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Sample records for quantenelektrodynamik nah oder

  1. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip; Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Tilo

    2008-04-29

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe

  2. Koedukation oder Geschlechtertrennung

    OpenAIRE

    Baumert, Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen zu den Auswirkungen gemeinsamer oder getrennter Unterrichtung von Mädchen und Jungen führen in der Regel zu keinem schlüssigen Ergebnis, da unentscheidbar bleibt, inwieweit nachweisbare Unterschiede bereits auf unterschiedliche Eingangsvoraussetzungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern zurückzuführen sind. Im folgenden wird auf der Grundlage einer Gymnasialuntersuchung, die in der Phase der Umstellung auf Koedukation durchgeführt wurde, die Frage der diffcrentiellen...

  3. Lästiger Scherz oder strafbarer Ernst?

    OpenAIRE

    Bottke, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    Lästiger Scherz oder strafbarer Ernst? : Missbrauch von Zeichen nach § 132a StGB und §§ 124 ff. OWiG: Zeichenunfug oder sanktionswürdiges Delikt. – Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2004. - 98 S. - (Schriften zum Strafrecht ; 160)

  4. The plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, B J; Apse, M P; Manolson, M F; Blumwald, E

    1994-01-01

    Salt stress imposes severe limitations on plant growth, however, the extent of growth reduction depends upon the soil salinity level and the plant species. One of the mechanisms employed by salt tolerant plants is the effective vacuolar compartmentalization of sodium. The sequestration of sodium into the vacuole occurs by the operation of a Na+/H+ antiport located at the tonoplast. Evidence for a plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport has been demonstrated in tissues, intact vacuoles and isolated tonoplast vesicles. In sugar beet cell suspensions, the activity of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport increased with increasing NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. This increased activity was correlated with the increased synthesis of a 170 kDa tonoplast polypeptide. In vivo labelling of tonoplast proteins showed the enhanced synthesis of the 170 kDa polypeptide not only upon exposure of the cells to salt, but also when the cells were grown in the presence of amiloride. Exposure of the cells to amiloride also resulted in increased vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport activity. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the 170 kDa polypeptide almost completely inhibited the antiport activity, suggesting the association of this protein with the plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport. Antibodies against the Na+/H+ antiport-associated polypeptide were used to screen a Beta lambda ZAP expression library. A partial clone of 1.65 kb was sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide with a putative transmembrane domain and a large hydrophilic C terminus. This clone showed no homology to any previously cloned gene at either the nucleic acid or the amino acid level.

  5. M&A-Transaktionen - Fluch oder Segen der Realoptionstheorie?

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hopp, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Technologische und politische Veränderungen sowie komplexere Wertschöpfungsketten haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einer verstärkten Unternehmensexpansion mittels Mergers and Acquisitions geführt. Unter dem Sammelbegriff "Mergers and Acquisitions" werden strategische Entscheidungen eines Unternehmens subsumiert, ein anderes Unternehmen oder einen Geschäftsbereich eines anderen Unternehmens durch Aktientausch oder Barentschädigung zu erwerben oder sich mit einem anderen Unternehmen zusammen...

  6. Kaufst du noch oder streamst du schon?

    OpenAIRE

    Liese, Christin

    2017-01-01

    Die Zeiten der Plattensammlung sind vorbei, Kassetten und CDs sind der MP3-Datei gewichen und nun wird Musik ausschließlich gestreamt. Dieses Zukunftsszenario ist bis dato noch nicht eingetreten, aber wird dies überhaupt passieren? Wird der Kauf von physischen Musikdatenträgern und digitalen Musikdateien dank der immer stärker ansteigenden Streaming Aktivitäten komplett eingestellt? Oder können beide Formen nebeneinander existieren? Um diesen Fragen auf den Grund zu gehen, wurde im Rahmen die...

  7. Experiments on cold trap regeneration by NaH decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Skladzien, S.B.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    Cold trap regeneration may be very important in future LMFBRs because of the expected high hydrogen source from the steam generators. This hydrogen precipitates as NaH in the cold trap and may fill the trap within one year of operation. Several methods of cold trap regeneration were considered, but the simplest and least expensive appears to be decomposition of NaH under vacuum at elevated temperatures. Experiments were done to assess the feasibility of this method for cold trap regeneration. Small-scale simulated cold traps (SCT) were located with NaH and NaH plus Na 2 O, and were heated both under vacuum and under a sweep gas at 100 kPa. The evolved hydrogen was converted to water by a CuO bed and collected in a weighting tube

  8. Fischverzehr in der Schwangerschaft: Risiko oder Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundacker C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisch ist ein hochqualitatives Nahrungsmittel. Es enthält große Mengen an essenziellen Nährstoffen wie hochwertige Proteine, Vitamine, Jod, Selen und Omega-3-Fettsäuren, deren gesundheitsfördernde Wirkungen auf Gehirnentwicklung, intrauterines Wachstum und Gestationsdauer gut beschrieben sind. Gleichzeitig kann Fisch erhebliche Mengen an Schadstoffen beinhalten, insbesondere auch die organische Quecksilberverbindung Methyl-Quecksilber (Methyl-Hg. Das fetale Nervensystem ist besonders empfindlich gegenüber Belastung mit neurotoxischen Substanzen wie Methyl-Hg. Eine signifikante Beeinträchtigung der neurologischen Entwicklung von Kindern durch erhöhte pränatale Belastung ist belegt. Ergebnisse anderer Studien legen nahe, dass die mit dem Fischverzehr aufgenommenen essenziellen Nährstoffe solche Schadwirkungen kompensieren könnten. Insgesamt lässt die rezente Literatur keine eindeutige Aussage zu, ob der Fischverzehr in der Schwangerschaft ein Risiko oder einen Benefit für die fetale Entwicklung darstellt. Dies liegt daran, dass bislang nur wenige Studien die mit dem Fischverzehr einhergehende Aufnahme von essenziellen Nährstoffen und Schadstoffen in Relation zur Entwicklung von Kindern untersucht haben. Die Risiko-Benefit-Balance hängt zudem maßgeblich von individuellen Fischverzehrsgewohnheiten und damit von der jeweiligen Nährstoff-/Schadstoff-Zusammensetzung des konsumierten Fisches ab. Während der Schwangerschaft sollte nicht auf das hochwertige Nahrungsmittel Fisch verzichtet werden. Empfohlen wird ein Verzehr solcher Fische und Meeresfrüchte, die einen hohen Omega-3-Fettsäuregehalt und minimale Quecksilberbelastung aufweisen. Schwangere Frauen sollten über Risiken und Benefits des Fischverzehrs im Sinne der Gesundheitsförderung aufgeklärt werden.

  9. The DiaNAH test battery for visual perceptual disorders : Validity and efficacy in rehabilitation practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Vries, Stefanie; Melis, Bart; Vrijling, Anne; Tucha, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    We developed the DiaNAH test battery for the screening of mid-level and higher-order visual perceptual disorders in clinical practice. The DiaNAH battery comprises 11 different tests and can be administered in 30-60 minutes. Important feature of the DiaNAH battery is that it is administered on a 24”

  10. Na+/H+ antiport is essential for Yersinia pestis virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Yusuke; Ghosh, Amit; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Lind, Erin J; Schesser Bartra, Sara; Plano, Gregory V; Jarrett, Clayton O; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Winogrodzki, Judith; Dibrov, Pavel; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-09-01

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that play a central role in the ion homeostasis of cells. In this study, we examined the possible role of Na(+)/H(+) antiport in Yersinia pestis virulence and found that Y. pestis strains lacking the major Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, NhaA and NhaB, are completely attenuated in an in vivo model of plague. The Y. pestis derivative strain lacking the nhaA and nhaB genes showed markedly decreased survival in blood and blood serum ex vivo. Complementation of either nhaA or nhaB in trans restored the survival of the Y. pestis nhaA nhaB double deletion mutant in blood. The nhaA nhaB double deletion mutant also showed inhibited growth in an artificial serum medium, Opti-MEM, and a rich LB-based medium with Na(+) levels and pH values similar to those for blood. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that intact Na(+)/H(+) antiport is indispensable for the survival of Y. pestis in the bloodstreams of infected animals and thus might be regarded as a promising noncanonical drug target for infections caused by Y. pestis and possibly for those caused by other blood-borne bacterial pathogens.

  11. Modeling the sorption dynamics of NaH using a reactive force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojwang, J. G. O.; Santen, Rutger van; Kramer, Gert Jan; Duin, Adri C. T. van; Goddard, William A. III

    2008-01-01

    We have parametrized a reactive force field for NaH, ReaxFF NaH , against a training set of ab initio derived data. To ascertain that ReaxFF NaH is properly parametrized, a comparison between ab initio heats of formation of small representative NaH clusters with ReaxFF NaH was done. The results and trend of ReaxFF NaH are found to be consistent with ab initio values. Further validation includes comparing the equations of state of condensed phases of Na and NaH as calculated from ab initio and ReaxFF NaH . There is a good match between the two results, showing that ReaxFF NaH is correctly parametrized by the ab initio training set. ReaxFF NaH has been used to study the dynamics of hydrogen desorption in NaH particles. We find that ReaxFF NaH properly describes the surface molecular hydrogen charge transfer during the abstraction process. Results on heat of desorption versus cluster size shows that there is a strong dependence on the heat of desorption on the particle size, which implies that nanostructuring enhances desorption process. To gain more insight into the structural transformations of NaH during thermal decomposition, we performed a heating run in a molecular dynamics simulation. These runs exhibit a series of drops in potential energy, associated with cluster fragmentation and desorption of molecular hydrogen. This is consistent with experimental evidence that NaH dissociates at its melting point into smaller fragments

  12. Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v '' ≤21 and 1≤J '' ≤14 were assigned to the X 1 Σ + state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm -1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation v D from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy D e =15 815±5 cm -1 . Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.

  13. Characterisation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Na+/H+ antiporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Lenka; Papoušková, Klára; Sychrová, Hana; de Montigny, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 274, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 127-127 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress Molecular Machines /32./. 07.07.2007-12.07.2007, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/0028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * Zygosaccharomyces rouxii * Na+/H+ antiporters * salt tolerance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Silicon dynamics in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Conley, Daniel J.; Humborg, Christoph; Witek, Zbigniew; Sitek, Stanisław

    2008-10-01

    Studies on dissolved silicate (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) dynamics were carried out in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea in 2000-2005. The Oder estuary proved to be an important component of the Oder River-Baltic Sea continuum where very intensive seasonal DSi uptake during spring and autumn, but also BSi regeneration during summer take place. Owing to the regeneration process annual DSi patterns in the river and the estuary distinctly differed; the annual patterns of DSi in the estuary showed two maxima and two minima in contrast to one maximum- and one minimum-pattern in the Oder River. DSi concentrations in the river and in the estuary were highest in winter (200-250 μmol dm - 3 ) and lowest (often less than 1 μmol dm - 3 ) in spring, concomitant with diatom growth; such low values are known to be limiting for new diatom growth. Secondary DSi summer peaks at the estuary exit exceeded 100 μmol dm - 3 , and these maxima were followed by autumn minima coinciding with the autumn diatom bloom. Seasonal peaks in BSi concentrations (ca. 100 μmol dm - 3 ) occurred during the spring diatom bloom in the Oder River. Mass balance calculations of DSi and BSi showed that DSi + BSi import to the estuary over a two year period was 103.2 kt and that can be compared with the DSi export of 98.5 kt. The difference between these numbers gives room for ca. 2.5 kt BSi to be annually exported to the Baltic Sea. Sediment cores studies point to BSi annual accumulation on the level of 2.5 kt BSi. BSi import to the estuary is on the level of ca. 10.5 kt, thus ca. 5 kt of BSi is annually converted into the DSi, increasing the pool of DSi that leaves the system. BSi concentrations being ca. 2 times higher at the estuary entrance than at its exit remain in a good agreement with the DSi and BSi budgeting presented in the paper.

  15. Die Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers - Experte oder notwendiges Übel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2012-01-01

    Die Zahl der gedolmetschten Gerichtsverhandlungen steigt weiterhin in vielen Rechtssystemen, weshalb es immer wichtiger wird, dass Rechtssysteme über qualifizierte Dolmetscher verfügen. In Dänemark begegnen Richter, die Rezipienten von Gerichtsdolmetschleistungen sind, sowohl professionellen als...... auch nicht- oder semi-professionellen Gerichtsdolmetschern. Dies lässt vermuten, dass die Richter in der Praxis Dolmetschleistungen von sehr unterschiedlicher Qualität erleben und vermutlich kein einheitliches Bild von der Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers haben. Ziel der Studie, die ich in diesem Beitrag...

  16. A North American Hydroclimate Synthesis (NAHS) of the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodysill, Jessica R.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Cronin, Thomas M.; Jones, Miriam C.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wahl, David B.; Willard, Debra A.; Addison, Jason A.; Alder, Jay R.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Anderson, Lysanna; Barron, John A.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Khan, Nicole S.; Richey, Julie N.; Starratt, Scott W.; Strickland, Laura E.; Toomey, Michael R.; Treat, Claire C.; Wingard, G. Lynn

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a synthesis of century-scale hydroclimate variations in North America for the Common Era (last 2000 years) using new age models of previously published multiple proxy-based paleoclimate data. This North American Hydroclimate Synthesis (NAHS) examines regional hydroclimate patterns and related environmental indicators, including vegetation, lake water elevation, stream flow and runoff, cave drip rates, biological productivity, assemblages of living organisms, and salinity. Centennial-scale hydroclimate anomalies are obtained by iteratively sampling the proxy data on each of thousands of age model realizations and determining the fractions of possible time series indicating that the century-smoothed data was anomalously wet or dry relative to the 100 BCE to 1900 CE mean. Results suggest regionally asynchronous wet and dry periods over multidecadal to centennial timescales and frequent periods of extended regional drought. Most sites indicate drying during previously documented multicentennial periods of warmer Northern Hemisphere temperatures, particularly in the western U.S., central U.S., and Canada. Two widespread droughts were documented by the NAHS: from 50 BCE to 450 CE and from 800 to 1100 CE. Major hydroclimate reorganizations occurred out of sync with Northern Hemisphere temperature variations and widespread wet and dry anomalies occurred during both warm and cool periods. We present a broad assessment of paleoclimate relationships that highlights the potential influences of internal variability and external forcing and supports a prominent role for Pacific and Atlantic Ocean dynamics on century-scale continental hydroclimate.

  17. [Nah-plasmids of IncP-9 group from natural strains of Pseudomonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, A A; Bulyga, I M; Izmalkova, T Iu; Sevast'ianovich, Ia R; Kosheleva, I A; Thomas, C M; Titok, M A

    2006-01-01

    Use of polymerase chain reaction helped to establish that the most frequent among naphthalene utilizing bacteria, isolated on the territory of Belarus, are Nah-plasmids of IncP-9 incompatibility group and those with indefinite systematic belonging. With the help of classical test of incompatibility, restriction and sequence analyses three new subgroups within the IncP-9 group were discovered (zeta, eta and IncP-9-like replicons). Conducting of restriction analysis for amplification products of nahG and nahAc genes allowed us to reveal, in addition to known sequences of stated determinants, two new types of nahG gene. Restriction analysis performed on amplification products of 16S RNA genes (ARDRA method) showed that native hosts of Nah-plasmids of IncP-9 group are not only fluorescent bacteria from genus Pseudomonas (P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. aeruginosa, P. species), but also non-fluorescent bacteria with indefinite specific belonging.

  18. Mechanisms of the Regulation of the Intestinal Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijian He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A major of Na+ absorptive process in the proximal part of intestine and kidney is electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ by Na+/H+ exchanger type 3 (NHE3. During the past decade, significant advance has been achieved in the mechanisms of NHE3 regulation. A bulk of the current knowledge on Na+/H+ exchanger regulation is based on heterologous expression of mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers in Na+/H+ exchanger deficient fibroblasts, renal epithelial, and intestinal epithelial cells. Based on the reductionist's approach, an understanding of NHE3 regulation has been greatly advanced. More recently, confirmations of in vitro studies have been made using animals deficient in one or more proteins but in some cases unexpected findings have emerged. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of recent progress in the regulation and functions of NHE3 present in the luminal membrane of the intestinal tract.

  19. Experiments on cold-trap regeneration by NaH decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Skladzien, S.B.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    Cold-trap regeneration may be very important in future LMFBRs because of the expected high hydrogen source from the steam generators. This hydrogen precipitates as NaH in the cold trap and may fill the trap within one year of operation. Several methods of cold-trap regeneration were considered, but the simplest and least expensive appears to be decomposition of NaH under vacuum at elevated temperatures. Experiments were done to assess the feasibility of this method for cold-trap regeneration. Small-scale simulated cold traps (SCT) were loaded with NaH and NaH plus Na 2 O, and were heated both under vacuum and under a sweep gas at 100 kPa. The evolved hydrogen was converted to water by a CuO bed and collected in a weighing tube

  20. Renal epithelial cell growth can occur in absence of Na+-H+ exchanger activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    An electroneutral Na+-H+ exchange system has been described in a variety of tissues and cell types, including those of renal origin, and has been proposed to play a role in the activation of growth. We have recently characterized the presence of this ubiquitous transporter in the apical domain of confluent epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. Because most apical membrane proteins appear late in cell growth, accompanying epithelial cell polarization, we determined whether the Na+-H+ exchanger is required for the growth of LLC-PK1 cells. The studies reported here show that there is no obligatory requirement for increased H+ efflux or Na+ entry via the Na+-H+ exchanger for the initiation of cell growth in this epithelial cell line. We used 22 Na+ influx, acid extrusion, and intracellular pH determinations to show that onset of cell growth, as measured by DNA content, precedes the activity of the Na+-H+ exchanger in exponentially growing cells, whereas confluent monolayers express Na+-H+ exchanger activity. When confluent cells are replated at low density, Na+-H+ exchanger activity disappears within 8 h in contrast to high-density replated cells. The fact that Na+-H+ exchanger activity is only present in confluent monolayers suggests that the development of tight junctions and polar differentiation play a role in the expression of the Na+-H+ exchanger and that this exchanger is more important to the polar epithelial cell for transepithelial transport than for the maintenance of intracellular pH

  1. Katalysator fuer toxische Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen und/oder organische Verbindungen sowie Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, O.; Morgenthal, I.; Kostmann, C.; Oonk, H.; Heslinga, D.

    2008-01-01

    Die Erfindung betrifft Katalysatoren für toxische Kohlenwasserstoff- und/oder andere organische Verbindungen sowie ein Herstellungsverfahren für solche Katalysatoren. Bei Einsatz eines offenporigen Substrats für einen erfindungsgemässen Katalysator kann ausserdem eine Separation von Partikeln erreicht werden. Die erfindungsgemässen Katalysatoren sind besonders für die Umwandlung von Dioxinen (PCDD) und Furanen (PCDF) geeignet, die in Kraftwerken oder bei der thermischen Abfallentsorgung, aber...

  2. Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt. PMID:12805632

  3. Na+/H+ exchange activity in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S

    2003-06-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt.

  4. Hydrographic and navigational analysis of Lower Oder shipping conditions – case study of the backflow occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyna Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant limitations of inland waterway transport on the Oder River is the water level. Its variability determines the minimum clearance under the bridges and thus the maximum drought of moving vessels. An important factor affecting the water level in the Oder River is the phenomenon of wind backwater. Certain pressure field distribution situations may affect in an increase of water level on the coast and thereby block the outflow of river waters. In this paper an example of the limitations of inland navigation in the estuarine part of the Lower Oder under the weather conditions on the southern Baltic Sea in autumn 2016 is presented. For the analysis area of Szczecin Waterway Node and section of Oder River from Szczecin to Gryfino was chosen. Based on data the weather and navigational conditions of the area of the Lower Oder were assessed. Occurring winds, currents and changes in water level has been analyzed. In the situations of unfavorable raise of the water level in the river, inland navigation is redirected to the section of Regalica River, and a section of the port of Szczecin region is closed. This causes obvious difficulties and results in prolonged ships routes. Additional obstacle that take place here is an arbitrarily determined time of railway bridge span lifting in Szczecin Podjuchy.

  5. Photodissociation of NaH using time-dependent Fourier grid method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have solved the time dependent Schrödinger equation by using the Chebyshev polynomial scheme and Fourier grid Hamiltonian method to calculate the dissociation cross section of NaH molecule by 1-photon absorption from the 1+ state to the 1 state. We have found that the results differ significantly from an ...

  6. Nonadiabatic ionic--covalent transitions. Exponential-linear model for the charge exchange and neutralization reactions Na+H arrow-right-left Na++H-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Mo, O.; Riera, A.

    1986-01-01

    A previous study of charge exchange processes taking place through ionic--covalent transitions is extended to the case of Na+H and Na + +H - collisions. A five-state molecular expansion, with the inclusion of two-electron translation factors, is employed to calculate the charge exchange and neutralization cross sections. Transitions at the first two pseudocrossings between the energy curves, practically determine the cross sections in the energy range 0.16--5 keV amu -1 . We also show that the widely used multichannel Landau--Zener theory is totally inadequate, to treat these transitions

  7. Nearfield acoustic holography. I - Theory of generalized holography and the development of NAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, J. D.; Williams, E. G.; Lee, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Because its underlying principles are so fundamental, holography has been studied and applied in many areas of science. Recently, a technique has been developed which takes the maximum advantage of the fundamental principles and extracts much more information from a hologram than is customarily associated with such a measurement. In this paper the fundamental principles of holography are reviewed, and a sound radiation measurement system, called nearfield acoustic holography (NAH), which fully exploits the fundamental principles, is described.

  8. „Nach der Genderforschung ist vor der Genderforschung“ – oder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scholand

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Frage, ob die Kategorie ‚Gender‘ ausgedient hat oder weiter ertragreich genutzt werden kann, stellen sich die Autorinnen und Autoren des Bandes in einem von Erziehungswissenschaftler/-innen veranstalteten „Interdisziplinären Gespräch“. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der feministischen Theoriebildung wird vorgenommen und – durchaus vorhandene – neue Perspektiven werden aufgezeigt und diskutiert. Ein spezifisch erziehungswissenschaftliches Profil im Kontrast zu den Beiträgen aus Soziologie, Philosophie, Politikwissenschaft und Geschichte wird allerdings nicht deutlich.

  9. Zebra Mussel Farming in the Szczecin (Oder Lagoon: Water-Quality Objectives and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schernewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oder (Szczecin Lagoon in the southern Baltic Sea is a heavily eutrophicated and degraded coastal ecosystem. We applied a systems approach framework to critically evaluate whether existing water-management measures achieve water-quality objectives for the river and lagoon systems. Our simulations reveal that the existing water-quality objectives for the river and the coastal waters are not sufficiently complementary. We suggest new water-quality threshold concentrations, which are in agreement with the European Water Framework Directive, and we calculate acceptable maximum nutrient loads for the Oder River. These calculations suggest that external nutrient-load reductions in the river basin alone seem insufficient to achieve good water quality in the lagoon. A comprehensive eutrophication management approach should also include internal nutrient-retention and nutrient-removal measures in the lagoon. We focus on mussel farming, i.e., that of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, because they are efficient in removing nutrients and improving water transparency in the Oder Lagoon. For this purpose, the ecosystem model ERGOM is extended by a mussel module and an economic model. The economic model describes costs and benefits of mussel cultivation depending on the the farm size. We included additional potential sources of income such as water-quality tax or emission certificates. The simulations show that mussel farming in the lagoon is a suitable supportive measure and, at a load-reduction target of 50% or more, it is a cost-efficient measure for removing nutrients and for implementing the Baltic Sea Action Plan. In the Oder Lagoon, mussel farming could potentially remove nearly 1000 t of N (70 t of P/year, or about 2% of the present N and P loads, and it would have the additional benefit of improving water transparency.

  10. Sprüche, Sentenzen, Zitate als Kurzformen oder "einfache Formen" der Textsorten in interkultureller Sicht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Križman

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eine systematische sprachliche Behandlung der Sprichwörter in bezug auf die verschiedenen Sprachen und auf die sprachliche Varianz nur einer Sprache wäre eine umfangreiche Arbeit. Man kann aber doch in einem Beitrag, wo zwei oder drei Sprachen in Betracht gezogen werden, zuerst einige allgemeine Feststellungen erwähnen, womit die Varianz, die in den Bereich der Sprachwissenschaft gehört, einigermaßen prinzipiell zu lösen wäre und etliche Details der Stilistik (auch im ästhetischen Sinn gezeigt werden können.

  11. [Philipp Herzog: Sozialistische Völkerfreundschaft nationaler Widerstand oder harmloser Zeitvertieb? Zur politischen Funktion der Volkskunst im sowjetischen Estland] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Herzog, Philipp. Sozialistische Völkerfreundschaft, nationaler Widerstand oder harmloser Zeitvertreib? : zur politischen Funktion der Volkskunst im sowjetischen Estland. Stuttgart : Ibidem-Verlag, 2012

  12. Competition is the basis of the transport mechanism of the NhaB Na+/H+ exchanger from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyer Patiño-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Na+/H+ exchange is essential for survival of all organisms, having a role in the regulation of the intracellular Na+ concentration, pH and cell volume. Furthermore, Na+/H+ exchangers were shown to be involved in the virulence of the bacterium Yersinia pestis, indicating they might be potential targets for novel antibiotic treatments. The model system for Na+/H+ exchangers is the NhaA transporter from Escherichia coli, EcNhaA. Therefore, the general transport mechanism of NhaA exchangers is currently well characterized. However, much less is known about NhaB exchangers, with only a limited number of studies available. The pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is a major source of nosocomial infection, possesses three electrogenic Na+/H+ exchangers, KpNhaA1, KpNhaA2 and KpNhaB, none of which have been previously investigated. Our aim in this study was to functionally characterize KpNhaB using solid supported membrane-based electrophysiology as the main investigation technique, and thus provide the first electrophysiological investigation of an NhaB Na+/H+ exchanger. We found that NhaB can be described by the same competition-based mechanism that was shown to be valid for electrogenic NhaA and NapA, and for electroneutral NhaP Na+/H+ exchangers. For comparison we also characterized the activity of KpNhaA1 and KpNhaA2 and found that the three exchangers have complementary activity profiles, which is likely a survival advantage for K. pneumoniae when faced with environments of different salinity and pH. This underlines their importance as potential antibiotic drug targets.

  13. Structural and Kinetic Properties of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase NahF, a Broad Substrate Specificity Enzyme for Aldehyde Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Pereira, Mozart S; Costa, Débora M A; Guimarães, Samuel L; Araújo, Simara S; Hengge, Alvan C; Brandão, Tiago A S; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-09-27

    The salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (NahF) catalyzes the oxidation of salicylaldehyde to salicylate using NAD(+) as a cofactor, the last reaction of the upper degradation pathway of naphthalene in Pseudomonas putida G7. The naphthalene is an abundant and toxic compound in oil and has been used as a model for bioremediation studies. The steady-state kinetic parameters for oxidation of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by 6xHis-NahF are presented. The 6xHis-NahF catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes with large kcat/Km values close to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The active site of NahF is highly hydrophobic, and the enzyme shows higher specificity for less polar substrates than for polar substrates, e.g., acetaldehyde. The enzyme shows α/β folding with three well-defined domains: the oligomerization domain, which is responsible for the interlacement between the two monomers; the Rossmann-like fold domain, essential for nucleotide binding; and the catalytic domain. A salicylaldehyde molecule was observed in a deep pocket in the crystal structure of NahF where the catalytic C284 and E250 are present. Moreover, the residues G150, R157, W96, F99, F274, F279, and Y446 were thought to be important for catalysis and specificity for aromatic aldehydes. Understanding the molecular features responsible for NahF activity allows for comparisons with other aldehyde dehydrogenases and, together with structural information, provides the information needed for future mutational studies aimed to enhance its stability and specificity and further its use in biotechnological processes.

  14. Identification of a 170-kDa protein associated with the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport of Beta vulgaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, B J; Blumwald, E

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amiloride to the growth medium was tested on the Na+/H+ antiport activity of tonoplast vesicles isolated from sugar beet (beta vulgaris L.) cell suspensions. Cells grown in the presence of NaCl and amiloride displayed an increased antiport activity. Analysis of the kinetic data showed that while the affinity of the antiport for Na+ ions did not change, the maximal velocity of the Na+/H+ exchange increased markedly. These results suggest the addition of more antip...

  15. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER RETENTION FOR THE ODER VALLEY IN THE MALCZYCE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Nowicka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of spatial changes of groundwater retention for a part of the Oder valley situated below the barrage in Brzeg Dolny. For the analysis of selected monthly average elevations of the groundwater table of the selected measuring points (32 piezometers located in the area described, and 7 gauges on the Oder river, Średzka Woda, Jeziorka and Nowy Rów. The change of groundwater retention is presented in spatial terms for vegetation periods of years: 2010, 2011 and 2012. The database was made interpolating the groundwater table elevation for the area in question. On this basis, differences between ordinates the groundwater table were calculated. The next step was to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater retention states and its analysis. The results show significant changes in the states of groundwater retention on the selected portion of the valley in the individual growing seasons. According to formation of changes in status of groundwater retention relative to the distance from the Odra river was analysed.

  16. Organellar Na+/H+ Exchangers : Novel Players in Organelle pH Regulation and Their Emerging Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohgaki, Ryuichi; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Matsushita, Masafumi; Hoekstra, Dick; Kanazawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) play a fundamental role in cellular ion homeostasis. NHEs exhibit an appreciable variation in expression, regulation, and physiological function, dictated by their dynamics in subcellular localization and/or interaction with regulatory proteins. In recent years, a

  17. Calculation of radial couplings in the model-potential and pseudopotential approaches: The NaH quasimolecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, O.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present an extension of the analytical method of Macias and Riera to calculate radial couplings, to include model potentials or (local and nonlocal) pseudopotentials, in the Hamiltonian. As an illustration, energies, couplings, and momentum matrix elements are presented and discussed for the two-effective-electron NaH quasimolecule, as a stringent test case

  18. Identification of a 170-kDa protein associated with the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport of Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, B J; Blumwald, E

    1991-12-15

    The effect of the addition of amiloride to the growth medium was tested on the Na+/H+ antiport activity of tonoplast vesicles isolated from sugar beet (beta vulgaris L.) cell suspensions. Cells grown in the presence of NaCl and amiloride displayed an increased antiport activity. Analysis of the kinetic data showed that while the affinity of the antiport for Na+ ions did not change, the maximal velocity of the Na+/H+ exchange increased markedly. These results suggest the addition of more antiport molecules to the tonoplast and/or an increase in the turnover rate of the Na+/H+ exchange. The increase in activity of the antiport by the presence of amiloride was correlated with the enhanced synthesis of a tonoplast 170-kDa polypeptide. The increased synthesis of this polypeptide was detected not only upon exposure of the cells to amiloride but also when the cells were exposed to high NaCl concentrations. Polyclonal antibodies against the 170-kDa polypeptide almost completely inhibited the antiport activity. These results suggest the association of the 170-kDa polypeptide with the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport.

  19. Calculation of radial couplings in the model-potential and pseudopotential approaches: The NaH quasimolecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, O.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.

    1985-06-01

    We present an extension of the analytical method of Macias and Riera to calculate radial couplings, to include model potentials or (local and nonlocal) pseudopotentials, in the Hamiltonian. As an illustration, energies, couplings, and momentum matrix elements are presented and discussed for the two-effective-electron NaH quasimolecule, as a stringent test case.

  20. Digitaalinen markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma vaatealan pienyritykselle : case: SOFiNAH shop

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkman, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee digitaalisen viestinnän hyödynnettävyyttä vaatealan pienyrityksen markkinointiviestinnässä. Opinnäytetyön case-yritys on Helsingissä sijaitseva SOFiNAH shop. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on löytää case-yritykselle toimivimmat digitaalisen markkinointiviestinnän keinot ja laatia yritykselle markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma vuodelle 2015. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa käydään läpi brändin hallitseminen ja vahvistaminen markkinointiviestinnällä sekä kuinka yritykset...

  1. Structual Dynamics and Function of the Na+/H+ Exchanger 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth

    Na+/H+ Exchangers (SLC9As) are of pivotal importance in several physiological processes, and their dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of several diseases. The Na+/H+ Exchanger 1 (NHE1) is ubiquitously expressed at the plasma membrane. It contains two domains, the transmembrane ion...... translocation domain and a large cytoplasmic regulatory domain. Despite its physiological and pathophysiological importance, high resolution structural data of NHE1 is missing, and even though several binding partners and phosphorylation sites of the NHE1 regulatory domain are known and many more suggested......, the molecular structures and mechanisms underlying NHE1 regulation and function are still incompletely understood. In this work, in silico analysis revealed two structured and two intrinsically disordered regions in the regulatory domain. A divide-and-conquer approach was used to identify subdomains...

