress transcription of interferon genes, especially interferon alpha. There is a need for monitoring immunosuppression in commercially bred chickens. For this purpose, the absolute abundance of interferon alpha transcripts can be measured in blood of chickens by a suitable assay. Such an assay was used to estimate abundance of chicken interferon alpha in a sample of splenic cells induced with polyinosinic polycytidylic acid. The abundance measured was 29 ± 2 attomoles/µg total RNA. This assay can be performed in microtitre plates using samples collected from chickens in poultry houses.

  6. Clinical importance of neutralising antibodies against interferon beta in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Ross, Christian; Clemmesen, Katja Maria

    2003-01-01

    Interferon beta is the first-line treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but the drug can induce neutralising antibodies against itself, which might reduce effectiveness. We aimed to assess the clinical effect of neutralising antibodies....

  7. [Expression of gamma interferon during HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Ferreyra, María Del Carmen; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Martínez-Madrigal, Migdania; Martínez-Pérez, Sergio; Domínguez-García, María Victoria

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to mesure the expression of gamma interferon in HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in squamous intraepithelial lesions. Samples from 100 patients diagnosed by colposcopy with or without squamous intraepithelial lesions were used in the present study. Each patient was found to be infected by HPV and C.trachomatis. Relative gamma interferon mRNA expression was assessed using a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay (RT-PCR). The relative units of expression of gamma interferon mRNA were 13, 1.8 and 0.3, for HPV and C.trachomatis co-infection, or HPV or C.trachomatis infection, respectively. HPV and C.trachomatis could overstimulate the expression of gamma interferon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. THE ROLE OF INTERFERON ALPHA-2b IN REDUCING OF VIRAL LOAD IN HPV INFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Владимировна Марочко

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion. Mono-infection was prevalent among HPV infected women HPV 16 is the most frequently detected hrHPV. The use of the drug interferon alfa-2b in the study group, contributed to viral load reduction.

  9. Product related factors influencing the immunogenicity of interferon beta-1b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haji Abdolvahab, M.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic interferon beta is the first line treatment of relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis. However, despite their success in improving patient wellbeing, all IFNβ products encounter a significant problem: immunogenicity. In some patients, IFNβ products induce the formation of antidrug

  10. Overlapping positive and negative regulatory domains of the human β-interferon gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodbourn, S.; Maniatis, T.

    1988-01-01

    Virus of poly(I) x poly(C) induction of human β-interferon gene expression requires a 40-base-pair DNA sequence designated the interferon gene regulatory element (IRE). Previous studies have shown that the IRE contains both positive and negative regulatory DNA sequences. To localize these sequences and study their interactions, the authors have examined the effects of a large number of single-base mutations within the IRE on β-interferon gene regulation. They find that the IRE consists of two genetically separable positive regulatory domains and an overlapping negative control sequence. They propose that the β-interferon gene is switched off in uninduced cells by a repressor that blocks the interaction between one of the two positive regulatory sequences and a specific transcription factor. Induction would then lead to inactivation or displacement of the repressor and binding of transcription factors to both positive regulatory domains

  11. TNF blockade induces a dysregulated type I interferon response without autoimmunity in paradoxical psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Curdin; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Mylonas, Alessio; Belkhodja, Cyrine; Demaria, Olivier; Navarini, Alexander A; Lapointe, Anne-Karine; French, Lars E; Vernez, Maxime; Gilliet, Michel

    2018-01-02

    Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are highly effective in the treatment of psoriasis, 2-5% of treated patients develop psoriasis-like skin lesions called paradoxical psoriasis. The pathogenesis of this side effect and its distinction from classical psoriasis remain unknown. Here we show that skin lesions from patients with paradoxical psoriasis are characterized by a selective overexpression of type I interferons, dermal accumulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), and reduced T-cell numbers, when compared to classical psoriasis. Anti-TNF treatment prolongs type I interferon production by pDCs through inhibition of their maturation. The resulting type I interferon overexpression is responsible for the skin phenotype of paradoxical psoriasis, which, unlike classical psoriasis, is independent of T cells. These findings indicate that paradoxical psoriasis represents an ongoing overactive innate inflammatory process, driven by pDC-derived type I interferon that does not lead to T-cell autoimmunity.

  12. EFFICACY OF INTRAPERITONEAL INTERFERON-α ADMINISTRATION FOR TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Pavlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article presents the results of intraperitoneal administration of recombinant rat interferon-α to twenty Wistar rats with experimentally induced endometriosis. The following criteria of treatment efficiency were applied: presence of ectopic endometrium in transplanted segments of cornu uteri, proliferative activity of endometrioid cells, features of vascularization and leucocyte infiltration within endometrial foci. It was shown that local application of interferon-α caused regression of endometrioid epithelial heterotopias in 50 per cent of the cases. If endometrioid epithelium was retained, its proliferative activity did significantly drop under interferon-α application. In all transplants derived from rats treated with interferon-α, the degree of vascularization is reduced, accompanied by increased leucocytic infiltration (due to lymphocytes, along with decreased contents of macrophages within leucocytic infiltrates.

  13. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE....... In conclusion, the effect of ribavirin plus interferon on viral clearance may lead to reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. However, combination therapy is associated with increased risk for adverse events....

  14. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  15. Byzantine gold coins and jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddy, A.; La Niece, S.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the dating of Byzantine gold coinage. The results of such a study are of fundamental importance for the study of the economic history of the later Byzantine Empire and they are also of importance for the historian of technology when studying the composition of the contemporary Byzantine jewellery. Although Carbon-14 dating cannot be used as a method af dating, historians can still benefit from the analysis of the alloy of which the antiquity is made, as this is sometimes characteristic of the period in which it was used. A number of pieces of Byzantine jewellery has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis, after first gently abrading a small area of the surface of the gold with the carborundum paper in an inconspicious position on the back or side of the object. A table is given on the results of this analysis

  16. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  17. CMS Industries awarded gold, crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CMS collaboration honoured 10 of its top suppliers in the seventh annual awards ceremony The representatives of the firms that recieved the CMS Gold and Crystal Awards stand with their awards after the ceremony. The seventh annual CMS Awards ceremony was held on Monday 13 March to recognize the industries that have made substantial contributions to the construction of the collaboration's detector. Nine international firms received Gold Awards, and General Tecnica of Italy received the prestigious Crystal Award. Representatives from the companies attended the ceremony during the plenary session of CMS week. 'The role of CERN, its machines and experiments, beyond particle physics is to push the development of equipment technologies related to high-energy physics,'said CMS Awards Coordinator Domenico Campi. 'All of these industries must go beyond the technologies that are currently available.' Without the involvement of good companies over the years, the construction of the CMS detector wouldn't be possible...

  18. Nanobubble trouble on gold surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.

    2003-01-01

    When analyzing surfaces related to biosensors with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), the existence of nanobubbles called for our attention. The bubbles seem to form spontaneously when gold surfaces are immersed in clean water and are probably a general phenomenon at water-solid interfaces....... Besides from giving rise to undesired effects in, for example, biosensors, nanobubbles can also cause artifacts in AFM imaging. We have observed nanobubbles on unmodified gold surfaces, immersed in clean water, using standard silicon AFM probes. Nanobubbles can be made to disappear from contact mode AFM...... images and then to reappear by changing the scanning force. By combining contact mode AFM imaging and local force measurements, the interaction between the nanobubbles and the probe can be analyzed and give information about the characteristics of nanobubbles. A model of the forces between the AFM probe...

  19. Gold, currencies and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 449, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-34 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Efficient market hypothesis, * Gold * Currencies, * Fractal dimension * Entropy * Long-Term memory Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kristoufek-0455876.pdf

  20. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  1. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  2. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  3. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where ...

  4. Higher Serum Uric Acid Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients After Longterm Interferon Beta Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toncev Gordana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interferon beta is a safe and efficacious treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS. However, there is some evidence that uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite, is involved in MS pathology and that increasing serum uric acid levels might have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to investigate serum uric acid levels in MS patients before and after long-term interferon beta treatment. Blood samples from 101 MS patients (53 receiving interferon beta 1a treatment and 48 receiving interferon beta 1b treatment; 28 male and 73 female; mean age at treatment onset 32,4±7,3 years; mean duration of disease at treatment onset 5,1±3,2 years; mean EDSS 2±1,3 before and after interferon beta treatment (mean treatment duration 3±2 years were analysed. Serum uric acid levels were measured using a quantitative enzymatic assay (Elitech Diagnostic, Sees, France. MS patients had significantly increased serum uric acid levels after treatment compared with those at the beginning of treatment (272,31±78,21 μmol/l vs. 210,17±53,65 μmol/l; p=0,019, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test. We did not find significant differences in serum uric acid levels between the interferon beta 1a and interferon beta 1b groups (p=0.98. These results indicate that one of the beneficial effects of interferon beta in MS might be based on the elevation of serum uric acid levels as a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite.

  5. Kaposi's sarcoma after alpha-interferon treatment for HIV-negative T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract A 54-year-old HIV-negative patient suffering frOIn. T-cell lytnphoIna of Lennert's lytnphoIna (Lel) type was treated for 13 Inonths with interferon a-. 2b. While on treatment with interferon the patient. derrlOnstrated suppression of total and CD4+ lytn- phocytes to levels < 0,5 and 0,2 x 10911, respectively. Although ...

  6. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes

  7. Jabiluka gold-uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Jabiluka gold-uranium deposit, 230km east of Darwin in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, was discovered by Pancontinental Mining Limited in 1971. Jabiluka, with reserves in excess of 200,000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 in two deposits 500 metres apart, is the world's largest high grade uranium deposit and also contains nearly 12 tonnes of gold. It is proposed that only the larger deposit, Jabiluka II will be mined - by underground extraction methods, and that 275,000 tonnes of ore per year will be mined and processed to produce 1,500 tonnes of U 3 O 8 and up to 30,000 oz of gold. The revenue from the uranium sales is estimated to be of the order of A$100 million per year at A$30/lb. By the end of 1982 all necessary mining and environmental approvals had been obtained and significant marketing progress made. With the Australian Labor Party winning Commonwealth Government in the 1983 election, Pancontinental's permission to seek sales contracts was withdrawn and development of the Jabiluka deposit ceased. Jabiluka remains undeveloped - awaiting a change in Australian Government policy on uranium. figs., maps

  8. Analysis of gold and silver concentration on gold mining tailings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.I.; Sadykova, Z.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis without radiochemical separation is one of most applicable and often used methods to analyze the concentration of gold, silver and other rare and noble metals in gold ores. This method is not suitable for analyzing low concentration of gold and silver in gold mining tailings due to rather high concentration of some elements. Samples are dissolved by boiling in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to extract gold and silver into the solution. Chemical yield of gold and silver after dissolution of the sample and further chromatographic separation is between 92 and 95 percent respectively

  9. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective: To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI population. Design: In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18 and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37. Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%, including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%, 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5% and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%. By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002, estimated duration of infection (p=0.034 and HCV genotype (p<0.0001. There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%. Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%. Conclusions: We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1.

  10. Bim nuclear translocation and inactivation by viral interferon regulatory factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication efficiency is in large part governed by the ability of viruses to counteract pro-apoptotic signals induced by infection of the host cell. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 uses several strategies to block the host's innate antiviral defenses via interference with interferon and apoptotic signaling. Contributors include the four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4, which function in dominant negative fashion to block cellular IRF activities in addition to targeting IRF signaling-induced proteins such as p53 and inhibiting other inducers of apoptosis such as TGFbeta receptor-activated Smad transcription factors. Here we identify direct targeting by vIRF-1 of BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim, a key negative regulator of HHV-8 replication, to effect its inactivation via nuclear translocation. vIRF-1-mediated relocalization of Bim was identified in transfected cells, by both immunofluorescence assay and western analysis of fractionated cell extracts. Also, co-localization of vIRF-1 and Bim was detected in nuclei of lytically infected endothelial cells. In vitro co-precipitation assays using purified vIRF-1 and Bim revealed direct interaction between the proteins, and Bim-binding residues of vIRF-1 were mapped by deletion and point mutagenesis. Generation and experimental utilization of Bim-refractory vIRF-1 variants revealed the importance of vIRF-1:Bim interaction, specifically, in pro-replication and anti-apoptotic activity of vIRF-1. Furthermore, blocking of the interaction with cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the Bim-binding region of vIRF-1 confirmed the relevance of vIRF-1:Bim association to vIRF-1 pro-replication activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IRF protein that interacts with a Bcl-2 family member and of nuclear sequestration of Bim or any other member of the family as a means of inactivation. The data presented reveal a novel mechanism utilized by a virus to control

  11. Microassay for interferon, using [3H]uridine, microculture plates, and a multiple automated sample harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J Y; Polatnick, J; Knudsen, R C

    1980-01-01

    A microassay for interferon is described which uses target cells grown in microculture wells, [3H]uridine to measure vesicular stomatitis virus replication in target cells, and a multiple automated sample harvester to collect the radioactively labeled viral ribonucleic acid onto glass fiber filter disks. The disks were placed in minivials, and radioactivity was counted in a liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. Interferon activity was calculated as the reciprocal of the highest titer which inhibited the incorporation of [3H]uridine into viral ribonucleic acid by 50%. Interferon titers determined by the microassay were similar to the plaque reduction assay when 100 plaque-forming units of challenge vesicular stomatitis virus was used. However, it was found that the interferon titers decreased approximately 2-fold for each 10-fold increase in the concentration of challenge vesicular stomatitis virus when tested in the range of 10(2) to 10(5) plaque-forming units. Interferon titers determined by the microassay show a high degree of repeatability, and the assay can be used to measure small and large numbers of interferon samples. PMID:6155105

  12. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU) found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  13. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Holzer

    Full Text Available The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV. NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus. We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  14. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 x 10 -8 M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC 50 , of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 x 10 -8 M, and 5.4 x 10 -9 M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K i , 1.5 x 10 -8 M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 x 10 -9 M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC 50 s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins

  15. Fluoxetine regulates cell growth inhibition of interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Min; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Sun, Hung-Yu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Su, Hui-Chen; Yen, Shu-Yang; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Young, Kung-Chia; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Fluoxetine, a well-known anti-depression agent, may act as a chemosensitizer to assist and promote cancer therapy. However, how fluoxetine regulates cellular signaling to enhance cellular responses against tumor cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, addition of fluoxetine promoted growth inhibition of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in human bladder carcinoma cells but not in normal uroepithelial cells through lessening the IFN-α-induced apoptosis but switching to cause G1 arrest, and maintaining the IFN-α-mediated reduction in G2/M phase. Activations and signal transducer and transactivator (STAT)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were involved in this process. Chemical inhibitions of STAT-1 or PPAR-α partially rescued bladder carcinoma cells from IFN-α-mediated growth inhibition via blockades of G1 arrest, cyclin D1 reduction, p53 downregulation and p27 upregulation in the presence of fluoxetine. However, the functions of both proteins were not involved in the control of fluoxetine over apoptosis and maintained the declined G2/M phase of IFN-α. These results indicated that activation of PPAR-α and STAT-1 participated, at least in part, in growth inhibition of IFN-α in the presence of fluoxetine.

  16. Type I interferons in tuberculosis: Foe and occasionally friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Teixeira, Lúcia; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sher, Alan; O'Garra, Anne

    2018-05-07

    Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and, despite its clinical significance, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of pathogenic and protective mechanisms triggered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Type I interferons (IFN) regulate a broad family of genes that either stimulate or inhibit immune function, having both host-protective and detrimental effects, and exhibit well-characterized antiviral activity. Transcriptional studies have uncovered a potential deleterious role for type I IFN in active tuberculosis. Since then, additional studies in human tuberculosis and experimental mouse models of M. tuberculosis infection support the concept that type I IFN promotes both bacterial expansion and disease pathogenesis. More recently, studies in a different setting have suggested a putative protective role for type I IFN. In this study, we discuss the mechanistic and contextual factors that determine the detrimental versus beneficial outcomes of type I IFN induction during M. tuberculosis infection, from human disease to experimental mouse models of tuberculosis. © 2018 Moreira-Teixeira et al.

  17. Bropirimine inhibits osteoclast differentiation through production of interferon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Ayako; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Inoue, Tomio; Chikazu, Daichi; Takami, Masamichi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    Bropirimine is a synthetic agonist for toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). In this study, we investigated the effects of bropirimine on differentiation and bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts in vitro. Bropirimine inhibited osteoclast differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, it suppressed the mRNA expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, without affecting BMM viability. Bropirimine also inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced in co-cultures of mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) and mouse osteoblastic UAMS-32 cells in the presence of activated vitamin D_3. Bropirimine partially suppressed the expression of RANKL mRNA in UAMS-32 cells induced by activated vitamin D_3. Finally, the anti-interferon-β (IFN-β) antibody restored RANKL-dependent differentiation of BMMs into osteoclasts suppressed by bropirimine. These results suggest that bropirimine inhibits differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells into osteoclasts via TLR7-mediated production of IFN-β.