  2. Cyborg oder Göttin: Wie Technikforscherinnen ihr Verhältnis zu Technik sehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kissmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen haben für die Beiträge eigene auto/biographische Erlebnisse ausgewählt, in denen der mediale Charakter von Technik deutlich wird. Die Geschichten erzählen also von Technik, die soziale Ordnung und Bedeutung vermittelt und auf diese Weise dazu beiträgt, Geschlechtergrenzen und andere Grenzen wie die zwischen „bekannt“ und „fremd“ oder „normal“ und „anormal“ herzustellen. Die Auto/Biographien sind durch Technik einerseits fremdbestimmt, andererseits zeigen die Autorinnen auch, wie Selbstbestimmung über diese Grenzen hinweg möglich ist. Sie benutzen Donna Haraways Cyborg Metapher (1985, um das Selbst in der Verflechtung von Sozialem und Technischem auto/biographisch zu rekonstruieren.

  3. The Prognosis of Influence of The Oder River Waters Dammed by Malczyce Barrage on Left Bank Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalfen Mieczysław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The finalisation of the construction of the Malczyce barrage is planned for 2015. Damming of the river will cause a change in the water and ground conditions in the adjoining areas. The paper analyses the influence of the water level in the Oder River dammed by the barrage on groundwater table level in the left bank valley.

  4. A photoactivatable probe for the Na+/H+ exchanger cross-links a 66-kDa renal brush border membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.; Bertrand, W.; Morrison, A.

    1990-01-01

    Earlier studies on LLC-PK1 cells have demonstrated two pharmacologically distinct Na+/H+ exchangers in renal epithelia. In addition, the cDNA clone for the human Na+/H+ antiporter which is growth factor activatable has been isolated and expressed. We report here the synthesis of an amiloride analogue that can be photoactivated and labeled with 125I. This analogue covalently cross-links a 66-kDa protein of bovine renal brush border membranes. A rabbit polyclonal antibody that was directed against a 20-amino acid peptide of the cytoplasmic domain of its human Na+/H+ antiporter also gives a positive Western against 66-kDa protein of bovine brush border membranes. Thus, the photoactive probe may be helpful in the isolation and purification of the brush border Na+/H+ exchanger

  5. Functional Role of MrpA in the MrpABCDEFG Na+/H+ Antiporter Complex from the Archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Jasso-Ch?vez, Ricardo; Diaz-Perez, C?sar; Rodr?guez-Zavala, Jos? S.; Ferry, James G.

    2016-01-01

    The multisubunit cation/proton antiporter 3 family, also called Mrp, is widely distributed in all three phylogenetic domains (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea). Investigations have focused on Mrp complexes from the domain Bacteria to the exclusion of Archaea, with a consensus emerging that all seven subunits are required for Na+/H+ antiport activity. The MrpA subunit from the MrpABCDEFG Na+/H+ antiporter complex of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans was produced in antiporter-deficient Esc...

  6. Complex Formation by the mrpABCDEFG Gene Products, Which Constitute a Principal Na+/H+ Antiporter in Bacillus subtilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiyama, Yusuke; Otagiri, Masato; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Kosono, Saori; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Mrp (also referred to as Sha) is a particularly unusual Na+/H+ antiporter encoded by mrpABCDEFG. Using His tagging of Mrp proteins, we showed complex formation by the mrpABCDEFG gene products by pull-down and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses. This is the first molecular evidence that the Mrp is a multicomponent antiporter in the cation-proton antiporter 3 family.

  7. Restoration of normal pH triggers ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung by Na+/H+ exchange activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T M; Khimenko, P L; Taylor, A E

    1995-10-01

    The effects of acidotic extracellular pH and Na+/H+ exchange inhibition on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced microvascular injury were studied in the isolated, buffer-perfused rat lung. When lungs were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) increased significantly, resulting in a change in Kfc (delta Kfc) of 0.360 +/- 0.09 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100 g-1. Addition of hydrochloric acid to the perfusate before ischemia at a concentration sufficient to reduce perfusate pH from 7.38 +/- 0.03 to 7.09 +/- 0.04 completely prevented the increase in Kfc associated with I/R (delta Kfc = 0.014 +/- 0.034 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100 g-1). Addition of a Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, to the perfusate either before ischemia or at reperfusion also prevented the I/R-induced permeability increase (delta Kfc = 0.01 +/- 0.02 and -0.001 +/- 0.02 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100 g-1, respectively). We conclude that restoration of flow at physiological pH to the postischemic lung activates the Na+/H+ exchange system, which may represent the "triggering mechanism" responsible for initiating reperfusion-induced microvascular injury.

  8. Purification and functional reconstitution of a seven-subunit mrp-type na+/h+ antiporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Masato; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Ito, Masahiro; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2014-01-01

    Mrp antiporters and their homologues in the cation/proton antiporter 3 family of the Membrane Transporter Database are widely distributed in bacteria. They have major roles in supporting cation and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in many environmental, extremophilic, and pathogenic bacteria. These antiporters require six or seven hydrophobic proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes, while most other cation/proton antiporters require only one membrane protein for their activity. The resemblance of three Mrp subunits to membrane-embedded subunits of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of respiratory chains and to subunits of several hydrogenases has raised interest in the evolutionary path and commonalities of their proton-translocating domains. In order to move toward a greater mechanistic understanding of these unusual antiporters and to rigorously demonstrate that they function as secondary antiporters, powered by an imposed proton motive force, we established a method for purification and functional reconstitution of the seven-subunit Mrp antiporter from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity was demonstrated by a fluorescence-based assay with proteoliposomes in which the Mrp complex was coreconstituted with a bacterial FoF1-ATPase. Proton pumping by the ATPase upon addition of ATP generated a proton motive force across the membranes that powered antiporter activity upon subsequent addition of Na(+).

  9. An Inside Job: How Endosomal Na+/H+ Exchangers Link to Autism and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C. Kondapalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na+/H+ exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determine luminal pH and regulate cation (Na+, K+ content in early and recycling endosomal compartments. Loss-of-function mutations in eNHE cause hyperacidification of endosomal lumen, as a result of imbalance in pump and leak pathways. Two isoforms, NHE6 and NHE9 are highly expressed in brain, including hippocampus and cortex. Here, we summarize evidence for the importance of luminal cation content and pH on processing, delivery and fate of cargo and on the surface expression and function of membrane receptors and neurotransmitter transporters, drawing upon insights from model organisms and mammalian cells. These studies lead to cellular models of eNHE activity in pre- and post-synaptic neurons and astrocytes, where they could impact synapse development and plasticity. The study of eNHE has provided new insight on the mechanism of autism and other debilitating neurological disorders and opened up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

  10. NhaA Na+/H+ antiporter mutants that hardly react to the membrane potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudu Alkoby

    Full Text Available pH and Na+ homeostasis in all cells requires Na+/H+ antiporters. The crystal structure, obtained at pH 4, of NhaA, the main antiporter of Escherichia coli, has provided general insights into an antiporter mechanism and its unique pH regulation. Here, we describe a general method to select various NhaA mutants from a library of randomly mutagenized NhaA. The selected mutants, A167P and F267C are described in detail. Both mutants are expressed in Escherichia coli EP432 cells at 70-95% of the wild type but grow on selective medium only at neutral pH, A167P on Li+ (0.1 M and F267C on Na+ (0.6 M. Surprising for an electrogenic secondary transporter, and opposed to wild type NhaA, the rates of A167P and F267C are almost indifferent to membrane potential. Detailed kinetic analysis reveals that in both mutants the rate limiting step of the cation exchange cycle is changed from an electrogenic to an electroneutral reaction.

  11. Konkurrenz oder Kooperation? Zur Entwicklung des Verhältnisses von Medienbildung und informatischer Bildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Tulodziecki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mit der gegenwärtigen Diskussion um Mediatisierung und Digitalisierung ist die Forderung verbunden, der Medienbildung und/oder der informatischen Bildung ein größeres Gewicht in der schulischen Bildung zu verschaffen. Dies legt die Frage nahe, wie ein produktives Verhältnis zwischen beiden gestaltet werden sollte und wie beide am besten zu einer zeitgemäßen Bildung beitragen können. Bei entsprechenden Überlegungen spielen unter anderem Entwicklungen eine Rolle, die sich seit frühen Forderungen nach einer Computerbildung im Verhältnis zur damaligen Medienerziehung herausgebildet haben. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden solche Entwicklungen skizziert und Schlussfolgerungen für die gegenwärtige Diskussion formuliert. Dabei kommen unterschiedliche Auffassungen zur bildungsbezogenen Auseinandersetzung mit Medien sowie mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien in den Blick. Für das Verhältnis von Medienbildung und informatischer Bildung ergibt sich als zentrale Schlussfolgerung, dass sowohl eine Integration der informatischen Bildung in die Medienbildung als auch eine umgekehrte Lösung unangemessen erscheint, wiewohl beide Bereiche auf Anteile aus dem jeweils anderen Bereich angewiesen sind. Danach werden für eine Medienbildung mit informatischen Anteilen ein geeigneter Medienbegriff und eine tragfähige Bildungsauffassung sowie ein Ansatz zu einem inhaltlich-thematischen Kompetenzrahmen beschrieben. Überlegungen zur schulischen Umsetzung schließen den Beitrag ab.

  12. Excerpt from Medicinische Psychologie oder Physiologie der Seele by Dr Rudolph Hermann Lotze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, G E

    2005-03-01

    Hermann Lotze (1817-81) is a neglected figure in the history of psychiatry although it has been claimed that his early views were influential, for example, on the young Griesinger. Trained as a physician, psychologist and philosopher he saw better than many the impending epistemological crisis that was to affect disciplines such as psychology and medical psychology as they were being taken over by the natural sciences. The problem he endeavoured to resolve was double-headed. On the one hand, Lotze believed that the mechanisms proposed by physiology and other relevant natural sciences were essential to the explanation of human behaviour provided that its meaning and context were respected; on the other, he wanted to do away with the mysterious (metaphysical) explanations such as 'vital force' which in his time were still popular in biology. The solutions he eventually offered can understandably be seen as a weak compromise and one which statisfied no one. Materialists à outrance such as Vogt, Büchner, Lange and Ribot though he was too 'metaphysical'; spiritualist philosophers believed that he had surrendered too much to biology. It is likely that Lotze remained, in fact, a metaphysician as can be ascertained by studying his concept of Seele (soul, mind) into which he packed enough furniture to make many believe that he was an idealist thinker. This paper discusses some of these issues and justifies the choice of classic text, namely, Lotze's illuminating Introduction to his book Medicinische Psychologie oder Physiologie der Seele.

  13. Gemeinsam hilfreich oder einsam lästig? Beurteilung von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs von angehenden Lehrpersonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Egger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Weblogs werden an Hochschulen vermehrt zur Unterstützung von Lern- und Reflexionsprozessen eingesetzt, in der Lehrer/innenbildung auch zunehmend während der berufspraktischen Ausbildung. Die Studierenden beurteilen den Einsatz von Weblogs jedoch unterschiedlich. Dabei ist wenig bekannt, welchen Einfluss die Vergabe und das Erhalten von Peerfeedback auf den Beurteilungsprozess von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs sowie auf den Umfang von Blogpostings haben. Im folgenden Beitrag wird dieser Frage mittels einer Befragung von 74 angehenden Lehrpersonen nachgegangen, die praktikumsbegleitende Weblogs mit oder ohne Peerfeedback nutzten, um über herausfordernde Ereignisse im Praktikum zu reflektieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Studierende, die Peerfeedback erhielten und andere Blogbeiträge kommentierten, den Weblogeinsatz nützlicher einschätzen sowie eine höhere Motivation und positivere Einstellung gegenüber den Einsatz von Weblogs aufweisen als Studierende, die ohne Peerfeedback bloggen. Keinen Einfluss hat Peerfeedback auf den Umfang der Blogbeiträge und auf die dafür aufgewendete Zeit.

  14. Evaluation eines Intensivtherapie-Programms zur Behandlung schwerer Verhaltensstörungen bei geistig Behinderten mit autistischen oder psychotischen Verhaltensweisen

    OpenAIRE

    Elbing, Ulrich; Rohmann, Ulrich H.

    1993-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie dokumentiert den Verlauf schwerer Verhaltensstörungen und erwünschten Zielverhaltens bei Geistigbehinderten mit z. T. autistischen oder psychotischen Verhaltensweisen, die vor, während und nach der Durchführung eines Intensivtherapie Programms in einem Heim fur Geistig- und Mehrfachbehinderte beobachtet wurden. Der Artikel faßt sieben Einzelfallstudien zusammen, die als Längsschnitt-Beobachtungen das Verhalten zwischen 18 und 33 Wochen überwiegend in multiple baseline d...

  15. Molecular detection and immunological localization of gill Na+/H+ exchanger in the dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, James B; Choe, Keith P; Morrison-Shetlar, Alison I; Weakley, Jill C; Havird, Justin; Freiji, Abe; Evans, David H; Edwards, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    The dogfish (Squalus acanthias) can make rapid adjustments to gill acid-base transfers to compensate for internal acidosis/alkalosis. Branchial Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) has been postulated as one mechanism driving the excretion of H+ following acidosis. We have cloned gill cDNA that includes an open reading frame coding for a 770-residue protein most homologous (approximately 71%) to mammalian NHE2. RT-PCR revealed NHE2 transcripts predominantly in gill, stomach, rectal gland, intestine, and kidney. In situ hybridization with an antisense probe against NHE2 in gill sections revealed a strong mRNA signal from a subset of interlamellar and lamellae cells. We developed dogfish-specific polyclonal antibodies against NHE2 that detected a approximately 70-kDa protein in Western blots and immunologically recognized branchial cells having two patterns of protein expression. Cytoplasmic and apical NHE2 immunoreactivity were observed in cells coexpressing basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase. Other large ovoid cells more generally staining for NHE2 also were strongly positive for basolateral H+-ATPase. Gill mRNA levels for NHE2 and H+-ATPase did not change following systemic acidosis (as measured by quantitative PCR 2 h after a 1- or 2-meq/kg acid infusion). These data indicate that posttranslational adjustments of NHE2 and other transport systems (e.g., NHE3) following acidosis may be of importance in the short-term pH adjustment and net branchial H+ efflux observed in vivo. NHE2 may play multiple roles in the gills, involved with H+ efflux from acid-secreting cells, basolateral H+ reabsorption for pHi regulation, and in parallel with H+-ATPase for the generation of HCO3(-) in base-secreting cells.

  16. Evidence that Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is an ATP-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada-Shimizu, Naoko; Hisamitsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2013-03-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) 1 is a member of the solute carrier superfamily, which regulates intracellular ionic homeostasis. NHE1 is known to require cellular ATP for its activity, despite there being no requirement for energy input from ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we investigated whether NHE1 is an ATP-binding protein. We designed a baculovirus vector carrying both epitope-tagged NHE1 and its cytosolic subunit CHP1, and expressed the functional NHE1-CHP1 complex on the surface of Sf9 insect cells. Using the purified complex protein consisting of NHE1 and CHP1 from Sf9 cells, we examined a photoaffinity labeling reaction with 8-azido-ATP-biotin. UV irradiation promoted the incorporation of 8-azido-ATP into NHE1, but not into CHP1, with an apparent Kd of 29.1 µM in the presence of Mg(2+). The nonlabeled nucleotides ATP, GTP, TTP and CTP all inhibited this crosslinking. However, ATP had the strongest inhibitory effect, with an apparent inhibition constant (IC50) for ATP of 2.2 mM, close to the ATP concentration giving the half-maximal activation of NHE1 activity. Importantly, crosslinking was more strongly inhibited by ATP than by ADP, suggesting that ATP is dissociated from NHE1 upon ATP hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis with thrombin and deletion mutant analysis revealed that the 8-azido-ATP-binding site is within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of NHE1. Equilibrium dialysis with NHE1-derived peptides provided evidence that ATP directly binds to the proximal cytoplasmic region (Gly542-Pro598), which is critical for ATP-dependent regulation of NHE1. These findings suggest that NHE1 is an ATP-binding transporter. Thus, ATP may serve as a direct activator of NHE1. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  17. Flow cytometric kinetic assay of the activity of Na+/H+ antiporter in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, María; O'Connor, José-Enrique; Lequerica, Juan L

    2004-10-01

    The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) of mammalian cells is an integral membrane protein that extrudes H(+) ion in exchange for extracellular Na(+) and plays a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi). Thus, when pHi is lowered, NHE extrudes protons at a rate depending of pHi that can be expressed as pH units/s. To abolish the activity of other cellular pH-restoring systems, cells were incubated in bicarbonate-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium buffered with HEPES. Flow cytometry was used to determine pHi with 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester or 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1 acetoxymethyl ester acetate, and the appropriate fluorescence ratios were measured. The calibration of fluorescence ratios versus pHi was established by using ionophore nigericin. The activity of NHE was calculated by a kinetic flow cytometric assay as the slope at time 0 of the best-fit curve of pHi recovery versus time after intracellular acidification with a pulse of exogenous sodium propionate. The kinetic method allowed determination of the pHi-dependent activity of NHE in cell lines and primary cell cultures. NHE activity values were demonstrated to be up to 0.016 pH units/s within the pHi range of 7.3 to 6.3. The inhibition of NHE activity by the specific inhibitor ethyl isopropyl amiloride was easily detected by this method. The assay conditions can be used to relate variations in pHi with the activity of NHE and provide a standardized method to compare between different cells, inhibitors, models of ischemia by acidification, and other relevant experimental or clinical situations.

  18. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Darborg, Barbara Vasek; Rentsch, Maria Louise

    2006-01-01

    activity is regulated by a three-tiered phosphorelay system, which is in turn regulated by a complex network of signaling events and scaffolding proteins. The ubiquitous plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 is activated by, and implicated in, the physiological/pathophysiological responses to many...... of the same stimuli that modulate MAPK activity. While under some conditions, NHE1 is regulated by MAPKs, a number of studies have, conversely, implicated NHE1 in the regulation of MAPK activity. Here, we discuss the current evidence indicating the involvement of NHE1 in MAPK regulation, the mechanisms...

  19. Comparison of the effectiveness of seven amiloride congeners as inhibitors of Na/H and Na/Ca antiport in cultured smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Smith, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors cultured smooth muscle cells from rat aorta and assayed Na/Ca antiport by measuring the initial rate of 45 Ca influx in Na-loaded cells. Na/H antiport was assayed by measuring the initial rate of 22 Na influx in acid-loaded cells. The external medium was the same for both assays except Na was 10 mM for Na/H antiport and O for the Na/Ca antiport assay. The dose of each congener that caused 50% inhibition (I 50 ) was calculated using a log-log median effect plot. The linear regression coefficients ranged from 0.916 to 0.998. Of all the compounds tested only dimethylbenzamil is more potent as an inhibitor of Na/Ca compared to Na/H antiport

  20. Data Curation oder (Retro Digitalisierung ist mehr als die Produktion von Daten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kempf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nahezu jede Bibliothek, die über Altbestand verfügt, beschäftigt sich heute mit dem Thema Digitalisierung. Dabei wird oftmals übersehen, dass die dauerhafte und möglichst nutzerfreundliche Bereitstellung (und letztlich die Archivierung der erzeugten Daten organisatorische Anforderungen ganz eigener Art an die bestandshaltende Institution stellt. Anders als bei analogen Materialien ist es mit dem sachgerechten Vorhalten und der Ausgabe des Sammelguts in buchklimatisch möglichst einwandfreien Räumlichkeiten nicht getan. Elektronische Dokumente, egal welcher Herkunft, welchen Umfangs, Typs und Inhalts, verlangen – weitgehend unabhängig von ihrer tatsächlichen Inanspruchnahme – ein aktives und extrem aufwändiges Datenmanagement sowie eine intensive Datenpflege. Dazu kommen der Betrieb und das regelmäßige Update der für das Datenangebot notwendigen Hard- und Software. Dieses Tun wird in der angelsächsischen Bibliothekswelt gemeinhin mit dem Begriff „digital curation“ oder „data curation“, manchmal auch mit „data stewardship“ umschrieben. Organisationsstrukturen und Arbeitsabläufe (Geschäftsgänge des digitalen Servicekonzepts der Bibliothek müssen darauf ausgelegt sein, die notwendigen personellen und finanziellen Ressourcen müssen dafür eingeplant und bereitgestellt werden. In deutschen Bibliotheken wird diesem wesentlichen Aspekt des digitalen Arbeitens nach wie vor viel zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, dabei ist er für die Qualität des (digitalen Servicekonzepts und seiner Nutzerakzeptanz von herausragender Bedeutung. In dem Beitrag sollen vor dem Hintergrund der langjährigen Erfahrungen in der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek (BSB die Dimension und Komplexität des Problems aufgezeigt sowie mittlerweile praxiserprobte Lösungsansätze vorgestellt werden. Today almost every library with historic collections faces the question of digitisation. However, it is often ignored that a long-term and

  1. Conductivity And Thermal Stability of Solid Acid Composites CsH2PO4 /NaH2PO4/ SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyahida Mohammad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum

    2016-01-01

    Solid acid composites CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 with different mole ratios of CsH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 to SiO 2 were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary infrared measurements of CsH 2 PO 4 and its composites indicated that hydrogen bonds breaking and formation were detected between 1710 to 2710 cm -1 , while the rotation of phosphate tetrahedral anions occurred between 900 and 1200 cm -1 . The superprotonic transition of CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 composite was identified at superprotonic temperatures between 230 and 260 degree Celcius, under atmospheric pressure. This study reveals higher conductivity values for composites with higher CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP) content. Solid acid composite CDP 613 appeared as the composite with the highest conductivity that is 7.2x10 -3 S cm -1 at 230 degree Celcius. Thermal stability of the solid acid composites such as temperature of dehydration, melting and decomposition were investigated. The addition of NaH 2 PO 4 lowers the dehydration temperature of the solid acid composites. (author)

  2. Observation of double-well potential of NaH C 1Σ+ state: Deriving the dissociation energy of its ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Huang, Hsien-Yu; Whang, Thou-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2018-03-21

    Vibrational levels (v = 6-42) of the NaH C 1 Σ + state including the inner and outer wells and the near-dissociation region were observed by pulsed optical-optical double resonance fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. The absolute vibrational quantum number is identified by comparing the vibrational energy difference of this experiment with the ab initio calculations. The outer well with v up to 34 is analyzed using the Dunham expansion and a Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potential energy curve is constructed. A hybrid double-well potential combined with the RKR potential, the ab initio calculation, and a long-range potential is able to describe the whole NaH C 1 Σ + state including the higher vibrational levels (v = 35-42). The dissociation energy of the NaH C 1 Σ + state is determined to be D e (C) = 6595.10 ± 5 cm -1 and then the dissociation energy of the NaH ground state D e (X) = 15 807.87 ± 5 cm -1 can be derived.

  3. Identification of conserved prolyl residue important for transport activity and the substrate specificity range of yeast plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Zavřel, Martin; Sychrová, Hana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 34 (2005), s. 30638-30647 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP204/02/D092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : yeast * Na+/H+ antiporter * substrate specificity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2005

  4. Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities of zebrafish NHE3b expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Kato, Akira; Hirata, Taku; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (zNHE3b) is highly expressed in the apical membrane of ionocytes where Na+ is absorbed from ion-poor fresh water against a concentration gradient. Much in vivo data indicated that zNHE3b is involved in Na+ absorption but not leakage. However, zNHE3b-mediated Na+ absorption has not been thermodynamically explained, and zNHE3b activity has not been measured. To address this issue, we overexpressed zNHE3b in Xenopus oocytes and characterized its activity by electrophysiology. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to Na+-free media resulted in significant decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular Na+ activity (aNai). aNai increased significantly when the cytoplasm was acidified by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. Activity of zNHE3b was inhibited by amiloride or 5-ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA). Although the activity was accompanied by a large hyperpolarization of ∼50 mV, voltage-clamp experiments showed that Na+/H+ exchange activity of zNHE3b is electroneutral. Exposure of zNHE3b oocytes to medium containing NH3/NH4+ resulted in significant decreases in pHi and aNai and significant increase in intracellular NH4+ activity, indicating that zNHE3b mediates the Na+/NH4+ exchange. In low-Na+ (0.5 mM) media, zNHE3b oocytes maintained aNai of 1.3 mM, and Na+-influx was observed when pHi was decreased by media containing CO2-HCO3− or butyrate. These results provide thermodynamic evidence that zNHE3b mediates Na+ absorption from ion-poor fresh water by its Na+/H+ and Na+/NH4+ exchange activities. PMID:24401990

  5. Response of bacterial pdo1, nah, and C12O genes to aged soil PAH pollution in a coke factory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Soil pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is threatening human health and environmental safety. Investigating the relative prevalence of different PAH-degrading genes in PAH-polluted soils and searching for potential bioindicators reflecting the impact of PAH pollution on microbial communities are useful for microbial monitoring, risk evaluation, and potential bioremediation of soils polluted by PAHs. In this study, three functional genes, pdo1, nah, and C12O, which might be involved in the degradation of PAHs from a coke factory, were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and clone library approaches. The results showed that the pdo1 and C12O genes were more abundant than the nah gene in the soils. There was a significantly positive relationship between the nah or pdo1 gene abundances and PAH content, while there was no correlation between C12O gene abundance and PAH content. Analyses of clone libraries showed that all the pdo1 sequences were grouped into Mycobacterium, while all the nah sequences were classified into three groups: Pseudomonas, Comamonas, and Polaromonas. These results indicated that the abundances of nah and pdo1 genes were positively influenced by levels of PAHs in soil and could be potential microbial indicators reflecting the impact of soil PAH pollution and that Mycobacteria were one of the most prevalent PAHs degraders in these PAH-polluted soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analyses between microbial parameters and environmental factors revealed that total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) had positive effects on the abundances of all PAH-degrading genes. It suggests that increasing TC, TN, and DOC inputs could be a useful way to remediate PAH-polluted soils.

  6. Driver assistance - Firstly a contribution to primary safety or rather to comfort?; Fahrerassistenz primaer zum Komfort oder fuer die Sicherheit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubb, H. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ergonomie

    2003-07-01

    Vertrauen in neue Assistenzsysteme ist deshalb das subjektive Erleben von Assistenzsystemen. Werden sie eher als ein Komfortgewinn, wie es der Hersteller primaer aus produkthaftungstechnischen Gruenden gerne moechte, oder als eine Entlastung im Hinblick auf das eigene notwendige sichernde Verhalten erlebt? Besteht dann gerade in der zuletzt genannten Tendenz eine neue Gefahr? Nicht unerwaehnt darf in diesem Zusammenhang die juristische Problematik bleiben. Fuer Vorgaenge, auf die der Fahrer tatsaechlich oder vermeintlich keinen Einfluss hat, die also fuer ihn quasi selbsttaetig ablaufen, kann er nicht oder nur eingeschraenkt zur Verantwortung gezogen werden. Die Haftung fuer den nicht kompensierten Schaden wird dann dem Hersteller des betreffenden Systems zugeschrieben. Durch an den Eigenschaften und Faehigkeiten des Menschen orientierte Bedienung von neuartigen Assistenzsystemen kann somit unerwuenschten juristischen Folgen weitgehend vorgebeugt werden. (orig.)

  7. A hydrophobic filter confers the cation selectivity of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii plasma-membrane Na+/H+ antiporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinclova-Zimmermannova, Olga; Falson, Pierre; Cmunt, Denis; Sychrova, Hana

    2015-04-24

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters may recognize all alkali-metal cations as substrates but may transport them selectively. Plasma-membrane Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Sod2-22 antiporter exports Na(+) and Li(+), but not K(+). The molecular basis of this selectivity is unknown. We combined protein structure modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, phenotype analysis and cation efflux measurements to localize and characterize the cation selectivity region. A three-dimensional model of the ZrSod2-22 transmembrane domain was generated based on the X-ray structure of the Escherichia coli NhaA antiporter and primary sequence alignments with homologous yeast antiporters. The model suggested a close proximity of Thr141, Ala179 and Val375 from transmembrane segments 4, 5 and 11, respectively, forming a hydrophobic hole in the putative cation pathway's core. A series of mutagenesis experiments verified the model and showed that structural modifications of the hole resulted in altered cation selectivity and transport activity. The triple ZrSod2-22 mutant T141S-A179T-V375I gained K(+) transport capacity. The point mutation A179T restricted the antiporter substrate specificity to Li(+) and reduced its transport activity, while serine at this position preserved the native cation selectivity. The negative effect of the A179T mutation can be eliminated by introducing a second mutation, T141S or T141A, in the preceding transmembrane domain. Our experimental results confirm that the three residues found through modeling play a central role in the determination of cation selectivity and transport activity in Z. rouxii Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and that the cation selectivity can be modulated by repositioning a single local methyl group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. „Nach der Genderforschung ist vor der Genderforschung“ – oder? Gender Studies: There’s Always More—Right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scholand

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Frage, ob die Kategorie ‚Gender‘ ausgedient hat oder weiter ertragreich genutzt werden kann, stellen sich die Autorinnen und Autoren des Bandes in einem von Erziehungswissenschaftler/-innen veranstalteten „Interdisziplinären Gespräch“. Eine Bestandsaufnahme der feministischen Theoriebildung wird vorgenommen und – durchaus vorhandene – neue Perspektiven werden aufgezeigt und diskutiert. Ein spezifisch erziehungswissenschaftliches Profil im Kontrast zu den Beiträgen aus Soziologie, Philosophie, Politikwissenschaft und Geschichte wird allerdings nicht deutlich.The authors of this volume question whether the category of ‘gender’ has become worn out or whether it can still be useful in ‘interdisciplinary conversations’ between pedagogues. They carry out an assessment of the state of feminist theoretical development and they point to and discuss new perspectives, all of which exist today. However, the book does not clarify its specifically pedagogical profile as compared to the contributions from sociology, philosophy, political science, and history.

  9. Evaluation von E-Learning: Checklisten, Kriterienkataloge oder Evaluationskonzepte? Zum Stand der Bewertungsverfahren für E-Learning-Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf-Daniel Ehlers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualität in Bildungsmaßnahmen - als Legitimation oder aus wissenschaftlichem Interesse - ist ein Thema von hoher Bedeutung, auch - und gerade - im E-Learning. E-Learning, als eine noch relativ junge, nicht völlig etablierte, aber - so stellt sich immer häufiger heraus – kostenintensive Bildungsform, muss sich immer wieder der kritischen Frage nach der Qualität stellen, zumeist assoziiert mit Lernerfolg. Vielfältige Instrumente, um die Qualität zu überprüfen oder zu entwickeln, begleitend oder im Nachhinein, sind bislang konzipiert worden (vgl. Ehlers/Pawlowski/Goertz 2003. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick zum derzeitigen Stand der Dinge in Bezug auf zwei dieser Verfahrensweisen: zum einen geht es dabei um die Beurteilungen anhand von Kriterienkatalogen bzw. Checklisten und zum anderen um Evaluationsverfahren. Obwohl vielfach bereits umfassendere Managementsysteme zum Einsatz kommen, die die Qualität bei Anbietern kontinuierlich verbessern sollen, haben beide Verfahren eine steigende Bedeutung - da auch Managementverfahren immer wieder auf Kriterien oder Evaluationsverfahren zurückgreifen.

  10. Modern oder Postmodern? Traditionalismus, Avantgarde oder Postavangarde?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostakeva Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački Mittelpunkt des Aufsatzes sind einige methodologische Probleme bei der Betrachtung der Kunst, bzw. Musik an der Schwelle der zwei Jahrhunderten. Anhang einiger Besonderheiten im Kompositionsverfahren von vier wichtigen Komponisten (György Ligeti, Alfred Schnittke, Helmut Lachenmann, Adriana Hölszky und im Licht der führenden Ideen der modernen Philosophie und Ästhetik wird versucht, die Idiomatik unserer Epoche unter Lupe zu stellen.