  18. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2012-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-α/β and γ-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  19. Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M; van Kooten, P J S; Schreuder, J; Morar, D; Tijhaar, E; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2012-10-15

    The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB status of their lions, e.g. for translocations. The present study concerns the development of a lion-specific IFN-γ assay, following the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for lion interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Recombinant lion IFN-γ (rLIFN-γ) was produced in mammalian cells and used to immunize mice to establish hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies. These were used to develop a sensitive, lion IFN-γ-specific capture ELISA, able to detect rLIFN-γ to the level of 160 pg/ml. Recognition of native lion IFN-γ was shown in an initial assessment of supernatants of mitogen stimulated whole blood cultures of 11 known BTB-negative lions. In conclusion, the capture ELISA shows potential as a diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis in lions. Preliminary results also indicate the possible use of the test for other (feline) species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The interferon response circuit in antiviral host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, O; Weber, F

    2009-01-01

    Viruses have learned to multiply in the face of a powerful innate and adaptive immune response of the host. They have evolved multiple strategies to evade the interferon (IFN) system which would otherwise limit virus growth at an early stage of infection. IFNs induce the synthesis of a range of antiviral proteins which serve as cell-autonomous intrinsic restriction factors. For example, the dynamin-like MxA GTPase inhibits the multiplication of influenza and bunyaviruses (such as La Crosse virus, Hantaan virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) by binding and sequestering the nucleocapsid protein into large perinuclear complexes. To overcome such intracellular restrictions, virulent viruses either inhibit IFN synthesis, bind and inactivate secreted IFN molecules, block IFN-activated signaling, or disturb the action of IFN-induced antiviral proteins. Many viruses produce specialized proteins to disarm the danger signal or express virulence genes that target members of the IFN regulatory factor family (IRFs) or components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. An alternative evasion strategy is based on extreme viral replication speed which out-competes the IFN response. The identification of viral proteins with IFN antagonistic functions has great implications for disease prevention and therapy. Virus mutants lacking IFN antagonistic properties represent safe yet highly immunogenic candidate vaccines. Furthermore, novel drugs intercepting viral IFN-antagonists could be used to disarm the viral intruders.

  1. Interferon Gamma in African Trypanosome Infections: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Liu, Gongguan; Shi, Meiqing

    2017-01-01

    African trypanosomes cause fatal infections in both humans and livestock. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) plays an essential role in resistance to African trypanosomes. However, increasing evidence suggests that IFN-γ, when excessively synthesized, also induces immunopathology, enhancing susceptibility to the infection. Thus, production of IFN-γ must be tightly regulated during infections with African trypanosomes to ensure that a robust immune response is elicited without tissue destruction. Early studies have shown that secretion of IFN-γ is downregulated by interleukin 10 (IL-10). More recently, IL-27 has been identified as a negative regulator of IFN-γ production during African trypanosome infections. In this review, we discuss the current state of our understanding of the role of IFN-γ in African trypanosome infections. We have focused on the cellular source of IFN-γ, its beneficial and detrimental effects, and mechanisms involved in regulation of its production, highlighting some recent advances and offering some perspectives on future directions.

  2. Bropirimine inhibits osteoclast differentiation through production of interferon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Mochizuki, Ayako [Department of Oral Physiology, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Yoshimura, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Yoichi [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Kaneko, Kotaro [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Oral Physiology, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Chikazu, Daichi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan); Takami, Masamichi [Department of Pharmacology, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro, E-mail: kamijor@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2015-11-06

    Bropirimine is a synthetic agonist for toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). In this study, we investigated the effects of bropirimine on differentiation and bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts in vitro. Bropirimine inhibited osteoclast differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, it suppressed the mRNA expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, without affecting BMM viability. Bropirimine also inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced in co-cultures of mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) and mouse osteoblastic UAMS-32 cells in the presence of activated vitamin D{sub 3}. Bropirimine partially suppressed the expression of RANKL mRNA in UAMS-32 cells induced by activated vitamin D{sub 3}. Finally, the anti-interferon-β (IFN-β) antibody restored RANKL-dependent differentiation of BMMs into osteoclasts suppressed by bropirimine. These results suggest that bropirimine inhibits differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells into osteoclasts via TLR7-mediated production of IFN-β.

  3. Interferon therapy of acute respiratory viral infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-04-01

    end of therapy, we calculated the proportion of patients in groups, who didn’t have clinical signs of acute respiratory viral infection (more than 1 point after 5 days of treatment. The effectiveness of therapy with Laferobionum® was 100 %. The effectiveness of treatment with Laferobionum® depended to some extent on the etiology of the disease: in acute respiratory viral infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus, there was less significant effect of interferon therapy on the course of the disease than in acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and parainfluenza viruses. Given the absence of subjective complaints from the examinees and negative changes in an objective and laboratory examination, tolerability of treatment in all patients receiving Laferobionum® was regarded as “good”. Conclusions. Interferon therapy, in particular the use of recombinant α-2b interferons (Laferobionum®, is one of the most important components of the treatment for acute respiratory viral diseases in children. The use of interferon for intranasal administration, which contributes to the sanogenesis of acute respiratory infections, will accelerate the process of recovery, prevent the development of bacterial complications.

  4. ATM supports gammaherpesvirus replication by attenuating type I interferon pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Eric J; Stoltz, Kyle P; Ledwith, Mitchell; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2017-10-01

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase participates in multiple networks, including DNA damage response, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. ATM also supports replication of diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Gammaherpesviruses are prevalent cancer-associated viruses that benefit from ATM expression during replication. This proviral role of ATM had been ascribed to its signaling within the DNA damage response network; other functions of ATM have not been considered. In this study increased type I interferon (IFN) responses were observed in ATM deficient gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages. Using a mouse model that combines ATM and type I IFN receptor deficiencies we show that increased type I IFN response in the absence of ATM fully accounts for the proviral role of ATM during gammaherpesvirus replication. Further, increased type I IFN response rendered ATM deficient macrophages more susceptible to antiviral effects of type II IFN. This study identifies attenuation of type I IFN responses as the primary mechanism underlying proviral function of ATM during gammaherpesvirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Role of ULK1 in Type I Interferon Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Saleiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide evidence that the Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1 is activated during engagement of the type I interferon (IFN receptor (IFNR. Our studies demonstrate that the function of ULK1 is required for gene transcription mediated via IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE and IFNγ activation site (GAS elements and controls expression of key IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We identify ULK1 as an upstream regulator of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and establish that the regulatory effects of ULK1 on ISG expression are mediated possibly by engagement of the p38 MAPK pathway. Importantly, we demonstrate that ULK1 is essential for antiproliferative responses and type I IFN-induced antineoplastic effects against malignant erythroid precursors from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Together, these data reveal a role for ULK1 as a key mediator of type I IFNR-generated signals that control gene transcription and induction of antineoplastic responses.

  6. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko, E-mail: ckai@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-{alpha}/{beta} and {gamma}-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  7. Role of interferon in lymphocyte recruitment into the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issekutz, T.B.; Stoltz, J.M.; Webster, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of lymphocytes are recruited from the blood into sites of cutaneous DTH reactions. Our goal was to investigate the factors controlling this recruitment. 111 In-labeled peritoneal exudate lymphocytes were injected iv and the accumulation of these cells in skin sites injected with a variety of stimuli, was used to measure lymphocyte recruitment in rats. Large numbers of lymphocytes migrated into vaccinia- and KLH-injected sites in sensitized animals, but only into the viral and not the KLH lesions in non-immune animals. Lymphocytes also migrated efficiently into sites injected with the alpha-interferon (IFN) inducers, uv-inactivated vaccinia virus and poly I:C, as well as into sites injected with IFN. In each case there was a dose-response relationship. Analysis of the kinetics of lymphocyte recruitment demonstrated that the peak rate of migration occurred most rapidly after the injection of IFN, later after poly I:C, and was slowest to be reached after vaccinia virus. Rabbit anti-IFN blocked the recruitment of lymphocytes by uv-inactivated vaccinia and by IFN. Histologically, all of these sites demonstrated a dense mononuclear cell infiltrate in the dermis. It is suggested that IFN may be an important mediator in the recruitment of lymphocytes into inflammatory reactions

  8. Interferon-β Modulates Inflammatory Response in Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chang; Scofield, Barbara A; Yu, I-Chen; Chang, Fen-Lei; Ganea, Doina; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2016-01-08

    Stroke is a leading cause of death in the world. In >80% of strokes, the initial acute phase of ischemic injury is due to the occlusion of a blood vessel resulting in severe focal hypoperfusion, excitotoxicity, and oxidative damage. Interferon-β (IFNβ), a cytokine with immunomodulatory properties, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis for more than a decade. Its anti-inflammatory properties and well-characterized safety profile suggest that IFNβ has therapeutic potential for the treatment of ischemic stroke. We investigated the therapeutic effect of IFNβ in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion. We found that IFNβ not only reduced infarct size in ischemic brains but also lessened neurological deficits in ischemic stroke animals. Further, multiple molecular mechanisms by which IFNβ modulates ischemic brain inflammation were identified. IFNβ reduced central nervous system infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and γδ T cells; inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators; suppressed the expression of adhesion molecules on brain endothelial cells; and repressed microglia activation in the ischemic brain. Our results demonstrate that IFNβ exerts a protective effect against ischemic stroke through its anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that IFNβ is a potential therapeutic agent, targeting the reperfusion damage subsequent to the treatment with tissue plasminogen activator. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Contact inhibition and interferon (IFN)-modulated gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesh, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between cell morphology, proliferation and contact inhibition was studied in normal and malignant human cells which varied in their sensitivity to contact inhibition. Their ability to proliferate was examined under conditions where the cells were constrained into different shapes. Cell proliferation was quantitated by labeling indices, which were inferred by autoradiography, and by total cell counts. The normal cells (JHU-1, IMR-90) were dependent on cell shape for proliferation capability while the transformed cells (RT4, HT1080) were shape-dependent for proliferation. Interferon (IFN) induced shape-dependent proliferation and contact inhibition in the transformed cells when used at subantiproliferative concentrations. This ability of B-IFN to confer a level of proliferation control which is characteristic of normal fibroblasts suggests a possible relationship between gene expression mediated by IFN and those genes involved in the maintenance of regulated cell proliferation. To evaluate this possibility, cDNA libraries were constructed from IFN-treated and untreated HT1080 cells. The resulting 10 IFN-induced and 11 IFN-repressed sequences were then differentially rescreened using /sup 32/P-cDNA probes. This screening resulted in the identification of at least four cDNA sequences which appeared to be proliferation regulated as well as IFN-modulated. These cloned, regulated cDNA sequences were then used as /sup 32/P-labeled probes to study both the gene expression at the mRNA level employing Northern blotting and slot blotting techniques.

  10. The Peculiar Characteristics of Fish Type I Interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Boudinot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral type I interferons (IFNs have been discovered in fish. Genomic studies revealed their considerable number in many species; some genes encode secreted and non-secreted isoforms. Based on cysteine motifs, fish type I IFNs fall in two subgroups, which use two different receptors. Mammalian type I IFN genes are intronless while type III have introns; in fish, all have introns, but structurally, both subgroups belong to type I. Type I IFNs likely appeared early in vertebrates as intron containing genes, and evolved in parallel in tetrapods and fishes. The diversity of their repertoires in fish and mammals is likely a convergent feature, selected as a response to the variety of viral strategies. Several alternative nomenclatures have been established for different taxonomic fish groups, calling for a unified system. The specific functions of each type I gene remains poorly understood, as well as their interactions in antiviral responses. However, distinct induction pathways, kinetics of response, and tissue specificity indicate that fish type I likely are highly specialized, especially in groups where they are numerous such as salmonids or cyprinids. Unravelling their functional integration constitutes the next challenge to understand how these cytokines evolved to orchestrate antiviral innate immunity in vertebrates.

  11. Recovery of carrier-free gold-195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iofa, B.Z.; Ivanova, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that gold(III) is readily extracted from nitric acid solutions with ethers. The authors have studied extraction of trace amounts of gold(III) from nitric acid solutions with diethyl and diisopropyl ethers in the presence of significant excess of Pt(IV). Distribution coefficients of gold(III) were measured radiometrically using carrier-free gold-195 or spectrophotometrically in the presence of platinum(IV). Very high coefficients of gold separation from platinum may be achieved. Preliminary experiments have shown that zinc-65 was not extracted with ethers from nitric acid solutions. As an extraction system, the authors have chosen the system 10 M HNO 3 -diisopropyl ether. After model experiments, the authors have performed recovery of carrier-free gold-195 from a real platinum target irradiated with protons in a cyclotron

  12. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  13. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods.

  14. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  15. Geochemical indicators of gold ore fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Yu.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principles of selection of indicators for genetic reconstructions and prognostic valuations of gold mineralization of diverse morphological and geochemical types have been substantiated. The neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation and detection limit of 1-10 -8 %, instrumental neutron-activation analysis and atomic-absorption analysis are the main methods of determination of gold low contents in the rocks, as well as diverse elements, including transition, rare earth elements and tellurium, in gold. 50 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  16. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Compostella, Federica; Pitirollo, Olimpia; Silvestri, Alessandro; Polito, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco ...

  17. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Compostella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco nanoparticle design.

  18. Coal gold agglomeration: an innovative approach to the recovery of gold in environmentally sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, N.C.; Hughes-Narborough, C.; Willey, G. [Davy (Stockton) Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) was developed by BP Minerals and involves the selective recovery of oleophilic gold particles from an aqueous slurry into coal-oil agglomerates. These agglomerates are allowed to build up to a high gold loading and are then separated from the slurry. The loaded agglomerates are burned and the gold is finally recovered from the ash residue by dissolution and precipitation or by direct smelting. 6 figs.

  19. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We produced wear resistant gold–ruby coatings on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were covered by or embedded in silica coatings. ► Annealing above T g of the substrate glass led to the formation of gold nano particles. ► A 1 1 1-texture of the gold particles is observed via XRD and EBSD. ► EBSD-patterns can be acquired from crystals covered by a thin layer of glass. - Abstract: A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO 2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold–ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  20. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...

  1. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  2. Evaluation of Interferon-gamma Application for Recognition of Patients Afflicted by Non-healing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moafi; Hossein Rezvan; Roya Sherkat; Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani; Roya Taleban; Ali Asilian; Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh; Fariba Jaffary; Marjan Mansourian; Fatemeh Sokhanvari; Nazli Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Different studies undertaken in the animal modeling show that Interferon-gamma deficiency impairs healing process of Leishmania infection. It seems that the level of Interferon-gamma production could also affect the healing duration of Leishmania lesion in humans. The current study aims to investigate the possibility of Interferon-gamma application for recognition of cases afflicted by non-healing Leishmaniasis. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of...

  3. Stimulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Beta Interferon Increases Necrotic Death of Macrophages upon Listeria monocytogenes Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaferink, Heather; Stockinger, Silvia; Reipert, Siegfried; Decker, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Murine macrophage death upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes was previously shown to be increased by beta interferon, produced by the infected cells. We saw that interferon-upregulated caspase activation or other interferon-inducible, death-associated proteins, including TRAIL, protein kinase R, and p53, were not necessary for cell death. Macrophage death was reduced when inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited during infection, and iNOS-deficient macrophages were less susc...

  4. Nuclear excitation in muonic gold

    CERN Document Server

    Robert Tissot, B; Debrunner, P; Engfer, R; Link, R; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Walter, H K

    1973-01-01

    Energies and intensities of muonic X-rays in gold were measured at the CERN muon channel with an experimental set-up as described by Backe et al. (1972). The 2p-1s and 3d-2p transitions could only be analysed taking into account beside the static quadrupole interaction a dynamical hyperfine interaction of the 2p states, which leads to an excitation of the first four nuclear levels. The dynamical hyperfine interaction was calculated using the core excitation model (de Shalit, (1961)). (0 refs).

  5. The Resonance Integral of Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirlow, K; Johansson, E

    1959-04-15

    The resonance activation integral of gold has been determined, by means of cadmium ratio measurements of thin foils in a neutron beam. Comparison was made with a 1/v detector, and the neutron spectra were measured with a chopper. The resonance integral, RI, is defined as {integral}{sub 0.5}{sup {infinity}}{sigma}{sub r}(E)dE/E, where {sigma}{sub r}(E) is the differenc between the total absorption cross section and the 1/v part. An experimental value of 1490 {+-} 40 barns has been obtained. RI has also been computed from resonance parameter data with the result 1529 {+-} 70 barns.

  6. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  7. Superiority of Interferon-Free Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M.; Stepanova, Maria; Esteban, Rafael; Jacobson, Ira; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sulkowski, Mark; Henry, Linda; Nader, Fatema; Cable, Rebecca; Afendy, Mariam; Hunt, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as quality of life and work productivity are important for measuring patient's experience. We assessed PROs during and after treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Data were obtained from a phase 3 open label study of sofosbuvir and ribavirin (SOF + RBV) with and without interferon (IFN). Patients completed 4 PRO assessment instruments (SF-36, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Fatigue, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire— HCV, Work Productivity and Activity—Specific Health Problem) before, during, and after treatment. A total of 533 patients with chronic HCV were enrolled; 28.9% treatment-naïve, 23.1% cirrhotic, 219 received IFN + SOF + RBV and 314 received IFN-free SOF + RBV. At baseline, there were no differences in PROs between the IFN-free and IFN-containing treatment arms (all P > 0.05). During treatment, patients receiving IFN + SOF + RBV had a substantial impairment in their PROs (up to −24.4% by treatment week 12, up to −8.3% at week 4 post-treatment). The PRO decrements seen in the SOF + RBV arm were smaller in magnitude (up to −7.1% by treatment week 12), and all returned to baseline or improved by post-treatment week 4. By 12 weeks after treatment cessation, patients who achieved sustained viral response-12 showed some improvement of PRO scores regardless of the regimen (up to +7.1%, P < 0.0001) or previous treatment experience. In multivariate analysis, the use of IFN was independently associated with lower PROs. IFN-based regimens have a profoundly negative impact to PROs. By contrast, the impact of RBV on these PROs is relatively modest. Achieving HCV cure is associated with improvement of most of the PRO scores. PMID:28207507

  8. Evasion of the Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Response by Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington B. Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The members of the filoviruses are recognized as some of the most lethal viruses affecting human and non-human primates. The only two genera of the Filoviridae family, Marburg virus (MARV and Ebola virus (EBOV, comprise the main etiologic agents of severe hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in central Africa, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. Fatal outcomes have been associated with a late and dysregulated immune response to infection, very likely due to the virus targeting key host immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that are necessary to mediate effective innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite major progress in the development of vaccine candidates for filovirus infections, a licensed vaccine or therapy for human use is still not available. During the last ten years, important progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of filovirus pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence implicate the impairment of the host interferon (IFN antiviral innate immune response by MARV or EBOV as an important determinant of virulence. In vitro and in vivo experimental infections with recombinant Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV, the best characterized filovirus, demonstrated that the viral protein VP35 plays a key role in inhibiting the production of IFN-α/β. Further, the action of VP35 is synergized by the inhibition of cellular responses to IFN-α/β by the minor matrix viral protein VP24. The dual action of these viral proteins may contribute to an efficient initial virus replication and dissemination in the host. Noticeably, the analogous function of these viral proteins in MARV has not been reported. Because the IFN response is a major component of the innate immune response to virus infection, this chapter reviews recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of IFN-mediated antiviral evasion by filovirus infection.