  11. Rice Na+/H+- antiporter Nhx1 partially complements the alkali-metal-cation sensitivity of yeast strains lacking three sodium transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kinclová-Zimmermannová, Olga; Flegelová, Hana; Sychrová, Hana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 519-525 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1240; GA AV ČR IAA5011407 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : alkali metal cations * Na/H antiporter * yeast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  12. Importance of the seryl and threonyl residues of the fifth transmembrane domain to the substrate specificity of yeast plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Zavřel, Martin; Sychrová, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2006), s. 349-361 ISSN 0968-7688 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/02/D092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Na+/H+ antiporter * substrate specificity * hydroxyl groups Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.250, year: 2006

  13. Yeast plasma membrane Na/H antiporter - importance of OH groups in the 5th tms for activity and substrate specificity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 274, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 127-127 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress Molecular Machines /32./. 07.07.2007-12.07.2007, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * Na/H antiporter * yeast * substrate specificity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Screening a novel Na+/H+ antiporter gene from a metagenomic library of halophiles colonizing in the Dagong Ancient Brine Well in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jie; Li, Lin; Liang, Huazhong; Luo, Hai; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Zhirong; Sun, Qun

    2010-05-01

    Metagenomic DNA libraries constructed from the Dagong Ancient Brine Well were screened for genes with Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity on the antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc strain. One clone with a stable Na(+)-resistant phenotype was obtained and its Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene was sequenced and designated as m-nha. The deduced amino acid sequence of M-Nha protein consists of 523 residues with a calculated molecular weight of 58 147 Da and a pI of 5.50, which is homologous with NhaH from Halobacillus dabanensis D-8(T) (92%) and Halobacillus aidingensis AD-6(T) (86%), and with Nhe2 from Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 (64%). It had a hydropathy profile with 10 putative transmembrane domains and a long carboxyl terminal hydrophilic tail of 140 amino acid residues, similar to Nhap from Synechocystis sp. and Aphanothece halophytica, as well as NhaG from Bacillus subtilis. The m-nha gene in the antiporter-negative mutant E. coli KNabc conferred resistance to Na(+) and the ability to grow under alkaline conditions. The difference in amino acid sequence and the putative secondary structure suggested that the m-nha isolated from the Dagong Ancient Brine Well in this study was a novel Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene.

  15. Photolabeling of tonoplast from sugar beet cell suspensions by [h]5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of the vacuolar na/h antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, B J; Charuk, J H; Cragoe, E J; Blumwald, E

    1990-07-01

    The effects of 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA), an amiloride analog, was tested on the Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity of intact vacuoles and tonoplast vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cell suspension cultures. MIA inhibited Na(+)/H(+) exchange in a competitive manner with a K(i) of 2.5 and 5.9 micromolar for DeltapH-dependent (22)Na(+) influx in tonoplast vesicles and Na(+)-dependent H(+) efflux in intact vacuoles, respectively. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [(3)H]MIA to tonoplast membranes revealed a high affinity binding component with a K(d) of 1.3 micromolar. The close relationship between the dissociation constant value obtained and the constants of inhibition for MIA obtained by fluorescence quenching and isotope exchange suggests that the high affinity component represents a class of sites associated with the tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiport. Photolabeling of the tonoplast with [(3)H]MIA revealed two sets of polypeptides with a different affinity to amiloride and its analog.

  16. Photolabeling of Tonoplast from Sugar Beet Cell Suspensions by [3H]5-(N-Methyl-N-Isobutyl)-Amiloride, an Inhibitor of the Vacuolar Na+/H+ Antiport 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Charuk, Jeffrey H. M.; Cragoe, Edward J.; Blumwald, Eduardo

    1990-01-01

    The effects of 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA), an amiloride analog, was tested on the Na+/H+ antiport activity of intact vacuoles and tonoplast vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cell suspension cultures. MIA inhibited Na+/H+ exchange in a competitive manner with a Ki of 2.5 and 5.9 micromolar for ΔpH-dependent 22Na+ influx in tonoplast vesicles and Na+-dependent H+ efflux in intact vacuoles, respectively. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H]MIA to tonoplast membranes revealed a high affinity binding component with a Kd of 1.3 micromolar. The close relationship between the dissociation constant value obtained and the constants of inhibition for MIA obtained by fluorescence quenching and isotope exchange suggests that the high affinity component represents a class of sites associated with the tonoplast Na+/H+ antiport. Photolabeling of the tonoplast with [3H]MIA revealed two sets of polypeptides with a different affinity to amiloride and its analog. Images Figure 7 PMID:16667602

  17. Using a train drawn by a locomotive engine or a taking a railway-motor train?; Lokbespannung oder Triebzuege?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, V. [Siemens Verkehrstechnik Erlangen (Germany). ICE-Marketing

    2000-10-01

    In the field of passenger rail traffic extending from urban transport to long-distance railroad different requirements lead in the past to different developments with regard to forming a train. Using trains hauled by a locomotive. Using a push and pull train or a adistributed power train, and had to be decided with operational and economical considerations in mind. Nevertheless, besides factual and objective arguments there are also arguments to be attributed to the level of training and to emotions. Therefore, the author finally tries to arrive at an assessable conclusion by means of a comparison of the life cycle costs of two real trains running under comparable operational conditions. (orig.) [German] Zur Lokomotive eroeffnet die elektrische Traktion in Form eines Triebzuges oder Triebwagens eine Alternative mit verteilter Antriebstechnik. Fuer beide Varianten gibt es typische Anwendungsfaelle. Im Personenfernverkehr koennen beide Zugarten fallweise Vorteile fuer Betreiber und Fahrgaeste haben. Eine LCC-Betrachtung fuer beide Zugarten soll neben betrieblichen Argumenten eine Entscheidungshilfe geben. (orig.)

  18. Blogs und Journalismus – Konkurrenz oder Ergänzung? – Das Verhältnis von Blogs und Journalismus in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Leidinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der Frage, ob „Blogs und Journalismus - Konkurrenz oder Ergänzung“ sind, beschäftigt sich Saskia Leidinger in dem gleichnamigen Essay über „das Verhältnis von Blogs und Journalismus in Deutschland“. In vergleichender Perspektive richtet die Autorin ihr Hauptaugenmerk auf die Arbeitsweise sowie die Eigen- und Fremdwahrnehmung von Bloggern und Journalisten, um Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede herauszustellen und ihre je spezifische Funktion innerhalb der der heutigen Informationsgesellschaft einzugrenzen.

  19. Konstitutionelle Entwicklungsverzögerung und Familiärer und Idiopathischer Kleinwuchs auf dem Prüfstand - Unterscheidbare Klinische Diagnosen oder Existenz eines Kontinuums?

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Felix Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Kleinwuchs stellt den häufigsten Einweisungsgrund in der pädiatrisch endokrinologischen Sprechstunde dar. Viele dieser Patienten zeigen keine nachweisbaren medizinischen Ursachen für ihre geringe Körpergröße und werden als Konstitutionelle Entwicklungsverzögerung, Familiärer Kleinwuchs oder Idiopathischen Kleinwuchs diagnostiziert. Für die meisten dieser Patienten bleibt die Ätiologie ihres Kleinwuchses unbekannt obgleich...

  20. Intermittent Hypoxia Inhibits Na+-H+ Exchange-Mediated Acid Extrusion Via Intracellular Na+ Accumulation in Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Ren Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Intermittent hypoxia (IH has been shown to exert preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects. It also has been reported that IH preserves intracellular pH (pHi during ischemia and protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. Methods: In this study, we used proton indicator BCECF-AM to analyze the rate of pHi recovery from acidosis in the IH model of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were first treated with repetitive hypoxia-normoxia cycles for 1-4 days. Cells were then acid loaded with NH4Cl, and the rate of pHi recovery from acidosis was measured. Results: We found that the pHi recovery rate from acidosis was much slower in the IH group than in the room air (RA group. When we treated cardiomyocytes with Na+-H+ exchange (NHE inhibitors (Amiloride and HOE642 or Na+-free Tyrode solution during the recovery, there was no difference between RA and IH groups. We also found intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i significantly increased after IH exposure for 4 days. However, the phenomenon could be abolished by pretreatment with ROS inhibitors (SOD and phenanathroline, intracellular calcium chelator or Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX inhibitor. Furthermore, the pHi recovery rate from acidosis became faster in the IH group than in the RA group when inhibition of NCX activity. Conclusions: These results suggest that IH would induce the elevation of ROS production. ROS then activates Ca2+-efflux mode of NCX and results in intracellular Na+ accumulation. The rise of [Na+]i further inhibits the activity of NHE-mediated acid extrusion and retards the rate of pHi recovery from acidosis during IH.

  1. Sustained Na+/H+ exchanger activation promotes gliotransmitter release from reactive hippocampal astrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Cengiz

    Full Text Available Hypoxia ischemia (HI-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus. However, the impact of reactive astrogliosis in hippocampal damage after neonatal HI is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1 protein in mouse reactive hippocampal astrocyte function in an in vitro ischemia model (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX. 2 h OGD significantly increased NHE1 protein expression and NHE1-mediated H(+ efflux in hippocampal astrocytes. NHE1 activity remained stimulated during 1-5 h REOX and returned to the basal level at 24 h REOX. NHE1 activation in hippocampal astrocytes resulted in intracellular Na(+ and Ca(2+ overload. The latter was mediated by reversal of Na(+/Ca(2+ exchange. Hippocampal astrocytes also exhibited a robust release of gliotransmitters (glutamate and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα during 1-24 h REOX. Interestingly, inhibition of NHE1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only reduced Na(+ overload but also gliotransmitter release from hippocampal astrocytes. The noncompetitive excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA showed a similar effect on blocking the glutamate release. Taken together, we concluded that NHE1 plays an essential role in maintaining H(+ homeostasis in hippocampal astrocytes. Over-stimulation of NHE1 activity following in vitro ischemia disrupts Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis, which reduces Na(+-dependent glutamate uptake and promotes release of glutamate and cytokines from reactive astrocytes. Therefore, blocking sustained NHE1 activation in reactive astrocytes may provide neuroprotection following HI.

  2. Regulation of intracellular pH in LLC-PK1 cells by Na+/H+ exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrose, M H; Murer, H

    1986-01-01

    Suspensions of LLC-PK1 cells (a continuous epitheliod cell line with renal characteristics) are examined for mechanisms of intracellular pH regulation using the fluorescent probe BCECF. Initial experiments determine suitable calibration procedures for use of the BCECF fluorescent signal. They also determine that the cell suspension contains cells which (after 4 hr in suspension) have Na+ and K+ gradients comparable to those of cells in monolayer culture. The steady-state intracellular pH (7.05 +/- 0.01, n = 5) of cells which have recovered in (pH 7.4) Na+-containing medium is not affected over several minutes by addition of 100 microM amiloride or removal of extracellular Na+ (Na+o less than 1 mM). In contrast, when the cells recover from an acid load (caused by NH4 preincubation and removal), the recovery is largely Na+ dependent and is sensitive to 100 microM amiloride. These results suggest that with resting pH near neutrality, both Na+o/H+i and Na+i/H+o exchange reactions are functionally inactive (compared to cellular buffering capacity). In contrast, Na+o/H+i exchange is activated by an increased cellular acid load. This activation may be observed directly either as a stimulation of net H+ efflux or net Na+ influx with decreasing intracellular pH. The extrapolation of this latter data suggests a "set point" of Na+/H+ exchange of approximately pH 7.0, consistent with the observed resting intracellular pH of approximately 7.05.

  3. Administration of NaHS attenuates footshock-induced pathologies and emotional and cognitive dysfunction in triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Jen eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Increasing evidence indicates that environmental risk factors in young adults may accelerate cognitive loss in AD and that hydrogen sulfide (H2S may represent an innovative treatment to slow the progression of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NaHS, an H2S donor, in a triple transgenic AD mouse model (3×Tg-AD under footshock with situational reminders (SRs. Inescapable footshock with SRs induced anxiety and cognitive dysfunction as well as a decrease in the levels of plasma H2S and GSH and an increase in IL-6 levels in 3×Tg-AD mice. Under footshock with SR stimulus, amyloid deposition, tau protein hyperphosphorylation, and microgliosis were highly increased in the stress-responsive brain structures, including the hippocampus and amygdala, of the AD mice. Oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 levels were also increased, and the level of inactivated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β (pSer9 was decreased in the hippocampi of AD mice subjected to footshock with SRs. Furthermore, the numbers of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB and noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC were also decreased in the 3×Tg-AD mice under footshock with SRs. These biochemical hallmarks and pathological presentations were all alleviated by the semi-acute administration of NaHS in the AD mice. Together, these findings suggest that footshock with SRs induces the impairment of spatial cognition and emotion, which involve pathological changes in the peripheral and central systems, including the hippocampus, MS/DB, LC, and BLA, and that the administration of NaHS may be a candidate strategy to ameliorate the progression of neurodegeneration.

  4. ṢUwar Al-ḥaḍānah Ba‘da Al-ṭalāq Fī Aceh Al-Wusṭá

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi, Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    The divorce rate occurred in post-tsunami Aceh have increased sharply, especially in Central Aceh district by 2015. This research was conducted in order to figure out the causes of divorce, the patterns of ḥaḍānah (child custody) and the parent’s attention towards their children after the divorce. The selection of Central Aceh as the object of research was because this district has been occupying the highest position of divorce rate when compared to other districts/cities. The results of this...

  5. Revealing isomerism in sodium-water clusters: Photoionization spectra of Na(H2O)n (n = 2-90).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Christoph W; Zurheide, Florian; Zeuch, Thomas; Med, Jakub; Parez, Stanislav; Slavíček, Petr

    2017-06-28

    Soft ionization of sodium tagged polar clusters is increasingly used as a powerful technique for sizing and characterization of small aerosols with possible application, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry or combustion science. Understanding the structure and photoionization of the sodium doped clusters is critical for such applications. In this work, we report on measurements of photoionization spectra for sodium doped water clusters containing 2-90 water molecules. While most of the previous studies focused on the ionization threshold of the Na(H 2 O) n clusters, we provide for the first time full photoionization spectra, including the high-energy region, which are used as reference for a comparison with theory. As reported in previous work, we have seen an initial drop of the appearance ionization energy with cluster size to values of about 3.2 eV for nphotoionization spectrum. Simulations at elevated temperatures show an increased abundance of isomers with low ionization energies, an entropic effect enabling size selective infrared action spectroscopy, based on near threshold photoionization of Na(H 2 O) n clusters. In addition, simulations of the sodium pick-up process were carried out to study the gradual formation of the hydrated electron which is the basis of the sodium-tagging sizing.

  6. Problems associated with scintillation counting of NaH14CO3 and gel suspension counting of Ba14CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, J.C.; Wilson, S.

    1978-01-01

    Liquid NaH 14 CO 3 was assayed in emulsion-type (NE260 and Unisolve) and dioxan-based (NE250) scintillation cocktails contained in glass or polyethylene vials kept at 2 0 or 24-30 0 C. Different particle size ranges of standard Ba 14 CO 3 were assayed by gel suspension counting in Cabosil scintillation cocktail and in NE260 following solubilisation in EDTA-tetrasodium salt. Initial detectable activities of NaH 14 CO 3 in glass and polyethylene vials in NE250, NE260 and Unisolve were 97 and 96, 68 and 83, 71 and 89% of the true value respectively. Subsequent losses of activity over 7 days with the emulsion-type scintillators was greater from the polyethylene vials. Addition of phenylethylamine to the NE260 and Unisolve cocktails gave the true activity levels for all vials with no loss of activity over 6 days. When different particle size ranges of Standard Ba 14 CO 3 were suspended in Cabosil scintillation cocktail there was considerable variation in counting efficiency (77-88%) with little relationship between particle size and counting efficiency. The relationship between counting efficiency and channels ratio was not sufficiently precise for predictive purposes. Solubilisation of Ba 14 CO 3 in EDTA-tetrasodium salt gave similar counting efficiency and channels ratio values for all samples. (U.K.)

  7. Tonoplast Na+/H+ Antiport Activity and Its Energization by the Vacuolar H+-ATPase in the Halophytic Plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, B. J.; Zingarelli, L.; Blumwald, E.; Smith, JAC.

    1995-10-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were isolated from leaf mesophyll tissue of the inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to investigate the mechanism of vacuolar Na+ accumulation in this halophilic species. In 8-week-old plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 2 weeks, tonoplast H+-ATPase activity was approximately doubled compared with control plants of the same age, as determined by rates of both ATP hydrolysis and ATP-dependent H+ transport. Evidence was also obtained for the presence of an electroneutral Na+/H+ antiporter at the tonoplast that is constitutively expressed, since extravesicular Na+ was able to dissipate a pre-existing transmembrane pH gradient. Initial rates of H+ efflux showed saturation kinetics with respect to extravesicular Na+ concentration and were 2.1-fold higher from vesicles of salt-treated plants compared with the controls. Na+-dependent H+ efflux also showed a high selectivity for Na+ over K+, was insensitive to the transmembrane electrical potential difference, and was more than 50% inhibited by 200 [mu]M N-amidino-3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazinecarboxamide hydrochloride. The close correlation between increased Na+/H+ antiport and H+-ATPase activities in response to salt treatment suggests that accumulation of the very high concentrations of vacuolar Na+ found in M. crystallinum is energized by the H+ electrochemical gradient across the tonoplast.

  8. First record and DNA barcodes of the aquarium shrimp, Neocaridina davidi, in Central Europe from thermally polluted River Oder canal, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabłońska Aleksandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neocaridina davidi (Bouvier, 1904 is an exotic freshwater shrimp originating from Asia and often kept as a pet in amateur aquarium cultures. Herewith, we report on the second finding of N. davidi in fresh waters of Europe and the first discovery of that species both in Poland and in Central Europe. The species was found in samples collected in 2003, 2013 and 2017 in the thermally polluted canal connected to the River Oder, south of Gryfino, in the vicinity of the Dolna Odra Power Plant. The taxonomic identity of the collected shrimp was confirmed by the standard DNA barcoding procedure, using a 610 bp-long fragment of cytochrome oxidase I (COI. The findings spanning more than a decade suggest that N. davidi may have established a self-reproducing population at this site. Following the finding of Atyaephyra desmarestii (Millet, 1831 in 2000, Neocaridina davidi is the second freshwater shrimp species found in the River Oder and in Poland.

  9. Physiology and pathophysiology of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the heart, brain, and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. F.; O´Donnell, M. E.; Anderson, S. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of a stable cell volume and intracellular pH is critical for normal cell function. Arguably, two of the most important ion transporters involved in these processes are the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). Both NHE1 and NKCC1....... The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms and consequences of stress-induced stimulation of these transporters with focus on the heart, brain, and blood. The physiological stressors reviewed are metabolic/exercise stress, osmotic stress, and mechanical stress, conditions in which...... are stimulated by cell shrinkage and by numerous other stimuli, including a wide range of hormones and growth factors, and for NHE1, intracellular acidification. Both transporters can be important regulators of cell volume, yet their activity also, directly or indirectly, affects the intracellular concentrations...

  10. Environmental pollution: Measurable quantity or a problem of general risk acceptance?; Die stoffliche Belastung der Umwelt. Eine Systemgroesse oder eine Frage der allgemeinen Risikoakzeptanz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballschmiter, K.

    2001-08-01

    Having different disciplines give different meanings to one same word is not unusual; using the word 'risk' in an environmental context has its specific importance. The classical definitions of 'risk' as the possibility of an adverse incident have been projected in the environmental and human health study areas. Risk-acceptance and risk-preference are general factors of the everyday life and even find a role in economics. However, their use as parameters in the field of environmental hazards should be avoided, or at least be defined as to their meaning. The environment is a complex system of mass fluxes and interdependencies that can be observed and described but not regulated in its global dimension. Technology assessment has here a specific task in defining precaution as the prevention of hazards as well as the 'repair in advance' of potential environmental risks of global dimensions. The globe as a whole and many of its parts cannot be subjected to 'end of the pipe' repair strategies. (orig.) [German] Das Phaenomen der unterschiedlichen Fuellung eines Begriffs in unterschiedlichen Disziplinen ist nicht neu; es wird aber besonders deutlich bei der Verwendung des Begriffes Risiko, wenn es um reale oder nur als moeglich angesehene Gefaehrdungen im Umweltbereich geht. Es werden die klassischen Definitionen eines Risikos, d.h. des moeglichen Eintritts eines Schadensereignisses, in ihrer Anwendung auf moegliche Schadensereignisse fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit gegenueber gestellt. Es wird die These vertreten, dass spezifische Formen der Risikoakzeptanz und Risikopraeferenz sehr wohl Faktoren der persoenlichen Lebensgestaltung sein koennen und auch in wirtschaftlichen Unternehmungen definierbare Groessen sind, dass sie aber fuer vom Menschen angestossene Veraenderungen in der Umwelt und hier insbesondere im Bereich der stofflichen Vorgaenge in den globalen Dimensionen nicht eingebracht werden koennen oder wenigstens eine sehr eigene

  11. Correction of enhanced Na(+)-H+ exchange of rat small intestinal brush-border membranes in streptozotocin-induced diabetes by insulin or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudeja, P.K.; Wali, R.K.; Klitzke, A.; Sitrin, M.D.; Brasitus, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body wt). After 7 d, diabetic rats were further treated with insulin or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] for an additional 5-7 d. Control, diabetic, diabetic + insulin, and diabetic + 1,25(OH)2D3 rats were then killed, their proximal small intestines were removed, and villus-tip epithelial cells were isolated and used to prepare brush-border membrane vesicles. Preparations from each of these groups were then analyzed and compared with respect to their amiloride-sensitive, electroneutral Na(+)-H+ exchange activity, using 22 Na uptake as well as acridine orange techniques. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (a) H+ gradient-dependent 22 Na uptake as well as Na+ gradient-dependent transmembrane H+ fluxes were significantly increased in diabetic vesicles compared to their control counterparts, (b) kinetic studies demonstrated that this enhanced 22 Na uptake in diabetes was a result of increased maximal velocity (Vmax) of this exchanger with no change in apparent affinity (Km) for Na+, (c) serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 were significantly lower in diabetic animals compared with their control counterparts; and (d) insulin or 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment restored the Vmax alterations to control values, without any significant changes in Km, concomitant with significantly increasing the serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in diabetic animals. These results indicate that Na(+)-H+ activity is significantly increased in proximal small intestinal luminal membranes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, alterations in the serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 may, at least in part, explain this enhanced antiporter activity and its correction by insulin

  12. Revealing isomerism in sodium-water clusters: Photoionization spectra of Na(H2O)n (n = 2-90)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Zeuch, Thomas; Med, Jakub; Parez, Stanislav; Slavíček, Petr

    2017-06-01

    Soft ionization of sodium tagged polar clusters is increasingly used as a powerful technique for sizing and characterization of small aerosols with possible application, e.g., in atmospheric chemistry or combustion science. Understanding the structure and photoionization of the sodium doped clusters is critical for such applications. In this work, we report on measurements of photoionization spectra for sodium doped water clusters containing 2-90 water molecules. While most of the previous studies focused on the ionization threshold of the Na(H2O)n clusters, we provide for the first time full photoionization spectra, including the high-energy region, which are used as reference for a comparison with theory. As reported in previous work, we have seen an initial drop of the appearance ionization energy with cluster size to values of about 3.2 eV for n electron cloud. The appearance ionization energy is determined by isomers with fully solvated sodium and a highly delocalized electron cloud, while both fully and incompletely solvated isomers with localized electron clouds can contribute to the high energy part of the photoionization spectrum. Simulations at elevated temperatures show an increased abundance of isomers with low ionization energies, an entropic effect enabling size selective infrared action spectroscopy, based on near threshold photoionization of Na(H2O)n clusters. In addition, simulations of the sodium pick-up process were carried out to study the gradual formation of the hydrated electron which is the basis of the sodium-tagging sizing.

  13. Proposal of a procedure of the operative program optimization of production in the petroleum refinery of PCK / Oder, Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maily

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blended of raw petroleum is an operation that can be optimized and it is based on a great quantity of knowledge and experience. The planning of these operations consists in obtaining a mixture of components with different properties and specification as octane, flow, level of sulfur etc., besides keeping in mind the existent capacities and the demand. This is considered important in this type of industries, since their profitability depends on finding the good mixture, due to the variability of the prices in the final products. The objective of this paper is to determine the good variant of production of the refinery PCK/Oder, Federal Republic of Germany that achieves the maximum of utilities, by means of the Parametric Lineal Programming. The preliminary validation, presents advantages in the utilities of until 4 %, in comparison with the use of the current method.

  14. „Weltwissen“ und/oder „Medienwissen“ von Kindern. „Wissensforschung“ – ein Desiderat pädagogisch orientierter Medienforschung?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Kübler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available „Was sollte heute ein Kind in den ersten sieben Lebensjahren wissen, können, erfahren haben? Womit sollte es zumindest in Berührung gekommen sein?“ (Elschenbroich 2002, S. 20. Mit ihrem Katalog eines so genannten „Weltwissens“ für Siebenjährige und seiner aus vielerlei Erfahrungen geschöpften Begründung hat Donata Elschenbroich, Pädagogin am Deutschen Jugendinstitut, einen Bestseller gelandet, der wie kaum ein anderes pädagogisches Buch schon fast zwei Jahre auf den Charts steht und eine ungeahnte Auflage erreicht hat. Zwar bleibt der zentrale Begriff „Weltwissen“ in dem Buch vage – wie bei den meisten Verwendungen, sofern man sich nicht an Karl Poppers Drei-Welten-Theorie hält, wonach das „Weltwissen“ die Welt 3 umfasst, also die „objektiven Produkte oder Ideen des menschlichen Geistes (einschließlich aller Theorien über die Welt und über uns“ [Popper 1993, S. 75], die externalisiert und dokumentiert sind; früher hatte man noch den Begriff des Alltagswissens im Gegensatz zum Schulwissen zur Verfügung; immerhin sind D. Elschenbroichs Konzept und ihre Argumentation weitaus vielfältiger und offener angelegt, als es der Titel mit seinem Kanonversprechen für Siebenjährige vermuten lässt, denn es wird ‚nur’ ein „offener Bildungskanon“ angeboten, der recht vielseitig und nicht nur durch Instruktion zu erreichen ist. Doch die öffentliche Rezeption des Buches hat sich schon – soweit erkennbar – darauf kapriziert, dass nun eine schlüssige Orientierung, ein vorbildlicher „Wissens- und Erfahrungskatalog“ für Eltern und Erzieher vorliegt, an den sie sich in ihrem Erziehungsverhalten halten können – wie normativ oder rigide er auch immer ausfällt.

  15. Herpes simplex virus internalization into epithelial cells requires Na+/H+ exchangers and p21-activated kinases but neither clathrin- nor caveolin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Deepika; Koithan, Thalea; Diestel, Randi; Prank, Ute; Sodeik, Beate; Döhner, Katinka

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that has been reported to infect some epithelial cell types by fusion at the plasma membrane but others by endocytosis. To determine the molecular mechanisms of productive HSV-1 cell entry, we perturbed key endocytosis host factors using specific inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), or overexpression of dominant negative proteins and investigated their effects on HSV-1 infection in the permissive epithelial cell lines Vero, HeLa, HEp-2, and PtK2. HSV-1 internalization required neither endosomal acidification nor clathrin- or caveolin-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, HSV-1 gene expression and internalization were significantly reduced after treatment with 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA). EIPA blocks the activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, which are plasma membrane proteins implicated in all forms of macropinocytosis. HSV-1 internalization furthermore required the function of p21-activated kinases that contribute to macropinosome formation. However, in contrast to some forms of macropinocytosis, HSV-1 did not enlist the activities of protein kinase C (PKC), tyrosine kinases, C-terminal binding protein 1, or dynamin to activate its internalization. These data suggest that HSV-1 depends on Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and p21-activated kinases either for macropinocytosis or for local actin rearrangements required for fusion at the plasma membrane or subsequent passage through the actin cortex underneath the plasma membrane. After initial replication in epithelial cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) establish latent infections in neurons innervating these regions. Upon primary infection and reactivation from latency, HSVs cause many human skin and neurological diseases, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Many viruses use macropinocytosis for virus internalization, and many host factors mediating this entry route have been identified, although the

  16. Effect of Phosphate Salts (Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, and NaH2PO4) on Ag3PO4 Morphology for Photocatalytic Dye Degradation under Visible Light and Toxicity of the Degraded Dye Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amornpitoksuk, P; Intarasuwan, K; Suwanboon, S; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Ag3PO4 was synthesized by the precipitation method using three different types of phosphate salts (Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, and NaH2PO4) as a precipitating agent. Hydrolysis of each phosphate salt gave a specific pH that affected the purity and morphology of the prepared Ag3PO4. The Ag3PO4 prepared from

  17. Dissociation energies and potential energy functions for the ground X {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and “avoided-crossing” A {sup 1}Σ{sup +} states of NaH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walji, Sadru-Dean; Sentjens, Katherine M.; Le Roy, Robert J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-01-28

    A direct-potential-fit analysis of all accessible data for the A {sup 1}Σ{sup +} − X {sup 1}Σ{sup +} system of NaH and NaD is used to determine analytic potential energy functions incorporating the correct theoretically predicted long-range behaviour. These potentials represent all of the data (on average) within the experimental uncertainties and yield an improved estimate for the ground-state NaH well depth of D{sub e} = 15797.4 (±4.3) cm{sup −1}, which is ∼20 cm{sup −1} smaller than the best previous estimate. The present analysis also yields the first empirical determination of centrifugal (non-adiabatic) and potential-energy (adiabatic) Born-Oppenheimer breakdown correction functions for this system, with the latter showing that the A-state electronic isotope shift is −1.1(±0.6) cm{sup −1} going from NaH to NaD.

  18. CT urography in women with primary or recurrent pelvic tumors. Background and initial experiences; CT-Urographie bei Frauen mit primaeren oder rezidivierenden Beckentumoren. Hintergrund und erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, S.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Degenhart, C.; Mourched, F.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Innenstadt, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Jundt, K. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Innenstadt, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, Muenchen (Germany); Stief, C.G.; Mueller-Lisse, U.L. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Innenstadt, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Malignant tumors of the female pelvis account for 12-13% of newly diagnosed solid neoplasms among women in the USA and Germany. German guidelines advocate diagnostic imaging for local recurrence and metastasis while there are no recommendations for primary tumors. As excretory urography has been replaced by the excretory phase of computed tomography urography (CTU) in many institutions, two independent observers retrospectively evaluated CTUs of primary or recurrent female pelvic tumors to rule out associations between CTU findings and subsequent urologic measures. Among 31 CTUs of 27 women (age 29-84 years, mean 57 years) with 15 primary and 13 recurrent tumors, 83-100% of unremarkable proximal, middle and distal ureter segments were completely delineated in the excretory phase (delay 6-29 min, mean 16 min). The most common pathological findings included distal ureter obstruction (n=19, 61%), bladder compression (n=13, 42%) and bladder invasion (n=8, 26%). Out of 20 pathologically altered urinary tracts 8 were subsequently subjected to urologic measures (2-tailed Fisher exact test, p=0.0215) but none of the 10 unremarkable urinary tracts were treated. It appears that CTU is a sensible pre-therapeutic test for the urinary tract for primary and recurrent female pelvic tumors. (orig.) [German] Maligne Beckentumoren stellen 12-13% aller neu diagnostizierten soliden Neoplasien bei Frauen in den USA und in Deutschland dar. Deutsche Leitlinien befuerworten bildgebende Untersuchungen bei Lokalrezidiven und Metastasen; fuer Primaertumoren gibt es keine einschlaegigen Empfehlungen. Da das Ausscheidungsurogramm durch die Ausscheidungsaufnahme der CT-Urographie (CTU) weitgehend abgeloest ist, wurde bei weiblichen Beckentumoren oder deren Rezidive der Zusammenhang zwischen CTU-Befunden und nachfolgenden operativen urologischen Massnahmen retrospektiv von 2 unabhaengigen Auswertern geprueft. Bei 31 CTUs von 27 Frauen (Alter 29-84, Median 57 Jahre) mit 15 Primaertumoren und 13

  19. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning and characterization of the Salicornia brachiata Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene SbNHX1 and its expression by abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anupama; Joshi, Mukul; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-03-01

    Salinity causes multifarious adverse effects to plants. Plants response to salt stress involves numerous processes that function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. A Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX1 gene has been isolated from a halophytic plant Salicornia brachiata in this study. Predicted amino acid sequence similarity, protein topology and the presence of functional domains conserved in SbNHX1 classify it as a plant vacuolar NHX gene. The SbNHX1 cDNA has an open reading frame of 1,683 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 560 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass 62.44 kDa. The SbNHX1 shows high amino acid similarity with other halophytic NHX gene and belongs to Class-I type NHXs. TMpred suggests that SbNHX1 contains 11 strong transmembrane (TM). Real time PCR analysis revealed that SbNHX1 transcript expresses maximum at 0.5 M. Transcript increases gradually by increasing the treatment duration at 0.5 M NaCl, however, maximum expression was observed at 48 h. The overexpression of SbNHX1 gene in tobacco plant showed NaCl tolerance. This study shows that SbNHX1 is a potential gene for salt tolerance, and can be used in future for developing salt tolerant crops.