  9. Effects of interferon on cultured cells persistently infected with viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M

    1986-01-01

    The role of interferon (IFN) in viral persistence at the cellular level was investigated. Two types of persistent infections were chosen. The first type was cell lines which contained hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells) uninfected control hepatoma cells, (Mahlavu, HA22T and Hep G2 cells) or simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA (C2, C6, C11 cells) and control uninfected (CV-1 cells). In the second type of infection Vero cells persistently infected with SSPE or Sendai virus were used. The aim of this work was to determine what effect IFN had in these infections in terms of its antiviral and antiproliferative effects; which of the two major IFN-induced pathways, E enzyme or protein kinase were induced; whether there were any differences in sensitivity to IFN between the DNA and RNA virus persistent infections. The anti-viral effect of IFN was examined by its ability to inhibit Sindbis virus replication using a radioimmunoassay system. The antiproliferative effect of IFN was determined by cell counting and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. The activation of the ribonuclease F, determined by the inhibition of /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation after introduction of 2-5 actin into the cells, was variable, being activated in all cell lines with the exception of the PLC/PRF/5, Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells. Major differences between the two DNA persistent infections and the two RNA persistent infections were found. No correlation was found between the presence of HBV or SV40 persistent infections and the sensitivity of the cell lines to IFN. Both the SSPE and Sendai virus persistent infections were resistant to the antiviral and antiproliferative effect of IFN.

  10. Type I interferons instigate fetal demise after Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockey, Laura J; Jurado, Kellie A; Arora, Nitin; Millet, Alon; Rakib, Tasfia; Milano, Kristin M; Hastings, Andrew K; Fikrig, Erol; Kong, Yong; Horvath, Tamas L; Weatherbee, Scott; Kliman, Harvey J; Coyne, Carolyn B; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2018-01-05

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, including microcephaly, growth restriction, and fetal demise. Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential for host resistance against ZIKV, and IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. Severe fetal growth restriction with placental damage and fetal resorption is observed after ZIKV infection of type I IFN receptor knockout ( Ifnar1 -/- ) dams mated with wild-type sires, resulting in fetuses with functional type I IFN signaling. The role of type I IFNs in limiting or mediating ZIKV disease within this congenital infection model remains unknown. In this study, we challenged Ifnar1 -/- dams mated with Ifnar1 +/- sires with ZIKV. This breeding scheme enabled us to examine pregnant dams that carry a mixture of fetuses that express ( Ifnar1 +/- ) or do not express IFNAR ( Ifnar1 -/- ) within the same uterus. Virus replicated to a higher titer in the placenta of Ifnar1 -/- than within the Ifnar1 +/- concepti. Yet, rather unexpectedly, we found that only Ifnar1 +/- fetuses were resorbed after ZIKV infection during early pregnancy, whereas their Ifnar1 -/- littermates continue to develop. Analyses of the fetus and placenta revealed that, after ZIKV infection, IFNAR signaling in the conceptus inhibits development of the placental labyrinth, resulting in abnormal architecture of the maternal-fetal barrier. Exposure of midgestation human chorionic villous explants to type I IFN, but not type III IFNs, altered placental morphology and induced cytoskeletal rearrangements within the villous core. Our results implicate type I IFNs as a possible mediator of pregnancy complications, including spontaneous abortions and growth restriction, in the context of congenital viral infections. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Structure of the Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daisy W; Ginder, Nathaniel D; Fulton, D Bruce; Nix, Jay; Basler, Christopher F; Honzatko, Richard B; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2009-01-13

    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) cause rare but highly fatal outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in humans, and approved treatments for these infections are currently lacking. The Ebola VP35 protein is multifunctional, acting as a component of the viral RNA polymerase complex, a viral assembly factor, and an inhibitor of host interferon (IFN) production. Mutation of select basic residues within the C-terminal half of VP35 abrogates its dsRNA-binding activity, impairs VP35-mediated IFN antagonism, and attenuates EBOV growth in vitro and in vivo. Because VP35 contributes to viral escape from host innate immunity and is required for EBOV virulence, understanding the structural basis for VP35 dsRNA binding, which correlates with suppression of IFN activity, is of high importance. Here, we report the structure of the C-terminal VP35 IFN inhibitory domain (IID) solved to a resolution of 1.4 A and show that VP35 IID forms a unique fold. In the structure, we identify 2 basic residue clusters, one of which is important for dsRNA binding. The dsRNA binding cluster is centered on Arg-312, a highly conserved residue required for IFN inhibition. Mutation of residues within this cluster significantly changes the surface electrostatic potential and diminishes dsRNA binding activity. The high-resolution structure and the identification of the conserved dsRNA binding residue cluster provide opportunities for antiviral therapeutic design. Our results suggest a structure-based model for dsRNA-mediated innate immune antagonism by Ebola VP35 and other similarly constructed viral antagonists.

  12. Can pegylated interferon improve the outcome of polycythemia vera patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Crisà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pegylated interferon (peg-IFN was proven by phase II trials to be effective in polycythemia vera (PV; however, it is not clear whether it could improve patient outcome compared to hydroxyurea (HU. Here, we present an observational study on 65 PV patients aged 65 years or younger, who received either peg-IFN (30 or HU (35 according to the physician choice. Median follow-up was 75 months. The two cohorts were comparable for patient and disease characteristics. Eighty-seven percent of the patients treated with peg-INF responded, with a CR rate of 70% as compared to 100 and 49% with HU, respectively. Discontinuation rate was similar in the two groups (20% in peg-IFN vs 17% in HU. JAK2 allele burden was monitored in peg-INF arm only, and a reduction was observed in 88% of the patients. No thrombotic events were observed during peg-IFN treatment compared to three on HU. Disease progression to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia occurred to a patient only in peg-INF, compared to three in HU. Overall, three second malignancies were observed during the study, two in patients who received HU only, and one in a patient largely treated HU who received also peg-IFN for 3 months. Overall survival was significantly better for peg-IFN patients compared to HU, p = 0.027. Our study, albeit limited by small patient and event number and lack of randomization, confirms the efficacy of peg-INF in PV and shows a significant survival advantage for peg-INF-treated patients. Waiting for confirming data from the ongoing phase III trials, our study can support peg-INF as a first-line treatment option for PV, at least for younger patients.

  13. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  14. Interferon-γ-induced protein 10 in Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, P; Elia, G; Bonatti, A

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type, that affects about 300,000 people a year in the USA and 65,000 people a year in Europe. Borrelia infection, and Lyme disease, following occupational exposure has been frequently reported in USA, Europe and Asia. The manifestations of Lyme disease include erythema migrans (EM), arthritis, neuroborrelliosis (NB), and others. Cytokines and chemokines primarily orchestrate leukocyte recruitment to the areas of Borrelia infection, and they are critical mediators of immune and inflammatory responses, in particular of the induction of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-γ dependent chemokines. In EM high levels of T helper (Th) 1 cells chemoattranctants [monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP- 10), and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)] have been shown. Synovial tissues and fluids of patients with Lyme Arthritis (LA) (overall with antibiotic-refractory LA) contained exceptionally high levels of Th1 chemoattractants and cytokines, particularly MIG and IFN-γ. In NB concentrations of IP-10 and I-TAC in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly higher, suggesting that IP-10 and I-TAC create a chemokine gradient between the CSF and serum and recruite C-X-C chemokine receptor 3-expressing memory CD4+ T-cells into the CSF of these patients. A positive association between the disseminating capacity of B. burgdorferi and early type I IFN induction has also been shown. These results suggest that IFN-γ dependent chemokines are important biomarkers to monitor the progression and diffusion of the disease in patients with Borrelia infection; further larger studies are needed.

  15. Interferon alpha induced cytogenetic remissions of chronic myelocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Nobuo; Shigeta, Chiharu; Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ito, Chikako.

    1994-01-01

    In two heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, Philadelphia (Ph 1 ) chromosomes completed disappeared by the treatment with interferon (IFN)-α for chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). One is a 55-year-old man exposed at 2.0 km in Hiroshima at the age of 13. Periodic mass screening in 1987 showed the presence of Ph 1 chromosomes, in addition to an increased number of leukocytes and the presence of neocytes. Subcutaneous injection of IFN-α (6,000,000 units/day) was started with a diagnosis of CML, and 5 months later Ph 1 chromosomes disappeared. Then, because Ph 1 chromosomes were found in 2.8% of 143 cells one year and 6 months after the termination of IFN-α, re-injection of IFN-α was started. The other patient is a 53-year-old woman exposed at 2.0 km in Hiroshima at the age of 6. She was pointed out to have leukocytosis in 1992; bone marrow examination showed the presence of Ph 1 chromosomes in 88.1% of 88 cells analyzed, leading to a diagnosis of CML. Subcutaneous injection of IFN-α (6,000,000 units/day) was started and 5 months later Ph 1 chromosomes disappeared. As of 11 months after the start of injection, no Ph 1 chromosomes were observed, but the patient is still treated with IFN-α injection. Effects of IFN-α and problems of residual Ph 1 chromosomes are discussed in a review of the literature. (N.K.)

  16. Immunomodulatory intervention with Gamma interferon in mice with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kong, Bing-Bing; Yang, Wen-Ping; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Rong

    2017-09-15

    Sepsis-triggered immune paralysis including T-cell dysfunction increase susceptibility to infection. Gamma interferon (IFNg) exert beneficial effects in patients with sepsis. Herein, we speculated that IFNg may attenuate T-cell dysfunction induced by sepsis, although the mechanisms remain elusive. To test this hypothesis, we used a model based on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant human IFNg (0.01μg/g of body weight) before CLP. The immunophenotyping of cell surface receptor expression, and regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) were quantified by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the loss of immune effector cells. Formation of IFNg and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the spleen and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFNg markedly inhibited the reduction in cytokine secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocytes. IFNg-treated mices had significantly decreased percentages of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptors, increased the percentages of positive costimulatory receptor CD28 on CD4 T cells expressing. IFNg markedly reduced T-cell apoptosis through upregulating the expression of Bcl-2. CLP-induced formation of regulatory T cells in the spleen was abolished in IFNg -treated mices. Moreover, IFNg treatment reduced plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1. IFNg can be a powerful regulator of immune function under sepsis conditions. Therefore, targeted immune-enhancement with IFNg may be a valid therapeutic approach in sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrogenicity of interferon and its inducer in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, S J; Lin, M T

    1988-03-01

    The effects of intracerebral administration of interferon (IFN) or its inducer polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on thermoregulatory responses were assessed in conscious rabbits. Administration of IFN (10(2)-10(6) IU) or poly I:C (0.012-12 micrograms) into the preoptic anterior hypothalamus or the third cerebral ventricle caused a dose-dependent fever in rabbits at three ambient temperatures (Ta) tested. In the cold (Ta = 8 degrees C), the fever was due to increased metabolism, whereas in the heat (Ta = 32 degrees C) the fever was due to a reduction in respiratory evaporative heat loss and ear skin blood flow. At the moderate environmental temperature (Ta = 22 degrees C), the fever was due to increased metabolism and cutaneous vasoconstriction. Compared with the febrile responses induced by cerebroventricular route injection of IFN or poly I:C, the hypothalamic route of injection required a much lower dose of IFN or poly I:C to produce a similar fever. Furthermore, the fever induced by intrahypothalamic injection of IFN or poly I:C was reduced by pretreatment of animals with a systemic dose of indomethacin (an inhibitor of all prostaglandins formation) or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis). The data indicate that IFN or its inducer may act through the endogenous release of a prostaglandin or a protein factor of an unknown chemical nature in the preoptic anterior hypothalamic region to induce fever in rabbits. The fever induced by IFN or its inducer is brought about by a decrease in heat loss and/or an increase in heat production in rabbits.

  18. Geochemical methodology for gold prospect ion in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenber, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work is about the history of gold prospection in Uruguay. In this study there are considered the geochemical aspects, the gold performance, the applicability to mining prospection and the gold prospection aluvionar

  19. Retinopatia em paciente portador de hepatite C tratado com interferon peguilado e ribavirina: relato de caso Retinopathy in a patient with hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pereira de Ávila

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O interferon é uma citocina imunomoduladora utilizada no tratamento de diversas doenças, incluindo infecções crônicas pelo vírus da hepatite C. O interferon peguilado é uma nova forma de interferon, desenvolvida para aumentar o tempo de meia-vida da droga. Uma série de efeitos adversos têm sido associados ao uso do interferon, dentre eles a toxicidade ocular com desenvolvimento de retinopatia. As lesões oculares típicas incluem exsudatos algodonosos e hemorragias retinianas no pólo posterior, particularmente em torno do disco óptico. Descrevemos o caso de paciente tratado com associação de interferon peguilado e ribavirina com diminuição da acuidade visual e quadro oftalmológico compatível com retinopatia associada ao interferon. Quatro semanas após a suspensão do interferon, houve melhora da acuidade visual e diminuição importante das alterações retinianas.Interferon is an immunomodulating cytokine used to treat patients with different diseases, such as hepatitis C chronic infection. Pegylated interferon is a new type of interferon, developed to increase the half-life of the drug. Many side effects have been related to its use, including ocular toxicity and retinopathy. The most reported ocular findings are cotton-wool spots and hemorrhages located at the posterior pole and surrounding optic nerve head. We describe one case of pegylated interferon-associated retinopathy with visual loss. The patient had visual acuity improvement four weeks after discontinuation of the medication and the ocular findings became much more subtle.

  20. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-10-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroès superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroès emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations.

  1. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroes superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroes emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations

  2. Paper Money but a Gold Debt. Italy in the Gold Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Tattara; or consequences)

    2002-01-01

    During the 52 years between the Unification of the Kingdom of Italy and World War 1, the lira was legally convertible into metal for a limited period of time. Although not formally committed to gold, the lira exchange towards the gold standard countries proved remarkably stable, \\223shadowing\\224 gold. It is widely claimed that being one of the successful members of the gold standard circle entailed a number of advantages. If the lira was closely linked to gold, suggesting that there was only...

  3. Factors associated with the performance of a blood-based interferon-γ release assay in diagnosing tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Banfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indeterminate results are a recognised limitation of interferon-γ release assays (IGRA in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI and TB disease, especially in children. We investigated whether age and common co-morbidities were associated with IGRA performance in an unselected cohort of resettled refugees. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study of refugees presenting for their post-resettlement health assessment during 2006 and 2007. Refugees were investigated for prevalent infectious diseases, including TB, and for common nutritional deficiencies and haematological abnormalities as part of standard clinical screening protocols. Tuberculosis screening was performed by IGRA; QuantiFERON-TB Gold in 2006 and QuantiFERON-TBGold In-Tube in 2007. RESULTS: Complete data were available on 1130 refugees, of whom 573 (51% were children less than 17 years and 1041 (92% were from sub-Saharan Africa. All individuals were HIV negative. A definitive IGRA result was obtained in 1004 (89% refugees, 264 (26% of which were positive; 256 (97% had LTBI and 8 (3% had TB disease. An indeterminate IGRA result was obtained in 126 (11% refugees (all failed positive mitogen control. In multivariate analysis, younger age (linear OR= 0.93 [95% CI 0.91-0.95], P<0.001, iron deficiency anaemia (2.69 [1.51-4.80], P = 0.001, malaria infection (3.04 [1.51-6.09], P = 0.002, and helminth infection (2.26 [1.48-3.46], P<0.001, but not vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, were associated with an indeterminate IGRA result. CONCLUSIONS: Younger age and a number of common co-morbidities are significantly and independently associated with indeterminate IGRA results in resettled predominantly African refugees.

  4. Patients with chronic hepatitis type C and interferon-alpha-induced hyperthyroidism in two-years clinical follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Magorzata; Wasko, Ryszard; Czepczynski, Rafal; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Waligorska-Stachura, Joanna; Kurdybacha, Peter; Bereszynska, Iwona; Florek, Ewa; Stangierski, Adam; Zdanowska, Joanna; Nikisch, Elżbieta; Sowinski, Jerzy; Ruchala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-α (IFN-α) is a gold standard in the therapy of viral chronic hepatitis type C (CHC). However, such treatment might lead to thyroid dysfunction. Patients usually present hypothyroidism, but rarely also hyperthyroidism may develop. The aim of the study is to present two-year clinical follow-up of patients with CHC and IFN-α-induced hyperthyroidism (IIH), with special regard to the methods and efficacy of the therapy. A group of 106 patients with CHC and IIH were analyzed. Subjects were divided into two groups according to etiology: group 1, with Graves' disease (GD) and group 2, with Hashitoxicosis (HT). The diagnosis of GD and HT was based on: clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, hormonal profile (TSH, fT4, fT3), level of thyroid autoantibodies (Tg-Abs, TPO-Abs, TSHRAbs). Treatment of hyperthyroidism was monitored by repeated clinical assessment and laboratory tests. RESULST: 28 patients (26 with GD of which 5 exhibited mild orbitopathy and 2 with HT) were treated with radioiodine [the average dose of was 17 mCi [668 MBq]. In adition 78 out of 80 patients with HT mostly β-blocker therapy was successful (transient hyperthyroidism). At the end of the observation period, in group 1 remission was achieved in 17 (65.4%) cases, 6 (23.1%) patients showed hypothyroidism and 3 (11.5%) presented recurrence of hyperthyroidism. Most patients with IIH present Hashitoxicosis, while a minority of them develop Graves' disease. In a majority of patients with HT spontaneous remission of disease occurs. In patients with long-term hyperthyroidism, radioiodine therapy is an effective and well-tolerated.