  1. Statistical methods for the analysis of left-censored variables [Statistische Analysemethoden für linkszensierte Variablen und Beobachtungen mit Werten unterhalb einer Bestimmungs- oder Nachweisgrenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesch, Beate

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] In some applications statisticians are confronted with values which are reported to be below a limit of detection or quantitation. These left-censored variables are a challenge in the statistical analysis. In a simulation study, we compare different methods to deal with this type of data in statistical applications. These include measures of location, dispersion, association, and statistical modeling. Our simulation study showed that the multiple imputation approach and the Tobit regression lead to unbiased estimates, whereas the naïve methods including simple substitution of non-detects lead to unreliable estimates. We illustrate the application of the multiple imputation approach and the Tobit regression with an example from occupational epidemiology. [german] In der statistischen Praxis treten immer wieder Variablen mit Werten unterhalb einer Bestimmungs- oder Nachweisgrenze auf. Diese sind linkszensiert und stellen daher eine Herausforderung für die statistische Analyse dar. Im Rahmen einer Simulationsstudie vergleichen wir Schätzmethoden zur Berechnung von Lage- und Streuungmaßen, Korrelationen und Regressionsparametern bei diesen Variablen. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die multiple Imputationsmethode und die Tobit Regression zu unverzerrten Schätzungen führen. Naive Methoden, einschließlich der einfachen Substitution von zensierten Beobachtungen, ergeben hingegen unzuverlässige Schätzungen. Wir illustrieren die Anwendung der multiplen Imputationsmethode und der Tobit Regression anhand eines Beispiels aus der Epidemiologie der Arbeitswelt.

  2. Distinct mechanisms underlie adaptation of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in response to chronic metabolic and respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Imenez; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2012-04-01

    The Na(+/)H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is essential for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The expression and function of NHE3 must adapt to acid-base conditions. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for higher proton secretion in proximal tubules during acidosis and to evaluate whether there are differences between metabolic and respiratory acidosis with regard to NHE3 modulation and, if so, to identify the relevant parameters that may trigger these distinct adaptive responses. We achieved metabolic acidosis by lowering HCO(3)(-) concentration in the cell culture medium and respiratory acidosis by increasing CO(2) tension in the incubator chamber. We found that cell-surface NHE3 expression was increased in response to both forms of acidosis. Mild (pH 7.21 ± 0.02) and severe (6.95 ± 0.07) metabolic acidosis increased mRNA levels, at least in part due to up-regulation of transcription, whilst mild (7.11 ± 0.03) and severe (6.86 ± 0.01) respiratory acidosis did not up-regulate NHE3 expression. Analyses of the Nhe3 promoter region suggested that the regulatory elements sensitive to metabolic acidosis are located between -466 and -153 bp, where two consensus binding sites for SP1, a transcription factor up-regulated in metabolic acidosis, were localised. We conclude that metabolic acidosis induces Nhe3 promoter activation, which results in higher mRNA and total protein level. At the plasma membrane surface, NHE3 expression was increased in metabolic and respiratory acidosis alike, suggesting that low pH is responsible for NHE3 displacement to the cell surface.

  3. Distinctly Different Glass Transition Behaviors of Trehalose Mixed with Na2HPO 4 or NaH 2PO 4: Evidence for its Molecular Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

    2015-07-01

    The present study is aimed at understanding how the interactions between sugar molecules and phosphate ions affect the glass transition temperature of their mixtures, and the implications for pharmaceutical formulations. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the α-relaxation temperature (Tα) of dehydrated trehalose/sodium phosphate mixtures (monobasic or dibasic) were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations were also conducted to investigate the microscopic interactions between sugar molecules and phosphate ions. The hydrogen-bonding characteristics and the self-aggregation features of these mixtures were quantified and compared. Thermal analysis measurements demonstrated that the addition of NaH2PO4 decreased both the glass transition temperature and the α-relaxation temperature of the dehydrated trehalose/NaH2PO4 mixture compared to trehalose alone while both Tg and Tα were increased by adding Na2HPO4 to pure trehalose. The hydrogen-bonding interactions between trehalose and HPO4(2-) were found to be stronger than both the trehalose-trehalose hydrogen bonds and those formed between trehalose and H2PO4(-). The HPO4(2-) ions also aggregated into smaller clusters than H2PO4(-) ions. The trehalose/Na2HPO4 mixture yielded a higher T g than pure trehalose because marginally self-aggregated HPO4(2-) ions established a strengthened hydrogen-bonding network with trehalose molecules. In contrast H2PO4(-) ions served only as plasticizers, resulting in a lower Tg of the mixtures than trehalose alone, creating large-sized ionic pockets, weakening interactions, and disrupting the original hydrogen-bonding network amongst trehalose molecules.

  4. Impact of AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter, upon gene expression during short- and long-term salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumwald Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AtNHX1, the most abundant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, mediates the transport of Na+ and K+ into the vacuole, influencing plant development and contributing to salt tolerance. In this report, microarray expression profiles of wild type plants, a T-DNA insertion knockout mutant of AtNHX1 (nhx1, and a 'rescued' line (NHX1::nhx1 were exposed to both short (12 h and 48 h and long (one and two weeks durations of a non-lethal salt stress to identify key gene transcripts associated with the salt response that are influenced by AtNHX1. Results 147 transcripts showed both salt responsiveness and a significant influence of AtNHX1. Fifty-seven of these genes showed an influence of the antiporter across all salt treatments, while the remaining genes were influenced as a result of a particular duration of salt stress. Most (69% of the genes were up-regulated in the absence of AtNHX1, with the exception of transcripts encoding proteins involved with metabolic and energy processes that were mostly down-regulated. Conclusion While part of the AtNHX1-influenced transcripts were unclassified, other transcripts with known or putative roles showed the importance of AtNHX1 to key cellular processes that were not necessarily limited to the salt stress response; namely calcium signaling, sulfur metabolism, cell structure and cell growth, as well as vesicular trafficking and protein processing. Only a small number of other salt-responsive membrane transporter transcripts appeared significantly influenced by AtNHX1.

  5. The Na+/H+ exchanger controls deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis by a H+-activated, Na+-dependent ionic shift in esophageal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Goldman

    Full Text Available Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of cancer cells. Typically, bile acids induce apoptosis. However during gastrointestinal (GI tumorigenesis the cancer cells develop resistance to bile acid-induced cell death. To understand how bile acids induce apoptosis resistance we first need to identify the molecular pathways that initiate apoptosis in response to bile acid exposure. In this study we examined the mechanism of deoxycholic acid (DCA-induced apoptosis, specifically the role of Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE and Na(+ influx in esophageal cells. In vitro studies revealed that the exposure of esophageal cells (JH-EsoAd1, CP-A to DCA (0.2 mM-0.5 mM caused lysosomal membrane perturbation and transient cytoplasmic acidification. Fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry demonstrated that this effect on lysosomes correlated with influx of Na(+, subsequent loss of intracellular K(+, an increase of Ca(2+ and apoptosis. However, ethylisopropyl-amiloride (EIPA, a selective inhibitor of NHE, prevented Na(+, K(+ and Ca(2+ changes and caspase 3/7 activation induced by DCA. Ouabain and amphotericin B, two drugs that increase intracellular Na(+ levels, induced similar changes as DCA (ion imbalance, caspase3/7 activation. On the contrary, DCA-induced cell death was inhibited by medium with low a Na(+ concentrations. In the same experiments, we exposed rat ileum ex-vivo to DCA with or without EIPA. Severe tissue damage and caspase-3 activation was observed after DCA treatment, but EIPA almost fully prevented this response. In summary, NHE-mediated Na(+ influx is a critical step leading to DCA-induced apoptosis. Cells tolerate acidification but evade DCA-induced apoptosis if NHE is inhibited. Our data suggests that suppression of NHE by endogenous or exogenous inhibitors may lead to apoptosis resistance during GI tumorigenesis.

  6. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019 has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146 while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p pfcrt76T and wild-type pfmdr1 (> 95% thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world.

  7. Acute chest pain: a purely clinical problem or a question for radiology; Der akute Thoraxschmerz, ein rein klinisches Problem oder radiologische Fragestellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Kardiovaskulaere und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2008-05-15

    Acute chest pain represents a very common clinical occurrence and at the same time poses a severe diagnostic dilemma. It can be due to an acute life-threatening event such as acute cardiac infarct, or a relatively harmless condition of pain and illness (e.g. vertebrogenic pain) under the main symptom category of acute chest pain. This often unclear symptomatic, behind which there can always be a life-threatening disease leads to an exaggerated grouping of patients into emergency cases and to an increased number of inpatients for observation. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome with no initial ECG changes typical for ischemia is especially problematic. The availability of modern multidetector computed tomography is becoming increasingly more important for radiologists in the diagnosis and clarification of acute chest pain. In this article the clinical difficulties and radiology options for the diagnosis of patients with acute chest pain will be presented and possible future algorithms for diagnosis will be discussed. (orig.) [German] Der akute Thoraxschmerz repraesentiert ein sehr haeufiges klinisches Beschwerdebild und gleichzeitig ein grosses diagnostisches Dilemma, koennen sich doch sowohl lebensbedrohliche akute Ereignisse (wie der akute Herzinfarkt) als auch mehr oder weniger harmlose Schmerzzustaende und Erkrankungen (wie vertebrogene Schmerzen) unter dem Leitsymptom 'akuter Thoraxschmerz' praesentieren. Diese oft nicht eindeutige Symptomatik, hinter der immer auch ein lebensbedrohliches Krankheitsbild stecken kann, fuehrt zu einer Uebertriagierung der Patienten in Notaufnahmen und zu einer grossen Anzahl an stationaeren 'Absicherungsaufnahmen'. Besonders die Diagnose eines akuten Koronarsyndroms (AKS) bei initial fehlenden ischaemietypischen EKG-Veraenderungen stellt eine spezielle Problematik dar. Durch die Verfuegbarkeit moderner ultraschneller Multidetektorcomputertomographen (MDCT) spielt der Radiologe in der Diagnostik und

  8. Reaction titration: a convenient method for titering reactive hydride agents (Red-Al, LiAlH4, DIBALH, L-Selectride, NaH, and KH) by No-D NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Thomas R; Aspaas, Andrew W; Eklov, Brian M; Ryba, Troy D

    2005-05-26

    The concentration of reactive metal hydride (Met-H) reducing agents can be determined (in < or = 20 min) using No-D NMR spectroscopy. The method involves (i) reacting Met-H with an excess of p-methoxybenzaldehyde, (ii) quenching with excess acetic acid, (iii) recording the No-D NMR spectrum of this homogeneous mixture, and (iv) deducing the concentration of Met-H from the % conversion (as measured by integration). By a conceptually related method, the titer of the basic alkali metal hydrides KH and NaH can also be determined.

  9. Nonadiabatic ionic--covalent transitions. Exponential-linear model for the charge exchange and neutralization reactions Na+H arrow-right-left Na/sup +/+H/sup -/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Mo, O.; Riera, A.

    1986-01-01

    A previous study of charge exchange processes taking place through ionic--covalent transitions is extended to the case of Na+H and Na/sup +/+H/sup -/ collisions. A five-state molecular expansion, with the inclusion of two-electron translation factors, is employed to calculate the charge exchange and neutralization cross sections. Transitions at the first two pseudocrossings between the energy curves, practically determine the cross sections in the energy range 0.16--5 keV amu/sup -1/. We also show that the widely used multichannel Landau--Zener theory is totally inadequate, to treat these transitions.

  10. Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Acidic Cytosolic pH and Upregulated Na+/H+ Exchanger (NHE) in Dicer Deficient CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Zhou, Yuetao; Zhang, Shaqiu; Abdelazeem, Khalid N M; Elvira, Bernat; Salker, Madhuri S; Lang, Florian

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Dicer, a cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme, is required for the maturation of miRNAs from precursor miRNAs. Dicer, therefore, is a critical enzyme involved in the biogenesis and processing of miRNAs. Several biological processes are controlled by miRNAs, including the regulation of T cell development and function. T cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with parallel H+ extrusion accomplished by the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (NHE1). The present study explored whether ROS production, as well as NHE1 expression and function are sensitive to the lack of Dicer (miRNAs deficient) and could be modified by individual miRNAs. CD4+ T cells were isolated from CD4 specific Dicer deficient (DicerΔ/Δ) mice and the respective control mice (Dicerfl/fl). Transcript and protein levels were quantified with RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. For determination of intracellular pH (pHi) cells were incubated with the pH sensitive dye bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity was calculated from re-alkalinization after an ammonium pulse. Changes in cell volume were measured using the forward scatter in flow cytometry, and ROS production utilizing 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. Transfection of miRNA-control and mimics in T cells was performed using DharmaFECT3 reagent. ROS production, cytosolic H+ concentration, NHE1 transcript and protein levels, NHE activity, and cell volume were all significantly higher in CD4+ T cells from DicerΔ/Δ mice than in CD4+ T cells from Dicerfl/fl mice. Furthermore, individual miR-200b and miR-15b modify pHi and NHE activity in Dicerfl/fl and DicerΔ/Δ CD4+ T cells, respectively. Lack of Dicer leads to oxidative stress, cytosolic acidification, upregulated NHE1 expression and activity as well as swelling of CD4+ T cells, functions all reversed by miR-15b or miR-200b. © 2017 The Author

  11. Spielend Lernen oder ernstes Spielen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rezension zu: Gundolf S. Freyermuth, Lisa Gotto und Fabian Wallenfels, Hrsg. Serious Games, Exergames, Exerlearning: Zur Transmedialisierung und Gamification des Wissenstransfers. Bielefeld: transcript, 2013

  12. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  13. A neural network potential energy surface for the NaH2 system and dynamics studies on the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Li, Huixing; Chen, Maodu

    2017-08-02

    In order to study the dynamics of the reaction H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), a new potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of the NaH 2 system is constructed based on 35 730 ab initio energy points. Using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality, multireference configuration interaction calculations with Davidson correction were carried out to obtain the ab initio energy points. The neural network method is used to fit the PES, and the root mean square error is very small (0.00639 eV). The bond lengths, dissociation energies, zero-point energies and spectroscopic constants of H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) and NaH(X 1 Σ + ) obtained on the new NaH 2 PES are in good agreement with the experiment data. On the new PES, the reactant coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the reaction dynamics of H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), and the reaction probabilities, integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) are obtained. There is no threshold in the reaction due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. When the collision energy increases, the ICSs decrease from a high value at low collision energy. The DCS results show that the angular distribution of the product molecules tends to the forward direction. Compared with the LiH 2 system, the NaH 2 system has a larger mass and the PES has a larger well at the H-NaH configuration, which leads to a higher ICS value in the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction. Because the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction releases more energy, the product molecules can be excited to a higher vibrational state.

  14. A new global analytical potential energy surface of NaH2+ system and dynamical calculation for H(2S) + NaH+(X2Σ+) → Na+(1S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meiling; Li, Wentao; Yuan, Jiuchuang

    2018-05-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) of the NaH2+ system is constructed by fitting 27,621 ab initio energy points with the neural network method. The root mean square error of the new PES is only 4.1609 × 10-4 eV. Based on the new PES, dynamical calculations have been performed using the time-dependent quantum wave packet method. These results are then compared with the H(2S) + LiH+(X2Σ+) → Li+(1S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction. The direct abstract mechanism is found to play an important role in the reaction because only forward scattering signals on the differential cross section results for all calculated collision energies.

  15. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.

    2001-05-20

    The purpose of the present project was to characterise the pollutant freight of suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments in the Oder river system on the basis of large samples drawn at selected sampling sites. One of the major goals was to assess and draw up a balance of the transport regime of suspended matter between the compartments water, suspended matter and sediments. Special attention was given to the composition and structure of suspended matter as well as to the distribution of trace elements in the various components. Furthermore, the study was intended to provide ecology-related information on the basis of selected biogenic components. Statements on the time course of pollution of estuarine waters and the Baltic Sea by way of the Oder can be derived from a characterisation of current fluviatile solids (suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments) and determination of their quantitative proportions. The following research strategy was derived from these goals: for a characterisation of suspended matter in terms of composition, structure and biogenic origin it is necessary to determine the concentration of suspended matter, its granulometric composition, carbon and sulphur content, biogenic opal content, mineral content, phase composition, metal content, structure of suspended flakes and association of diatoms in the suspended flakes and on the periphyton. [German] Das Vorhaben ist darauf ausgerichtet, den Belastungszustand der Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertigen Sedimente im Oderflusssystem anhand von Grossproben ausgewaehlter Probenahmeorte zu charakterisieren. Ein wesentliches Ziel ist die Beurteilung des Transportregimes der Schwebstoffe zwischen den Kompartimenten Wasser, Schwebstoff und Sediment sowie seine Bilanzierung. Dabei gilt die besondere Aufmerksamkeit der Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Schwebstoffe sowie die Spurenelementspeziation an die unterschiedlichen Bestandteile. Weiterhin werden oekologische Aussagen

  16. Differential association of the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of adaptor proteins with the raft- and the non-raft brush border membrane fractions of NHE3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ayesha; Luo, Min; Yu, Qin; Riederer, Brigitte; Xia, Weiliang; Chen, Mingmin; Lissner, Simone; Gessner, Johannes E; Donowitz, Mark; Yun, C Chris; deJonge, Hugo; Lamprecht, Georg; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Trafficking, brush border membrane (BBM) retention, and signal-specific regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 is regulated by the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of PDZ-adaptor proteins, which enable the formation of multiprotein complexes. It is unclear, however, what determines signal specificity of these NHERFs. Thus, we studied the association of NHE3, NHERF1 (EBP50), NHERF2 (E3KARP), and NHERF3 (PDZK1) with lipid rafts in murine small intestinal BBM. Detergent resistant membranes ("lipid rafts") were isolated by floatation of Triton X-incubated small intestinal BBM from a variety of knockout mouse strains in an Optiprep step gradient. Acid-activated NHE3 activity was measured fluorometrically in BCECF-loaded microdissected villi, or by assessment of CO2/HCO3(-) mediated increase in fluid absorption in perfused jejunal loops of anethetized mice. NHE3 was found to partially associate with lipid rafts in the native BBM, and NHE3 raft association had an impact on NHE3 transport activity and regulation in vivo. NHERF1, 2 and 3 were differentially distributed to rafts and non-rafts, with NHERF2 being most raft-associated and NHERF3 entirely non-raft associated. NHERF2 expression enhanced the localization of NHE3 to membrane rafts. The use of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, which have altered membrane lipid as well as lipid raft composition, allowed us to test the validity of the lipid raft concept in vivo. The differential association of the NHERFs with the raft-associated and the non-raft fraction of NHE3 in the brush border membrane is one component of the differential and signal-specific NHE3 regulation by the different NHERFs. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria of (Ca(H2PO2)2 + CaCl2 + H2O) and (Ca(H2PO2)2 + NaH2PO2 + H2O) ternary systems at T = 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hong-yu; Zhou, Huan; Bai, Xiao-qin; Ma, Ruo-xin; Tan, Li-na; Wang, Jun-min

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Solubility diagram of the (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) system at T = (323.15 and 298.15) K. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of Ca 2+ -H 2 PO 2 − -Cl − -H 2 O, Ca 2+ -Na + -H 2 PO 2 − -H 2 O at 323.15 K were obtained. • Incompatible double salt of NaCa(H 2 PO 2 ) 3 in Ca 2+ -Na + -H 2 PO 2 − -H 2 O system was determined. • Density diagram of the corresponding liquid were simultaneously measured. - Abstract: Calcium hypophosphite has been widely used as an anti-corrosive agent, flame retardant, fertilizer, assistant for Ni electroless plating, and animal nutritional supplement. High purity calcium hypophosphite can be synthesized via the replacement reaction of sodium hypophosphite and calcium chloride. In this work, the (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O) and (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) ternary systems at T = 323.15 K were studied experimentally via the classical isothermal solubility equilibrium method, and the phase diagrams for these two systems were obtained. It was found that two solid salts of CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O and Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 exist in the (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O) system, and three salts of Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 , NaH 2 PO 2 ·H 2 O and one incompatible double salt, NaCa(H 2 PO 2 ) 3 occur in the (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) system.

  18. Cost-effectiveness-analysis: radioiodine or antithyroid drugs as first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism due to Graves` disease; Kosten-Effektivitaets-Analyse: Radioiod oder thyreostatische Medikation bei der Primaerbehandlung der Immunhyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Dederichs, B.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hunsche, E.; Lauterbach, K.W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gesundheitsoekonomie, Medizin und Gesellschaft

    1999-06-01

    -Effektivitaet. Lebenszeitbezogen wurden die medizinischen Leistungen auf 30 Patientenjahre hochgerechnet. Die Kosten der RITh basierten auf 300 Patienten, deren Entlassung bei 250 MBq Iod-131-Restaktivitaet angenommen wurde. Ergebnis: Kosteneffektivitaet der konservativen Behandlung war bei einer Rezidivrate von 50% oder guenstiger, bei einem Leistungsumfang gemaess den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften und bei einem Zeiteinsatz des Patienten fuer eine ambulante Untersuchung von einem Viertel seines Arbeitstages oder kuerzer zu erwarten. Sofern diese Annahmen nicht vorlagen, wurde die primaere RITh in 1593 von 1944 durchgefuehrten Modellrechnungen zur kosteneffektiven Entscheidung. Konservative Therapieversuche der Rezidivhyperthyreose besassen eine stark kostenhebende Wirkung. Schlussfolgerung: Fuer die Patienten mit erhoehter Rezidivwahrscheinlichkeit im Falle der konservativen Behandlung (Struma, juengeres Lebensalter, persistierend erhoehte TSH-Rezeptor-Antikoerper beziehungsweise erhoehter Technetium-Uptake) bedeutet die primaere RITH eine kosteneffektive Entscheidung. (orig.)

  19. Altered Regulation of type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger, type 1 Na+/HCO3- cotransporter, and Na+,K+-ATPase in the Kidney of Rats with Experimental Rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Seong Kwon; Bae, Eun Hui; Lee, JongUn; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Sung Zoo; Choi, Ki Chul

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis was shown to correlate with deterioration of renal function in patients with rhabdomyolysis. The present study was aimed to investigate whether the changes of type 3 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), type 1 Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC1), and Na+,K+-ATPase α1 subunit may play a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic acidosis in glycerol-induced experimental rhabdomyolysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were deprived of fluid intake for 24 hours, and then were injected with 50% glycerol in normal saline (10 mL/kg, intramuscularly). At 24 hours after the glycerol injection, rats were sacrificed by decapitation. Control rats were injected with normal saline. The protein expression of NHE3, NBC1 and Na+,K+-ATPase α1 subunit was determined in the cortex of the kidney by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Following the treatment of glycerol, creatinine clearance was significantly decreased, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis developed. In the experimental group, the expression of Na+,K+-ATPase α1 subunit was significantly decreased in the cortex of the kidney. On the contrary, the expression of NHE3 and NBC1 was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the immunoblotting data. In conclusion, the coordinate up-regulation of NHE3 and NBC1 may play an adaptive role against the metabolic acidosis in glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. PMID:24459502

  20. Cyborg oder Göttin: Wie Technikforscherinnen ihr Verhältnis zu Technik sehen Cyborg or Goddess: How Women Academics in Science and Technology View their Relationship to Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kissmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen haben für die Beiträge eigene auto/biographische Erlebnisse ausgewählt, in denen der mediale Charakter von Technik deutlich wird. Die Geschichten erzählen also von Technik, die soziale Ordnung und Bedeutung vermittelt und auf diese Weise dazu beiträgt, Geschlechtergrenzen und andere Grenzen wie die zwischen „bekannt“ und „fremd“ oder „normal“ und „anormal“ herzustellen. Die Auto/Biographien sind durch Technik einerseits fremdbestimmt, andererseits zeigen die Autorinnen auch, wie Selbstbestimmung über diese Grenzen hinweg möglich ist. Sie benutzen Donna Haraways Cyborg Metapher (1985, um das Selbst in der Verflechtung von Sozialem und Technischem auto/biographisch zu rekonstruieren.The authors of this book have chosen examples from their individual life stories to illustrate the interpretative character of technology. These stories show how technology mediates social order and meaning and how technology thus contributes to negotiate gendered boundaries and other boundaries, for example, boundaries between “familiar” and “foreign” or “normal” and “abnormal”. The auto/biographies in this book are on the one hand influenced by technology; at the same time, the authors demonstrate that they are also able to transgress these boundaries. Using Haraway’s image of the cyborg (1985 the authors analyse the representation of the self within the interconnections of the social and the technical.

  1. Genetic disruption of the pHi-regulating proteins Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (SLC9A1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 severely reduces growth of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Cormerais, Yann; Durivault, Jerome; Pouyssegur, Jacques

    2017-02-07

    Hypoxia and extracellular acidosis are pathophysiological hallmarks of aggressive solid tumors. Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is essential for the maintenance of tumor cell metabolism and proliferation in this microenvironment and key proteins involved in pHi regulation are of interest for therapeutic development. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is one of the most robustly regulated proteins by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and contributes to pHi regulation. Here, we have investigated for the first time, the role of CA9 via complete genomic knockout (ko) and compared its impact on tumor cell physiology with the essential pHi regulator Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). Initially, we established NHE1-ko LS174 cells with inducible CA9 knockdown. While increased sensitivity to acidosis for cell survival in 2-dimensions was not observed, clonogenic proliferation and 3-dimensional spheroid growth in particular were greatly reduced. To avoid potential confounding variables with use of tetracycline-inducible CA9 knockdown, we established CA9-ko and NHE1/CA9-dko cells. NHE1-ko abolished recovery from NH4Cl pre-pulse cellular acid loading while both NHE1 and CA9 knockout reduced resting pHi. NHE1-ko significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation both in normoxia and hypoxia while CA9-ko dramatically reduced growth in hypoxic conditions. Tumor xenografts revealed substantial reductions in tumor growth for both NHE1-ko and CA9-ko. A notable induction of CA12 occurred in NHE1/CA9-dko tumors indicating a potential means to compensate for loss of pH regulating proteins to maintain growth. Overall, these genomic knockout results strengthen the pursuit of targeting tumor cell pH regulation as an effective anti-cancer strategy.

  2. Close Association of Carbonic Anhydrase (CA2a and CA15a), Na+/H+ Exchanger (Nhe3b), and Ammonia Transporter Rhcg1 in Zebrafish Ionocytes Responsible for Na+ Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sayako; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Miyagi, Hisako; Esaki, Masahiro; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater (FW) fishes actively absorb salt from their environment to tolerate low salinities. We previously reported that vacuolar-type H+-ATPase/mitochondrion-rich cells (H-MRCs) on the skin epithelium of zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) are primary sites for Na+ uptake. In this study, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism for the Na+ uptake, we performed a systematic analysis of gene expression patterns of zebrafish carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms and found that, of 12 CA isoforms, CA2a and CA15a are highly expressed in H-MRCs at larval stages. The ca2a and ca15a mRNA expression were salinity-dependent; they were upregulated in 0.03 mM Na+ water whereas ca15a but not ca2a was down-regulated in 70 mM Na+ water. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated cytoplasmic distribution of CA2a and apical membrane localization of CA15a. Furthermore, cell surface immunofluorescence staining revealed external surface localization of CA15a. Depletion of either CA2a or CA15a expression by Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a significant decrease in Na+ accumulation in H-MRCs. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated a very close association of CA2a, CA15a, Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (Nhe3b), and Rhcg1 ammonia transporter in H-MRC. Our findings suggest that CA2a, CA15a, and Rhcg1 play a key role in Na+uptake under FW conditions by forming a transport metabolon with Nhe3b. PMID:23565095

  3. Na+/H+ Exchanger 3 Is Expressed in Two Distinct Types of Ionocyte, and Probably Augments Ammonia Excretion in One of Them, in the Gills of the Climbing Perch Exposed to Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu L. Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an euryhaline teleost and an obligate air-breather with the ability to actively excrete ammonia. Members of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE family help maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and ionic balance through the electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+. This study aimed to obtain, from the gills of A. testudineus, the full cDNA coding sequence of nhe3, and to determine the effects of exposure to seawater or 100 mmol l−1 of NH4Cl in fresh water on its mRNA and protein expression levels. Efforts were also made to elucidate the type of ionocyte that Nhe3 was associated with in the branchial epithelium of A. testudineus. The transcript level and protein abundance of nhe3/Nhe3 were very low in the gills of freshwater A. testudineus, but they increased significantly in the gills of fish acclimated to seawater. In the gills of fish exposed to seawater, Nhe3 was expressed in two distinct types of seawater-inducible Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka-immunoreactive ionocytes. In Nkaα1b-immunoreactive ionocytes, Nhe3 had an apical localization. As these ionocytes also expressed apical Rhcg1 and basolateral Rhcg2, which are known to transport ammonia, they probably participated in proton-facilitated ammonia excretion in A. testudineus during seawater acclimation. In Nkaα1c-immunoreactive ionocytes, Nhe3 was atypically expressed in the basolateral membrane, and its physiological function is uncertain. For A. testudineus exposed to NH4Cl in fresh water, the transcript and protein expression levels of nhe3/Nhe3 remained low. In conclusion, the branchial Nhe3 of A. testudineus plays a greater physiological role in passive ammonia transport and acid-base balance during seawater acclimation than in active ammonia excretion during environmental ammonia exposure.

  4. Habilidades intelectuales de niños indígenas de las etnias Tenek y Nahúa que viven en condiciones de pobreza y desnutrición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Morales Villegas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones indígenas en México son las más vulnerables, debido a que viven en condiciones de pobreza extrema y menor cumplimiento de sus derechos fundamentales. Se ha demostrado que los niños son el grupo que recibe mayor impacto sobre el desarrollo psicológico y físico.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico (NSE, habilidades intelectuales evaluadas con la Batería Woodcock-Muñoz y desnutrición en niños indígenas Tenek y Nahúa que viven en condiciones alta marginación. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas entre los niños y niñas de nivel NSE bajo, NSE muy bajo y el rendimiento en las pruebas cognitivas que evalúan habilidad intelectual, inteligencia cristalizada e inteligencia visual. Respecto de los indicadores de desnutrición se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa para desnutrición aguda entre el NSE bajo y NSE muy bajo. Los efectos del nivel socioeconómico sobre las habilidades intelectuales y el estado nutricional han sido demostrados ampliamente, pero pocos estudios se han realizado con indígenas. Los hallazgos con estas poblaciones son un llamado urgente para las políticas públicas, considerando que el decremento en puntuaciones de habilidades intelectuales, y la desnutrición, en mediano y largo plazo representan graves costos en la calidad de vida, economía y desarrollo humano.

  5. Enhanced Salt Tolerance Conferred by the Complete 2.3 kb cDNA of the Rice Vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) Antiporter Gene Compared to 1.9 kb Coding Region with 5' UTR in Transgenic Lines of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, U S M; Biswas, Sudip; Elias, Sabrina M; Razzaque, Samsad; Haque, Taslima; Malo, Richard; Seraj, Zeba I

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most challenging problems that restricts the normal growth and production of rice worldwide. It has therefore become very important to produce more saline tolerant rice varieties. This study shows constitutive over-expression of the vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene (OsNHX1) from the rice landrace (Pokkali) and attainment of enhanced level of salinity tolerance in transgenic rice plants. It also shows that inclusion of the complete un-translated regions (UTRs) of the alternatively spliced OsNHX1 gene provides a higher level of tolerance to the transgenic rice. Two separate transformation events of the OsNHX1 gene, one with 1.9 kb region containing the 5' UTR with CDS and the other of 2.3 kb, including 5' UTR, CDS, and the 3' UTR regions were performed. The transgenic plants with these two different constructs were advanced to the T3 generation and physiological and molecular screening of homozygous plants was conducted at seedling and reproductive stages under salinity (NaCl) stress. Both transgenic lines were observed to be tolerant compared to WT plants at both physiological stages. However, the transgenic lines containing the CDS with both the 5' and 3' UTR were significantly more tolerant compared to the transgenic lines containing OsNHX1 gene without the 3' UTR. At the seedling stage at 12 dS/m stress, the chlorophyll content was significantly higher (P kb > 1.9 kb > and WT lines. Yield in g/plant in the best line from the 2.3 kb plants was significantly more (P kb line and WT plants at stress of 6 dS/m. Transformation with the complete transcripts rather than the CDS may therefore provide more durable level of tolerance.