  5. Onset of Celiac Disease after Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C with Interferon Based Triple Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients treated with interferon (IFN based therapies may develop exacerbation of autoimmune disease. We herein present the case of a 53-year-old female patient who developed celiac disease (CD as a result of triple therapy (interferon, ribavirin, and boceprevir for chronic HCV. Case. 53-year-old Caucasian female with past medical history of IV drug abuse was referred for abnormal LFTs. Laboratory data showed HCV RNA of 4,515,392 IU/mL, HCV genotype 1a, with normal LFTs. She was treated with 4 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, followed by triple therapy using boceprevir for a total of 28 weeks. Approximately 4 weeks after initiation of triple therapy patient developed loose nonbloody bowel movements and was also found to have anemia. Biopsies from first and second portions of the duodenum were consistent with CD. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet. Her intestinal symptoms improved and the hemoglobin returned to normal. Conclusion. Chronic HCV patients being treated with interferon alfa can develop celiac disease during or after therapy. For patients with positive autoantibodies, all-oral-IFN-free regimens should be considered. Celiac disease should be considered in patients who develop CD-like symptoms while on and shortly after cessation of interferon alfa therapy.

  6. Renal thrombotic microangiopathy caused by interferon beta-1a treatment for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahe J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Julien Mahe,1 Aurélie Meurette,2 Anne Moreau,3 Caroline Vercel,2 Pascale Jolliet1,4 1Clinical Pharmacology Department, Institute of Biology, University Hospital, Nantes, France; 2Clinical Nephrology and Immunology Department, University Hospital, Nantes, France; 3Laboratory of Pathology, University Hospital, Nantes, France; 4EA 4275 Biostatistics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Subjective Measures in Health Sciences, University of Nantes, Nantes, France Abstract: Interferon beta-1a is available as an immunomodulating agent for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Common side effects include flu-like symptoms, asthenia, anorexia, and administration site reaction. Kidney disorders are rarely reported. In this study we describe the case of a woman who has been undergoing treatment with interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis for 5 years. She developed a hemolytic-uremic syndrome with intravascular hemolysis in a context of severe hypertension. A kidney biopsy showed a thrombotic microangiopathy. This observation highlights an uncommon side effect of long-term interferon beta-1a therapy. Pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this complication might be explained by the antiangiogenic activity of interferon. Keywords: thrombotic microangiopathy, interferon beta, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, antiangiogenic activity

  7. Review of the recombinant human interferon gamma as an immunotherapeutic: Impacts of production platforms and glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaghi, Ali; Owens, Leigh; Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-12-20

    Human interferon gamma is a cytokine belonging to a diverse group of interferons which have a crucial immunological function against mycobacteria and a wide variety of viral infections. To date, it has been approved for treatment of chronic granulomatous disease and malignant osteopetrosis, and its application as an immunotherapeutic agent against cancer is an increasing prospect. Recombinant human interferon gamma, as a lucrative biopharmaceutical, has been engineered in different expression systems including prokaryotic, protozoan, fungal (yeasts), plant, insect and mammalian cells. Human interferon gamma is commonly expressed in Escherichia coli, marketed as ACTIMMUNE ® , however, the resulting product of the prokaryotic expression system is unglycosylated with a short half-life in the bloodstream; the purification process is tedious and makes the product costlier. Other expression systems also did not show satisfactory results in terms of yields, the biological activity of the protein or economic viability. Thus, the review aims to synthesise available information from previous studies on the production of human interferon gamma and its glycosylation patterns in different expression systems, to provide direction to future research in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Alpha interferon induced hyperthyroidism: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, I; Valdes-Socin, H; Thiry, A; Delwaide, J; Sidibe, A T; Beckers, A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with alpha interferon in hepatitis C triggers a thyroid autoimmunity in a variable percentage of cases (2-8%). This complication raises some questions about its screening, the possibility to continue anti-viral therapy and thyroid treatment. Alpha interferon has an immunomodulatory effect on the thyroid, but also an inhibitory effect on thyroid hormone synthesis. This explains the occurrence of cases of thyroid dysfunction, which often remain undetected because of their latency. Factors predicting thyroid dysfunction with interferon use are: female sex, history of thyroid disease and previous autoimmunity. Several clinical aspects are encountered including hypothyroidism (the most frequent depending on the series) and hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease. For their detection, a cooperation between general practionners, gastroenterologists and endocrinologists is mandatory thyroid function tests are requested before, during and after treatment,with alpha interferon. Therapeutic aspects of thyroid disorders range from simple monitoring to symptomatic treatment, such as thyroxine prescription in the presence of hypothyroidism. Antithyroid drugs radioactive iodine or thyroid surgery are used in cases of severe or persistent Graves' disease induced by alpha interferon.

  9. Pulmonary abnormalities caused by interferon with or without herbal drug. CT and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Kohno, Nobuaki; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kawase, Ichiro; Ebara, Hidemi; Kamisako, Toshinori; Adachi, Yukihiko.

    1995-01-01

    Chest radiographic and CT findings of acute diffuse interstitial lung disease due to interferon administration were reviewed. The subjects were 5 patients who were treated with interferon alone (n=4) or combined with traditional herbal drug treatment (n=one) for chronic hepatitis C. Respiratory symptoms consisted of cough (n=4), fever (n=4), dyspnea (n=3), and chest pain (n=one). CT findings were peripherally predominant non-segmental consolidation (n=3) with or without ground-glass opacities, and intralobular reticulation with ground-glass opacities (n=2). Neither honeycombing nor lung distortion was observed on CT. Chest radiographs showed airspace consolidation with or without ground-glass opacities (n=4) and reticulonodular lesions with ground-glass opacities (n=one). Although radiological findings of interferon-induced lung abnormalities were not uniform, it appears that these findings reflect lung hypersensitivity to interferon. Recognizing radiographic and CT findings of interferon-induced lung abnormalities is required because they are likely to occur associated with increasing use of this drug in the clinical setting. (N.K.)

  10. Pulmonary abnormalities caused by interferon with or without herbal drug. CT and radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Kohno, Nobuaki; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kawase, Ichiro [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ebara, Hidemi; Kamisako, Toshinori; Adachi, Yukihiko

    1995-02-01

    Chest radiographic and CT findings of acute diffuse interstitial lung disease due to interferon administration were reviewed. The subjects were 5 patients who were treated with interferon alone (n=4) or combined with traditional herbal drug treatment (n=one) for chronic hepatitis C. Respiratory symptoms consisted of cough (n=4), fever (n=4), dyspnea (n=3), and chest pain (n=one). CT findings were peripherally predominant non-segmental consolidation (n=3) with or without ground-glass opacities, and intralobular reticulation with ground-glass opacities (n=2). Neither honeycombing nor lung distortion was observed on CT. Chest radiographs showed airspace consolidation with or without ground-glass opacities (n=4) and reticulonodular lesions with ground-glass opacities (n=one). Although radiological findings of interferon-induced lung abnormalities were not uniform, it appears that these findings reflect lung hypersensitivity to interferon. Recognizing radiographic and CT findings of interferon-induced lung abnormalities is required because they are likely to occur associated with increasing use of this drug in the clinical setting. (N.K.).

  11. Whole-exome sequencing reveals a rare interferon gamma receptor 1 mutation associated with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoyan; Liu, Peng; Gu, Shanshan; Yang, Hongxia; Dong, Huimin; Xue, Yinping

    2018-04-01

    Our study is aimed to explore the underlying genetic basis of myasthenia gravis. We collected a Chinese pedigree with myasthenia gravis, and whole-exome sequencing was performed on the two affected siblings and their parents. The candidate pathogenic gene was identified by bioinformatics filtering, which was further verified by Sanger sequencing. The homozygous mutation c.G40A (p.V14M) in interferon gamma receptor 1was identified. Moreover, the mutation was also detected in 3 cases of 44 sporadic myasthenia gravis patients. The p.V14M substitution in interferon gamma receptor 1 may affect the signal peptide function and the translocation on cell membrane, which could disrupt the binding of the ligand of interferon gamma and antibody production, contributing to myasthenia gravis susceptibility. We discovered that a rare variant c.G40A in interferon gamma receptor 1 potentially contributes to the myasthenia gravis pathogenesis. Further functional studies are needed to confirm the effect of the interferon gamma receptor 1 on the myasthenia gravis phenotype.

  12. Clinical Value of Thyrotropin Receptor Antibodies for the Differential Diagnosis of Interferon Induced Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaiges, D; Garcia-Retortillo, M; Mas, A; Cañete, N; Broquetas, T; Puigvehi, M; Chillarón, J J; Flores-Le Roux, J A; Sagarra, E; Cabrero, B; Zaffalon, D; Solà, R; Pedro-Botet, J; Carrión, J A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical value of thyrotropin receptor antibodies for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis induced by pegylated interferon-alpha remains unknown. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. Retrospective analysis of 274 patients with CHC receiving pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. Interferon-induced thyrotoxicosis was classified according to clinical guidelines as Graves disease, autoimmune and non- autoimmune destructive thyroiditis. 48 (17.5%) patients developed hypothyroidism, 17 (6.2%) thyrotoxicosis (6 non- autoimmune destructive thyroiditis, 8 autoimmune destructive thyroiditis and 3 Graves disease) and 22 "de novo" thyrotropin receptor antibodies (all Graves disease, 2 of the 8 autoimmune destructive thyroiditis and 17 with normal thyroid function). The sensitivity and specificity of thyrotropin receptor antibodies for Graves disease diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis were 100 and 85%, respectively. Patients with destructive thyroiditis developed hypothyroidism in 87.5% of autoimmune cases and in none of those with a non- autoimmune etiology (pthyroid scintigraphy for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in CHC patients treated with pegylated interferon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Spherical aggregates composed of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-C; Kuo, P-L; Cheng, Y-C

    2009-01-01

    Alkylated triethylenetetramine (C12E3) was synthesized and used as both a reductant in the preparation of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl 4 and a stabilizer in the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanoparticles. In acidic aqueous solution, spherical aggregates (with a diameter of about 202 ± 22 nm) of gold nanoparticles (with the mean diameter of ∼18.7 nm) were formed. The anion-induced ammonium adsorption of the alkylated amines on the gold nanoparticles was considered to provide the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance between the gold nanoparticles, which constituted the barrier that prevented the individual particles from coagulating. However, as the amino groups became deprotonated with increasing pH, the ammonium adsorption was weakened, and the amino groups were desorbed from the gold surface, resulting in discrete gold particles. The results indicate that the morphology of the reduced gold nanoparticles is controllable through pH-'tunable' aggregation under the mediation of the amino groups of alkylated amine to create spherical microstructures.

  14. Gold deposits of the southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, J.T.; Park, C.F.

    1948-01-01

    This report deals chiefly with the gold mines in the Southern Appalachian gold belt whose workings were accessible at the time of examination, but it also · summarizes available information concerning many mines that were not accessible. Most of the mines lie within a belt, 10 to 100 miles wide, that extends

  15. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  16. Ionization model for nickel-like gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1986-04-01

    Before we build an extensive population model for gold ionized 49 to 52 times, we have studied with a more simple model the effect of accounting for cascades (or dielectronic recombination) and Δn = 0 transitions. These transitions allow some understanding of typical feature of experimental gold spectra

  17. The Stability of Supported Gold Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masoud, Nazila

    2018-01-01

    Gold has supreme cultural and financial value and, in form of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm, is a unique catalyst for different industrially relevant reactions. Intriguing properties of the gold catalysts have spurred demand in the chemical industry for Au catalysts, the application of which

  18. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  19. Gold - Old Drug with New Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Research into gold-based drugs for a range of human diseases has seen a revival in recent years. This article reviews the most important applications of gold products in different fields of human pathology. Au(I) and Au(III) compounds have been re-introduced in clinical practice for targeting the cellular components involved in the onset and progression of viral and parasitic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. After some brief historical notes, this article takes into account the applications of gold compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and also in tuberculosis and in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. The use of gold containing drugs in the cure of cancer are then considered, with special emphasis to the use of nanoparticles and to the photo-thermal cancer therapy. The use of colloidal gold in diagnostics, introduced in the last decade is widely discussed. As a last point a survey on the adverse effects and on the toxicity of the various gold derivatives in use in medicine is presented. In this review, we described the surprisingly broad spectrum of possible uses of gold in diagnostics and in therapeutic approaches to multiple human diseases, ranging from degenerative to infectious diseases, and to cancer. In particular, gold nanoparticles appear as attractive elements in modern clinical medicine, combining high therapeutic properties, high selectivity in targeting cancer cells and low toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  1. Gold 100: proceedings of the international conference on gold. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, C.E.; King, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of Gold 100 have been published in three separate volumes. The first deals with the mining of gold, the second with the extractive metallurgy of gold, and the third with industrial uses of gold. In this second volume, the papers on extractive metallurgy presented at the Conference reflect most of the problems that are currently of significant technical interest to the industry. This volume is divided in six main parts covering plant design, carbon-in-pulp technology, refractory gold, new technology, grinding and concentration, and leaching. The part on new technology includes papers on x-ray fluorescence analyzers, Moessbauer spectroscopy and leaching processes for uranium, while the part on grinding and concentration includes papers on nuclear and radiotracer techniques for the recovery of gold as well as various flotation parameters in the flotation behaviour of gold and uranium

  2. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  3. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhimin; Liu Zhiguo; Zu Yuangang; Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan

    2010-01-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  4. Hydrofluorination of Alkynes Catalysed by Gold Bifluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Fady; Patrick, Scott R; Bello, Davide; Brill, Marcel; Obled, Alan; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of nine new N -heterocyclic carbene gold bifluoride complexes starting from the corresponding N -heterocyclic carbene gold hydroxides. A new methodology to access N,N' -bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) fluoride starting from N,N' -bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) hydroxide and readily available potassium bifluoride is also reported. These gold bifluorides were shown to be efficient catalysts in the hydrofluorination of symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes, thus affording fluorinated stilbene analogues and fluorovinyl thioethers in good to excellent yields with high stereo- and regioselectivity. The method is exploited further to access a fluorinated combretastatin analogue selectively in two steps starting from commercially available reagents.

  5. Synthesis of camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Zhimin [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu Zhiguo, E-mail: zguoliu@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Zu Yuangang, E-mail: nefunano@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Fu Yujie; Zhao Chunjian; Zhao Xiuhua; Meng Ronghua; Tan Shengnan [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Engineering Research Center of Forest Bio-preparation, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Camptothecin-loaded gold nanomaterials have been synthesized by the sodium borohydride reduction method under a strong basic condition. The obtained gold nanomaterials have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The camptothecin-loaded gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored for more than two months at room temperature without obvious changes. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to purple and blue during the acidifying process. It was revealed that the release of camptothecin and the aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the solution pH. The present study implied that the gold nanomaterials can be used as the potential carrier for CPT delivery.

  6. Thyroid dysfunction in hepatitis C individuals treated with interferon-alpha and ribavirin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C (HCV is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal risk factor for developing thyroid disease in the course of antiviral therapy is the previous positivity for anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase especially in older women. Screening for autoantibodies and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended before, during and after interferon-alpha treatment, and patients should be informed of the risk of thyroid dysfunction. This review includes a summary of thyroid disease associated with chronic HCV infection, interferon-alpha and ribavirin for treatment of HCV and potential to induce thyroid dysfunction.

  7. Kinetic and metabolic studies on the priming effect of interferon in L cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosztoczy, I.

    1977-01-01

    In cultures primed by interferon pretreatment before stimulation by polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid interferon was detected one hour earlier, its production followed an enhanced pattern and became resistant to actinomycin D 30 min sooner than in unprimed cultures. The kinetics of development of the primed state was found to be a time- and dose-dependent phenomenon. The continuous presence of interferon during the pretreatment period was not required for the development of the primed state. Actinomycin D at a concentration inhibitory for nuclear RNA synthesis did not influence the development of priming. Higher concentrations of the drug and long term α-amanitin or cycloheximide pretreatments, inhibitory for heterogeneous nuclear RNA synthesis, prevented the establishment of the primed state. (author)

  8. IMMUNOMODULATING THERAPY BY RECOMBINANT ALPHA-2B INTERFERON AMONG CHILDREN WITH TIMOMEGALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Nikulin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the enlarged thymus gland syndrome is extremely important for understanding of the immune system formation and functioning mechanisms. the purpose of this study is to conduct clinical and immunological analysis of the children, suffering from the syndrome of the enlarged thymus gland II and III degrees, who received recombinant alpha2b interferon (in suppositories. The revealed changes in the immune sys tem during timomegalia are complex and conducive to the development of the infectious and inflammatory diseases among infants, thus, determining the necessity for the adequate immune correction. The application of the recombinant alpha 2b interferon among such children allows one to uncover the immunomodulating effects, normalizing the imbalances in the immune system of children with timomegalia.Key words: timomegalia, alpha 2b interferon, immunity, immune correction, children.

  9. Loss of prion protein induces a primed state of type I interferon-responsive genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malachin, Giulia; Reiten, Malin R.; Salvesen, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been extensively studied because of its pivotal role in prion diseases; however, its functions remain incompletely understood. A unique line of goats has been identified that carries a nonsense mutation that abolishes synthesis of PrPC. In these animals, the Pr...... genotypes. About 70% of these were classified as interferon-responsive genes. In goats without PrPC, the majority of type I interferon-responsive genes were in a primed, modestly upregulated state, with fold changes ranging from 1.4 to 3.7. Among these were ISG15, DDX58 (RIG-1), MX1, MX2, OAS1, OAS2...... and DRAM1, all of which have important roles in pathogen defense, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunomodulation and DNA damage response. Our data suggest that PrPC contributes to the fine-tuning of resting state PBMCs expression level of type I interferon-responsive genes. The molecular mechanism...

  10. Alpha interferon therapy in Danish haemophiliac patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A L; Scheibel, E; Ingerslev, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    Following a survey among all Danish haemophiliac patients 49 HIV-negative patients with chronic hepatitis C were offered enrollment in a randomized controlled open label study comparing two different maintenance regimens following standard interferon-alpha-2b treatment. Dose modifications...... and biochemical response after 6 months of follow up. Overall, the individualized treatment regimen did not seem to offer any advantage over the fixed dose regimen. The response to alpha interferon treatment in Danish haemophiliac patients with chronic hepatitis C immediately after treatment is comparable...... and treatment discontinuation were based upon changes in transaminase levels. Forty-seven patients enrolled received 3 MU of alpha interferon thrice weekly (TIW) for 3 months. Twenty-six nonresponders had their dose increased to 6 MU TIW for an additional 3 months, while 21 responding patients continued on 3 MU...

  11. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  12. Modulation of SOCS protein expression influences the interferon responsiveness of human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Zimmerer, Jason M; Kreiner, Melanie; Trefry, John; Bill, Matthew A; Young, Gregory S; Becknell, Brian; Carson, William E III

    2010-01-01

    Endogenously produced interferons can regulate the growth of melanoma cells and are administered exogenously as therapeutic agents to patients with advanced cancer. We investigated the role of negative regulators of interferon signaling known as suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in mediating interferon-resistance in human melanoma cells. Basal and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was evaluated by immunoblot analysis in a panel of n = 10 metastatic human melanoma cell lines, in human embryonic melanocytes (HEM), and radial or vertical growth phase melanoma cells. Over-expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins in melanoma cells was achieved using the PINCO retroviral vector, while siRNA were used to inhibit SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression. Tyr 701 -phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) was measured by intracellular flow cytometry and IFN-stimulated gene expression was measured by Real Time PCR. SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins were expressed at basal levels in melanocytes and in all melanoma cell lines examined. Expression of the SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was also enhanced following stimulation of a subset of cell lines with IFN-α or IFN-γ. Over-expression of SOCS proteins in melanoma cell lines led to significant inhibition of Tyr 701 -phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) and gene expression following stimulation with IFN-α (IFIT2, OAS-1, ISG-15) or IFN-γ (IRF1). Conversely, siRNA inhibition of SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in melanoma cells enhanced their responsiveness to interferon stimulation. These data demonstrate that SOCS proteins are expressed in human melanoma cell lines and their modulation can influence the responsiveness of melanoma cells to IFN-α and IFN-γ

  13. Modulation of gene expression in a human cell line caused by poliovirus, vaccinia virus and interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoddevik Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project was initiated to describe the response of a human embryonic fibroblast cell line to the replication of two different viruses, and, more specifically, to look for candidate genes involved in viral defense. For this purpose, the cells were synchronously infected with poliovirus in the absence or presence of interferon-alpha, or with vaccinia virus, a virus that is not inhibited by interferon. By comparing the changes in transcriptosome due to these different challenges, it should be possible to suggest genes that might be involved in defense. Results The viral titers were sufficient to yield productive infection in a majority of the cells. The cells were harvested in triplicate at various time-points, and the transcriptosome compared with mock infected cells using oligo-based, global 35 k microarrays. While there was very limited similarities in the response to the different viruses, a large proportion of the genes up-regulated by interferon-alpha were also up-regulated by poliovirus. Interferon-alpha inhibited poliovirus replication, but there were no signs of any interferons being induced by poliovirus. The observations suggest that the cells do launch an antiviral response to poliovirus in the absence of interferon. Analyses of the data led to a list of candidate antiviral genes. Functional information was limited, or absent, for most of the candidate genes. Conclusion The data are relevant for our understanding of how the cells respond to poliovirus and vaccinia virus infection. More annotations, and more microarray studies with related viruses, are required in order to narrow the list of putative defence-related genes.

  14. IRF3 and type I interferons fuel a fatal response to myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin R; Aguirre, Aaron D; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Sun, Yuan; Roh, Jason D; Ng, Richard P; Kohler, Rainer H; Arlauckas, Sean P; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Savol, Andrej; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Kelly, Mark; Fitzgibbons, Timothy P; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Mitchison, Timothy; Libby, Peter; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-12-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and type I interferons (IFNs) protect against infections and cancer, but excessive IRF3 activation and type I IFN production cause autoinflammatory conditions such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and STING-associated vasculopathy of infancy (SAVI). Myocardial infarction (MI) elicits inflammation, but the dominant molecular drivers of MI-associated inflammation remain unclear. Here we show that ischemic cell death and uptake of cell debris by macrophages in the heart fuel a fatal response to MI by activating IRF3 and type I IFN production. In mice, single-cell RNA-seq analysis of 4,215 leukocytes isolated from infarcted and non-infarcted hearts showed that MI provokes activation of an IRF3-interferon axis in a distinct population of interferon-inducible cells (IFNICs) that were classified as cardiac macrophages. Mice genetically deficient in cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), its adaptor STING, IRF3, or the type I IFN receptor IFNAR exhibited impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression and, in the case of mice deficient in IRF3 or IFNAR, improved survival after MI as compared to controls. Interruption of IRF3-dependent signaling resulted in decreased cardiac expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration of the heart, as well as in attenuated ventricular dilation and improved cardiac function. Similarly, treatment of mice with an IFNAR-neutralizing antibody after MI ablated the interferon response and improved left ventricular dysfunction and survival. These results identify IRF3 and the type I IFN response as a potential therapeutic target for post-MI cardioprotection.

  15. Interferon-Beta in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Safety in Short-Term Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hadi Maghzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: None of the approved immunomodulatory drugs in adults Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients have been officially approved for the pediatric patients and are currently used off-label in this population. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of intramuscular interferon beta1-a (Avonex® and subcutaneously injected interferon beta1-b (Betaferon® in children with definite relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. Thirteen patients aged younger than 16, who were recently diagnosed with definite RRMS according to the McDonalds criteria, were enrolled in this study. Six patients were treated with Avonex® 30 μg, intramuscularly every week, and seven patients were treated with Betaferon® 250 μg, subcutaneously every other day. All patients were treated with adult doses; initially interferon-beta was prescribed with half dose, and it was increased to full adult dose steadily. Results: Eleven girls and two boys, mean (SD age of 14.7 (1.9 years, were studied. Following nine months of using interferon-beta, nine patients (69.2% had no relapses and the remaining four, experienced only one relapse. The mean EDSS score was decreased significantly after the study period. Conclusion: The present study provides reasonable data for the use of interferon-beta in Pediatric MS due to lack of short-term complications and safety. Studies with larger sample size and longer follow up duration are required to shed light on the long term impact of the interferon-beta therapy in children.

  16. Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Caine

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71, have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (α/β interferon (IFN receptor deficient and AG129 (α/β, γ IFN receptor deficient mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m. in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05. The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection

  17. Worth their weight in gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ryssen, E.

    1986-01-01

    A radiotherapeutic method of treating tumours in, on and around the eye, developed and improved over more than a decade of research at the University of Cape Town's Medical School and at the city's Groote Schuur Hospital, has won worldwide recognition. A problem when irradiating eye tumours is that the rays can damage surrounding tissues. Professor Sealy's team overcome this problem by using tailor-made gold or stainless steel shields moulded indiridually to fit the curve of the eyeball of each patient. Depending on the location of the tumour, small radioactive seeds of iodine 125 are placed on the inner or outer curve of the shield in such a way that their rays are confined to the desired location. The number and position of the seeds is worked out to give the desired dose of radiation

  18. Gold nanoparticles: generation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    In this presentation we report the reduction of Au 3+ through chemical and free radical (e solv - ) reactions both in non-aqueous and aqueous media. In chemical reduction, the spectral nature in ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) systems was different. The band intensity of gold nanoparticles was lower in AA system. While in free radical reaction, the yield of nanoparticles was pure i.e. free from excess reactants. Under the study 60-200 nm size nanoparticles were generated, which are inert to oxygen. Using pulse radiolysis technique, the initial rate for e solv - reaction with Au 3+ was determined to be 7.6 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 . (author)

  19. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  20. DMPD: The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17702640 The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function...in dendritic celldevelopment and function. PubmedID 17702640 Title The role of th...e interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. Authors Gabriele L, O

  1. Interferon-induced transcription of a gene encoding a 15-kDA protein depends on an upstream enhancer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, N.; Evans, B.; Levy, D.; Fahey, D.; Knight, E. Jr.; Darnell, J.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A human gene encoding an interferon-induced 15-kDa protein has been isolated from a genomic library. The gene appears to be single-copy and is composed of two exons, the first of which contains the ATG translation initiation codon. In vitro nuclear run-on assays showed that the transcription rate of the gene is stimulated after interferon treatment. To analyze transcriptional regulatory sequences, the authors constructed recombinant plasmids for use in transient transfection assays of HeLa cells. Constructs containing 115 nucleotides 5' to the transcription initiation site were found to be fully inducible by interferon. Assays of deletion mutants identified a critical element for interferon induction located between -115 and -96, just upstream of the CCAAT box. Moreover, a DNA fragment including this region can confer interferon inducibility on a heterologous promoter (thymidine kinase) when cloned in either orientation upstream of the gene or downstream of the gene. These are properties characteristic of an enhancer element that is active only after treatment with interferon. This regulatory sequence may be shared by a group of interferon-induced genes, since a very similar sequence is present within the functional region near the RNA start site of another interferon-induced gene

  2. Clinical and virological effects of high-dose recombinant interferon-alpha in disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Schattenkerk, J. K.; Boucher, C. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, K. H.; Danner, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness and antiretroviral activities of interferon-alpha in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomised, phase-II clinical trial. 28 patients were treated with high-dose (27-36 MU) human recombinant interferon-alpha 2a subcutaneously every day for 8 weeks. In patients

  3. DMPD: Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12213596 Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regula...(.html) (.csml) Show Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3.... PubmedID 12213596 Title Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of

  4. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  5. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Bjerrum, O W; Pallisgaard, N

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia chromos...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response....

  6. Increased expression of beta 2-microglobulin and histocompatibility antigens on human lymphoid cells induced by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Heron, I; Berg, K

    1982-01-01

    Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of interferon for various incubation periods. Subsequently, the amount of beta 2-Microglobulin and HLA-A, B and C surface antigens was estimated by means of quantitative immunofluorescence (flow...... cytofluorometry) and by a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-Microglobulin. It was found that the amounts of these MHC antigens increased in a dose and time-dependent way after interferon treatment. Furthermore, the influence of different temperatures on this IFN-induced increase in beta 2-Microglobulin was gradually...

  7. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  8. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  9. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  10. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  11. The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially – associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve metamorphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedimentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many

  12. Azathioprine versus Beta Interferons for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicentre Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massacesi, Luca; Tramacere, Irene; Amoroso, Salvatore; Battaglia, Mario A.; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Filippini, Graziella; La Mantia, Loredana; Repice, Anna; Solari, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Milanese, Clara

    2014-01-01

    For almost three decades in many countries azathioprine has been used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However its efficacy was usually considered marginal and following approval of β interferons for this indication it was no longer recommended as first line treatment, even if presently no conclusive direct β interferon-azathioprine comparison exists. To compare azathioprine efficacy versus the currently available β interferons in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial was conducted in 30 Italian multiple sclerosis centers. Eligible patients (relapsing-remitting course; ≥2 relapses in the last 2 years) were randomly assigned to azathioprine or β interferons. The primary outcome was annualized relapse rate ratio (RR) over 2 years. Key secondary outcome was number of new brain MRI lesions. Patients (n = 150) were randomized in 2 groups (77 azathioprine, 73 β interferons). At 2 years, clinical evaluation was completed in 127 patients (62 azathioprine, 65 β interferons). Annualized relapse rate was 0.26 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.19–0.37) in the azathioprine and 0.39 (95% CI 0.30–0.51) in the interferon group. Non-inferiority analysis showed that azathioprine was at least as effective as β interferons (relapse RRAZA/IFN 0.67, one-sided 95% CI 0.96; p<0.01). MRI outcomes were analyzed in 97 patients (50 azathioprine and 47 β interferons). Annualized new T2 lesion rate was 0.76 (95% CI 0.61–0.95) in the azathioprine and 0.69 (95% CI 0.54–0.88) in the interferon group. Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events were higher (20.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.03) in the azathioprine than in the interferon group, and concentrated within the first months of treatment, whereas in the interferon group discontinuations occurred mainly during the second year. The results of this study indicate that efficacy of azathioprine is not inferior to that of

  13. Gold nanoparticles produced in a microalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangpipat, Tiyaporn; Beattie, Isabel R.; Chisti, Yusuf; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient biological route to production of gold nanoparticles which allows the nanoparticles to be easily recovered remains elusive. Live cells of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris were incubated with a solution of gold chloride and harvested by centrifugation. Nanoparticles inside intact cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and confirmed to be metallic gold by synchrotron based X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These intracellular gold nanoparticles were 40–60 nm in diameter. At a concentration of 1.4% Au in the alga, a better than 97% recovery of the gold from solution was achieved. A maximum of 4.2% Au in the alga was obtained. Exposure of C. vulgaris to solutions containing dissolved salts of palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium also resulted in the production of the corresponding nanoparticles within the cells. These were surmised to be also metallic, but were produced at a much lower intracellular concentration than achieved with gold. Iridium was apparently toxic to the alga. No nanoparticles were observed using platinum solutions. C. vulgaris provides a possible route to large scale production of gold nanoparticles.

  14. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  15. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  16. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  17. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the type I interferon pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Wu, Jiaxi; Du, Fenghe; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Zhijian J

    2013-02-15

    The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal that triggers host immune responses such as the production of type I interferons. Cytosolic DNA induces interferons through the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP), which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING. Through biochemical fractionation and quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified a cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which belongs to the nucleotidyltransferase family. Overexpression of cGAS activated the transcription factor IRF3 and induced interferon-β in a STING-dependent manner. Knockdown of cGAS inhibited IRF3 activation and interferon-β induction by DNA transfection or DNA virus infection. cGAS bound to DNA in the cytoplasm and catalyzed cGAMP synthesis. These results indicate that cGAS is a cytosolic DNA sensor that induces interferons by producing the second messenger cGAMP.

  18. Recommendations for clinical use of data on neutralising antibodies to interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polman, Chris H; Bertolotto, Antonio; Deisenhammer, Florian

    2010-01-01

    in MS and NAbs to interferon-beta therapy convened in Amsterdam, Netherlands, under the auspices of the Neutralizing Antibodies on Interferon beta in Multiple Sclerosis consortium, a European-based project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, to review and discuss data on NAbs......The identification of factors that can affect the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is important. For the available interferon-beta products, neutralising antibodies (NAb) have been shown to affect treatment efficacy. In June, 2009, a panel of experts...... and their practical consequences for the treatment of patients with MS on interferon beta. The panel believed that information about NAbs and other markers of biological activity of interferons (ie, myxovirus resistance protein A [MxA]) can be integrated with clinical and imaging indicators to guide individual...

  19. A case of reversible dilated cardiomyopathy after alpha-interferon therapy in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Akiko; Ohashi, Masuo; Sugiyama, Masaya; Ueda, Ryuzo; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2002-12-01

    A 47-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma underwent nephrectomy, and postoperative chemotherapy was performed with recombinant alpha-interferon. Five years later, he experienced dyspnea during physical exertion. An echocardiogram revealed dilatation and systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy showed diffuse heterogeneous perfusion. We diagnosed congestive heart failure because of cardiomyopathy induced by alpha-interferon therapy. Withdrawal of interferon therapy and the combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, diuretics, and digitalis improved left ventricular systolic function. Furthermore, myocardial scintigraphy using [123I] beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) or [123 I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) revealed normal perfusion after the improvement of congestive heart failure. This is a rare case of interferon-induced cardiomyopathy that resulted in normal myocardial images in 123I-BMIPP and 123I-MIBG scintigrams after withdrawal of interferon therapy.

  20. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  1. Electrochemical Oxidation of Glycerol Using Gold Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Rozali Othman; Amirah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, potential linear V and chronocuolometry methods were carried out to gain electrochemical behavior of glycerol at a gold electrode. Potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid were chosen to be the electrolyte for the electro-oxidation of this organic compound. Besides gold plate electrode, gold composite electrode (Au-PVC) was also used as the working electrode. The Au-PVC composite electrode was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine its morphological aspects before and after used in electrochemical oxidation of glycerol. In alkaline solution, the adsorption of hydroxide species onto the surface of both gold plate and composite Au-PVC electrodes occurs at potential around 500 mV vs SCE. However, at gold plate electrode, there was a small, broad peak before the drastic escalation of current densities which indicates the charge transfer of the chemisorbed OH - anion. In acidic media, the gold oxide was formed after potential 1.0 V. From the cyclic voltammogram glycerol undergo oxidation twice in potassium hydroxide at gold plate and Au-PVC composite electrodes, while in sulfuric acid, oxidation reaction happened once for glycerol on the gold plate electrode. Overall, electrochemical oxidation of glycerol was more effective in alkaline media. Tafel graph which plotted from potential linear V method shows that Au-PVC composite electrode is better than gold plate electrode for the electro-oxidation of glycerol in alkaline solution. Electrochemical oxidation of glycerol products as analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) produced several carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds. (author)

  2. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuo; He, Dawei; Zhang, Xiqing; Duan, Jiahua; Wu, Hongpeng; Xu, Haiteng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Single sheets of functionalized graphene oxide are derived through chemical exfoliation of natural flake graphite. We present an effective synthetic method of graphene-gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) was used to measure the thickness of the individual GO nanosheet. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy was used to verify the attachment of oxygen functionalities on the surface of graphene oxide. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) data revealed the average diameters of the gold colloids and characterized the composite particles situation. Absorption spectroscopy showed that before and after synthesis the gold particle size did not change. Our studies indicate that the hybrid is potential substrates for catalysts and biosensors.