  6. Dissection or irradiation of the axilla in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer? Long-term results and late effects in 655 patients; Axilladissektion oder Axillabestrahlung bei postmenopausalen Patientinnen mit Mammakarzinom?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, M.R.; Zink, K.; Ruehl, U. [Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Standort Moabit, Berlin (Germany); Busch, W. [Abt. fuer Gynaekologie, Krankenhaus Moabit Berlin (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    NO-Patientinnen erhielten alle 129 Patientinnen in unserer Klinik operierten Faelle keine Dissektion, sondern eine alleinige Axillabestrahlung (AxRT-Gruppe). Vergleichskollektiv waren alle 173 postmenopausalen cNO-Patientinnen, die in auswaertigen Kliniken eine Axilladissektion erhalten hatten (AxOP-Gruppe) und in unserer Klinik postoperativ nach BET bestrahlt wurden. Die Prognoseparameter waren in beiden Gruppen gleich bzw. sogar etwas unguenstiger in der AxRT-Gruppe. Bei massivem Befall oder weniger als acht entfernten Lymphknoten wurde die Axilla zusaetzlich bestrahlt. Spaetfolgen nach Dissektion und/oder Radiatio der Axilla wurden bei 502 lokoregionaer rezidivfreien Patientinnen des Gesamtkollektivs ausgewertet, die mindestens 3 Jahre nachkontrolliert werden konnten (median 9,5 Jahre). Ergebnisse: Nach 5, 10 und 15 Jahren betraegt das tumorfreie Ueberleben bei 173 Patientinnen mit Dissektion 90%, 82% und 79% bzw. bei 129 Patientinnen mit Radiatio der Axilla 91%, 82% und 80% (p = 0,95), Gesamtueberleben (p = 0,98), lokale (p = 0,47) und axillaere Rezidivfreiheit (p = 0,12) waren ebenfalls gleich. Gravierende Spaetfolgen traten bei 26% der axilladissezierten Patientinnen auf und bei nur 1% der axillabestrahlten. Die zusaetzliche Radiatio hatte keinen Einfluss auf die Morbiditaet durch die Dissektion (26 vs. 27%). (orig.)

  7. Frauen in rechtsradikalen „Männerparteien“. Exotinnen mit eigenem Kopf oder bloßes Alibi? Women in Radical Right “Men’s Parties"—Exotics with Their Own Mind or Just an Alibi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Papp

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Anhand von sieben Leitfadeninterviews aus den 1990er Jahren untersucht die Autorin, die promovierte Sozialwissenschaftlerin Brigitte Brück, die politische Positionierung von Frauen in Führungspositionen rechtsradikaler Parteien in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien. Dabei geht es nicht nur um deren Vorstellungen zu den Geschlechterverhältnissen in Familie, Arbeitswelt und Politik, sondern auch um übergeordnete Diskurse wie Migration, Europa oder Vergangenheitsbewältigung. Die Autorin zeigt dabei auf, dass auch die befragten Führungsfrauen das traditionelle, familienzentrierte und pronatalistische Frauenbild rechtsextremer Strömungen befürworten. Allerdings plädieren sie auch für eine verstärkte Partizipation von Frauen in Politik und Beruf. Die Publikation bietet detaillierte und vielschichtige Einblicke in die Frauenbilder rechtsextremer Parteien sowie in die politischen Überzeugungen ihrer Aktivistinnen, stilisiert die Befragten dabei jedoch am Ende zu pauschal als „Feministinnen“.The author Brigitte Brück, who holds a doctoral degree in the social sciences, examines the positioning of women in leadership roles in radical right parties in Germany, France, and Italy, guided by seven interviews from the 1990s. The study is not only concerned with these women’s understanding of gender relations in the family, work, and politics, but also with broader topics of discourse such as migration, Europe, or coming to terms with the past. The author points out that the female leaders questioned approve of the radical right movement’s traditional, family centered and child-rearing image of women. However, they also plead for women’s increased participation in politics and professions. The publication offers detailed and complex insight into the image of the woman in radical right parties and into the political beliefs of their female activists—although, in the end, it stylizes those questioned too broadly as “feminists”.

  8. Single gene deletions of mrpA to mrpG and mrpE point mutations affect activity of the Mrp Na+/H+ antiporter of alkaliphilic Bacillus and formation of hetero-oligomeric Mrp complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Swartz, Talia H; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro

    2008-06-01

    Mrp antiporters catalyze secondary Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiport and/or K(+)/H(+) antiport that is physiologically important in diverse bacteria. An additional capacity for anion flux has been observed for a few systems. Mrp is unique among antiporters in that it requires all six or seven hydrophobic gene products (MrpA to MrpG) of the mrp operon for full antiporter activity, but MrpE has been reported to be dispensable. Here, the membrane complexes formed by Mrp proteins were examined using a cloned mrp operon from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. The operon was engineered so that the seven Mrp proteins could be detected in single samples. Membrane extracts of an antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli strain expressing this construct were analyzed by blue native-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mrp complexes of two sizes were identified containing all seven Mrp proteins. Studies of the single nonpolar mrp gene deletions in the construct showed that a subcomplex of MrpA, MrpB, MrpC, and MrpD was formed in the absence of MrpE, MrpF, or MrpG. By contrast, MrpE, MrpF, and MrpG were not observed in membranes lacking MrpA, MrpB, MrpC, or MrpD. Although MrpA and MrpD have been hypothesized to be the antiporter proteins, the MrpA-to-D complex was inactive. Every Mrp protein was required for an activity level near that of the wild-type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, but a very low activity level was observed in the absence of MrpE. The introduction of an MrpE(P114G) mutation into the full Mrp complex led to antiport activity with a greatly increased apparent K(m) value for Na(+). The results suggested that interactions among the proteins of heterooligomeric Mrp complexes strongly impact antiporter properties.

  9. Craniota, Wirbel- oder Schädeltiere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    Zu den Craniota zählen alle Chordatiere, die eine dreiteilige Regionalisierung des Körpers in Kopf, Rumpf und Schwanz aufweisen. Der Kopf umfasst (1) das Neurocranium mit Gehirn und komplexen Sinnesorganen zur Wahrnehmung der Umgebung, (2) das Viscerocranium zur Nahrungsaufnahme und zur Ventilation der Kiemen bei den primär wasserlebenden Craniota und (3) das Dermatocranium (S. 38). Letzteres entsteht durch Verknöcherungen im Bindegewebe des Integuments, es dient dem Schutz des Kopfes und trägt im Mundbreich die Zähne. Zusammen bilden die drei Skelettstrukturen die funktionelle Einheit Schädel (Cranium). Außer der (somatischen) Rumpfmuskulatur und dem Axialskelett liegen im Rumpf Kreislauf-, Atmungs-, Verdauungs-, Exkretions- und Fortpflanzungsorgane. Der Schwanz, der Abschnitt hinter der Afteröffnung, die das Ende der Leibeshöhle markiert, dient mit Muskeln und Schwanzflosse der Fortbewegung.

  10. Radiation hazards underestimated. Or?; Strahlenrisiko unterschaetzt. Oder?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS)

    2013-07-01

    Radiation protection claims that its regulations, policies and approaches are based on scientific evidence. If due to progress in science and technology new knowledge is added, it must be given to whether or not the existing radiation protection implementing is still appropriate or whether or not modifications need to be made. However, radiation protection is not just a matter of science. Continuity, consensus, accountability, public perception, communication and social acceptance play an important role in radiation protection as well. Thus, as new scientific evidence should be taken into account, not only the adequate implementation of radiation protection has to be discussed, but also their impact on the public perception and acceptance. It is one major challenge for all who are involved in radiation protection, to find an appropriate balance between these two aspects. (orig.)

  11. Koedukation oder Geschlechtertrennung = Coeducation or Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Jurgen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results examining recruitment practice differences between coeducational and gender segregated secondary schools in Germany. Discusses the impact of organizational form on teacher judgments, achievement in specific subjects, school subject-related interests, and school commitment. Reports that under conditions of free school choice,…

  12. Chernobyl or Hiroshima. Tschernobyl oder Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deserno, H [Sigmund-Freud-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1987-07-01

    The so called peaceful use of atomic power is an ideology specifically apt for appeasement in an illusionary way: although everyone could know about the desastrous effects of radioactivity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the civil use of atomic power serves to demonstrate, that the incompatibility of radionuclides with health and life could be controlled and mastered. In this context the civil use of atomic power appears as an instrument of social control. (orig.).

  13. Steel or aluminium; Stahl oder Alu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Anja

    2012-11-01

    This is a market survey of mounting racks for PV units. It contains 20 more products than the 2011 survey, of which twelve are newcomers to the market. Some manufacturers were able to cut the cost in accordance with the degression. The market survey shows that 120 - 130 Euros per kWh can be viewed as realistic.

  14. Departure or termination?; Aufbruch oder Abbruch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John

    2013-06-15

    Fracking is the hope of the gas industry. But the tearing of rock formations in depth of 1,000 meters splits the energy and water sector. [German] Fracking ist die Hoffnung der Gasbranche. Doch das Aufreissen von Gesteinsformationen in 1.000 Meter Tiefe spaltet die Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft.

  15. Rezidivierende Endometriose bei Kinderwunsch: Operieren oder stimulieren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunbauer M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kurzfassung: Endometriose ist neben dem Tubenverschluss und dem PCO-Syndrom eine der Hauptursachen für reduzierte Fertilität bei der Frau. Zur eindeutigen Diagnosesicherung ist die operative Diagnostik Standard. Eine Sanierung ist in vielen Fällen in der gleichen Sitzung möglich. Um nichts unnötig zu (zer- stören, sei die Maxime: eher weniger als mehr. Ein Rezidiv bedeutet eine weitere Reduktion der Schwangerschaftsrate. Eine Zweitoperation kann zwar Beschwerden lindern, verbessert aber die Spontan-Schwangerschaftsrate nur gering. Der Zweiteingriff ist also bezüglich der reinen Schwangerschaftsrate einer modernen IVF-Behandlung eindeutig unterlegen.

  16. Acidic pH and short-chain fatty acids activate Na+ transport but differentially modulate expression of Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in omasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhengqian; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger; Shen, Zanming

    2016-01-01

    Low sodium content in feed and large amounts of salivary sodium secretion are essential requirements to efficient sodium reabsorption in the dairy cow. It is already known that Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) of the ruminal epithelium plays a key role in Na(+) absorption, and its function is influenced by the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and mucosal pH. By contrast, the functional role and regulation of NHE in omasal epithelium have not been completely understood. In the present study, we used model studies in small ruminants (sheep and goats) to investigate NHE-mediated Na(+) transport and the effects of pH and SCFA on NHE activity in omasal epithelium and on the expression of NHE isoform in omasal epithelial cells. Conventional Ussing chamber technique, primary cell culture, quantitative PCR, and Western blot were used. In native omasal epithelium of sheep, the Na(+) transport was electroneutral, and it was inhibited by the specific NHE3 inhibitor 3-[2-(3-guanidino-2-methyl-3-oxo-propenyl)-5-methyl-phenyl]-N-isopropylidene-2-methyl-acrylamide dihydrochloride, which decreased mucosal-to-serosal, serosal-to-mucosal, and net flux rates of Na(+) by 80% each. The application of low mucosal pH (6.4 or 5.8) in the presence of SCFA activated the Na(+) transport across omasal epithelium of sheep compared with that at pH 7.4. In cultured omasal epithelial cells of goats, mRNA and protein of NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 were detected. The application of SCFA increased NHE1 mRNA and protein expression, which was most prominent when the culture medium pH decreased from 7.4 to 6.8. At variance, the mRNA and protein expression of NHE2 and NHE3 were decreased with low pH and SCFA, which was contrary to the published data from ruminal epithelial studies. In conclusion, this paper shows that (1) NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 are expressed in omasal epithelium; (2) NHE3 mediates the major portion of transepithelial Na(+) transport in omasal epithelium; and (3) SCFA and acidic pH acutely

  17. Single or multi-repository concept? A personal contribution to the discussion of pros and cons; Ein- oder Mehr-Endlager-Konzept? Ein persoenlicher Beitrag zur Diskussion der Vor- und Nachteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Closs, K.-D. [Projektraeger fuer Wassertechnologie und Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Duphorn, K. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany); Kuehn, K. [Institut fuer Bergbau, TU Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Gruenen nach der Bundestagswahl von 1998 wurde zur Entsorgung der deutschen Kernkraftwerke ein von der bis dahin angestrebten Praxis abweichender Weg vereinbart. Unter anderem soll nur ein einziges Endlager in tiefen geologischen Formationen etwa ab dem Jahr 2030 zur Verfuegung stehen. Die Erkundung des Salzstockes Gorleben soll aufgrund bestehender Zweifel unterbrochen werden bei paralleler grundsaetzlicher Diskussion zu potenziell geeigneten Wirtsgesteinen und Standorten. Der von der Bundesregierung einberufene 'Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd)' soll mit diesen Vorgaben wissenschaftliche Standortkriterien erarbeiten. Die Autoren, Mitglieder des AkEnd, kommen aufgrund von fachlichen Erkenntnissen sowie der historisch gewachsenen Entsorgungs- und Standortsituation in Deutschland zu dem Schluss, dass ein Mehr-Endlager-Konzept substanzielle Vorteile aufweist. Folgende Aspekte werden dafuer genannt: - Entsorgungskonzeption: Das Mehr-Endlager-Konzept bietet mit dem weit fortgeschrittenen Endlagerprojekt Konrad eindeutige Vorteile. Dies auch vor dem Hintergrund der von der oeffentlichen Hand zu bewaeltigenden Menge an Abfaellen mit vernachlaessigbarer Waermeentwicklung. - Langzeitsicherheit: Vorteile, u.a. im Hinblick auf sicherheitstechnische Aspekte bezueglich der moeglichen Kompromisse bei einem Ein-Endlager-Konzept und der moeglichen Einschraenkung der Anzahl potenzieller Standorte, liegen vor. - Nachweisverfahren: Es liegen nachweistechnische Vorteile bei Aufteilung der Abfaelle auf zwei oder mehr Endlager vor. - Kosten: Eine differenzierte Betrachtung der Kosten fuer alle endzulagernden Abfaelle deutet auf Vorteile - insbesondere fuer die oeffentliche Hand - bei einem Mehr-Endlager-Konzept hin. (orig.)

  18. “Sein oder Nichtsein”: Zur Konstruktion muslimischer Identität im IS-Journal Rumiyah. ("To be or not to be": On the construction of Muslim identity in the IS journal Rumiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ohl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Der Islamische Staat (IS gilt im Hinblick auf die Nutzung des Internets gemeinhin als versiertester Akteur unter extremistischen Gruppierungen. Seine Online-Aktivitäten nutzt er dabei zu verschiedenen Zwecken: Sie ermöglichen unter anderem die Radikalisierung und Mobilisierung von unterschiedlichsten Gruppen, Fundraising oder die Planung und Durchführung von Attacken. Eine besondere Rolle wird hierbei im westlichen Kontext dem Magazin Rumiyah zuteil, stellt es doch eines der Leitmedien islamistischer Propaganda dar. Zudem wird in diesem Magazin ein bestimmtes Bild eines Muslims dargelegt, welches den idealtypischen Vorstellungen des IS entspricht. Über diese Vorstellungen wird versucht, eine einheitliche kollektive Identität der Angehörigen des Islams zu zeichnen – die eigene. Das Ziel dieses Beitrages ist es daher aufzuzeigen, welche Einstellungen und Praktiken vom IS als muslimisch attribuiert werden und mit welchen Mitteln er dieses Bild konstruiert. Hierfür wurden mit einer qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse nach Mayring die ersten zehn Ausgaben von Rumiyah analysiert. Der Fokus der Untersuchung lag jedoch hierbei nicht auf den Effekten kollektiver Identitäten für die Individuen, sondern vielmehr auf ontologischen Fragen der kollektiven Identitäten. Der Beitrag beginnt zunächst mit einer kurzen Einführung in die Forschung zu kollektiven Identitäten. Im Anschluss werden die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung präsentiert. Die Studie versucht dabei zu zeigen, dass die muslimische Identität in Rumiyah vornehmlich über zwei Faktoren gezeichnet werden soll: Handlungsanweisungen und In-Group vs. Out-Group Mechanismen. Weiterhin zeigt sich im Vergleich zum Vorgängermagazin Dabiq auch, dass der IS neue Schwerpunkte in der Verbreitung seiner Ideologie setzt. Galt lange Zeit der Westen als stärkstes Feindbild, wird in Rumiyah vor allem eine intra-muslimische Abgrenzung unternommen. Abschließend werden prominente Lösungsansätze f

  19. Muhsin Ertuğrul: Türk Sinemasının Kurucusu mu Yoksa Günah Keçisi mi? / Muhsin Ertuğrul: The Founder or the Scapegoat of Turkish Cinema?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin SEVİM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Muhsin Ertuğrul (1892-1979, Cumhuriyet’in ilk yıllarında çektiği filmlerle Türk sinemasının genetik kodlarını oluşturmuştur. Ertuğrul hakkındaki literatürde daha çok Nijat Özön’ün yazdıkları egemendir. Özön’ün eleştirilerinden yola çıkanlar, Ertuğrul’u Türk sinemasındaki olumsuzlukların sorumlusu olarak görmüşlerdir. Alim Şerif Onaran’ın çalışmaları, Muhsin Ertuğrul hakkındaki önyargılı değerlendirmelerin etkisini bir ölçüde azaltmıştır. Ne var ki yokluklar içinde mücadele etmenin ve öncü olmanın zorlukları, Ertuğrul’un bir günah keçisi olarak görülmesini engelleyememiştir. Birçok sinema tarihçisinin de ifade ettiği gibi, Muhsin Ertuğrul’un tiyatroculuğu sinemacılığına ağır basmaktadır. Ertuğrul, ancak birkaç filminde vasatın üzerine çıkabilmiştir. Onun sinema mirası birçok açıdan eleştirilebilirse de Türkiye’de sinemanın varolabilmesi için harcadığı çaba göz ardı edilemez. Teknolojiye en çok bağlı sanat dalı olan sinemayı yokluklar içinde var edebilmiş olması Muhsin Ertuğrul’u Türk sinema tarihi içinde ayrıcalıklı bir yere oturtur. Muhsin Ertuğrul’un filmleri, Kemalist modernleşme projesinin sinemadaki yansıması olarak izlenebilir. Ertuğrul, Cumhuriyet devrimlerinin hayata geçirilmesi için özveriyle mücadele etmiş bir kültür adamıdır. Türk kadınını ilk kez beyaz perdeye çıkarmakla kalmamış; tüm hayatı boyunca Cumhuriyet’in ideallerinin sanat alanındaki temsilcisi olmuştur. Bu amaçla eğitmenlik, yönetmenlik, eleştirmenlik, oyunculuk ve çevirmenlik gibi birçok misyonu aynı anda yüklenmek zorunda kalmıştır. Salgın hastalıklarla boğuşmak ve nüfusunu en azından ilkokul düzeyinde eğitmek gibi öncelikleri olan bir ülkede tiyatro ve sinema sanatının temellerini atmıştır. Nitekim bu çalışmanın amacı, Muhsin Ertuğrul’un Türk sinemasındaki kurucu rolünü ortaya

  20. Anordnung fuer die optische Ueberwachung und/oder Bestimmung physikalischer und/oder chemischer Messgroessen

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmi, B.; Schreiber, J.; Nebel, D.

    2007-01-01

    WO 2009068023 A2 UPAB: 20090629 NOVELTY - The assembly giving an optical monitoring and/or measurement of physical and/or chemical has an optic fiber (1) to carry electromagnetic radiation to an optical detector. The fiber has a sensitive zone, where the fiber material is replaced by a material or mixture, which is optically transparent in the radiation wavelength. The replacement material has the same refractive index as the fiber or the refractive index deviation is less than difference bet...

  1. Ovarian ablation in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer: GnRH-analogues, ovarectomy or radiocastration - 'The philosopher's stone' instead of 'Chamber of secrets'?; Ovarielle Suppression in der adjuvanten Therapie des Mammakarzinoms: GnRH-Analoga, Ovarektomie oder Radiomenolyse - 'Stein der Weisen' statt 'Kammer des Schreckens'?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, W.; Schiebe, M. [Staedtisches Klinikum Braunschweig (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, H. [Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Background: Ovarian suppression in the adjuvant treatment of perimenopausal women with breast cancer is an important option. The therapeutic goal can be accomplished by administration of GnRH-analogues, ovarectomy or radiocastration. Patients and methods: We describe the advantages and the therapy related side effects and compare the different treatment modalities with each other. Results: Because of its reversibility and patients' compliance GnRH-analogues seem to be advantageous especially in younger premenopausal women. When longer term side effects of artificially induced menopause are less important, therapeutic alternatives such as radiocastration or ovarectomy are effective without obvious superiority between these options. Conclusion: Even in the background of the increasing use of GnRH-analogues radiocastration remains still a therapeutic alternative because of its cost-effectiveness and feasibility. This accounts especially for peri- or premenopausal women above the age of 45. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Bei praemenopausalen Patienten mit rezeptorpositiven Mammakarzinomen stellt die ovarielle Suppression einen wichtigen Schritt in der adjuvanten Therapie dar. Neben den GnRH-Analoga kommen hierfuer die Ovarektomie oder die Radiomenolyse infrage. Patienten und Methode: Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt die Vorteile der einzelnen Therapieoptionen den therapiebedingten Nebenwirkungen gegenueber und vergleicht die Methoden untereinander. Ergebnisse: Wegen der Reversibilitaet und der Patientenakzeptanz sollten GnRH-Analoga besonders bei juengeren praemenopausalen Patientinnen angewendet werden. In der Differentialtherapie von Patientinnen, bei denen die Langzeitnebenwirkungen einer iatrogen induzierten Menopause weniger zu befuerchten sind, kommen auch die anderen Verfahren in Betracht. Hierbei stehen Radiomenolyse und Ovarektomie gleichwertig nebeneinander. Schlussfolgerung: Die differentialtherapeutische Entscheidung zu einer der Methoden sollte

  2. Foerdervorrichtung zum geneigten oder senkrechten Foerdern von Stueckgut

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, T.

    1997-01-01

    The first conveyor consists of a driven conveyor belt with tightener and pressure piece (4,5) pressing the conveyor belt (1), depending on the size of the piece of goods (13), against the second conveyor in the form of a fixed, inflexible wall slide plate (3). When the conveyor belt is placed against the fixed wall, an air gap (14) of between 5 and 10 millimetres long is formed between the two conveyors. Openings in the top and bottom of the conveyor arrangement, between the conveyor belt and...

  3. Wähler oder Verbraucher – zweierlei Maß?

    OpenAIRE

    Heldt, Amélie

    2018-01-01

    In der Debatte um Facebook und Cambridge Analytica geht es um die grundsätzliche Stellung des Bürgers als essentieller Bestandteil der öffentlichen Meinungsbildung, welcher Ziel von politischer und nichtpolitischer Werbung wird, wenn die Daten, die ein soziales Netzwerk über ihn sammelt, vollumfänglich ausgewertet werden. Ist Microtargeting verfassungsrechtlich nur zu bestimmten Zwecken zulässig? Kann man dem Grundrechtsträger als Verbraucher und Wähler unterschiedliche Schutzniveaus zusprech...

  4. Lignite. Useful product or villain?; Braunkohle. Nuetzling oder Boesewicht?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milojcic, George [Bundesverband Braunkohle (DEBRIV), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    German energy policy displays specific features under the heading 'energy shift'. There are differences from the strategy in the EU and from other member states, but also with regard to global developments. Germany regards itself as a pacemaker and pioneer in doing so. However, a special approach by Germany would be a high-risk bet, precisely because Germany is linked internationally in many respects and must maintain its current prosperity in global competition. Referred to the subject of energy the outcome of this is that Germany needs an efficient energy system competitive in an international context, otherwise its industry will be endangered and a considerable loss of prosperity is foreseeable. (orig.)

  5. Digitalisierung im Verteilnetz: Evolution oder Revolution anhand konkreter Beispiele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Oliver; Bachmann, Maurus

    Durch die Integration der neuen erneuerbaren Energien steht das Stromnetz vor großen Herausforderungen. Das Energiesystem als Gesamtes und die Verteilnetze im Speziellen werden smart. Anhand konkreter Beispiele wird aufgezeigt, wie die Digitalisierung im Elektrizitätsnetz voranschreitet. Diese Entwicklung ist eine Evolution, nicht aber eine Revolution.

  6. Technology, threat or hope. Technik, Bedrohung oder Hoffnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The booklet intends to be a contribution to the objective investigation of social political problems of hostility towards technology. Technology is presented as a force of innovation for the social and economic development. The contribution from the most different perspectives of social groups do not intend to be a record of the discussion but rather a contribution to a dialogue which must be increasingly carried on through all groups socially relevant.

  7. Learning swimming - or sinking; Schwimmen lernen - oder untergehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehn, Astrid

    2013-04-15

    Flooding, storm damages, heat-related deaths - The climatic change will dramatically alter our living environment in the coming decades. Cities are severely affected. Politics and science develop adaptation strategies.

  8. Wozu Rechtsgeschichte? – Oder von den Pathologien der Rechtswissenschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Benedict

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available History is inescapable: it deals with being in time. Given the trinitarian structure of time it is possible to distinguish three pathologies once the unity of time is lost from sight: overemphasis on the things to come, the things at hand or the things long gone. These three pathologies are three aspects of the crisis of contemporary historical science. In order to find the right measure between these pathologies it is necessary to evaluate them and consider their causes more closely. The main problem is to determine the right balance between preservation and progression – or to put it more pointedly: between conservatism and (revolutionism. The degree of appreciation for the one or the other depends on an evaluative judgment of the status quo and an assessment of a proposed change with regard to the status quo. Is it not impossible to provide a well founded judgment on what is preferable without a sound comparison of the present as »that which has become« and the imagined future – »that which shall be«? It is part of human nature to want to fully realize a potential. But the difficult task is not simply to change things, but to assess what has already been achieved, and in that light, assess the risks and opportunities that any attempt to improve on the status quo presents. Here the old story about the master and the disciple teaches an important lesson. The disciple does not stand above the master. If he wants to stand above he has first to become a master himself. This is the ritual of history: things can only get better if they are guided by the best. And this is the logic of failure too: things merely get worse, when the disciple considers himself to be the master.So how does legal history fit into all of this? That, of course, depends on the discipline it serves.

  9. Autonomes und interkulturelles Lernen im Fremdsprachenunterricht – unvereinbar oder untrennbar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Börge Boeckmann

    2015-10-01

    The discussion on learner autonomy has intensified considerably in the last two decades, but autonomous learning in the intercultural field has remained a fairly marginal topic. This paper examines  the compatibility of intercultural and autonomous learning and starts by presenting two approaches that come to contradicting conclusions. The hypothesis that both learning fields are compatible, or indeed inseparable, appears better founded and more popular, however. Considering the broad scope of the discussion, the paper continues by focussing on learner-centredness as an important element of autonomy. The rationale for and advantages of learner-centred concepts of teaching and learning are discussed. In reflecting on the application of learner-centred concepts in the field of intercultural competence the emphasis is laid on attitudes as an area of competence. Some examples show how autonomous and intercultural learning can be interlaced in project-type learning tasks.

  10. Civis Europeus Sum oder: Chamberlain spielen / Robert von Lucius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lucius, Robert von

    2014-01-01

    Baltimaade presidentidele Kuldse Victoria auhinna omistamisest. Eesti ja Leedu presidentide kõnedest. Toomas Hendrik Ilvese vestlusest Joachim Gauck'iga ja mõtteavaldustest Saksa Välissuhete Nõukogus

  11. Textsorten - natürliche Sprachformen oder kulturelle Sprachformen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Müller

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Hinsichtlich dieser Problematik befinden wir uns in der textlinguistischen Begriffsbildung. Textsorte ist ein Begriff der Textlinguistik, der seit der Wende von den 60er zu den 70er Jahren etablierten Disziplin der Sprachwissenschaft. Diese galt damals als neu.1

  12. Osteoarthritis - one disease or many?; Arthrose - eine oder viele Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, I. [Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-12-01

    The classical features of osteoarthritis (OA) include osteophytosis, joint space narrowing, subchondral cyst formation, sclerosis, deformity and low-grade synovitis. OA has been tacitly assumed to be a homogeneous disorder and dismissed as 'degenerative'. This short article will seek to challenge this traditional view and suggest that at least two major processes emerge from detailed radiological studies in patients with OA. One comprises osteophytosis associated with hyaline cartilage thinning and perhaps joint instability. This may represent a normal response to joint instability, and be seen as a healing mechanism. The other, when subchondral sclerosis and bone attrition predominate, may reflect joint failure. (orig.) [German] Die radiologischen Basissymptome einer Arthrose sind Osteophytenbildung, Gelenkspaltverschmaelerung, subchondrale Zystenbildung, Sklerose, Gelenkdeformitaet und geringgradige Synovialitis. Stillschweigend wurde die Arthrose durch viele Jahre hindurch als eine einheitliche Erkrankung betrachtet und als degenerativ bezeichnet. In dem vorliegenden Manuskript wird diese traditionelle Betrachtungsweise in Frage gestellt. Detaillierte radiologische Studien am Patienten mit Arthrose zeigen, dass zumindestens 2 unterschiedliche Prozesse ursaechlich vorliegen. Der eine umfasst Osteophytenbildung mit Gelenkknorpelverschmaelerung und Gelenkinstabilitaet. Diese koennten eine normale Reaktion auf Gelenkinstabilitaeten sein und daher moeglicherweise einem Heilungsprozess entsprechen. Der andere Prozess ist mit subchondraler Sklerose und Knochenabbau verbunden und stellt ein Versagen der Gelenkfunktion dar. (orig.)

  13. Beispiele oder Sequenzen? Ein Vorschlag zur Verbesserung qualitativer Forschung

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, David

    2005-01-01

    Zahlen können offenbar sprechen. Aufgrund ihrer kleinen Fallzahlen versuchen Qualitative Forscher und Forscherinnen deswegen, ihre Analysen durch Beispiele zu verdeutlichen und zu stützen. Deshalb werden in Forschungsberichten üblicherweise Datenauszüge präsentiert als "sprechende" Beispiele für den behaupteten Phänomenbereich. Diese scheinbare Evidenz führt dann aber zu dem Vorwurf des bloß Anekdotischen, d.h. dass genau jene Auszüge gewählt werden, die die eigene Position und Deutung bekräf...

  14. Second Life: neuer Markt oder vergänglicher Hype?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Saskia; Koschate, Anne-Christin

    2008-01-01

    "Second Life ist eine von der kalifornischen IT-Firma Linden Lab im Jahr 2003 entwickelte virtuelle Welt, die einige namhafte Unternehmen als Plattform zur Imagesteigerung und als neuen Zugang zu ihren Kunden entdeckt haben. Der vorliegende Artikel nimmt eine kritische Analyse der dort entstehenden Ökonomie vor. Dazu werden die Ziele untersucht, die die Unternehmen mit einer Präsenz in Second Life verfolgen und bestehende Geschäftsmodelle vorgestellt. Hiernach werden die Bekanntheit, das Nutz...

  15. Wissensmanagementsysteme in Schulen oder: wie bringe ich Ordnung ins Chaos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breiter

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Die zunehmende Ausstattung von Schulen mit digitalen Medien wird zu einer Herausforderung für die Organisationsentwicklung. Digitale Materialien der Lehrkräfte sowie Schülerarbeiten in digitalisierter Form wachsen tagtäglich an. Bisher fehlen geeignete organisatorische und technische Möglichkeiten zur Archivierung, Verteilung und Nutzung. In Unternehmen hat sich mit dem Begriff Wissensmanagement ein organsatorisches Konzept etabliert, das die Nutzung der Ressource Wissen optimieren will. Um diese Prozesse zu unterstützen, wurden und werden informations- und kommunikationstechnische Werkzeuge entwickelt, deren Übertragung auf den Schulbereich aufgrund dessen organisatorischer Komplexität aber scheitern muss. In diesem Beitrag werden diese Besonderheiten herausgestellt und die Erfahrungen mit der Entwicklung eines webbasierten Wissensmanagementsystems in Zusammenarbeit mit Schulen skizziert.

  16. Geschichte der Sprachenpolitik Kameruns, oder: der lange Weg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esaïe Djomo. Département de Langues Etrangères Appliquées, Université de Dschang, BP 49 Dschang, Cameroun ... Territorien des Hinterlandes2 kamen viele andere bis dato selbständige kleine Nationen (und damit andere ..... BASAL (Projet de standardisation de base de toutes les langues africaines), begonnen.

  17. Zivilgesellschaft: Integration oder Kräftezerren in Planungsprozessen?

    OpenAIRE

    Growe, Anna; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article is an introduction to the work and discussion of the workshop “Civil society: integration or wasted energy in planning processes?”. On the one hand, the article focuses on several conjunctions between the heterogeneous requirements of the civil society and planning authorities. On the other hand, it discusses the conjunction of requirements in different planning processes (top-down or bottom-up). In addition, the authors discuss more abstract aspects of integration,...