  3. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs

  4. The giant Kalgoorlie Gold Field revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Mary Vielreicher

    2016-05-01

    Direct timing constraints on gold mineralization indicate that Fimiston- and Mt Charlotte-style mineralization formed within a relative short period of time around 2.64 Ga, and, as such, support a model of progressive deformation of a rheologically heterogeneous rock package late in the structural history. Fluid characteristics, combined with the structural, metamorphic and absolute timing, support description of gold mineralization at the Golden Mile as orogenic and mesozonal, and this allows direct correlation with orogenic gold deposits worldwide, which classically formed during accretion along convergent margins throughout Earth history.

  5. Nondestructive analysis of the gold quarter liras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, C.; Guerol, A.; Demir, L.; Sahin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have prepared seven Au-Cu standards in the concentration range of 18-24 (as carat) for nondestructive control of gold quarter liras. Some calibration curves for quantitative analysis of Au in the gold quarter liras that commercially present in Turkey have been plotted using these standard samples. The characteristic X-rays of Au and Cu emitted from these standard samples and the test sample with known composition are recorded by using a Ge(Li) detector. These calibration curves provide a nondestructive analysis of gold quarter liras with the uncertainties about 1.18%. (author)

  6. Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Ahmad

    1989-12-01

    Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

  7. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  8. Gold nanoparticles extraction from dielectric scattering background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Wang, Jingxin

    2014-11-01

    The unique advantages such as brightness, non-photobleaching, good bio-compatibility make gold nanoparticles desirable labels and play important roles in biotech and related research and applications. Distinguishing gold nanoparticles from other dielectric scattering particles is of more importance, especially in bio-tracing and imaging. The enhancement image results from the localized surface plasmon resonance associated with gold nanopartilces makes themselves distinguishable from other dielectric particles, based on which, we propose a dual-wavelength detection method by employing a high sensitive cross-polarization microscopy.

  9. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  10. Nuclear analyses of the Pietroasa gold hoard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Besliu, C.

    1999-01-01

    By means of nuclear analyses the concentrations of Au, Ag, Cu, Ir, Os, Pt, Co and Hg were measured in the 12 artifacts of the gold hoard discovered in 1837 at Pietroasa, Buzau country in Romania. The concentrations of the first four elements were used to compare different stylistic groups assumed by historians. Comparisons with gold nuggets from the old Dacian territory and gold Roman imperial coins were also made. A good agreement was found with the oldest hypothesis which considers that the hoard is represented by three styles appropriated mainly by the Goths. (author)

  11. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus

  12. Meta-analysis of mutations in the NS5A gene and hepatitis C virus resistance to interferon therapy: uniting discordant conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Janke; Spaan, Willy J. M.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotype 1B responds poorly to treatment with interferon, in contrast to the more interferon-sensitive genotypes 2 and 3. Studies on combination therapy regimens with PEG-interferon and ribavirin report sustained response rates that generally do not exceed 50%, in contrast to

  13. Clinical and serological manifestations associated with interferon-α levels in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Postal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum levels of interferon alpha in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients, their first-degree relatives and healthy controls and to evaluate the associations between serum interferon alpha and disease activity, laboratory findings and treatment features. METHODS: We screened consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a longitudinal cohort at the pediatric rheumatology unit of the State University of Campinas between 2009 and 2010. All patients demonstrated disease onset before the age of 16. Disease status was assessed according to the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI. Interferon alpha levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. RESULTS: We included 57 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (mean age 17.33±4.50, 64 firstdegree relatives (mean age 39.95±5.66, and 57 healthy (mean age 19.30±4.97 controls. Serum interferon alpha levels were significantly increased in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to their firstdegree relatives and healthy controls. Interferon alpha levels were significantly increased in patients with positive dsDNA antibodies, patients with cutaneous vasculitis, patients with new malar rash and patients who were not receiving medication. Interferon alpha levels correlated with C3 levels and systemic lupus erythematosus Disease Activity Index scores. In addition, we observed an inverse correlation between patient age and interferon alpha levels. CONCLUSION: Interferon alpha may play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, especially in cutaneous manifestations and dsDNA antibody formation. The observation that interferon alpha levels are increased in patients who are not taking medication should be investigated in

  14. Sequence diversity of hepatitis C virus 6a within the extended interferon sensitivity-determining region correlates with interferon-alpha/ribavirin treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel X M; Chan, Paul K S; Zhang, Tiejun; Tully, Damien C; Tam, John S

    2010-10-01

    Studies on the association between sequence variability of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of hepatitis C virus and the outcome of treatment have reached conflicting results. In this study, 25 patients infected with HCV 6a who had received interferon-alpha/ribavirin combination treatment were analyzed for the sequence variations. 14 of them had the full genome sequences obtained from a previous study, whereas the other 11 samples were sequenced for the extended ISDR (eISDR). This eISDR fragment covers 192 bp (64 amino acids) upstream and 201 bp (67 amino acids) downstream from the ISDR previously defined for HCV 1b. The comparison between interferon-alpha resistance and response groups for the amino acid mutations located in the full genome (6 and 8 patients respectively) as well as the mutations located in the eISDR (10 and 15 patients respectively) showed that the mutations I2160V, I2256V, V2292I (Pc) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanuy, Imma; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox was accomplished 30 yr ago, but poxviral infections still represent a public health concern due to the potential release of variola virus or the emergence of zoonotic poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus. A critical determinant of poxvirus virulence is the inhibition of interferons (IFNs) by the virus-encoded type I IFN-binding protein (IFNα/βBP). This immunomodulatory protein is secreted and has the unique property of interacting with the cell surface in order to prevent IFN-mediated antiviral responses. However, the mechanism of its attachment to the cell surface remains unknown. Using surface plasmon resonance and cell-binding assays, we report that the IFNα/βBP from vaccinia virus, the smallpox vaccine, interacts with cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Analysis of the contribution of different regions of the protein to cell surface binding demonstrated that clusters of basic residues in the first immunoglobulin domain mediate GAG interactions. Furthermore, mutation of the GAG-interaction motifs does not affect its IFN-binding and -blocking capacity. Functional conservation of GAG-binding sites is demonstrated for the IFNα/βBP from variola and monkeypox viruses, extending our understanding of immune modulation by the most virulent human poxviruses. These results are relevant for the design of improved vaccines and intervention strategies.—Montanuy, I., Alejo, A., Alcami, A. Glycosaminoglycans mediate retention of the poxvirus type I interferon binding protein at the cell surface to locally block interferon antiviral responses. PMID:21372110

  16. Coal-oil gold agglomeration assisted flotation to recover gold from refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A.; Yue, C.

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of coal-oil gold agglomeration (CGA) assisted flotation to recover gold from a refractory ore. The ore with the grade of 2-5 g/t was tested with the CGA-flotation process in six different size fractions from 38 to 300 urn using different collector types and dosages. In addition, the flotation without CGA was performed under the same condition for comparison. The results showed that the higher gold grade and recovery were achieved by applying the CGA-flotation, compared with the flotation without CGA. More than 20-60 times grade increase from the head grade was obtained with CGA-flotation. The elemental analysis of gold and sulphur explained their relationship with gold recovery. The results well indicated the applicability of CGA to upgrade the refractory gold ore.

  17. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  18. Effects of dissolucytotic gold ions on recovering brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Larsen, Agnete

    2010-04-01

    Recent experimental research has shown that metallic gold releases charged gold atoms when placed intracerebrally and that the liberated gold ions affect inflammation in the brain. The observations suggest that metallic gold can be used as a safe suppressor of inflammation in the central nervous system.

  19. Electroplating of gold using a sulfite-based electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, E.; Jacobs, B.; Falcone, S.; Geluk, E.J.; Karouta, F.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Besten, den J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Electroplating of gold is often used in optoelectronic and microelectronic devices for air-bridges, heat-sinks or gold-bumps for flip-chip techniques. The gold-cyanide electrolytes, which are commonly used in gold-electroplating, are toxic and attack resist patterns causing cracks during the plating

  20. A highly sensitive label-free electrochemical aptasensor for interferon-gamma detection based on graphene controlled assembly and nuclease cleavage-assisted target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Genping; Wang, Yonghong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Liu, Jinquan; Du, Yudan

    2013-06-15

    We report here a highly sensitive and label-free electrochemical aptasensing technology for detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) based on graphene controlled assembly and enzyme cleavage-assisted target recycling amplification strategy. In this work, in the absence of IFN-γ, the graphene could not be assembled onto the 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) modified gold electrode because the IFN-γ binding aptamer was strongly adsorbed on the graphene due to the strong π-π interaction. Thus the electronic transmission was blocked (eT OFF). However, the presence of target IFN-γ and DNase I led to desorption of aptamer from the graphene surface and further cleavage of the aptamer, thereby releasing the IFN-γ. The released IFN-γ could then re-attack other aptamers on the graphene, resulting in the successive release of the aptamers from the graphene. At the same time, the "naked" graphene could be assembled onto the MHA modified gold electrode with hydrophobic interaction and π-conjunction, mediating the electron transfer between the electrode and the electroactive indicator. Then, measurable electrochemical signals were generated (eT ON), which was related to the concentration of the IFN-γ. By taking advantages of graphene and enzyme cleavage-assisted target recycling amplification, the developed label-free electrochemical aptasensing technology showed a linear response to concentration of IFN-γ range from 0.1 to 0.7 pM. The detection limit of IFN-γ was determined to be 0.065 pM. Moreover, this aptasensor shows good selectivity toward the target in the presence of other relevant proteins. Our strategy thus opens new opportunities for label-free and amplified detection of other kinds of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on gold detection in Wenyu gold mine with XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liuchun

    1988-01-01

    A portable X ray fluorescence analyzer was used for detecting fluorcescent X rays from the elements associated with gold ores. Fe, As and Ni were chosen to be the indicator elements to analyse rock samples in Wenyu gold mine. Optimum indicators were determined, and it had proved to be successful to detect gold indirectly by measuring the yields of characteristic X rays of the elements. The method provided also valuable information on geology mapping and deposits forming environment

  2. The relationships between IFNL4 genotype, intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression and interferon treatment response differs in HCV-1 compared with HCV-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J A; Congiu, M; Bonanzinga, S; Sandhu, M K; Kia, Y H; Bell, S J; Nguyen, T; Iser, D M; Visvanathan, K; Sievert, W; Bowden, D S; Desmond, P V; Thompson, A J

    2015-08-01

    The biological mechanism underlying the association between IFNL4/IFNL3 polymorphism and peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) response in HCV-1 is thought to involve differential intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression. HCV-3 is more sensitive to PR, but there are no studies of the association between IFNL4 polymorphism, PR treatment response and liver interferon-stimulated gene expression in HCV-3. We evaluated the association between IFNL4/IFNL3 genotypes, PR treatment outcomes and intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression, according to HCV genotype. HCV-1 and HCV-3 patients who received PR therapy were identified. IFNL3 (rs12979860) and IFNL4 genotype (rs368234815) were determined. A second cohort with stored liver specimens was identified. Expression of ISGs was measured by rt-PCR. Two hundred and fifty-nine patients were identified: 55% HCV-1, 45% HCV-3. IFNL4 genotype frequency was TT/TT 44%, TT/ΔG 42% andΔG/ΔG 14%. Linkage disequilibrium with IFNL3 genotype was high (r(2) = 0.98). The association between IFNL4 genotype and PR response was attenuated in HCV-3 vs. HCV-1 (HCV-3: SVR 89% vs. 76% vs. 72% for TT/TT vs. TT/ΔG vs. ΔG/ΔG, P = 0.09; HCV-1: SVR: 82% vs. 29% vs. 24%, P < 0.001). Intrahepatic ISG expression was evaluated in 92 patients; 61% HCV-1. The association between IFNL4 genotype and liver ISG expression was significantly different for HCV-3 vs. HCV-1 (P-value for interaction = 0.046), with levels of interferon-stimulated gene expression being highest in HCV-1 patients who carried a poor-response IFNL4 genotype. The relationship between IFNL4 genotype and PR treatment response as well as intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression differs between HCV-1 and HCV-3. These data suggest fundamental differences in host-virus interactions according to HCV genotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  4. Formation of gold nanorods and gold nanorod films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsyuk, L.L.; Kulakovich, O.S.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E.V.; Gaponenko, S.V.; Vashchenko, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of gold nanorods as well as thin films prepared via electrostatic deposition of gold nanorods has been investigated. The obtained gold nanorods films have been used as substrates for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of sulfur-free organic molecules mitoxantrone and malachite green as well as inorganic malachite microcrystals for the first time. The additional modification of films with L-cysteine allows one to significantly extend the use of gold nanorods for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis. (authors)

  5. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  6. Poly-thiosemicarbazide membrane for gold recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Yapici, Tahir; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    A novel polymeric membrane adsorber with a high density of adsorption sites that can selectively capture Au(III) ions, is proposed as an efficient alternative to recover gold from dilute solutions. Poly-thiosemicarbazide (PTSC), a polymer

  7. Lamellar multilayer hexadecylaniline-modified gold nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    standard Wilhelmy plate was used for surface pressure sensing. Multilayer ... carried out on a JEOL model 1200EX instrument operated at an accelerating voltage of ... the gold nanoparticles within domains (and reorganization of the domains ...

  8. A new route to gold nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Ferenc; Henning, Ricky; Sarhan, Radwan M.; Prietzel, Claudia; Bargheer, Matias; Koetz, Joachim

    2018-05-01

    Catanionic vesicles spontaneously formed by mixing the anionic surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as a reducing medium to produce gold clusters, which are embedded and well-ordered into the template phase. The gold clusters can be used as seeds in the growth process that follows by adding ascorbic acid as a mild reducing component. When the ascorbic acid was added very slowly in an ice bath round-edged gold nanoflowers were produced. When the same experiments were performed at room temperature in the presence of Ag+ ions, sharp-edged nanoflowers could be synthesized. The mechanism of nanoparticle formation can be understood to be a non-diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process of preordered gold nanoparticles embedded in catanionic vesicle fragments. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments show an excellent enhancement factor of 1.7 · 105 for the nanoflowers deposited on a silicon wafer.

  9. Deep gold mine fracture zone behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the behaviour of the fracture zone surrounding deep level gold mine stopes is detailed in three main sections of this report. Section 2 outlines the ongoing study of fundamental fracture process and their numerical...

  10. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...

  11. Adsorption-induced restructuring of gold nanochains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly with the st......The chemical properties of single-atomic chains of gold atoms are investigated using density functional calculations. The nanochains are shown to be unusually chemically active with strong chemisorption of oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. The chemisorption energies vary significantly...... with the strain/stress conditions for the chain. Oxygen atoms are found to energetically prefer to get incorporated into a chain forming a new type of gold-oxygen nanochain with a conductance of one quantum unit. We suggest that the long bond lengths observed in electron microscopy investigations of gold chains...

  12. Synthesis method of asymmetric gold particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Murata, Michael; Hahm, Eunil; Lee, Luke P

    2017-06-07

    Asymmetric particles can exhibit unique properties. However, reported synthesis methods for asymmetric particles hinder their application because these methods have a limited scale and lack the ability to afford particles of varied shapes. Herein, we report a novel synthetic method which has the potential to produce large quantities of asymmetric particles. Asymmetric rose-shaped gold particles were fabricated as a proof of concept experiment. First, silica nanoparticles (NPs) were bound to a hydrophobic micro-sized polymer containing 2-chlorotritylchloride linkers (2-CTC resin). Then, half-planar gold particles with rose-shaped and polyhedral structures were prepared on the silica particles on the 2-CTC resin. Particle size was controlled by the concentration of the gold source. The asymmetric particles were easily cleaved from the resin without aggregation. We confirmed that gold was grown on the silica NPs. This facile method for synthesizing asymmetric particles has great potential for materials science.

  13. Biological synthesis and characterization of intracellular gold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thods of reduction of metal ions using plants or microorganisms are often ... have several advantages over bacteria, they are often pre- ferred. ... in static condition for a period of 7 days. ... work was focused on the production of intracellular gold.

  14. Interferon production and signaling pathways are antagonized during henipavirus infection of fruit bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R Virtue

    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses. Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system.

  15. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Enhanced gamma interferon responses of mouse spleen cells following immunotherapy for tuberculosis relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Olga; Vilaplana, Cristina; Guirado, Evelyn; Díaz, Jorge; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-11-01

    Gamma interferon responses of spleen cells in mice were examined during postchemotherapy relapse of intraperitoneally induced latent tuberculous infection. The mycobacterial extract RUTI, which prevented the relapse, significantly enhanced the immune responses to secreted and structural recombinant mycobacterial antigens, suggesting that RUTI-mediated protection was mediated by activated T cells.

  17. Use of the johnin PPD interferon-gamma assay in control of bovine paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Mikkelsen, Heidi; Grell, Susanne N.

    2012-01-01

    Although the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay for measurements of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to paratuberculosis PPD (johnin) has been available for close to 20 years, the assay has not yet emerged as the long desired test to identify infected animals at an early time point. Among other...

  18. Interferon gamma peptidomimetic targeted to hepatic stellate cells ameliorates acute and chronic liver fibrosis in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Ruchi; Prakash, Jai; De Ruiter, Marieke; Poelstra, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of pro-fibrotic activities of these cells might lead to an effective therapy for this disease. Among the potent antifibrotics, interferon gamma (IFN gamma), a proinflammatory

  19. Does adjuvant systemic therapy with interferon-alpha for stage II-III melanoma prolong survival?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2003-01-01

    The experience with interferon-alpha in malignant melanoma resembles, to some degree, the experience with various kinds of adjuvant immunotherapeutic agents where 25 years of phase III trials of adjuvant therapy in stage II-IIII melanoma have not defined a standard therapy. Most trials failed to

  20. Interferon gamma peptidomimetic targeted to hepatic stellate cells ameliorates acute and chronic liver fibrosis in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Ruchi; Prakash, Jai; de Ruiter, Marieke; Poelstra, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of pro-fibrotic activities of these cells might lead to an effective therapy for this disease. Among the potent anti-fibrotics, interferon gamma (IFNγ), a proinflammatory cytokine, is

  1. Interferon-tau and oxytocin receptor in bovien placentomes through out pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantzer, Vibeke; Ivell, R.; Balvers, M.

    Objective: Interferon-tau (IFNT) secreted by the conceptus is an important factor in the maintenance of luteal function in cows during early pregnancy until day 36. In this multiplex, synepitheliochorial placenta the expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is resumed in the intercaruncular but not....../or OXTR expression until parturition. Supported by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to R.I....

  2. Interleukin 12 in part regulates gamma interferon release in human whole blood stimulated with Leptospira interrogans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Groenendijk, Martijn R.; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Heat-killed pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar rachmati induced the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and the IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40) and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human whole blood in vitro. The production of IFN-gamma was largely dependent on

  3. Nitric oxide production and monoamine oxidase activity in cancer patients during interferon-a therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fekkes (Durk); A.R. van Gool (Arthur); M. Bannink (Marjolein); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); W.H.J. Kruit (Wim); B. van der Holt (Bronno); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); M.W. Hengeveld (Michiel); G. Stoter (Gerrit)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Both increased and decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis have been reported in patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Animal studies showed that IFN-alpha administration results in increased levels of biogenic amines, subsequent activation of monoamine oxidases

  4. Specific Interferon-¿ detection for the diagnosis of previous Q fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, T.; Joosten, L.A.; Herremans, T.; Haan, A.F.J.; Ammerdorffer, A.; Rumke, H.C.; Wijkmans, C.; Roest, H.I.J.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, van der J.W.; Sprong, T.; Deuren, van M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current practice for diagnosis of Q fever, caused by the intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii, relies mainly on serology and, in prevaccination assessment, on skin tests (STs), which both have drawbacks. In this study, C. burnetii-specific interferon ¿ (IFN-¿) production was used as

  5. Combined zidovudine and interferon-alpha treatment in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Danner, S. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Lange, J. M.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K.; Veenhof, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of addition of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to zidovudine in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomized, phase II clinical trial. Twenty-one patients were treated with oral zidovudine (600 mg daily) and IFN-alpha was increased to 18 MU daily for

  6. Enzyme-linked immunospot: an alternative method for the detection of interferon gamma in Johne's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bosward, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    To date, the sensitivity of the interferon gamma (IFN-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Johne's disease (JD) has been poor, especially in the early stages of disease. To improve the sensitivity of IFN- detection in the early stages of infection, an alternate assay needs to be ...

  7. Cost comparison of treating chronic hepatitis C genotype one with pegylated interferons in Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); O. Golubovska (Olha); O. Duda (Oleksandr); L. Dudar (Larisa); S. Fedorchenko (Sergiy); O. Zaliska (Ožlha); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBased on the pivotal trial showing no clinicallyrelevant differences between pegylated interferon α-2b (Peg-α-2b) and α-2a (Peg-α-2a) combined with ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in Ukraine, a cost-minimization analysis was performed using

  8. Elevation in Type I Interferons Inhibits HCN1 and Slows Cortical Neuronal Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadler, Konstantin; Bierwirth, Claudia; Stoenica, Luminita; Battefeld, Arne; Reetz, Olivia; Mix, Eilhard; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Velmans, Tanja; Rosenberger, Karen; Bräuer, Anja U.; Lehnardt, Seija; Nitsch, Robert; Budt, Matthias; Wolff, Thorsten; Kole, Maarten H. P.; Strauss, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation involves the generation of inducible cytokines such as interferons (IFNs) and alterations in brain activity, yet the interplay of both is not well understood. Here, we show that in vivo elevation of IFNs by viral brain infection reduced

  9. Cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures induced by interferon beta in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sobol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN beta is an active ingredient of five out of twelve disease modifying treatments approved for MS. We report a case of IFN-beta-induced cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures in a patient recently diagnosed with MS.

  10. Polymorphisms in an interferon-gamma receptor-1 gene marker and susceptibility to periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, DA; Loos, BG; Boman, U; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Velden, U; Schenck, K; Dembic, Z

    2003-01-01

    Chronic marginal periodontitis is an inflammatory condition in which the supporting tissues of the teeth are destroyed. Interferon (IFN)-gamma is a cytokine that plays a pivotal role in the defense against infection, and mutations in the gene coding for the ligand binding chain (alpha, RI) of the

  11. Application of Orem self-care theory on injection of interferon antiviral therapy in patients with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guided by Orem self-care theory, the nursing staff evaluate the injection of interferon antiviral therapy in patients, finding that patients with the presence of self-care was insufficient, so effective nursing care in different periods of application of different nursing system was necessary.

  12. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  13. Combination therapy with interferon and JAK1-2 inhibitor is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, M E; de Stricker, K; Kjær, L

    2014-01-01

    We report a 55 year old woman with post-ET PV for 12 years, who experienced resolution of severe constitutional symptoms within 3 days, a marked reduction in splenomegaly and a rapid decline in the JAK2V617F allele burden during combination therapy with interferon-alpha2a and ruxolitinib. Within ...

  14. Diminished interferon-gamma production and responsiveness after endotoxin administration to healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Sebastiaan; Lauw, Fanny N.; Branger, Judith; van den Blink, Bernt; van der Poll, Tom

    2002-01-01

    To obtain insight in the capacity of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant host to produce interferon (IFN)-gamma and to respond to this cytokine, whole blood was obtained from healthy humans before and 4 h after intravenous injection of LPS (4 ng/kg) and stimulated ex vivo. LPS exposure in vivo

  15. Antiviral activity of ovine interferon tau 4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Jayaramaiah; Park, Sun Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Chungsu; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Hyang-Sim

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease in most parts of the world and new therapeutic agents are needed to protect the animals before vaccination can trigger the host immune response. Although several interferons have been used for their antiviral activities against Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), ovine interferon tau 4 (OvIFN-τ4), with a broad-spectrum of action, cross-species antiviral activity, and lower incidence of toxicity in comparison to other type І interferons, has not yet been evaluated for this indication. This is the first study to evaluate the antiviral activity of OvIFN-τ4 against various strains of FMDV. The effective anti-cytopathic concentration of OvIFN-τ4 and its effectiveness pre- and post-infection with FMDV were tested in vitro in LFBK cells. In vivo activity of OvIFN-τ4 was then confirmed in a mouse model of infection. OvIFN-τ4 at a concentration of 500 ng, protected mice until 5days post-FMDV challenge and provided 90% protection for 10 days following FMDV challenge. These results suggest that OvIFN-τ4 could be used as an alternative to other interferons or antiviral agents at the time of FMD outbreak. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Pallisgaard, N.; Andersen, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  17. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  18. Chronic myeloid leukemia and interferon-alpha : a study of complete cytogenetic responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifazi, F; de Vivo, A; Rosti, G; Guilhot, F; Guilhot, J; Trabacchi, E; Hehlmann, R; Hochhaus, A; Shepherd, PCA; Steegmann, JL; Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Thaler, J; Simonsson, B; Louwagie, A; Reiffers, J; Mahon, FX; Montefusco, E; Alimena, G; Hasford, J; Richards, S; Saglio, G; Testoni, N; Martinelli, G; Tura, S; Baccarani, M

    2001-01-01

    Achieving a complete cytogenetic response (CCgR) is a major target in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CIVIL) with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), but CCgRs are rare. The mean CCgR rate is 13%, in a range of 5% to 33%. A collaborative study of 9 European Union countries has led to the

  19. Severe depression following á-interferon usage in a patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... following á-interferon usage in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia. ... Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), with a median age of 40 years, is one of the ... as a side effect of á-IFN in the treatment of CML Method: Clinical and laboratory ...

  20. Interferon lambda 4 signals via the IFNλ receptor to regulate antiviral activity against HCV and coronaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamming, Ole Jensen; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Vieyres, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response to ...

  1. Fluorouracil continuous infusion plus alfa interferon plus oral folinic acid in advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, C. J.; de Mulder, P. H.; Burghouts, J. T.; Wagener, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several reports on fluorouracil (5-FU) and alfa interferon (IFN-alpha) combination therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer have been published. In our study high-dose continuous infusion 5-FU (60 mg/kg per 48 hours), oral folinic acid (FA) (8 x 90 mg during 5-FU), and IFN-alpha three

  2. Long-term impact of interferon beta-1b in patients with CIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edan, G; Kappos, L; Montalbán, X

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term impact of early treatment initiation of interferon beta-1b (IFNB1b, Betaferon/Betaseron) in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In the original placebo-controlled phase of BENEFIT, patients were randomised to IFNB1b 250 μg...

  3. Uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.

  4. The Modern Monetary System and Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Rubtsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the nature of modern money, analyzes the mechanism of its creation, showing that it is basically generated by credit and the principle of partial bank reserve. The article draws comparative parallels between trade money based on gold and contemporary, credit money; the author quotes leading bankers and finance experts on the need for partial return to the principles of functioning of the gold standard as the most effective institute of regulating the monetary system in society.

  5. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  6. Synthesis of radioactive gold nanoparticle in surfactant medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadesh Mandal

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of radioactive gold nanoparticle in surfactant medium. Proton irradiated stable 197 Au and radioactive 198 Au were simultaneously used for production of radioactive gold nanoparticle. Face centered cubic gold nanoparticles with size of 4-50 nm were found in proton irradiated gold foil. However, the size of nanoparticle varies with pH using both stable and radioactive gold. (author)

  7. A type I interferon signature characterizes chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascio, Federica; Pontrelli, Paola; Accetturo, Matteo; Oranger, Annarita; Gigante, Margherita; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gigante, Maddalena; Zito, Anna; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Ranieri, Elena; Stallone, Giovanni; Gesualdo, Loreto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) represents the main cause of kidney graft loss. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition, we characterized the molecular signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and, separately, of CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from CAMR patients, compared to kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology. We enrolled 29 patients with biopsy-proven CAMR, 29 stable transplant recipients (controls), and 8 transplant recipients with clinical and histological evidence of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. Messenger RNA and microRNA profiling of PBMCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was performed using Agilent microarrays in eight randomly selected patients per group from CAMR and control subjects. Results were evaluated statistically and by functional pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and validated in the remaining subjects. In PBMCs, 45 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups, most of which were up-regulated in CAMR and were involved in type I interferon signalling. In the same patients, 16 microRNAs were down-regulated in CAMR subjects compared to controls: four were predicted modulators of six mRNAs identified in the transcriptional analysis. In silico functional analysis supported the involvement of type I interferon signalling. To further confirm this result, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in an independent group of patients, observing that the activation of type I interferon signalling was a specific hallmark of CAMR. In addition, in CAMR patients, we detected a reduction of circulating BDCA2(+) dendritic cells, the natural type I interferon-producing cells, and their recruitment into the graft along with increased expression of MXA, a type I interferon-induced protein, at the tubulointerstitial and vascular level. Finally, interferon alpha mRNA expression was significantly increased in CAMR compared to control

  8. Study on Sumbawa gold recovery using centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdana, A. D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.; Bendiyasa, I. M.; Prijambada, I. D.; Hamada, F.; Sachiko, T.

    2018-01-01

    The Artisanal Small Gold Mining in Sumbawa has been processing gold with mercury (Hg), which poses a serious threat to the mining and global environment. One method of gold processing that does not use mercury is by gravity method. Before processing the ore first performed an analysis of Mineragraphy and analysis of compound with XRD. Mineragraphy results show that gold is associated with chalcopyrite and covelite and is a single particle (native) on size 58.8 μm, 117 μm up to 294 μm. characterization with XRD shows that the Sumbawa Gold Ore is composed of quartz, pyrite, pyroxene, and sericite compounds. Sentrifugation is one of separation equipment of gravity method to increase concentrate based on difference of specific gravity. The optimum concentration result is influenced by several variables, such as water flow rate and particle size. In this present research, the range of flow rate is 5 lpm and 10 lpm, the particle size - 100 + 200 mesh and -200 +300 mesh. Gold concentration in concentrate is measured by EDX. The result shows that the optimum condition is obtained at a separation with flow rate 5 lpm and a particle size of -100 + 200 mesh.

  9. Analysis on the Impact of the Fluctuation of the International Gold Prices on the Chinese Gold Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share and Comex gold futures are chosen to form the sample, for the purpose of analysing the impact of the fluctuation of the international gold prices on the gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share. Using the methods of unit root test, Granger causality test, VAR model, and impulse response function, this paper has analysed the relationship between the price change of the international gold futures and the price fluctuation of gold stocks in Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen comprehensively. The results suggest the fluctuation of the international gold futures has a strong influence on the domestic futures.

  10. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E.; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4. The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:18648528

  11. Gold Nanocages for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabalak, Sara E; Chen, Jingyi; Au, Leslie; Lu, Xianmao; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2007-10-17

    Nanostructured materials provide a promising platform for early cancer detection and treatment. Here we highlight recent advances in the synthesis and use of Au nanocages for such biomedical applications. Gold nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures, which can be prepared via a remarkably simple route based on the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl(4). The Au nanocages have a tunable surface plasmon resonance peak that extends into the near-infrared, where the optical attenuation caused by blood and soft tissue is essentially negligible. They are also biocompatible and present a well-established surface for easy functionalization. We have tailored the scattering and absorption cross-sections of Au nanocages for use in optical coherence tomography and photothermal treatment, respectively. Our preliminary studies show greatly improved spectroscopic image contrast for tissue phantoms containing Au nanocages. Our most recent results also demonstrate the photothermal destruction of breast cancer cells in vitro by using immuno-targeted Au nanocages as an effective photo-thermal transducer. These experiments suggest that Au nanocages may be a new class of nanometer-sized agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  12. The Kolar Gold Field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekantan, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    Meson theory was propounded to explain the nuclear force which holds neutrons and protons inside the nucleus. Subsequently, quark theory was put forward to bring some order into an enormously large number of fundamental particles discovered in the hadron family. These two theories are briefly explained. The gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force and the strong nuclear force are the basic forces which determine the behaviour of fundamental particles when they are in close proximity. If the last three of the above-mentioned four forces are one or just different aspects of a single force, quarks and leptons can be mingled in the same theoretical framework indicating the non-conservation of baryon number and the spontaneous decay of the proton into leptons. In order to test the last possibility i.e. proton decay, an experiment has been set up in the Kolar Gold Field at a depth of 2300 metres in India. 1650 gas proportional counters are sandwiched between iron plates. The total amount of iron in the form of iron plates and walls of the counters is 140 tons. In this experiment, nuclei of iron are serving as the source of protons and neutrons and the depth eliminates the background events which mimic proton decay. The amount of iron used in the experiment i.e. 140 tons is more than enough to obtain evidence of 10 proton decay events in a year, assuming that the lifetime of proton is 10 30 years or below. (M.G.B.)

  13. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Sundaram, Chitra; Malani, Nikita; Ichikawa, Haruyo

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".

  14. Is the use of IL28B genotype justified in the era of interferon-free treatments for hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, several groups reported that interleukin-28B (IL28B) genotypes are associated with the response to peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a genome-wide association study, although the mechanism of this association is not yet well understood. However, in recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the treatment of HCV infection. In Japan, some patients infected with HCV have the IL28B major genotype, which may indicate a favorable response to interferon-including regimens; however, certain patients within this group are also interferon-intolerant or ineligible. In Japan, interferon-free 24-wk regimens of asunaprevir and daclatasvir are now available for HCV genotype 1b-infected patients who are interferon-intolerant or ineligible or previous treatment null-responders. The treatment response to interferon-free regimens appears better, regardless of IL28B genotype. Maybe other interferon-free regimens will widely be available soon. In conclusion, although some HCV-infected individuals have IL28B favorable alleles, importance of IL28B will be reduced with availability of oral interferon free regimen. PMID:26279979

  15. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  16. Gold Nanoparticles Obtained by Bio-precipitation from Gold(III) Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.; Dokken, K.; Tehuacanero, S.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of metal nanoparticles has shown to be very important in recent industrial applications. Currently gold nanoparticles are being produced by physical methods such as evaporation. Biological processes may be an alternative to physical methods for the production of gold nanoparticles. Alfalfa biomass has shown to be effective at passively binding and reducing gold from solutions containing gold(III) ions and resulting in the formation of gold(0) nanoparticles. High resolution microscopy has shown that five different types of gold particles are present after reaction with gold(III) ions with alfalfa biomass. These particles include: fcc tetrahedral, hexagonal platelet, icosahedral multiple twinned, decahedral multiple twinned, and irregular shaped particles. Further analysis on the frequency of distribution has shown that icosahedral and irregular particles are more frequently formed. In addition, the larger particles observed may be formed through the coalescence of smaller particles. Through modification of the chemical parameters, more uniform particle size distribution may be obtained by the alfalfa bio-reduction of gold(III) from solution

  17. Gold and gold-copper nanoparticles in 2-propanol: A radiation chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    The studies on the reduction of Au 3+ to gold nanoparticles in presence and absence of Cu 2+ under deoxygenated conditions in 2-propanol by radiolytic method have been carried out. On γ-radiolysis, preliminary yellow colored solution of Au 3+ changed to purple color owing to gold nanoparticles formation, which exhibits an absorption peak at around 540 nm. In the presence of Cu 2+ , absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles, which was also produced during γ-radiolysis, was red shifted in contrast to the system containing no Cu 2+ . Under DLS studies the sizes of gold nanoparticles in the absence and the presence of Cu 2+ were found to be larger (>400 nm). However, in presence of polyethylene glycol, a stabilizer the nanoparticle sizes became smaller, sizes measured for gold and gold-copper nanoparticles are 40 and 140 nm, respectively. Moreover, the change in UV-vis spectra in the Cu 2+ and Au 3+ mixed system highlights the formation of gold-copper nanoparticles in core-shell type arrangement. - Highlights: → Present radiation chemical study highlights high reactivity of Au ·2+ with Cu 2+ . → Absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles is blue shifted as compared to copper nanoparticles. → Change in UV-vis spectra with dose emphasizes core-shell type arrangement of Au-Cu nanoparticles.