  18. Geschichte der Sprachenpolitik Kameruns, oder: der lange Weg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even after Independence in 1960, this policy was perpetuated and defended, now by the Cameroonian government who fostered so-called "Official Bilingualism", a policy securing the development of French and English as languages of education, and of administration and general public use in the entire country. The first ...

  19. Tutorium Quantenfeldtheorie was Sie schon immer über QFT wissen wollten, aber bisher nicht zu fragen wagten

    CERN Document Server

    Edelhäuser, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Dieses Buch richtet sich an alle, die sich schon immer gefragt haben, wie die kanonische Quantisierung, die LSZ-Reduktionsformel, Pfadintegrale, Feynman-Graphen und die Renormierung miteinander zusammenhängen. Als locker geschriebene Begleitlektüre zu Vorlesungen über Quantenfeldtheorie oder zum Selbststudium geeignet, gibt sich das Buch gesprächig und liefert Rechentricks und Erklärungen, die für Einsteiger sehr hilfreich sind. Im ersten Teil werden anhand von Skalarfeldern grundlegende Konzepte von der klassischen Feldtheorie bis zur Renormierung eingeführt. Der zweite Teil verallgemeinert diese für Felder mit Spin und legt mit der Einführung des Eichprinzips die Grundlagen für den dritten Teil. Hier werden „Anwendungen auf die reale Welt“ behandelt: Die Quantenelektrodynamik und ihre Renormierung, sowie das Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik und der Higgs-Mechanismus. Durch ausführlich vorgerechnete und in den Text eingebundene Aufgaben eignet sich das Tutorium sowohl zum schnellen Nachschla...

  20. 1764-IJBCS-Article-Nah Traoré

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    l'Institut d'Economie Rurale (IER) de. N'Débougou (Niono – Mali). L'extraction a été faite par distillation à la vapeur d'eau sur un appareil de type Kaiser Land .... 803. Tableau 2: Résultats de l'activité antifongique des huiles essentielles de E. citriodora et de E. houseana et de la nystatine sur Candida albicans. Produits.

  1. Containment or accessibility. Deep disposal with or without retrievability measures; Einschluss oder Zugriff. Tiefenlagerung ohne oder mit Vorkehrungen zur Rueckholbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Endlagerforschung; Haefner, Daniel [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik; Lux, Karl-Heinz [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Deponietechnik und Geomechanik; Hassel, Thomas [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Stahlmann, Joachim [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Grundbau und Bodenmechanik

    2017-09-01

    The contribution is concerned with the question of enclosure of high-level radioactive wastes in the final repository of the possibility or retrieval. Arguments for and contra retrievability and the respective conflicts of objectives are discussed. Due to technical reasons the decision for retrievability cannot be arbitrarily delayed. Therefore the authors' request is to include the discussion of necessary processes into the decision making procedure.

  2. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    possible presence of active sources within or beyond the layers and can therefore for instance be used for the description of resonator cavities. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde die makroskopische Quantenelektrodynamik in linearen Medien angewandt, um eine universell gueltige Quantentheorie zur Beschreibung der Wechselwirkung des elektromagnetischen Feldes mit atomaren Quellen in high-Q-Cavities zu entwickeln. In dieser Theorie wird eine vollstaendige Beschreibung der Charakteristika der emittierten Strahlung angegeben. Die Theorie ermoeglicht es, die Grenzen der Anwendbarkeit der ueblicherweise verwendeten Theorie aufzuzeigen. Um eine moeglichst allgemeingueltige Theorie aufzustellen wurde zunaechst die Atom-Feld-Wechselwirkung im Rahmen der makroskopischen Quantenelektrodynamik in dispersiven und absorptiven Medien untersucht. Um das elektromagnetische Feld zu beschreiben wurde von den Maxwell-Gleichungen ausgegangen, wobei die Rauschstromdichten, die mit der Absorption des Mediums verknuepft sind, mit einbezogen wurden. Die Loesung dieser Gleichungen drueckt die elektromagnetischen Feldvariablen mittels des Greentensors der makroskopischen Maxwellgleichungen durch die Rauschstromdichten aus. Die explizite Quantisierung wird anhand der Rauschstromdichten durchgefuehrt, wobei ein diagonaler Hamiltonoperator eingefuehrt wird, der dann die Zeitentwicklung gemaess den Maxwell-Gleichungen und die Erfuellung der fundamentalen gleichzeitigen Vertauschungsregeln der Feldvariablen gewaehrleistet. Im Falle der Wechselwirkung des mediengestuetzten Feldes mit Atomen muss der Hamiltonoperator um Atom-Feld-Wechselwirkungsenergien erweitert werden, wobei die kanonischen Kopplungsschemata der minimalen oder multipolaren Kopplung benutzt werden koennen. Die dielektrischen Eigenschaften der materiellen Koerper sowie ihre Gestalt sind im Greentensor der makroskopischen Maxwell-Gleichungen kodiert. Als vorbereitender Schritt wurde zunaechst der Greentensor spezialisiert, um dreidimensionale

  3. Energy turnaround and nuclear phaseout. Chance or meander; Energiewende und Atomausstieg. Chance oder Irrweg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, Willy

    2015-07-01

    The booklet on the energy turnaround covers the following topics: ascent of the German electricity companies, early scenarios of the nuclear phase-out, the moderate energy turnaround, the controversial climatic change, Fukushima, the abrupt nuclear phase-out in Germany (2011), energy-economical problems of the abrupt energy turnaround, boom and crash of then renewable energy companies, the come-down of the German electricity companies, summary and evaluation.

  4. Vielfalt oder Chaos? 'Musikalische Bildung' und das künstlerisch-wissenschaftliche Studium

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Der folgende Beitrag konzentriert sich auf die Hochschule als Raum für gelebte und gelehrte Diversität. Er widmet sich der Diversität im künstlerisch-wissenschaftlichen Studium der Schulmusik, diskutiert die Frage, inwieweit die Vielfalt der Studienpläne der Zieldimension 'musikalische Bildung' zuträglich ist und entwirft ein Studien-Szenario, das verstärkt interdisziplinäre Synergien fordert. (DIPF/Orig.)

  5. Renaissance des Mittelalters (Teil 2) : oder Alte Fragen mit Neuen Antworten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans van den Reep

    2014-01-01

    Frans van der Reep widmete sich im ersten Teil seines Kommentars (KM Magazin, Nr. 90, Juni 2014) den überraschenden Parallelen zwischen dem digitalen Heute und dem weit entfernten, mittelalterlichen Gestern. In dieser Ausgabe setzt er dies fort und führt die Gedankenkette hin zu den Ähnlichkeiten

  6. Die Digitalisierung des Wissens – oder: Haben Bibliotheken und wissenschaftliches Publizieren eine gemeinsame Zukunft?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Oppmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bereits heute kontrollieren einige wenige Konzerne weite Teile der öffentlichen Grundversorgung mit digitalen Inhalten. Dies stellt eine Bedrohung für eine demokratischeWissens- und Informationsgesellschaft dar. Wir laufen Gefahr, die Hoheit über unser wichtigstes Kulturgut zu verlieren und von jenen anhängig zu werden, welche die systemrelevanten Infrastrukturen betreiben. Ein Aufruf für eine gemeinsames Gegenmodell. A few corporations are gaining more and more control over large sections of the public supply of digital content, which poses a threat to every democratic knowledge and information society. We are in danger of losing control over our most important cultural asset – and becoming totally dependent from those infrastructures. A call for a common counter-model.

  7. Renaissance des Mittelalters (Teil 1) : oder Alte Fragen mit Neuen Antworten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans van den Reep

    2014-01-01

    Man kann das Heute mit keiner Zeit vorher vergleichen? Zu schnell sind die Veränderungen, zu gravierend die technologischen Möglichkeiten der Digitalisierung, des Internets? Frans van der Reep nähert sich in vielen überraschenden Parallelen in der gesellschaftlichen Entwicklung dem Gestern und

  8. Intelligent Design—Fundamentalismus oder unbequeme Herausforderung? [Intelligent Design—Fundamentalism or Uncomfortable Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Wald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Order and change in nature have been for a long time understood in philosophy and theology as founded in divine reason. In the neo-Darwinist theory of evolution, their explanation is reduced to material change without reason. Molecular biologists like M. Behe and W. Demski argue that any reductionist explanation of living beings must be wrong. The evolution of irreducible complex structures is impossible on the basis of random variation and natural selection alone, and must be the result of intelligent design. The article argues that ID-theory, unlike Biblical Creationism, is a challenge for neo-Darwinism and for modern theology as well—for, unlike the Roman magisterium, many Catholic theologians try to harmonize reductive explanation with the notion of creation.

  9. Künstliche Intelligenz in Literatur und Film – Fiktion oder Realität?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärenz, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the idea of artificial people in literature and film, using examples from the literature and the history of film it is shown that the idea of artificial people has always existed. With the increase of technical innovations, more and more scenarios developed by artificial people, to the formation of the idea of the cyborg.

  10. Mobile heat accumulators for lorry or train transport?; Mobile Waermespeicher fuer den LKW- oder Zugtransport?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp

    2013-07-01

    Where heat grids cannot be laid for geographic reasons, mobile heat accumulators may be appropriate. The mobile heat accumulators are transported by lorry or train between the heat source and the heat sink. The waste heat can be decoupled from biogas plants, waste incineration plants or industrial sites. Existing road or rail networks can be used for transportation. Decisive factors to achieve low heat production costs are: free waste heat, large and continuous heat quantities as well as a short distance between the heat source and the heat sink. (orig.)

  11. Vorschrift oder Thunfisch? – Zur Langzeitverfügbarkeit von Forschungsdaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hasler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ich mache ihm ein Angebot, das er nicht ablehnen kann.” Diese Aussage aus einem gänzlich anderen Kontext lässt sich recht treffend übertragen als Wunsch von Dienstleistern und Zweck von Dienstleistungen für Datenproduzenten im Forschungsdatenmanagement. Zwar wirkt Druck zur Datenübergabe nicht förderlich, die Eröffnung einer Option aber sehr wohl. Im vorliegenden Artikel geht es um das Verständnis der Nachhaltigkeit von Forschung und ihren Daten anhand der Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen aus der ersten Phase des DFG-Projekts EWIG. [Fn 01] Eine Auswahl von Fallstricken beim Forschungsdatenmanagement wird anhand der Erkenntnisse aus Expertengesprächen und eigenen Erfahrungen beim Aufbau von LZA-Workflows vorgestellt. Erste Konzepte in EWIG zur Datenübertragung aus unterschiedlich strukturierten Datenquellen in die „Langfristige Domäne” werden beschrieben. "I'm gonna make him an offer he can't refuse". This quote from a completely different context can be aptly rendered as a statement of service providers as well as the purpose of services for data producers in the field of research data management. Although pressure is not the leverage of choice if you want researchers to deposit their research data in some kind of repository, offering an option does the trick quite well. In this article we present some of the concepts for sustainability of research and its data from the first phase the of the project EWIG, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. A selection of pitfalls in research data management is presented based on the findings from expert interviews and our own experiences in the construction of LTP workflows. First concepts in EWIG to transfer data from differently structured data sources into the "Permanent Domain" are described.

  12. Transnational System Building Across Geopolitical Shifts. The Danube-Oder-Elbe Canal, 1901-2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Jiří; van der Vleuten, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2016), s. 272-291 ISSN 1965-0175 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : large technical systems * water politics * environmental history Subject RIV: AB - History Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  13. Hilfe oder Hindernis? Meinungen finnischer Sprachstudierender über Mehrsprachigkeit als Ressource beim Deutschlernen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Grasz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Der Fremdsprachenunterricht in Finnland befindet sich gerade in einer Umbruchphase, denn mit der Einführung neuer Lehrpläne im Jahr 2016 werden Verfahren der Mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktik in Zukunft eine zentrale Rolle spielen. In diesem Beitrag wird untersucht, ob und wie finnische Universitätsstudierende, die selbst von einer eher monolingual ausgerichteten Lerntradition geprägt sind, ihr mehrsprachiges Repertoire als Ressource beim Lernen weiterer Fremdsprachen sehen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine Befragung unter Lehramtsstudierenden der Fächer Anglistik und Skandinavistik, die Germanistik als Nebenfach studieren möchten, durchgeführt. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Studierenden zwar mehrheitlich positive Einstellungen gegenüber Mehrsprachigkeit aufweisen, dass es aber Entwicklungsbedarf im Hinblick auf Sprachbewusstheit, multilinguale Fähigkeiten und bei den Einstellungen gegenüber Sprachmischungen gibt. Foreign language education in Finland is currently undergoing a period of change, as the introduction of new curricula in 2016 will lead to a central role of multilingualism in teaching. This article examines whether and how Finnish university students, who themselves were influenced by a more monolingual learning tradition, consider their multilingual repertoire as a resource for learning other foreign languages. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among teacher students of English and Swedish, who would like to study German as a minor. The analysis shows that while the majority of students have positive attitudes towards multilingualism, there is a need for development in terms of language awareness, multilingual skills, and attitudes towards language mixes.

  14. Nachrichten aus Amerika oder wie man in Koblenz von Humboldts Reise nach Amerika erfuhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-J. Weihrauch

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.In the almost forgotten Jacobinic newspaper “Der Bewohner des West Rheins” (i.e. The Citizen of the Western Rhine, published in Koblenz/Rhine there appeared on Brumaire 29th of the year IX (i.e. November 20th 1800 a summary of a letter dated January 24th, 1800, sent by Alexander von Humboldt from Laguaira, Venezuela to his colleague Antoine François de Fourcroy (1755-1809 in Paris. It takes Humboldt’s letter six months to reach the French capital and further four months later it arrives in the (at that time French province of the departements on the left bank of the Rhine. This up to now unknown publication of a a letter by Humboldt in the newspaper “Der Bewohner des West Rheins”, a paper of only regional significance, vividly shows two parallel developments: on the one hand the spreading of knowledge from the centre to the perifery, from the capital to the province and on the other hand the spreading of knowledge from the already highly specialized scientific network to the general newspaper business that “generates” publicity and popularizes knowledge.

  15. Arrangement of magnets for magnetic support or guide system. Magnetanordnung fuer ein magnetisches Trag- oder Fuehrungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, G; Schwaerzler, P

    1978-01-26

    The invention refers to an arrangement of magnets for a magnetic support or guide system, particularly for a levitation vehicle. A magnetic tape which can be moved without touching along a fixed armature rail is provided, having an additional magnet at its ends. The pole surfaces of each additional magnet increase their spacing from the armature rail with increasing distance from the end of the magnetic tape concerned. The purpose of the invention is to improve such an arrangement of magnets so that the extra expense of additional magnets is avoided. According to the invention, this is achieved by the pole surfaces of the outer electromagnets of the magnetic tape, instead of the additional magnets, having an increased spacing from the armature rail with increasing approach to the end of the core free of connected electromagnets. The part of the pole faces remote from the armature rail is made curved in order to produce great leakage of the magnetic field.

  16. Anglizismen und synonyme Wortneubildungen im modernen Deutsch: sinnvolle Ergänzung oder Ersatz?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikitina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the interrelations within the language system between anglicisms and newly formed native German words. New words emerge in German either spontaneously or under the supervision of philological associations. When created spontaneously new words are in most cases translation loans and retain the inner form and semantic connection between the components similar to that of a borrowed angliсism. Artificially created German neologisms, on the contrary, lose their semantic connection with the borrowing. Structural and semantic analysis of anglicisms and German neologisms enables to discover possible causes of giving preference to anglicisms in one cases and replacing them with German neologisms in others. The article debates the issues of language maintenance and conscious word creation.

  17. Rolle verschiedener sekretierter oder translokalisierter Effektormoleküle des gastrischen Pahogens Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Judith

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori is estimated to colonize the human stomach in almost 50% of the world population and has established itself as survival specialist by avoiding host cell recognition and elimination. Pathologic effects due to its persistence are depending on a multitude of host-pathogen interactions and infection may develop from simple symptoms to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer or even cancer formation. More virulent strains of H. pylori encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) able to translocate ...

  18. Stirling co-generation plants - Is this the future?; Stirling-BHKWs - Zukunft oder...?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, M.

    2000-07-01

    This article gives an overview of the history and main features of Stirling engines and their use in combined-cycle power generation. The principles behind the Stirling and its thermo-dynamic characteristics are discussed and compared with the internal combustion engine and other thermally-driven machines. The two main types of Stirling - the free-piston and the kinematic Stirling engines are discussed. Also, the important role played by the burner in the operation of Stirling engines is discussed. The use of Stirling engines as a basis for small combined heat and power (CHP) units to produce thermal heating power and electricity is examined. Three examples - the implementations made by the Solo, Whispergen and SIG companies - are looked at in detail and compared with alternative CHP-solutions using small gas engines and fuel cells. The advantages and disadvantages of these different solutions are listed.

  19. Niederländisch 'toch' und Deutsch 'doch': Gleich oder doch nicht ganz?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foolen, Ad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a semantic analysis is presented of the Dutch particle 'toch' and its German cognate 'doch'. On the formal level they may appear as either adverb, conjunction or interjection, and they also occur in different sentence types. It is argued that the core meaning of both particles is the same. The range of uses differs, however, between the two languages. For example, German 'doch' can be used as an 'answering particle’ in reaction to a negative statement or question. This is not possible in Dutch. The core meaning of the particles can be explicated in terms of three steps: the utterance with 'toch'/'doch' represents a positive step. This step is preceded (implicitly or explicitly by a negative step, which is in turn preceded by a positive step wich is identical to the actual positive step. For certain uses of 'toch' and 'doch', however, we have to assume a modification of this general schema. A Dutch novel (by Maarten 't Hart, 1983 and its German translation was used as a corpus. The original text contained 270 occurrences of 'toch', and the translation 230 'doch'’s.

  20. Intelligent Design—Fundamentalismus oder unbequeme Herausforderung? [Intelligent Design—Fundamentalism or Uncomfortable Challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold Wald

    2017-01-01

    Order and change in nature have been for a long time understood in philosophy and theology as founded in divine reason. In the neo-Darwinist theory of evolution, their explanation is reduced to material change without reason. Molecular biologists like M. Behe and W. Demski argue that any reductionist explanation of living beings must be wrong. The evolution of irreducible complex structures is impossible on the basis of random variation and natural selection alone, and must be the result of i...

  1. ENTRA - or the chances of interdisciplinary work; ENTRIA - oder die Chancen des Interdisziplinaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Endlagerforschung; Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Since 2013 about 60 scientists work together in the research platform ENTRA (disposal options for radioactive residuals: interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation criteria). The scientists group includes physicists, mathematicians, engineers, jurists, experts from ethics, social and political sciences. The common question is the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The contribution describes the concept of interdisciplinary work, using the example of the definition of terms like risk by different scientists, projects for specific disposal options, the problem of public distrust, the problem of limiting values and the optimization of final repository systems.

  2. Elektrochemisches Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Herstellung von Metallhydroxiden und/oder Metalloxidhydroxiden

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, B.; Menzel, T.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrochemical process for the production of metal hydroxides and/or metal oxide hydroxides comprising metal ions and hydroxide ions, and a device for the performance of the process. The metal hydroxide and/or metal oxide hydroxide is formed in the chamber K bordered on a cathode side by a bipolar diaphragm and the required hydroxide ions originated by means of the bipolar diaphragm, whereby the anion-selective layer is arranged on the anode side. The metal ions a...

  3. Influence of environmental factors on fish assemblages in streams of the Elbe and Oder basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Kůra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental parameters on changes in the structure of fish assemblages were studied in the Elbe and the Odra basin. Research was done at 819 sites surveyed in the field during the period 1993-2007. The impact of 46 factors derived from the maps through a GIS was tested as well as the impact of 10 factors recognized in the field. To evaluate the influence of these factors the indirect (DCA and direct (CCA multivariate cluster analysis were used. Analyses were performed with data on presence-absence and relative abundance of each species. DCA well reflects changes in assemblages in the longitudinal profile of streams. CCA refers to a significant influence of regional and temporal variability and influence of individual factors. The fish assemblages are best characterized by distance from the source location, stream slope, altitude of locality, representation of arable land in the basin, number of ponds in the sub-basin above the locality, type of waters (salmonid or cyprinid, and water temperature (the only of the parameters of the field. The analyzed factors better reflect the variability in fish assemblages of the Odra than of Elbe river basin. The analysis showed good practical efficiency of processing information from a large sample of data from ichthyological surveys. The tools of GIS and the use of statistical methods make possible to characterize basic ecological requirements of most species and specify conditions determining specific composition of fish assemblages.

  4. Energy data warehouse or energy data information system?; Energy-Datawarehouse oder Energiedaten-Informationssystem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, W. [Medatec, Ingenieurbuero fuer Mess- und Datentechnik, Staufenberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The contribution discusses the problem of junk data and the development of integrated, optimizied energy data information systems. [German] Die Nachfrage der deregulierten Energiemaerkte nach Tools zur Verwaltung grosser Mengen von Lastgaengen, Kundenstammdaten sowie Bewertungs-, Tarifierungs- und und Durchleutungsparametern fuehrt zu einer Fuelle von Angeboten von Produkten aus dem Datawarehouse-Umfeld. Hierbei wird dem Anwender eindringlich suggeriert, dass die oberste Zielsetzung das 'Speichern' aller Arten von Messdaten im Bereich Energieerzeugung und -verteilung auf einer einzigen Datenbank sein sollte und dass entsprechende Datenformate dies auch ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  5. Necessary optimality conditions of the second oder in a stochastic optimal control problem with delay argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad O. Mastaliev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal control problem of nonlinear stochastic systems which mathematical model is given by Ito stochastic differential equation with delay argument is considered. Assuming that the concerned region is open for the control by the first and the second variation (classical sense of the quality functional we obtain the necessary optimality condition of the first and the second order. In the particular case we receive the stochastic analog of the Legendre—Clebsch condition and some constructively verified conclusions from the second order necessary condition. We investigate the Legendre–Clebsch conditions for the degeneration case and obtain the necessary conditions of optimality for a special control, in the classical sense.

  6. Zum biologisch-dynamischen Forschungsansatz – Nur philosophisches Beiwerk oder Erkenntnisbedingung einer Wissenschaft vom Leben?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagel, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    [Einleitung:] Die Biologisch-Dynamische Wirtschaftsweise ist die älteste unter den verschiedenen Methoden des Ökologischen Landbaus. Ihr geistiges Fundament ist eine Reihe von Vorträgen, die Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) im Jahr 1924 in Koberwitz bei Breslau für Landwirte hielt (STEINER 1924a). Daher können ihre Voraussetzungen und Intentionen und auch ihr Forschungsansatz nicht losgelöst von dem spirituellen Weltbild der Anthroposophie, deren Begründer Rudolf Steiner ist, betrachtet werden. ...

  7. Die Entdeckung des Higgs-Teilchens oder wie das Universum seine Masse bekam

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Im Oktober 2013 setzte der Nobelpreis für Peter Higgs und François Englert den vorläufigen Höhepunkt in der verrückten Geschichte um das sogenannte Gottesteilchen, das Higgs-Boson. Schon im Juli des Vorjahres hatten die Physiker weltweit gejubelt: Mehr als fünfzig Jahre nachdem Peter Higgs und andere Wissenschaftler die Existenz des Teilchens theoretisch begründet hatten, war es im gigantischen Teilchenbeschleuniger CERN gefunden worden. Jetzt erzählen Harald Lesch und seine Co-Autoren, warum sich rund um das Higgs-Teilchen so viele skurrile Missverständnisse und mediale Sensationen ranken. Gewohnt kurzweilig und gut verständlich enthüllen sie, wie aus dem verzweifelt gesuchten „gottverdammten Teilchen“ das Gottesteilchen wurde, dass der Urknall nicht simuliert werden kann und dass Schwarze Löcher nicht unbedingt alles verschlingende Monster sind. Dabei wird deutlich, dass die Suche nach den geheimnisvollen Kräften, die das Universum, unsere Erde und letztlich auch uns Menschen zusammenhalten...

  8. The fuel cell in Germany: Future or utopia?; Die Brennstoffzelle in Deutschland. Zukunft oder Utopie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzer, Guillem; Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    What means a sustainable energy sector? The advancement of innovative technologies to decrease the dependency of fossil, dwindling fuels and the prevention of greenhouse gases? Sure. Is in Germany to this topic really volition of policy and economy? The answer should be: partly. Renewable Energies are in a continued increase due to the Renewable Energy Sources Act, the fuel cell is in contrast an ineffectual initiative, the hold on the nuclear industry is a return to the last century. Fuel cells are one of the technologies with the greatest potential: Whether for the home-supply, for industry- or mobile applications (e-mobility), fuel cells are perfect heat- and electricity plants, scalable for a large power range. In conjunction with the supply of pure- or chemical bounded hydrogen by renewable energies, fuel cells could be the plants of the future. Finally the technology must be controlled. This occurred constricted, there is (yet) no durability and cost effectiveness given. Here it is the challenge of the policy, the r and d and the industry respectively the manufacturers to develop this technology to marketability with the help of target-oriented research programs and subsidies or to fail. (orig.)

  9. Physcia aipolioides – ein Beispiel einer invasiven Flechte oder einer unterschätzten Verbreitung?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisická, E.; Lackovičová, A.; Liška, Jiří; Lökös, L.; Lisický, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2008), s. 303-318 ISSN N R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050712 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : lichen ized Ascomycetes * Slovakia * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Kortikosteroidinjektionen, Physiotherapie oder eine Abwartestrategie bei lateraler Epikondylitis: randomisierte kontrollierte Studie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Korthals-de Bos, I.B.C.; Bouter, L.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is generally treated with corticosteroid injections or physiotherapy. Dutch clinical guidelines recommend a wait-and-see policy. The efficacy of these approaches was compared. Patients should be properly informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options

  11. Skiing and snowboarding center at Bottrop; Mit Ski oder Snowboard runter von der Halde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthesius, M. [Lenze GmbH und Co KG, Hameln (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The 'Alpincenter' at Bottrop is the biggest indoor winter sports center of the world. Its ventilation systems were equipped with specially selected frequency inverters. [German] Skifahren im Hochsommer? Mit dem Snowboard im Ruhrgebiet den Hang hinunter? Beste Wintersportverhaeltnisse an 365 Tagen im Jahr? Und das in Deutschland? Kein Problem. Seit Anfang des Jahres kommen in Bottrop Wintersportfreunde voll auf ihre Kosten. Nach einem halben Jahr Bauzeit hat das Alpincenter seine Pforten geoeffnet. Die Wintersporthalle ist die laengste Anlage auf der Welt. Die gesamte Belueftung wurde mit speziell auf die Klimatechnik (mit Drehzahl geregelten Ventilatoren) abgestimmten Frequenzumrichtern ausgeruestet. (orig./AKF)

  12. Als Jona drei Tage im Walfisch war oder: Vom Zähneputzen!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballhorn, Egbert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper takes a case study about a correlatively oriented teaching unit on Jona in primary school as its starting point. This case study clearly shows the difficulties which correlative Bible Didactics have to face. However, it also illustrates the chances of working with the book of Jona on an intertextual basis. Based on this case study, the theoretical main features of intertextual exegesis shall be presented here. This should then lead to the development of requirements and challenges for intertextually oriented learning processes.

  13. Renaissance des Dorfladens oder Versorgungswüsten?. Erfahrungen und Lernpotenziale am Beispiel Schleswig-Holstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    It has become more and more complicated for the customers to make their food shopping in local environments because smaller shops close down and the distances to supermarkets and discount stores have increased, especially in rural areas. The paper will discuss which alternatives of food retailing exist outside the supermarket world and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of shop formats on the micro level. The statements are based on a conscious selection of different shop formats and expert interviews in rural areas of the province of Schleswig-Holstein.

  14. Auf der Suche nach historischen Phrasemen – oder: Wörterbücher als Korpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dräger, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of phrasemes is problematic both in a lexicographic view and a corpus analytic view, even though the efforts of the collocation research provide enormous amounts of output. Finding and automatically extracting phrasemes, that are longer than two or three word collocations, is still not satisfactorily possible, because there are no markers in the text, that indicate the borders of the expressions. If in addition the perspective is an historical one, the problems arise as the amount of available historical texts decreases. For an historical phraseographic analysis realistic examples are extremely help- and needful, so that other sources for assembling examples have to be found. The following text proposes some approaches, how dictionaries can be used as corpora, and shows, which results (examples, illustrations, links etc. can be expected. The point of origin of the idea is to use dictionaries not in the classical way – that means: searching the headword and reading the related article –, but to use the whole dictionary as a corpus. This inverse use of dictionaries allows us to find a lot of implicit lexikographic information, that in a normal way of using dictionaries could only be found by coincident.

  15. Der gläserne Aschenbecher - oder - Zur Verallgemeinerung des Eulerschen Polyedersatzes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallin, P

    2009-01-01

    Eine Diskussion unter Mathematikern im Lehrerzimmer einer Kantonsschule führt zusammen mit Beiträgen der Schülerinnen und Schüler unversehens zu topologischen Einsichten, die normalerweise im Gymnasium nicht zur Sprache kommen.

  16. Man between cosmos and chaos. Mensch zwischen Kosmos und Chaos. Lebensspendende oder todbringende Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, A

    1981-01-01

    The author investigates the radiation coming from the universe (cosmic radiation, solar, wind, X-ray, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, high-frequency and low-frequency wave radiation), the radiation coming from the earth itself and its immediate atmosphere, and, finally, the radiation from the environment caused by man himself (dust, exhaust gases, low-frequency currents, etc.) which has an influence on the health of man that is still controversial among scientists. Therefore the author demands that radioesthesia be employed more in everyday life in the future and that people deal more with the biological effects of radiation on earth.

  17. 20 Jahre Vertrag von Amsterdam: Reelle Vision oder reale Desillusion Europäischer Gleichstellungspolitik?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahrens, P.; Scheele, A.; Vleuten, J.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    In 1997 the principles of gender mainstreaming and anti-discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation were enshrined in the Treaty of Amsterdam. The introduction to this special issue takes stock of the results twenty years after and

  18. Zucker und Fräsmaschinen : oder Gab es Nebenbesitz im römischen Recht?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, F.

    2010-01-01

    'Zucker' and 'Frasmaschinen', Did Roman law know 'co-ordinate possession' ('Nebenbesitz')? - In German legal literature a theory of so-called 'Nebenbesitz' (co-ordinate possession') is being discussed since more than half a century. It would be applicable when a detentor, a lessee e.g., makes a

  19. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum rissfreien Schweissen, Reparaturschweissen oder Auftragsschweissen heissrissanfaelliger Werkstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, B.; Goebel, G.

    2006-01-01

    WO 2008046542 A2 UPAB: 20080604 NOVELTY - The procedure for crack-free welding, repair welding or surface welding of metallic parts (1, 2), comprises locally applying a temperature by two parallel or nearly parallel temperature fields (9, 10), which extend along the welding direction, are electromagnetically generated by a volume energy source inside the parts, both begin in front of the welding zone in the welding direction, and of which the maximum temperatures are reached outside the heat ...

  20. Brennstoffzellen-Heizgeräte BZH: Chance oder Risiko für die Solarthermie?

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, M.; Wittwer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas driven fuel cell power stations for the domestic supply are presently promoted as one of the most efficient solutions to reduce the IKJML -emissions of private households. These small systems including a gas reformer, a fuel cell stack and an auxiliary burner are dimensioned to fulfill the heating and warm water demands of a building by hundred percent in the winter case. Considering the electric efficiency, the thermal load, the dimensions of the storage and the user behavior nea...

  1. Turmwächter oder letzter Baumeister der Karlsbrücke?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2014), s. 163-164 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Late Gothic sculpture * man with monkey * Charles Bridge * Prague Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. Grenzhandel am Hochrhein. Schweizer Franken - Potenzial oder Risiko für den deutschen Handel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerling, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Retail shopping in Hochrhein on the tri-border region is affected by the shopping behaviour of the Swiss households. On the one hand the German retail in the German border towns was able to develop dynamically and tap the demand from regions beyond the border. A market-relevant example was used to investigate the question of whether these cross-border inflows should be considered an area of potential growth or risk for German retail. On the other hand, together with e-commerce the shopping tourism leads to a tilt in spatial structure in the Swiss border regions. The demand and strategy for sustainable city and regional development are discussed from the perspective of retail, city planning and market research.

  3. Nine Days to Oder: An Alternate NATO Strategy for Central Region, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Encyclopedia of Military History, p. 261. 2. Basil Liddell Hart, The Sword and the Pen, p. 319. 3. Ibid., p. 318. 3 CHAPTER II SOVIET STRATEGY AND PACT...luf N. 172nd mte le Aba TIP FAk Sea. * nless indiated othrid.se, all forces PCSECUS in PRO. 40 LI It will be of interest that two mechanized divisions...1952. Liddell Hart, B. H. StrAteav. New York: Praeger, 1967. Liddell Hart, Basil . The Sword and the Pen. New York: Crowell, 1976. Peltier, Louis C

  4. Catastrophe or psychosis; The greenhouse problem faces a solution. Katastrophe oder Psychose; Treibhausraetsel vor der Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, A.

    1994-02-01

    The article gives a state-of-the-art report on climate research into the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. In particular, recent findings of coupled circulation models of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg, are presented as well as analyses of drill cares from Greenland which will provide information on climate changes during the past 150000 years. (KW)

  5. Die Welt als Wille und System oder eine Schopenhauerische Kritik der Systemtheorie Luhmanns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    . Anhand von Schopenhauers Kritik des Satzes vom Grund wird gezeigt, wie unzulänglich und problematisch die systemtheoretische Erklärung gesellschaftlicher Phänomene ist. Diese Unzulänglichkeit besteht u.a. darin, dass die Theorie Probleme hat, Situationen „institutioneller Abdifferenzierung“, in denen......) in Luhmann's systems theory. By formulating the question within the framework of Schopenhauer's philosophy and his concept of will the critique avoids Luhmann's standard reply that human beings are only environmental correlates of system observations. It is argued that in its very form of explanation......, focused on the question of how observations connect to each other, systems theory resembles the “Principle of Reason” as stated by Leibniz. Schopenhauer's critique of the Principle of Reason is used to demonstrate a problematic inadequacy in Luhmann's way of explaining social phenomena. The inadequacy...

  6. Shopping Mall: Konsumtempel oder neuer ‚Frauenraum‘ im Zentrum der Stadt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bock

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Die in den USA entstandene Shopping Mall ist aus den europäischen Stadtzentren nicht mehr wegzudenken. Kerstin Dörhöfer geht in ihrem Buch an ausgewählten Berliner Beispielen der Frage nach der Wirkung dieser vermeintlich homogenen baulichen ‚Monolithen‘ auf urbane Kultur und vor allem auf die Geschlechterverhältnisse nach. Die allmähliche Eroberung der Innenstädte durch die Shopping Mall ist – so das Fazit der lesenswerten Arbeit – kein Ausdruck einer verstärkten Teilhabe von Frauen am städtischen Leben. Vielmehr konterkariert der neue Innenraum im öffentlichen Stadtraum die mit Urbanität verbundene Vorstellung einer Aneignung städtischen Raums.

  7. Pop-Götzendämmerung oder Wie man mit Thors Hammer philosophiert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Smiljanić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor geht von der Krise des Heldentums in der gegenwärtigen Mediengesellschaft aus. Der Mangel an echten Helden wird durch die Projektion von unechten im Raum der Imagination kompensiert. Der Säkularisierung von Mythen entspricht im Bereich der Populärkultur die Erschaffung von „Superhelden” auf der Leinwand. Die Aufgabe des Beitrags ist es, anhand des Beispiels der Filmreihe über den Marvel-Helden Thor die Transformation der mythischen Strukturen und die Problematik der Darstellung von göttlichen Wesen aufzuzeigen, welche immer an der Grenze zwischen Entsprechung und Simulation, Authentizität und Idolatrie, Kunst und Schund geschieht.

  8. Either with CCS or not at all.; Mit CCS oder gar nicht.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, L. [Inst. fuer UmweltManagement (IfUM) an der ESCP - EAP, Europaeische Wirtschaftshochschule Berlin (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The power plant projects in Hamburg and Berlin will have a decisive influence on the future of electricity production from coal, security of supply and the effectiveness of climate policies. In response to the declaration of intent by the G8 countries to reduce global CO{sub 2} emissions by half by the year 2050 Germany has committed itself to reduce its own emissions by at least 80%. Furthermore the International Energy Agency has irrefutably shown, in addition to the necessity of drastically improving energy efficiency until the year 2050 and vastly increasing the use of all renewable energy resources, that it is indispensable to implement CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology in all fossil fuel power plants as soon as possible, that is both in new and, through retrofitting, in existing installations. It must also be used in all industrial applications involving localised CO{sub 2} emissions. It thus appears imperative to implement CCS technology without further delay. It is in Vattenfall's own economic interest not to exploit the authorities' decision to grant permission for the construction of the Moorburg power plant without CCS ''for the time being''. On no account should this decision be allowed to create a precedent for further power plant permits ''without CCS''.

  9. Mono- oder multikulturelle Organisationen? : Managing Diversity auf dem Prüfstand

    OpenAIRE

    Krell, Gertraude

    1996-01-01

    Der Beitrag erläutert aus personalpolitischer Sicht den jeweils einer Unternehmenskultur entsprechenden Umgang mit Homogenität bzw. Heterogenität einer Organisation. Einander gegenübergestellt werden das Leitbild der Homogenität durch Vergemeinschaftung und das Leitbild der Heterogenität durch multikulturelle Vielfalt. "In diesem Beitrag werden zunächst die Funktionsprinzipien der monokulturellen Organisation analysiert und die - von emanzipatorisch bzw. gleichstellungspolitisch Engagierten u...

  10. Heidegger und der Nationalsozialismus oder die Frage nach dem philosophischen Empirismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses the philosophical meaning of Martin Heidegger’s Rectoral address. Firstly, Heidegger’s philosophical basic experience (Grunderfahrung) is sketched as providing the background of his Rectoral address: the being-historical concept of beginning (Anfang). Next, the

  11. Soft energy technology hope or illusion. Sanfte Energietechnologie - Hoffnung oder Utopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifritz, W

    1980-01-01

    Both in the press and in TV, increasingly more voices are calling to turn away from large technology, especially to do without nuclear energy. Well-known representatives of this movement are A. Lovins in the USA, R. Jungk and K. Traube in the Federal Republic of Germany. They make attempts to convince the public that the future problems of energy supply can be solved by saving energy and utilizing alternative energy sources such as solar energy and wind energy. They fight against the 'hard' technology and its main representatives, the large industry because these, in their opinion, desise growth and material wealth at the cost of a healthy environment thus causing a progressing intellectual, cultural, and emotional impoverishment of mankind. Instead of these, they want to use a 'smooth' technology which is thought to lead to a deceuhalisation with more humanity, liberality, and justice. The author shows here that, as far as the potential and the effects of a utilization of alternative energy sources are concerned, these people wake expectations which cannot be fulfilled for technical reasons. But there is something even worse: These utopic expectations lead to an ideology which might result in destroying the fundaments of utilizing the doubtlessly existing potential of the alternative energy sources, especially the often praised renewability of solar energy utilization.

  12. Na+-H+ exchange and Na+-dependent transport systems in streptozotocin diabetic rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seifi, S.; Freiberg, J.M.; Kinsella, F.J.; Cheng, L.; Sacktor, B.

    1987-01-01

    The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat was used to test the hypothesis that Na + -H + exchange activity in the proximal tubule luminal membrane would be increased in association with renal hypertrophy, altered glomerular hemodynamics, enhanced filtered load and tubular reabsorption of 22 Na + , and stimulated 22 Na= pump activity in the basolateral membrane, previously reported characteristics of this experimental animal model. Amiloride-sensitive H + gradient-dependent Na + uptake and Na + gradient-dependent H + flux were increased in brush-border membrane vesicles from the streptozotocin-treated animals. Na + gradient-dependent uptakes of phosphate, D-glucose, L-proline, and myoinositol were decreased in the drug-induced diabetic animals. These membrane transport alterations were not found when the streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated with insulin

  13. The effect of heat on Na+/H+ antiport function and survival in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.-F.; Diep, Kim; Tannock, Ian F.; Hill, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Because intracellular pH (pH i ) is a determinant of thermosensitivity, it is important to understand the relationship between heat cytotoxicity and the mechanisms responsible for pH i regulation, such as the Na + /H + antiport. The objective of this study is to elucidate the relationship between heat damage and Na + /H + antiport activity. Methods and Materials: Various cell lines, EMT6, RIF-1, and its thermoresistant variant TR-4, and CCL39, and its variant that lacks the Na + /H + antiport (PS120), were all heated using a water bath. Parallel assessments of antiport function and pH i were made using the fluorescent dye 2,7-biscarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Results: Exposure of EMT6 cells to 43-46 deg. C for 30-60 min caused progressive decline in antiport activity, in parallel with cytotoxicity. When the same degree of cytotoxicity was induced by ionizing radiation, no alteration in Na + /H + antiport function was observed. Despite a 10-fold lower survival in RIF-1 compared to TR-4 cells after heating, there was no difference in the thermosensitivity of their antiports. Antiport activity in the TR-4 cells, however, was higher than that of RIF-1 cells both before and during heating. Intracellular pH for TR-4 cells decreased minimally during heating, in contrast to a decline of 1 pH unit in RIF-1 cells despite similar relative levels of antiport activity, suggesting that in this pair of cell lines, antiport activity does not play a major pH i regulatory role. PS120 and CCL39 cells had similar survival levels when heated at pH e 7.2 in the presence of NaHCO 3 , which allows function of the other major regulator of pH i , the Na + -dependent HCO 3 - /Cl - exchanger. This occurred despite a drop in pH i in the PS120 cells during heating. A reduced survival was observed, however, in PS120 cells after 43 deg. C for 30-60 min at either pH e 6.5 or pH e 7.2 in the absence of NaHCO 3 . Intracellular pH for both lines decreased with increasing duration of heating under the various heating conditions, but the decline was consistently greater for PS120 than CCL39 cells. Conclusion: We demonstrated that damage to the Na + /H + antiport likely reflects early heat-induced change in membrane function, but is not a primary target for heat cytotoxicity. Although there is an association between survival, antiport function, and pH i level under most treatment conditions, the precise role of the Na + /H + antiport in mediating thermal cytotoxicity remains uncertain

  14. Comparative biology of the ubiquitous Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1: lessons from erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Cala, Peter Michael

    2004-01-01

    of NHE1 in erythrocytes, in their own right and as model systems, but pertinent findings from non-erythroid cells are also discussed. NHE1 plays a key role in the regulation of cell volume and pH, and consequently in the control of such diverse processes as blood O2/CO2 transport, and cell proliferation......, motility, and survival. Disturbances in NHE1 function are involved in important pathological states such as hypoxic cell damage and cancer development. NHE1 has a predicted topology of 12 transmembrane domains, and a hydrophilic C-terminus thought to be the major site for NHE1 regulation. NHE1 is highly...... conserved throughout the vertebrate phylum, particularly in the transmembrane region and the proximal part of the C-terminus. In non-erythroid, and probably also in erythroid cells, this part of the hydrophilic C-terminus interacts with multiple binding partners important for NHE1 function. Erythrocyte NHE1...

  15. The relationship between Na+/H+ exchanger expression and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Dustin R.; Spaulding, Deborah T.; Glenn, Hayden M.; Fuller, Bryan B.

    2004-01-01

    The activity of melanosome-associated tyrosinase in human melanocytes differs based on racial skin type. In melanocytes from Black skin, tyrosinase activity is high while in White melanocytes the activity of the enzyme is low. Recent studies suggest that low tyrosinase activity in White melanocytes may be due to an acidic pH environment within the melanosome. Because sodium/hydrogen (Na + /H + ) exchangers (NHEs) are known to regulate intracellular pH, melanocytes were treated with NHE inhibitors to determine what effect this inhibition might have on tyrosinase activity. Treatment of Black melanocytes with ethyl-isopropyl amiloride (EIPA) caused a rapid dose-dependent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. This inhibition was not due to either direct enzyme inhibition or to a decrease in tyrosinase abundance. In contrast, treatment of White melanocytes with EIPA, cimetidine, or clonidine resulted in little inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that both Black and White melanocytes expressed mRNA and protein for NHE-1, NHE-3, NHE-5, NHE-6, and NHE-7. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NHE-7 and NHE-3 co-localized with the melanosomal protein, Tyrosinase Related Protein-1 (TRP-1). In addition, the vesicular proton pump, vesicular ATPase (V-ATPase), was found to be present in both White and Black melanosomes, indicating that organelles from both racial skin types are capable of being acidified. The results suggest that one or more NHEs may help regulate melanosome pH and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid choleresis: Relationship to biliary HCO-3 and effects of Na+-H+ exchange inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, E.L.; Lake, J.R.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have recently shown that substitution of Li + for perfusate Na + eliminates the HCO 3 - -rich choleresis produced by ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in isolated perfused rat liver and that the increase in bile flow produced by both UDCA and taurocholic acid is partially inhibited by 1 mM amiloride. Although these findings are consistent with a role for Na + -H + exchange in the choleresis produced by these bile acids, both Li + substitution and amiloride affect other cellular processes, including Na + -K + -ATPase activity. They have now further explored both the relationship between UDCA-stimulated bile flow and biliary HCO 3 - secretion and the possible role of Na + -H + exchange in this process by comparing the effects of amiloride with two of its more potent and presumably more specific analogues, 5-(N,N-dimethyl)amiloride hydrochloride (DMA) and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIA). None of the inhibitors significantly altered biliary UDCA output or the relationship between UDCA-induced bile flow and either biliary [HCO 3 - ] or biliary HCO 3- output. Effects of these inhibitors did not appear attributable either to nonspecific toxicity, as reflected by hepatic release of lactate dehydrogenase or K + , or to inhibition of hepatic Na + -K + -ATPase, measured as Na + -dependent uptake of 86 Rb. These findings indicate that UDCA-induced but not basal bile formation is closely coupled to biliary HCO 3 - concentration and output, and they provide additional evidence that UDCA choleresis requires an intact Na + -H + exchange mechanism

  17. Increased sarcolemmal Na+/H+ exchange activity in hypertrophied myocytes from dogs with chronic atrioventricular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; Vos, Marc A.; Houtman, Marien J. C.; Antoons, Gudrun; Ravesloot, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs with compensated biventricular hypertrophy due to chronic atrioventricular block (cAVB), are more susceptible to develop drug-induced Torsade-de-Pointes arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. It has been suggested that the increased Na+ influx in hypertrophied cAVB ventricular myocytes

  18. Islam dan Kaum Minoritas non-Muslim dalam Piagam Madīnah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Silvita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper would like to point out that the conception of citizenship in the doctrine of comprehensive ethics of Islam are in line with the ethics of modern democracy and human rights equation. The background of the emergence of the concept of citizenship in the classical Islamic doctrine is influenced of a war situation, namely the global terms of conflict between Islam and non-Muslims. However, the classical scholars concept of dzimmī that contain elements of discrimination is no longer can be applied because it is not in accordance with the example of the Prophet and also the concept of the modern state. So that the treatment of non-Muslim minorities must be returned by the example of the Prophet as set forth in the Charter of Medina, whose contents are still relevant to modern context for it contains universal human values.DOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i3.904

  19. Roles of pH and the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christian; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2017-01-01

    Acidosis is characteristic of the solid tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells, because they are highly proliferative and anabolic, have greatly elevated metabolic acid production. To sustain a normal cytosolic pH homeostasis they therefore need to either extrude excess protons or to neutralize them...... with tumor malignancy. The present review discusses current evidence on how altered pH homeostasis, and in particular NHE1, contributes to tumor cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and growth and facilitates evasion of chemotherapeutic cell death. We summarize data from in vitro studies, 2D-, 3D...

  20. Inhibition of renal Na+/H+ exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl 2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V max of Na + /H + antiport with no changes in K Na in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na + /H + exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na + -HCO 3 - cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na + -K + -ATPase α-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal

  1. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  2. Electric vehicle with or without range extender. Who is the driver - technology, customer or legislation?; Elektrofahrzeuge mit oder ohne Range Extender. Wer bestimmt den Weg - die Technik, der Kunde oder die Gesetzgebung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidl, Christian; Kluin, Matthias [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Hohenberg, Guenter; Bacher, Christian [IVD Prof. Hohenberg GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Let us begin with an analysis of the technical context of E-mobility. The starting point of any such investigation is the restricted range of this technology. Greater car sizes bring ever-greater problems, especially in terms of the growing influence of driving speed and surrounding conditions. The combination of an E-motor and combustion engine thus represents an expedient ''enabler'' of E-mobility. This combination enables a drive system solution which overcomes the restrictions of a purely electric vehicle in terms of flexibility of use and availability of mobility. This paper discusses the difference between parallel and serial drives using already realized concepts. It also seeks to present a new concept for a compact, cost-efficient solution (ICE Assist). The second section will compare the current legal framework, customer expectations and technical solutions. Of critical importance is the concept for which the government will opt and the ''incentives'' which it sets to achieve this end. OEMs are currently beset by a significant level of insecurity regarding the concept with the best future and as a result, those involved are currently seeking solutions which cover all possible variants. This invariably results in compromises, which further add to the time and effort involved and increases costs. Customers generally have a positive attitude towards electric driving, but at the same time, their expectations follow their prior experience. Range extender / plug-in / ICE-assist solutions thus have the potential to bring a significant increase in the amount of electric driving / the number of kilometers driven by electrical means. To achieve a breakthrough in E-mobility, it is first necessary to establish a clear definition of an ''electric vehicle''. This requires a clear response from the government. 32. Internationales (orig.)

  3. Centralised or decentralised power supply?; Zentrale oder dezentrale Energieversorgung? Bei der Entwicklung von Energieversorgungen besteht ausser der Entscheidung 'Riesen oder Zwerge' ein vielseitiges Innovations- und Entwicklungspotenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfhaus, Reinhard [Syko Gesellschaft fuer Leistungselektronik mbH, Mainhausen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alongside a broad spectrum of new module designs with a high functionality factor ranging between 3 and 500 watts, Syko has developed a production-ready range of battery chargers and high-voltage converters in the power class up to >5 kW for mobile applications in decentralised power networks. The firm has also expanded the group of f/U inverters in the power class up to 6.5 kVA to include various options for operation in decentralised power supply networks. Among the typical applications are ventilation, climate control, compressor supply, emergency ventilation and supply to 230V/50 Hz power sockets. Well established in cab climate control applications are 3Ph series that can supply individually regulated power to the three motors of an air-conditioning system. (orig.)

  4. 11. Frankfurter Medienrechtstage 2013 "Internet - Segen oder Fluch für die Medienfreicheit in Europa?" : 20-21. März 2013, Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Terve ajakirja number on pühendatud konverentsi materjalidele. Muutustest meedias ja selle mõjust trükiajakirjandusele ja ajakirjandusvabadusele. Blogidest, nende tähendusest ning vajalikkusest. Ajakirjanike ja blogide rollist Ukrainas ja Venemaal. Autoriõigus ja digitaalsed väljaanded, digitaalmeedia finantseerimise küsimused

  5. Zerstören oder Bewahren? Umgang mit kulturellem Erbe bel H. Böll und E. Loest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Galle

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo descreve e analisa como dois importantes autores de oposição intelectual na Alemanha Ocidental (Böll e Oriental (Loest reconstroem, cada um para sua sociedade, as atitudes dominantes frente ao patrimônio cultural e arquitetônico. Em cada caso, as atitudes das elites do poder diferem daquelas dos opositores: Na RFA, o governo, em geral, preserva os monumentos, fingindo uma continuidade histórica; na RDA, o governo destrói palácios e igrejas para romper com as tradições. Os autores simpatizam com os opositores: Böll, no oeste, enfatiza a necessidade de destruir o patrimônio cultural para recuperar a função memorativa do mesmo, enquanto Loest opta pela resistência contra a política oficial da destruição no leste. A preservação de monumentos históricos é vista, em ambos os casos, em função das necessidades da geração atual, não como valor em si mesmo.

  6. Post Fukushima change of energy policy. German special way or worldwide example?; Energiewende nach Fukushima. Deutscher Sonderweg oder weltweites Vorbild?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, Peter; Welfens, Paul J.J.

    2012-07-01

    Based on a critical evaluation of the nuclear power discussion the authors show a reasonable way for nuclear phase-out or change to alternative energy sources. Germany has a historically unique key role to show that a climate protecting energy policy without nuclear power can evolve economic and social advantages, in case the right measures are selected and realized. The Fukushima accidents could trigger a paradigm change for the power industry with a worldwide effect toward industrial ecology and democracy. The worldwide underinsurance of nuclear power plants is a trick to reduce the nuclear power cost. Without subsidization of nuclear power there is no need for subsidization of renewable energy sources.

  7. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal in Switzerland; Loesungen zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Klaerschlamm in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, C. [TBF Toscano-Bernardi-Frey AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Pelloni, L.; Vollmeier, T. [TBF Toscano-Bernardi-Frey AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Sewage sludge can be dumped in Switzerland only during a period of transition which will end by 2000. The amount of sewage sludge utilized in agriculture is limited. For these reasons, sewage sludge combustion is an important option. The available methods for sludge combustion are described and compared.

  8. Electromagnetic support and/or guide system for levitating vehicles. Elektromagnetisches Trag- und/oder Fuehrungssystem fuer Schwebefahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitling, U; Simon, K

    1978-01-26

    The invention refers to an electromagnetic support and/or guide system for levitating vehicles (MAGLEV system). These levitating vehicles can move along tracks with at least one fixed branch-off. The parts of the system on the vehicle are arranged symmetrically to the vehicle's longitudinal axis above or below the vehicle body. There are 2 parallel rows of magnets provided for each longitudinal side of the vehicle, where only one magnet can act on the track outside the branch-off, and both magnets can act alternately on the track within the branch-off. The purpose of the invention is to develop such a system so that interference forces on the core parts are avoided. According to the invention this is achieved by the first row of each parallel longitudinal row of electromagnets and the armature rails allocated to the first row having a different pole spacing from the second row of electromagnets of the parallel row concerned and the armature rails of the associated second row.

  9. The impact of the extreme floods in July 1997 on the ichthyocenosis of the Oder Catchment area (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojkásek, B.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra; Drozd, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 548, c. 1 (2005), s. 11-22 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087704; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6093105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : species diversity * River Odra Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2005

  10. Procces for producing ethanol and/or baking yeast. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Aethanol und/oder Backhefe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilepp, E.; Scheffler, U.; Osthaus, G.

    1987-06-25

    A method for the production of ethanol and/or baker's yeast is described, in which a substrate of sacchariferous substances and a nutrient solution is fermented with a yeast of the genus saccharomyces at a temperature of 20 to 40/sup 0/C and ethanol and/or the baker's yeast are subsequently separated from the fermented substrate. This method provides that the mixture consisting of the substrate and the yeast is sterilized by circulation in a homogenizer.

  11. „Erfahrung“ und „Diskurs“. Produktive Dichotomie oder viel Lärm um bislang unzureichend hinterfragte Begriffe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kleiser

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Erfahrung: Alles nur Diskurs? Dieser Frage, die insbesondere die materiale und diskursive Qualität des Erfahrungsbegriffs in den Blick zu nehmen verspricht, stellten sich die Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer der 11. Schweizerischen HistorikerInnentagung 2002 für Frauen-, Männer- und Geschlechtergeschichte. Der sorgfältig edierte Tagungsband präsentiert eine gelungene Zusammenschau der disparaten Umgangsweisen mit dem Erfahrungsbegriff als Analysekategorie in der Geschlechterforschung. Reich an Einblicken in die Vielfältigkeit gegenwärtiger Forschungspraxis, hält die Publikation etliche zur Vertiefung anregende Fallstudien bereit. Sie lässt jedoch eines vermissen: die Einlösung eines in der Geschlechtergeschichte seit langem reklamierten Forschungsdesiderats, nämlich eine sowohl theoretisch als auch methodisch profunde Auseinandersetzung mit den zu Leitbegriffen der Tagung erhobenen Kategorien „Erfahrung“ und „Diskurs”.

  12. Ethnographische Feldforschung in der Mathematik – oder – Ist eine Soziologie der Mathematik möglich?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Koreuber

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Die wissenschaftliche Disziplin Mathematik ist mit dem Nimbus des Objektiven und Entpersonalisierten versehen und scheint einer soziologischen Analyse nicht zugängig. Bettina Heintz fragt ausgehend von einer konstruktivistischen Wissenschaftssoziologie nach Gründen der epistemischen Besonderheit der Mathematik. Durch eine Verschiebung des Fokus vom Wissen auf das Handeln der Mathematiker und Mathematikerinnen gelingt es ihr, neue Einsichten in den Prozeß der Entstehung mathematischen Wissens zu gewinnen.

  13. Nuclear waste or the farewell to an expensive dream. Atommuell oder der Abschied von einem teuren Traum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H; Goedecke, R; Herzer, W; Kollert, R; Poel, B; Schmidt, P G; Schubert, W [Bremen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachsektion Physik

    1977-01-01

    After the controversies over Wyhl and Biblis, Esensham and Brokdorf, resistance rises in the North of Germany against the planned nuclear waste factories. This book informs on problems and hazards in connection with reprocessing plants for spent fuel. It takes a critical look at the dangers of the 'peaceful' uses of nuclear energy and bids farewell to an expensive, and for everybody fateful dream.

  14. Deutsch im Louvre (oder: Deutsch als tote Sprache) (German in the Louvre [or, German as a Dead Language])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Sabine

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for archeologists and art historians, given in the Louvre by the Paris Goethe Institute. Reliance is placed on the students' visual memory, with schematic presentation of pronoun and article declension. This approach sometimes fosters errors and misunderstandings. The verb system is emphasized. (Text is in German.)…

  15. Catalytic or thermal incineration. Answer to an age-old question. Katalytische oder thermische Nachverbrennung. Antwort auf eine jahrelange Frage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockel, D

    1990-04-01

    In the last ten years, design engineers and process engineers have been dealing with the same question every time they planned to install an incineration unit in the field of chemical industry, petrochemical industry, food processing industry as well as in a number of other branches: Which is the most economic process technology In most cases, thermal incineration was favoured. In the meantime, however, specific further developments in catalytic systems as well as intense and diversified long time studies lead to a technological and economic 'Patt-situation' within a so-called 'user-technological mixed area'. From the viewpoint of a supplier of both systems, the decision in favour of a certain type can be made on the basis of recent developments especially in this overlapping field. Which type and for what reasons will be explained in the following. (orig.).

  16. Harmonisation of licensing processes for decommissioning. Options and limitations; Genehmigungsverfahren fuer die Stilllegung der deutschen Kernkraftwerke. Konvoi oder Kakophonie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-03-15

    The shutdown of eight reactors in Germany in the wake of Fukushima 2011 and the scheduled phase-out of the remaining units in several steps ending 2022 has obviously triggered a wave of applications for decommissioning and dismantling licences. It would seem natural to strive for a harmonised handling of these processes, analogous to the 'convoi' concept which was successfully employed for licensing and construction of the three most recent German NPPs in the 1980s. However, a comparative analysis shows that the motivation of all players is much different from that of earlier times and that harmonisation of licensing processes for dismantling is not as crucial for operators, authorities and technical support organisations as it was for construction.

  17. Periprothetische Femurfrakturen nach Hüftgelenksersatz: Rationale für die intra- oder extramedulläre Behandlung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haag, C.; Seif El Nasr, M.; Schmal, H.

    2000-01-01

    stabilized by tension wires, 29 by extramedullary plate osteosynthesis (19 LCDCP, 10 condylar plates) and 20 with a cancellous bone graft. In 14 cases the prosthesis was replaced. The total complication rate was expected fairly high (12 cases, 26.6%), considering age and general health of our investigated...... population of patients. Only 2 patients could be sent home after operation, following a 14-day hospital stay. The analysis of this population of patients shows that a preexisting stress such as osteoporosis, a previous successful prosthesis replacement and loosening of the prosthesis increases the likelihood...... of an occurring periprosthetic fracture. The region around the tip of the prosthesis is particularly endangered to undergo a fracture in case of an impact. After the replacement of a prosthesis, older patients benefit from early mobility and exercise....

  18. Gisela Steins (Hg.: Geschlechterstereotype in der Schule – Realität oder Mythos. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Kampshoff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Für das besprochene Buch haben einige ehemalige Student/-innen der Herausgeberin, der Professorin für Allgemeine Psychologie und Sozialpsychologie Gisela Steins, ihre Abschlussarbeit zusammengefasst. Die meisten Beiträge befassen sich mit kleineren empirischen Studien zum Thema Schule und Geschlecht. Gisela Steins selbst hat eine längere Einführung und knappe Überleitungen zwischen den Aufsätzen verfasst. Die Artikel der Student/-innen sind teilweise interessant, aber es stellt sich die Frage, für welche Leserschaft dieses Buch gedacht ist.This book introduces a selection of examinations written for the First State Board Examination for prospective teachers. Former students of the editor, Dr. Gisela Steins, a professor for general psychology and social psychology, each summarized their final papers in essays. Most of the essays contain smaller empirical studies on the topic of school and gender. The two final contributions deal with the themes of body disaffection and the sensitization of school children toward processes of stigmatization using the example of obesity. Gisela Steins herself composed an introduction as well as short transitions between the articles. The students’ articles are for the most part interesting, although the question remains at to the book’s intended audience.

  19. Gaye Suse Kromer: Obszöne Lust oder etablierte Unterhaltung? Zur Rezeption pornografischer Filme. Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dellmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The author questions four men and four women as to their use of pornography and their experience with the reception of the pornographic film Adrenaline (Italy 2003. The introductory chapter containing legal sources on pornography, a definition for pornography, and the history of pornographic films cannot serve as a theoretical and professional contextualization, even by dissertation standards; these are also not related to the interviews. The main section contains the interviews. The author is only partially able to develop stringent categories for analyzing the qualitative interviews – for example in the development of a research question. The interviews, published in the appendix of the book, are an interesting source for further research on the reception of pornographic films.Die Autorin befragte vier Männer und vier Frauen zu ihrer Pornografienutzung und ihren Rezeptionserfahrungen mit dem pornografischen Film Adrenalin (Italien 2003. Selbst nach Maßstäben einer Qualifikationsarbeit überzeugen die Überblickskapitel zu Rechtsgrundlagen, Definition und Geschichte des pornografischen Films, zur theoretischen und fachlichen Verortung nicht; diese werden später auch nicht auf die Interviews bezogen. Den Hauptteil stellen die Interviews dar. Der Autorin gelingt es nur teilweise – so bei der Entwicklung der Leitfragen –, stringente Kategorien für die Auswertung der qualitativen Interviews zu entwickeln. Die im Anhang des Buches abgedruckten Interviews stellen eine interessante Quelle für die Erforschung der Rezeption pornografischer Filme dar.

  20. Aluminum or steel? Mounting systems for solar generators - a practice report; Aluminium oder Stahl? Montagesysteme fuer Solargeneratoren - ein Praxisreport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnitzer, Sandy [Mounting Systems GmbH, Rangsdorf (Germany); Hannemann, Lydia

    2013-10-01

    Mounting systems for solar generators must be solid and reliable as long as possible so that they carry the modules. Which material is best? [German] Montagesysteme fuer Solargeneratoren muessen solide sein, damit sie moeglichst lange und zuverlaessig die Module tragen.

  1. The future of stationary electricity storages - niche market or multi-billion Euro business?; Stationaere Stromspeicher - zukuenftiger Nischenmarkt oder Milliardengeschaeft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatzen, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany); Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The transformation process from conventional electricity production to a sustainable power generation system based on renewable energy confronts market protagonists and lawmakers with huge technical and economic challenges. The rapid proliferation of wind power and photovoltaic plants in particular will raise electricity price volatility and require large investments in the expansion of transmission and distribution networks. It will also place high demands on the flexibility of the remaining electricity network, which will have to smoothen both the long and short-term fluctuations in supply from wind and photovoltaic energy. In view of the growing signs of delay in network expansion, the political leadership has taken to welcoming electricity storages as the ultimate solution to numerous challenges, as we read for example in the Energy Concept of the German Federal Government. While there may be reason for optimism, it is equally right to critically question the role that electricity storages might realistically play in the future given the need for reasonable price levels.

  2. Die Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien oder die "Modernisierung der ärztlichen Karrieren" [Modernising Medical Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Moulin, Marcel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper analyses the reform of postgraduate medical education introduced in the United Kingdom in 2003 under the heading "Modernising Medical Careers“. This nationally standardised and structured postgraduate medical training was started in 2005. The analysis includes the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate education, the new responsibilities in postgraduate education, the application process and the mode of distribution of the positions and the relationship of posts with and without postgraduate training opportunities. Possible consequences for postgraduate training and for the trainees are discussed. [german] Die Arbeit beschreibt und analysiert die Reform der Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien, die 2003 unter dem Titel "Modernising Medical Careers“ eingeführt wurde und seit 2005 umgesetzt wird. Vorgestellt werden der Übergang von der Ausbildung zur Weiterbildung, die neuen Zuständigkeiten für die Weiterbildung, das Auswahlverfahren und der Verteilungsmodus der Weiterbildungsstellen sowie das Verhältnis von Stellen mit und ohne Facharztperspektive. Die potenziellen Folgen für die Facharztweiterbildung und für die Weitergebildeten werden diskutiert.