  18. Knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for gold exploration, Bulghah gold mine area, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to generate a favorability map for gold exploration at the Bulghah gold mine area using integration of geo-datasets within a GIS environment. Spatial data analyses and integration of different geo-datasets are carried out based on knowledge-driven and weighting technique. The integration process involves the weighting and scoring of different layers affecting the gold mineralization at the study area using the index overlay method within PCI Geomatica environment. Generation of the binary predictor maps for lithology, lineaments, faults and favorable contacts precede the construction of the favorability map. About 100 m buffer zones are generated for favorable contacts, lineaments and major faults layers. Internal weighting is assigned to each layer based on favorability for gold mineralization. The scores for lithology, major faults, lineaments and favorable contacts layers in the constructed favorability map are 50%, 25%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Final favorability map for the Bulghah gold mine area shows the recording of two new sites for gold mineralization located at the northern and southern extensions of tonalite–diorite intrusions. The northern new site is now exploited for gold from the Bulghah North mine. The southern new site is narrow and small; its rocks resemble those of the Bulghah gold mine.

  19. Genesis of uranium-gold pyritic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient pyritic ore conglomerates have a common origin best exemplified by the Witwatersrand deposits. All contain detrital pyrite and uraninite, which are unstable in modern oxygenated environments and were deposited in a reducing atmosphere. The Rand reefs are not similar to modern gold placers. Placers result from the near incapacity of streams and currents to transport coarse gold. Placers as rich as Rand reef occur only in narrow paystreaks within 15 kilometers of a coarse-gold source. The board dispersion of gold in the reefs is due to solution transport of metal complexed as aurous sulfide, leached anoxygenically from crustal rocks, probably from sea-floor basalt, and precipitated by a slow reaction driven by the radioactive decay of detrital uraninite. Radiolysis of water on shallow marine unconformities resulted in diffusion of hydrogen to the atmosphere and a slight excess of hydroxyl free radical in the reef environment. The mild oxidizing tendency slowly dissolved uranium, precipitated gold, and oxygenated thucholite. These actions define a maturing process. A uraninite placer accumulating on an unconformity becomes progressively converted to a gold reef with little residual uraninite. The most mature reefs tend to grade toward the thucholite-seam type, very thin but exceedingly rich in gold. A combination of chemical attack and physical reworking accounts for the general thinness of mature reefs. Pyrite, like uraninite, decreases in abundance with increasing maturity; buffering by pyrite moderated the oxidative depletion of uranium. Where pyrite was scanty or absent, uraninite was completely dissolved by the effects of radiolysis and no ore formed

  20. Beneficiation of the gold bearing ore by gravity and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Alim; Kangal, Olgaç; Sirkeci, Ayhan A.; Önal, Güven

    2012-02-01

    Gold concentration usually consists of gravity separation, flotation, cyanidation, or the combination of these processes. The choice among these processes depends on the mineralogical characterization and gold content of the ore. Recently, the recovery of gold using gravity methods has gained attention because of low cost and environmentally friendly operations. In this study, gold pre-concentrates were produced by the stepwise gravity separation and flotation techniques. The Knelson concentrator and conventional flotation were employed for the recovery of gold. Gold bearing ore samples were taken from Gümüşhane Region, northern east part of Turkey. As a result of stepwise Knelson concentration experiments, a gold concentrate assaying around 620 g/t is produced with 41.4wt% recovery. On the other hand, a gold concentrate about 82 g/t is obtained with 89.9wt% recovery from a gold ore assaying 6 g/t Au by direct flotation.

  1. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  2. Moessbauer study of the chemical state of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.E.; Marion, P.H.; Regnard, J.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Information on the chemical state of gold in gold ores has been obtained by 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy in cases where the state of this element cannot be determined by such standard methods as optical or electron microscopy. Ore concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite or arsenopyrite and roasted ore and matte samples were studied. The results yielded directly the respective amounts of metallic and chemically bound gold. Unless the gold is metallic, its chemical state in the ores turns out to be different from that in the minerals studied so far as reference materials. The chemical processes taking place during various treatments of the ores, such as roasting or leaching, can also be followed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is hoped that Moessbauer spectroscopy will eventually facilitate the development of more efficient methods of gold extraction

  3. Oxidation state of gold and arsenic in gold-bearing arsenian pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.; Huang, H.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Kesler, S.E.; Kao, L.S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    XANES measurements on gold-bearing arsenian pyrite from the Twin Creeks Carlin-type gold deposits show that gold is present as both Au{sup 0} and Au{sup 1+} and arsenic is present as As{sup 1{minus}}. Au{sup 0} is attributed to sub-micrometer size inclusions of free gold, whereas Au{sup 1+} is attributed to gold in the lattice of the arsenian pyrite. STEM observations suggest that As{sup 1{minus}} is probably concentrated in angstrom-scale, randomly distributed layers with a marcasite or arsenopyrite structure. Ionic gold (Au{sup 1+}) could be concentrated in these layers as well, and is present in both twofold- and fourfold-coordinated forms, with fourfold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} more abundant. Twofold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} is similar to gold in Au{sub 2}S in which it is linearly coordinated to two sulfur atoms. The nature of fourfold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} is not well understood, although it might be present as an Au-As-S compound where gold is bonded in fourfold coordination to sulfur and arsenic atoms, or in vacancy positions on a cation site in the arsenian pyrite. Au{sup 1+} was probably incorporated into arsenian pyrite by adsorption onto pyrite surfaces during crystal growth. The most likely compound in the case of twofold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} was probably a tri-atomic surface complex such as S{sub pyrite}-Au{sup 1+}-S{sub bi-sulfide}H or Au{sup 1+}-S-Au{sup 1+}. The correlation between gold and arsenic might be related to the role of arsenic in enhancing the adsorption of gold complexes of this type on pyrite surfaces, possibly through semiconductor effects.

  4. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  5. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  6. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver–gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li Zian; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Silver, gold, and silver–gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15–25 nm), gold (5–6 nm), and silver–gold (50:50; 10–12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver–gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver–gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver–gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5–20 μg mL −1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  7. Thyroid hormonal disturbances related to treatment of hepatitis C with interferon-alpha and ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Lucia Seguro Danilovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize thyroid disturbances induced by interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. INTRODUCTION: Interferon-alpha is used to treat chronic hepatitis C infections. This compound commonly induces both autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis. METHODS: We prospectively selected 26 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections. Clinical examinations, hormonal evaluations, and color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid were performed before and during antiviral therapy. RESULTS: Of the patients in our study, 54% had no thyroid disorders associated with the interferon-alpha therapy but showed reduced levels of total T3 along with a decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase. Total T4 levels were also reduced at 3 and 12 months, but free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels remained stable. A total of 19% of the subjects had autoimmune interferon-induced thyroiditis, which is characterized by an emerge of antithyroid antibodies or overt hypothyroidism. Additionally, 16% had non-autoimmune thyroiditis, which presents as destructive thyroiditis or subclinical hypothyroidism, and 11% remained in a state of euthyroidism despite the prior existence of antithyroidal antibodies. Thyrotoxicosis with destructive thyroiditis was diagnosed within three months of therapy, and ultrasonography of these patients revealed thyroid shrinkage and discordant change in the vascular patterns. DISCUSSION: Decreases in the total T3 and total T4 levels may be related to improvements in the hepatocellular lesions or inflammatory changes similar to those associated with nonthyroidal illnesses. The immune mechanisms and direct effects of interferon-alpha can be associated with thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Interferon-alpha and ribavirin induce autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis and hormonal changes (such as decreased total T3 and total T4 levels, which occur despite stable free T4 and TSH levels. A thyroid

  8. Authentication of gold products by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jesus, A.S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The falsification of valuable gold items is a threat to the authenticity of gold products. To solve this, there is a continuous search for reliable, practicle and cost-effective means of identifying forgeries. Because nuclear techniques as applied to elemental analysis have a high degree of specificity, are non-destructive and permit the availability of results within a relatively short time, a few of these techniques were investigated and reviewed in the article. Work on some promising methods in the author's laboratory is also discussed. Constraints such as those imposed by the time taken by the measurement, negligible residual activity within a relatively short time were also considered. The techniques that were investigated include: the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through a medium; scattering of electromagnetic radiation; x-ray fluorescence analysis; neutron activation analysis; activation by the inelastic scattering of gamma radiation; activation by the inelastic scattering of fast neutrons; absorption and scattering of fast neutrons; self-attenuation of gamma radiation. The shape of the object being investigated, should also be considered. It is concluded that a system based on the inelastic scattering of neutrons emitted by a 241 Am/Be source (halflife = 433 years) is practical and capable of authenticating gold and gold alloy coins such as Krugerrands. The feasibility study on the assaying of gold jewelry by means of nuclear methods also showed it to be impractical

  9. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated. (author)

  10. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  11. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  12. Gold prices: Analyzing its cyclical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Gutiérrez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is a commodity that is seen as a safe haven when a financial crisis strikes, but when stock markets are prosperous, these are more attractive investment alternatives, and so the gold cycle goes on and on. The DJIA/GF (Dow Jones Industrial Average and Gold Fix ratio is chosen to establish the evolution of gold prices in relation to the NYSE. This paper has two goals: to prove that the DJIA/GF ratio is strongly cyclical by using Fourier analysis and to set a predictive neural networks model to forecast the behavior of this ratio during 2011-2020. To this end, business cycle events like the Great Depression along with the 1970s crisis, and the 1950s boom along with the world economic recovery of the 1990s are contrasted in light of the mentioned ratio. Gold prices are found to evolve cyclically with a dominant period of 37 years and are mainly affected by energy prices, financial markets and macroeconomic indicators.

  13. The Complete Reconfiguration of Dendritic Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneru, Govind; Flanders, Bret

    2014-03-01

    Reconfigurability-by-design is an important strategy in modern materials science, as materials with this capability could potentially be used to confer hydrophobic, lipophobic, or anti-corrosive character to substrates in a regenerative manner. The present work extends the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) methodology, which is a technique that employs alternating voltages to grow single crystalline metallic nanowires and nano-dendrites from simple salt solutions, to enable the complete dissolution of macroscopic arrays of metallic dendrites following their growth. Our main finding is that structural reconfiguration of dendritic gold is induced by changes in the MHz-level frequencies of voltages that are applied to the dendrites. Cyclic voltammetry and micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to show that dendritic gold grows and dissolves by the same chemical mechanisms as bulk gold. Hence, the redox chemistry that occurs at the crystal-solution interface is no different than the established electrochemistry of gold. What differs in this process and allows for reconfiguration to occur is the diffusive behavior of the gold chloride molecules in the solution adjacent to the interface. We will present a simple model that captures the physics of this behavior.

  14. Radiofrequency Heating Pathways for Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C. B.; McCoy, R. S.; Ackerson, B. J.; Collins, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry and physics, including the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell may all strongly influence to what extent a nanoparticle heats in an RF field. Aspects of RF include: power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields, and also influence the extent to which a gold nanoparticle heats in RF. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments. PMID:24962620

  15. Simple fabrication of gold nanobelts and patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyun Zhang

    Full Text Available Gold nanobelts are of interest in several areas; however, there are only few methods available to produce these belts. We report here on a simple evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA method to produce porous gold nanobelts with dimensions that scale across nanometer (thickness ∼80 nm and micrometer (width ∼20 µm, to decimeter (length ∼0.15 m. The gold nanobelts are well packed on the beaker wall and can be easily made to float on the surface of the solution for depositing onto other substrates. Microscopy showed that gold nanobelts had a different structure on the two sides of the belt; the density of gold nanowires on one side was greater than on the other side. Electrical measurements showed that these nanobelts were sensitive to compressive or tensile forces, indicating a potential use as a strain sensor. The patterned nanobelts were further used as a template to grow ZnO nanowires for potential use in applications such as piezo-electronics.

  16. Precipitation of lamellar gold nanocrystals in molten polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomba, M.; Carotenuto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-aggregated lamellar gold crystals with regular shape (triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.) have been produced by thermal decomposition of gold chloride (AuCl) molecules in molten amorphous polymers (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Such covalent inorganic gold salt is high soluble into non-polar polymers and it thermally decomposes at temperatures compatible with the polymer thermal stability, producing gold atoms and chlorine radicals. At the end of the gold precipitation process, the polymer matrix resulted chemically modified because of the partial cross-linking process due to the gold atom formation reaction.

  17. Gold grade variation and particle microchemistry in exploration pits of the Batouri gold district, SE Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishiti, A.; Suh, C. E.; Lehmann, B.; Egbe, J. A.; Shemang, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The Batouri area hosts lode-gold mineralization under several-m-thick lateritic cover. Pitting to bed rock on a geochemical Au anomaly defined from previous reconnaissance soil sampling identified five horizons ranging from saprock at the base to laterite at the top. Analysis of bulk samples from each horizon by fire assay shows that most of the horizons are barren although 119 ppb and 48 ppb Au values were obtained from one laterite horizon and one saprolite horizon, respectively, from two separate pits. All the horizons were panned and particulate gold was also recovered only from these two horizons. The gold grains from both horizons are morphologically and compositionally indistinguishable with rare quartz, pyrite and galena inclusions. The grains have irregular, sub-rounded, bean to elongated shapes and they show a remarkable core-rim zonation. Electron microprobe analysis of the grains recorded high gold content in the rims (86.3-100 wt%) and along fissures within the grains (95.1-100 wt%). The cores are relatively Ag rich (11.8-14 wt% Ag) while the rims (0.63-13.7 wt% Ag, most of the values fall within the lower limit of this range) and fissures (0.03-5.02 wt% Ag) are poor in Ag. The low Ag concentration in the rims and along fissures is attributed to preferential leaching of Ag; a process recognized in gold grains and platiniferous alloys from alluvia. The core composition of the grains is similar to that of primary gold composition in the bedrock. These results show that gold in the soil is relic particulate gold derived from the primary source with no evidence of secondary gold precipitation in the weathering cycle. In all the pits no horizon was systematically enriched in gold suggesting there has been no chemical remobilization of gold in this environment. Rather the dispersion of gold here is in the particulate form. Therefore combining particulate gold features with assay data is relevant to exploration in such tropical environments.

  18. Enhancement by gamma-interferon of in vivo tumor radiolocalization by a monoclonal antibody against HLA-DR antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlinson, G.; Balkwill, F.; Snook, D.; Hooker, G.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Athymic nu/nu (nude) mice bearing s.c. human breast tumors were treated systemically with recombinant human gamma-interferon. These tumors were phenotypically negative for HLA-DR prior to therapy, but after 4 days of treatment, 80% of the cells expressed this antigen in vivo as assessed by immunoperoxidase (F. R. Balkwill et al., Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol., in press, 1986). A radioiodine-labeled murine monoclonal antibody (TAL-1B5) against HLA-DR specifically localized to the tumors in recombinant human gamma-interferon-treated but not in control mice. An isotype-identical murine monoclonal antibody that did not react with control or recombinant human gamma-interferon-treated tumors did not show any specific localization. These results demonstrate that specific localization to tumors of radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR can be facilitated by systemic therapy with gamma-interferon

  19. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    to in situ processes. 4) Temperature and Oxygen Sensors: The ambient temperature will be recorded as well as the presence of oxygen. Oxygen presence can be measured using a fluorescence quenching fiber optic probe to avoid interference from other gases. We forsee that this technology will enable experiments including studies of gene transfer, microbial habitat, in situ stratigraphy and hydrological processes. In addition, though designed to scan borehole walls, GOLD could be used to scan core samples as they are recovered for rapid quantification and analysis in order to discover samples of particular interest that could then be prioritized for more in-depth, traditional analysis.

  20. Erupção acneiforme aguda induzida por interferon beta-1b durante tratamento para esclerose múltipla Acute acneiform eruption induced by interferon beta-1b during treatment for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Júnior de Freitas Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esclerose múltipla é uma doença inflamatória desmielinizante, com presumida origem autoimune, que afeta o sistema nervoso central. A principal modalidade terapêutica é baseada no uso de imunomoduladores, como o interferon beta, que são geralmente bem tolerados. As manifestações cutâneas secundárias ao interferon beta-1b são representadas, na maioria das vezes, por reações no local de sua aplicação subcutânea. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino que desenvolveu um quadro de erupção acneiforme pelo interferon beta-1b.Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of presumed autoimmune origin that affects the central nervous system. The main form of therapy is based on the use of immunomodulators such as interferon beta, which are usually well tolerated. Skin manifestations resulting from treatment with interferon beta-1b consist principally of reactions at the site of subcutaneous application of the drug. The present case report describes a female patient who developed an acneiform eruption resulting from treatment with interferon beta-1b.