  3. Lung cancer screening with thoracic X-ray and CT. Current situation; Lungenkarzinomscreening mit Roentgenthorax oder CT. Aktuelle Datenlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stackelberg, O. von; Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologe, Heidelberg (Germany); Translationales Lungen Forschungszentrum Heidelberg (TLRC), Mitglied des Deutschen Zentrums fuer Lungenforschung (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Attempts at the early detection of lung cancer using imaging methods began as far back as the 1950s. Several studies attempted to demonstrate a reduction of lung cancer mortality by chest radiography screening but all were unsuccessful. Even the first small screening studies using computed tomography (CT) could not demonstrate a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality until in 2011 the results of the largest randomized controlled low-dose CT screening study in the USA (NLST) were published. The NLST results could show a significant 20 % reduction of lung cancer mortality in elderly and heavy smokers using CT. Confirmation of the NLST results are urgently needed so that the data of the largest European study (NELSON) are eagerly awaited. Pooled with the data from several smaller European studies these results will provide important information and evidence for the establishment of future CT screening programs in Europe. Randomized controlled trials are the basis of evidence-based medicine; therefore, the positive results of the methodologically very good NLST study cannot be ignored, even if it is the only such study completed so far with highly convincing conclusions. The NLST results clearly demonstrate that positive effects for the health of the population can only be expected if the processes are clearly defined and the quality is assured. (orig.) [German] Bestrebungen zur Frueherkennung von Lungenkrebs mit bildgebenden Methoden gibt es schon lange. Alle Studien, die eine Reduktion der Lungenkrebsmortalitaet mittels Roentgenthoraxscreening nachzuweisen versuchten, scheiterten. Auch die ersten kleineren Screeningstudien mit der CT konnten keine Reduktion der Lungenkrebssterblichkeit nachweisen, bis 2011 die Ergebnisse der bisher groessten randomisierten kontrollierten Niedrigdosis-CT-Screeningstudie (NLST) aus den USA veroeffentlicht wurden. Diese konnten eine signifikante 20 %ige Reduktion der Lungenkrebssterblichkeit bei Personen, die aelter und starke Raucher waren, mit der CT nachweisen. Eine Bestaetigung dieses Erfolgs erscheint dringend geboten, sodass die Daten der groessten europaeischen Studie (NELSON) sehnlichst erwartet werden. Die Daten der zahlreichen europaeischen Studien werden zusammengefasst, um wichtige Informationen und Evidenz fuer die Etablierung zukuenftiger CT-Screeningprogramme liefern. Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien sind die Basis der evidenzbasierten Medizin. Daher duerfen die positiven Ergebnisse der auch methodisch sehr guten NLST-Studie nicht ignoriert werden, selbst wenn bisher nur eine solche aussagestarke Studie abgeschlossen ist. NLST macht jedoch auch klar, dass positive Effekte fuer die Gesundheit der Bevoelkerung nur zu erwarten sind, wenn die Prozesse klar definiert und die Qualitaet gesichert sind. (orig.)

  4. MRI screening before stem cell transplantation - necessary?; MRT-Untersuchung des Neurokraniums vor Stammzelltransplantation - notwendig oder ueberfluessig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, U.; Mentzel, H.J.; Kaiser, W.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische u. Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedr.-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Wolf, J.; Fuchs, D.; Gruhn, B. [Kinderklinik, Georgius-Agricola-Krankenhaus, Zeitz (Germany); Zintl, F. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Friedr.-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: in the context of stem cell transplantation (SCT), we often observe neurological complications as a consequence of immune system suppression, conditioning therapy or prophylaxis and treatment of graft-versus-host disease. Furthermore, cerebral lesions in existence prior to transplantation can be found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to stem cell transplantation. Patients and method: cerebral MR examinations of 116 children and adolescents were performed before SCT. Patients ranged in age from 1.1 to 21.4 years (mean 12.6 years). All MR images were obtained by a 1.5 T System. The predefined short protocol included an axial T1-weighted SE sequence and a coronary T2-weighted TSE sequence. We evaluated existing cerebral lesions, the diameter of the ventricular system, and the paranasal sinuses. In the case of pathological findings, the short examination protocol was expanded. Results: in 5 of 116 children (4.3%) we observed prior to SCT findings requiring immediate treatment although the patients did not show any clinical symptoms (1 x aspergilloma, 1 x hemorrhage of vascular anomaly). An increased risk of bleeding caused by cavernoma or another vascular anomaly without hemorrhage also had to be taken into account. 32 of 116 patients (37.1%) showed atrophic lesions. In 42 children (36.2%), we observed affections of the paranasal sinuses. (orig.)

  5. Driver assistance systems - Real customer benefit or domination of the driver?; Fahrerassistenzsysteme - Realer Kundennutzen oder Bevormundung des Fahrers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, P.M. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Leonberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Sensors to detect the vehicle environment are being used already today. Ultrasonic parking aids meanwhile have a high customer acceptance, and ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) systems have been introduced in the market recently. New sensors are being developed at a rapid pace. On their basis new functions are quickly implemented because of their importance for safety and convenience. One significant step will be made with the introduction of a 24 GHz platform - under the precondition of the frequency release - fulfilling a multi-usage concept for the sensors. They will form the 'Virtual Safety Belt' around the car, and warn the driver from obstacles and hazardous situations. Upon availability of high dynamic CMOS imager chips Video cameras will be introduced in vehicles. A stereo capable Computer platform with picture processing capability will explore the high potential of functions. Finally, sensor data fusion will improve significantly the performance of the systems. (orig.) [German] Sensoren zur Erfassung der Fahrzeugumgebung befinden sich bereits im Einsatz. Ultraschall - Einparkhilfesysteme erfreuen sich zunehmender Kundenakzeptanz und ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) - Systeme wurden kuerzlich am Markt eingefuehrt. Neue Sensoren befinden sich in einem raschen Entwicklungsprozess. Auf ihrer Basis werden neue Funktionen mit hoher Relevanz fuer Sicherheit und Komfort entwickelt. Ein wichtiger Schritt wird - vorbehaltlich der erforderlichen Funkzulassung - die Einfuehrung einer 24 GHz - Radarplattform sein, mit einer Mehrfachnutzung der Sensoren fuer verschiedene Funktionen. Die Erfassungsbereiche der Sensoren werden den virtuellen Sicherheitsguertel um das Fahrzeug bilden und den Fahrer vor gefaehrlichen Objekten und Situationen im Fahrzeugnahfeld warnen. Bei Verfuegbarkeit hochdynamischer CMOS - Imagerchips werden Videokameras Einzug in das Fahrzeug halten. Eine stereofaehige Rechner - Plattform zur Bildverarbeitung wird das enorme Potenzial fuer eine Vielfalt neuer Funktionen erschliessen. Sensordatenfusion wird in Zukunft die Detektionssicherheit der Systeme noch deutlich steigern. (orig.)

  6. Light - Controlled automatically or by pressing a button?; Licht - per Knopfdruck oder Automatik? Tageslichtgesteuerte Beleuchtungen fordern psychologisches und technisches Feingefuehl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santner, G.

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the psychological aspects and the technical tactfulness needed when implementing daylight-controlled lighting systems. On the basis of experience gained, the author concludes that the same amount of energy can be saved if the lighting is controlled half-automatically or when the lighting is always switched off when rooms are unoccupied. The article reviews the experience gained with automatically-dimmed lighting in a school in Zurich, Switzerland, and at the University of Zurich. The requirements placed on the control of lighting by the 'Minergie' low energy consumption standard are discussed. Control methods that have been implemented in various public buildings are looked at and the variations in the personal sensitivity of users to varying lighting levels are discussed. The placing of sensors for light-level and occupancy is discussed.

  7. Transient osteoporosis or femoral head necrosis Early diagnosis via MRI. Transitorische Osteoporose oder Femurkopfnekrose Fruehdiagnose mit der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higer, H P; Grimm, J; Pedrosa, P; Apel, R; Bandilla, K [Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Kernspintomographie; Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Rheumatologie; Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1989-04-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a syndrome that does not seem to be widely known; this is also true for its radiological appearance. It is often mistaken for avascular necrosis of the femoral head, metastatic or inflammatory disease. These differential diagnoses lead to more or less invasive procedures, although transient osteoporosis does not require more than immobilisation for complete remission. MRI was done in 38 patients with acute hip pain, 13 had femoral head necrosis and 8 transient osteoporosis. Follow-up studies via MRI in patients with transient osteoporosis revealed 3 stages (diffuse, focal, residual) during the clinical course of which stage II is similar to femoral head necrosis but always without the typical sclerotic rim. (orig.).

  8. Teleradiology - a blessing or a curse; Teleradiologie - Segen oder Fluch? Vier Jahre Routine im Teleradiologischen Datennetz Nordhessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodemeyer, J.; Mariss, G. [Radiologisches Inst. in der Hardtwaldklinik I - Praxis Dres. med. Mariss/Aref, Bad Zwesten (Germany); Gursky, S. [Medos AG, Langenselbold GSt., Eilenburg (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Several hospitals in northern Hessen, not having their own radiology departments, want to run CT-scanners with the goal of improving medical quality. They requested co-operation from the Radiological Institute in the Hardtwaldklinik 1 in Bad Zwesten. Therefore a teleradiological network was developed, which enables the exchange of radiological-images and -reports between 19 hospitals today. An elementary requirement for this co-operation is an efficient and functional computer infrastructure and verified co-operation contracts. The conception, structure and development of the program, as well as associated difficulties are presented and discussed from different perspectives in the light of the controversy among experts. The results, experiences and benefits gained in four years, in which the teleradiological network of northern Hessen has been in place, demonstrate the importance and possibilities of teleradiology as an element of telemedicine. Teleradiology/telediagnostics improves the quality of patient care in smaller hospitals located in less-populated areas and present possibilities to optimize and integrate health care structures, taking economic considerations into account. (orig.) [German] Mehrere Krankenhaeuser der Grund- und Regelversorgung in Nordhessen, die nicht ueber eine eigene radiologische Fachabteilung verfuegen, wollen eigene Computertomographen mit dem Ziel der medizinischen Qualitaetsverbesserung betreiben und traten 1997 mit dem Wunsch nach Kooperation an das Radiologische Institut der Hardtwaldklinik I, Bad Zwesten - Praxis Dres. med. Mariss/Aref, heran. Es entwickelte sich daraus ein Datennetz, mit dem heute 19 Krankenhaeuser radiologische Bild- und Befunddaten via ISDN austauschen koennen. Elementare Voraussetzung hierfuer sind eine effiziente und funktionale EDV-Infrastruktur und juristisch abgesicherte Kooperationsvertraege. Konzeption, Aufbau und Entwicklung der teleradiologischen Kooperationen sowie verbundene Probleme werden dargestellt und vor dem Hintergrund kontroverser Ansichten in Fachkreisen unter verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse, Erfahrungen und Benefits aus 4 Jahren Teleradiologie Datennetz Nordhessen zeigen die wichtige Bedeutung und die Moeglichkeiten von Teleradiologie als Bestandteil der Telemedizin. Teleradiologie/Telediagnostik verbessert die Patientenversorgung in duennbesiedelten Regionen an kleineren Krankenhaeusern und eroeffnet Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung integrativer Versorgungsstrukturen, auch unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten. (orig.)

  9. With the sun through thick and thin? Photovoltaic modules; Mit der Sonne durch dick oder duenn? Photovoltaikmodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Two technologies quarrel over the ‚place in the sun': The classical silicon panels are considered to be efficient and reliable. Instead of this, new thin-film plates provide maximal performance also at weak light and heat. Which method ranks first? The authors of the contribution under consideration highlight the advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Electric and hydraulic hybrid actuator. Competing and complementary systems?; Elektrische und hydraulische Hybridantriebe. Konkurrierende oder komplementaere Systeme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, Klaus [Eaton Corporation, Rastatt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid drives for commercial vehicles and for mobile processing machines are evolving rapidly to a future-oriented technology. Hybrid drives significantly affect issues such as fuel efficiency, emissions, productivity and life cycle cost. For recovery and storage of kinetic energy, different technologies are used. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the key distinguishing features of some currently available hybrid concepts and their appropriate application. In the selection of suitable hydraulic hybrid drive systems, the essential features of different hybrid systems have to be considered.

  11. Applying the Creativity in Oder to Generate Innovation Projects: the Practical Case Study of a Didactic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria dos Santos Pereira Alves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A current challenge in teaching practice is to transform classrooms into laboratories to exchange experiences in courses whose goal is to enhance the professional skills in a practical and meaningful way. The search for improvement demonstrates that, increasingly, professionals become aware that organizations coexist in highly competitive environments, seeking to conquer more markets based on sustainable competitive advantages demanding fast responses of its employees. Considering that the process of creativity can be stimulated through the establishment of a suitable environment, this study aims to discuss the application of a didactic strategy developed for this purpose. Using the single case study methodology, it was used the technique of unstructured observation (informal or single to carry out the collection and the recording of events that occurred during the strategy application. It discusses elements such as identifying opportunities, creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship, seeking their relationships to understand how it is possible to motivate the generation of proposals for innovative projects in educational environments. As a result, it is presented the perceptions of teachers on the didactic strategy applied, emphasizing that a suitable environment for the development of ideas encourages the student to propose solutions for the improbabilities, creating innovative alternatives to the identified needs.

  12. Ultimate storage of radioactive waste - geotechnical challenge or routine task?; Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle - Herausforderung oder Routine fuer die Geotechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alheid, H.J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear waste repositories require sophisticated design, high-tech technical implementation and reliable performance assessment studies. Geotechnical methods have been applied in many research projects and tailored to the high standards of nuclear waste disposal. Exemplary the development of methods for the characterization of excavation damaged zones (EDZ) is discussed in this paper. Well known geotechnical and geophysical methods have been adapted to fulfil the requirements of essential high resolution in space and the necessity of long term observations. The achieved improvements in measurement techniques and data processing allow to describe the properties of the EDZ in detail. Scientist have accepted the challenge and fulfilled the special requirements of measuring, monitoring and modelling in the field of nuclear waste disposal. The newly developed methods should be checked for their applicability to other geotechnical problems in order to achieve more detailed results than with standard methods. (orig.)

  13. Cytotoxic mechanisms of Zn2+ and Cd2+ involve Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activation by ROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsogiannaki, Sophia; Evangelinos, Nikolaos; Koliakos, George; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The signaling mechanism induced by cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated. Both metals cause an increase in ·O 2 - production, with Cd to be more potent (216 ± 15%) than Zn (150 ± 9.5%), in relation to control value (100%). The metals effect was reversed after incubation with the amiloride analogue, EIPA, a selective Na + /H + exchanger (NHE) inhibitor as well as in the presence of calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The heavy metals effect on ·O 2 - production was mediated via the interaction of metal ions with α 1 - and β-adrenergic receptors, as shown after incubation with their respective agonists and antagonists. In addition, both metals caused an increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of gill cells. EIPA together with either metal significantly reduced the effect of each metal treatment on pHi. Incubation of gill cells with the oxidants rotenone, antimycin A and pyruvate caused a significant increase in pHi (ΔpHi 0.830, 0.272 and 0.610, respectively), while in the presence of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a decrease in pHi (ΔpHi -0.090) was measured, indicating that change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by heavy metals affects NHE activity. When rosiglitazone was incubated together with either heavy metal a decrease in O 2 - production was observed. Our results show a key role of NHE in the signal transduction pathway induced by Zn and Cd in gill cells, with the involvement of ROS, PKC, adrenergic and PPAR-γ receptors. In addition, differences between the two metals concerning NHE activation, O 2 - production and interaction with adrenergic receptors were observed

  14. Functional characterization of the NhaA Na+/H+ antiporter from the green picoalga Ostreococcus tauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawut, Keatisuda; Sirisattha, Sophon; Hibino, Takashi; Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon

    2018-07-01

    Transmembrane ion transport is a critical process in the cellular response to salt stress. Among the known functional membrane transporters that are involved in the salt stress response, Na + /H + antiporters have been extensively studied. These ubiquitous membrane proteins are crucial for salt tolerance and are associated with the regulation of internal pH, cell volume, morphogenesis, and vesicular trafficking. Molecular and functional analyses of Na + /H + antiporters have been characterized among taxa but little is known about algal Na + /H + antiporters. Here, we analyzed putative Na + /H + antiporters from the complete genome sequence of the marine picoalga Ostreococcus tauri. At least 10 putative Na + /H + antiporters belonging to the SOS1, NHX, and KEA/Kef families were found. Surprisingly, a bacterial type NhaA sequence (OtNhaA) was also found. Topological modeling of OtNhaA predicted 12 possible transmembrane segments with a long N-terminus. The full-length (FL_OtNhaA) and N-terminal truncated (ΔN112_OtNhaA) versions of OtNhaA were constructed, expressed in the salt-sensitive mutant Escherichia coli TO114, and functionally characterized. Complementation analysis revealed that FL_OtNhaA- and ΔN112_OtNhaA-expressing cells exhibited increased tolerance to high NaCl concentrations up to 700 mM. Antiporter activity assays showed that both FL_OtNhaA and ΔN112_OtNhaA proteins predominantly exhibited Na + /H + and Ca 2+ /H + antiporter activities at alkaline pH conditions. Intriguingly, the ΔN112_OtNhaA exhibited higher Na + /H + and Ca 2+ /H + antiporter activities compared to FL_OtNhaA. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL_OtNhaA has a high affinity for Na + and Ca 2+ ions with a K m of 1.1 ± 0.23 mM for Na + (at pH 8.5) and a K m of 0.3 ± 0.07 mM for Ca 2+ (at pH 8.5). Since NhaA has shown striking diversity among taxa, our results provide insight into the functional properties of the algal NhaA Na + /H + antiporter. These results will contribute to the understanding of Na + /H + antiporters that have various implications in all kingdoms of life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel NhaD-type Na+/H+ antiporter from the moderate halophile and alkaliphile Halomonas alkaliphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Song, Na; Yang, Lina; Abdel-Motaal, Heba; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Zhenglai; Meng, Fankui; Jiang, Juquan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a NhaD-type Na + /H + antiporter gene designated Ha-nhaD was obtained by selection of genomic DNA from the moderate halophile and alkaliphile Halomonas alkaliphila in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking 3 major Na + /H + antiporters. The presence of Ha-NhaD conferred tolerance of E. coli KNabc to NaCl up to 0.6 mol·L -1 and to LiCl up to 0.2 mol·L -1 and to an alkaline pH. pH-dependent Na + (Li + )/H + antiport activity was detected from everted membrane vesicles prepared from E. coli KNabc/pUC-nhaD but not those of KNabc/pUC18. Ha-NhaD exhibited Na + (Li + )/H + antiport activity over a wide pH range from 7.0 to 9.5, with the highest activity at pH 9.0. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ha-NhaD is significantly different from the 7 known NhaD-type Na + /H + antiporters, including Dw-NhaD, Dl-NhaD, Vp-NhaD, Vc-NhaD, Aa-NhaD, He-NhaD, and Ha-NhaD1. Although Ha-NhaD showed a closer phylogenetic relationship with Ha-NhaD2, a significant difference in pH-dependent activity profile exists between Ha-NhaD and Ha-NhaD2. Taken together, Ha-nhaD encodes a novel pH-dependent NhaD-type Na + /H + antiporter.

  16. Role of the Na+/H+ exchanger on the development of diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yan-Ming; Su, Ying; Li, Jia; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lan-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NHE protect against intracellular hydrogen overload. ► NHE protect β-cells against strong acidification. ► NHE inhibitors improve myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. -- Abstract: Micro- and macrovascular complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The Na + /H + exchanger (NHE) is a family of proteins which exchange Na + for H + according to their concentration gradients in an electroneutral manner. The exchanger also plays a key role in several other cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal organization. Since not much is known on the relationship between NHE and diabetes mellitus, this review outlines the contribution of NHE to chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, such as diabetic nephropathy; diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  17. Physiological Functions and Regulation of the Na+/H+ Exchanger [NHE1] in Renal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G Vallés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform-1 [NHE1] is a ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane protein that plays a central role in intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis by catalyzing an electroneutral exchange of extracellular sodium and intracellular hydrogen. Outside of this important physiological function, the NHE1 cytosolic tail domain acts as a molecular scaffold regulating cell survival and actin cytoskeleton organization through NHE1-dependent signaling proteins. NHE1 plays main roles in response to physiological stress conditions which in addition to cell shrinkage and acidification, include hypoxia and mechanical stimuli, such as cell stretch. NHE1-mediated modulation of programmed cell death results from the exchanger-mediated changes in pHi, cell volume, and/or [Na+]I; and, it has recently become known that regulation of cellular signaling pathways are involved as well. This review focuses on NHE1 functions and regulations. We describe evidence showing how these structural actions integrate with ion translocation in regulating renal tubule epithelial cell survival.

  18. Hyperactive mutant of a wheat plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter improves the growth and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Lai, Zesen; Yin, Xiaochang; Yu, Shan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Cong, Xinli; Luo, Yuehua; Xu, Haixia; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-12-01

    Wheat SOS1 (TaSOS1) activity could be relieved upon deletion of the C-terminal 168 residues (the auto-inhibitory domain). This truncated form of wheat SOS1 (TaSOS1-974) was shown to increase compensation (compared to wild-type TaSOS1) for the salt sensitivity of a yeast mutant strain, AXT3K, via increased Na + transportation out of cells during salinity stress. Expression of the plasma membrane proteins TaSOS1-974 or TaSOS1 improved the growth of transgenic tobacco plants compared with wild-type plants under normal conditions. However, plants expressing TaSOS1-974 grew better than TaSOS1-transformed plants. Upon salinity stress, Na + efflux and K + influx rates in the roots of transgenic plants expressing TaSOS1-974 or TaSOS1 were greater than those of wild-type plants. Furthermore, compared to TaSOS1-transgenic plants, TaSOS1-974-expressing roots showed faster Na + efflux and K + influx, resulting in less Na + and more K + accumulation in TaSOS1-974-transgenic plants compared to TaSOS1-transgenic and wild-type plants. TaSOS1-974-expressing plants had the lowest MDA content and electrolyte leakage among all tested plants, indicating that TaSOS1-974 might protect the plasma membrane against oxidative damage generated by salt stress. Overall, TaSOS1-974 conferred higher salt tolerance in transgenic plants compared to TaSOS1. Consistent with this result, transgenic plants expressing TaSOS1-974 showed a better growth performance than TaSOS1-expressing and wild-type plants under saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Na+-H+ exchanger and proton channel in heart failure associated with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bkaily, Ghassan; Jacques, Danielle

    2017-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is found in patients with Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies, which are linked muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin defects are not limited to DMD but are also present in mild BMD. The hereditary cardiomyopathic hamster of the UM-X7.1 strain is a particular experimental model of heart failure (HF) leading to early death in muscular dystrophy (dystrophin deficiency and sarcoglycan mutation) and heart disease (δ-sarcoglycan deficiency and dystrophin mutation) in human DMD. Using this model, our previous work showed a defect in intracellular sodium homeostasis before the appearance of any apparent biochemical and histological defects. This was attributed to the continual presence of the fetal slow sodium channel, which was also found to be active in human DMD. Due to muscular intracellular acidosis, the intracellular sodium overload in DMD and BMD was also due to sodium influx through the sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE-1. Lifetime treatment with an NHE-1 inhibitor prevented intracellular Na + overload and early death due to HF. Our previous work also showed that another proton transporter, the voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1), exists in many cell types including heart cells and skeletal muscle fibers. The Hv1 could be indirectly implicated in the beneficial effect of blocking NHE-1.

  20. NHE10, a novel osteoclast-specific member of the Na+/H+ exchanger family, regulates osteoclast differentiation and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Taesoo; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Jeong, Daewon; Choi, Yongwon; Rho, Jaerang

    2008-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated by the balanced actions of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). We previously analyzed the gene expression profile of OC differentiation using a cDNA microarray, and identified a novel osteoclastogenic gene candidate, clone OCL-1-E7 [J. Rho, C.R. Altmann, N.D. Socci, L. Merkov, N. Kim, H. So, O. Lee, M. Takami, A.H. Brivanlou, Y. Choi, Gene expression profiling of osteoclast differentiation by combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis, DNA Cell Biol. 21 (2002) 541-549]. In this study, we have isolated full-length cDNAs corresponding to this clone from mice and humans to determine the functional roles of this gene in osteoclastogenesis. The full-length cDNA of OCL-1-E7 encodes 12 membrane-spanning domains that are typical of isoforms of the Na + /H + exchangers (NHEs), indicating that this clone is a novel member of the NHE family (hereafter referred to as NHE10). Here, we show that NHE10 is highly expressed in OCs in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand signaling and is required for OC differentiation and survival

  1. SNR-300 steam generator accident philosophy - Assessment due to new understandings in Na/H20-reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruloff, G.; Huebner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent R+D results in the intermediate leak range (finally confirmed by the PFR steam generator accident) lead to a new assessment for the SNR-300 steam generator accident. This paper discusses the course of such accident which has to be expected under the SNR-300 conditions, starting with an unblocked micro leak and ending with the pressure loads on the secondary system due to overheating failure. Also, enclosed are the possibilities for a leak detection before serious damage has occurred and the discussion of the definition of the DBA. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  2. A Toxoplasma gondii protein with homology to intracellular type Na+/H+ exchangers is important for osmoregulation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, Maria E.; Wicher, Sarah; Pace, Douglas A.; Sullivan, Jack; Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is exposed to a variety of physiological conditions while propagating in an infected organism. The mechanisms by which Toxoplasma overcomes these dramatic changes in its environment are not known. In yeast and plants, ion detoxification and osmotic regulation are controlled by vacuolar compartments. A novel compartment named the plant-like vacuole or vacuolar compartment (PLV/VAC) has recently been described in T.gondii, which could potentially protect extracellular tachyzoites against salt and other ionic stresses. Here, we report the molecular characterization of the vacuolar type Na + /H + exchanger in T. gondii, TgNHE3, and its co-localization with the PLV/VAC proton-pyrophosphatase (TgVP1). We have created a TgNHE3 knockout strain, which is more sensitive to hyperosmotic shock and toxic levels of sodium, possesses a higher intracellular Ca 2+ concentration [Ca 2+ ] i , and exhibits a reduced host invasion efficiency. The defect in invasion correlates with a measurable reduction in the secretion of the adhesin TgMIC2. Overall, our results suggest that the PLV/VAC has functions analogous to those of the vacuolar compartments of plants and yeasts, providing the parasite with a mechanism to resist ionic fluctuations and, potentially, regulate protein trafficking.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the human Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 by serotonin in intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Md Ruhul; Ghannad, Leda; Othman, Ahmad; Gill, Ravinder K.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Malakooti, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) decreases NHE2 and NHE3 activities under acute conditions in human intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on expression of the human NHE3 gene and the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation in differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, C2BBe1, with 5-HT (20 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression. In transient transfection studies, 5-HT repressed the NHE3 promoter activity by ∼55%. The repression of the NHE3 promoter activity in response to 5-HT was accompanied by reduced DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter without alteration in their nuclear levels. Pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the promoter activity. Our data indicate that 5-HT suppresses the transcriptional activity of the NHE3 promoter and this effect may be mediated by PKCα and modulation of DNA-binding affinities of Sp1 and Sp3.

  4. Process and apparatus to dry and to preheat coal or coal mixtures and the subsequent coking by the use of non- or weakly baking bituminous coals and/or carbon sources. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Trocknung bzw. Vorerhitzung von Kohle oder Kohlemischungen und anschliessender Verkokung unter Verwendung nicht oder nur schwachbackender Steinkohlen und/oder Kohlenstofftraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echterhoff, J.; Frick, H.; Schaper, A.; Mohmeyer, H.

    1982-03-25

    A process and an apparatus for the drying and the subsequent coking of non- or weakly baking bituminous coals is described. The coal is compressed by stamping. For preventing the oxidation of the coal grain the coal is kept in contact with an inert medium on the entire path to the coke oven. Water vapor from the coal drying is used as the inert medium.

  5. Heterokuban-Cluster-Verbindungen (NEt.sub.4./sub.){Y=M[(ć.sub.3./sub.-S)Re(CO).sub.3./sub.].sub.3./sub.(ć.sub.3./sub.-E)} (M=W oder Mo, Y=O oder S, E=S oder Se): Strukturen, Spektroskopie und Elektrochemie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hornung, F. M.; Wanner, M.; Klinkhammer, K. W.; Kaim, W.; Fiedler, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 627, - (2001), s. 2430-2444 ISSN 0044-2313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : cluster compound * crystal strukture * thiometallate Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2001

  6. “Green” or “Red”? Reframing the Environmental Discourse in Nigeria „Grün“ oder „Rot“? Zur Themenverschiebung im nigerianischen umweltpolitischen Diskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Iwilade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of environmental social movements and NGOs in the struggle for democracy in Nigeria. In particular, it examines how environmental issues, specifically in the oil-rich Niger Delta, have come to symbolise the Niger Delta communities’ craving for greater inclusion in the political process. The paper argues that because of linkages to the nature of economic production, environmental crises have been particularly useful in driving the democracy discourse in Nigeria. By linking environmental crisis to democratisation and the interactions of power within the Nigerian federation, NGOs and social movements have been able to gain support for environmental causes. This may, however, have dire implications for the environmental movement in Nigeria. Because ownership, not necessarily sustainability, is the central theme of such discourse on resource extraction, social movements may not be framing the environmental discourse in a way that highlights its unique relevance. The paper concludes by making a case for alternative methods of framing the environmental discourse in a developing-world context like that of Nigeria.Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Bedeutung umweltpolitischer Bewegungen und Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NRO für den Kampf um Demokratie in Nigeria. Insbesondere widmet er sich der Frage, inwiefern Umweltthemen, speziell im ölreichen Nigerdelta, inzwischen das große Bedürfnis der Bevölkerung reflektieren, stärker in den politischen Prozess einbezogen zu werden. Umweltkrisen haben den demokratischen Diskurs in Nigeria ganz besonders vorangebracht, weil sie zu den Grundlagen der ökonomischen Produktion in Beziehung stehen. Indem soziale Bewegungen und NRO die Umweltkrisen mit dem Demokratiedefizit und den Machtstrukturen innerhalb Nigerias in Beziehung setzten, fanden sie auch Unterstützung in Umweltfragen. Dies könnte allerdings negative Folgen für die nigerianische Umweltbewegung haben. Denn das zentrale Thema eines sozialen Diskurses zum Abbau von Ressourcen ist die Eigentumsfrage und nicht notwendigerweise die Nachhaltigkeit; wird der Diskurs von sozialen Bewegungen bestimmt, wird die einzigartige umweltpolitische Relevanz möglicherweise nicht ausreichend herausgestellt. Der Autor plädiert für eine alternative Themensetzung im umweltpolitischen Diskurs in Entwicklungsländern wie Nigeria.

  7. Expertenberatung oder Coaching? So finden Sie den richtigen Beratungsansatz für ihr Projekt [Management consultancy or coaching? Finding the suitable consulting approach for your projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welpe, I.M.; Michl, T.; Spörrle, M.

    2010-01-01

    Die aktuelle Literatur diskutiert die Gegenstände Expertenberatung und Coaching in der Regel unabhängig voneinander. In der Diskussion zu neuen Entwicklungslinien in der Expertenberatung fällt auf, dass dabei häufiger Begrifflichkeiten des Coachings auftauchen. Auf Grundlage eines analytischen

  8. Method for obtaining water-free or largely water-free formic acid. Verfahren zur Gewinnung von wasserfreier oder weitgehend wasserfreier Ameisensaeure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, D; Schmidt, R; Block, U; Schoenmakers, H; Bott, K; Kaibel, G

    1980-10-23

    The formic acid was prepared by hydrolysis of methyl formate, distillation of methanol and methyl formate from the hydrolyzate, extraction of the residue with a solvent, e.g., a carboxamide, distillation of the extract containing solvent, formic acid, and water to remove all or most of the water and part of the formic acid at the head of the column, and separation of the extraction solvent from the product.

  9. Reform of the EU's climate policy. Small step or big hit?; Reform der EU-Klimapolitik. Kleiner Schritt oder grosser Wurf?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Emissions trading listed as a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol is regarded as a market economy way in climate protection. Since 2005 the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the central climate policy instrument for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For years, however, the CO{sub 2} price is too low to direct the politically and socially targeted technical innovations in the electricity sector and the industry. The article analyses the temporary and structural causes of this problem, highlights the EU's reform efforts and points to areas of activity, the basis of which the EU ETS may act in the future as a central instrument for climate protection in the European Union. [German] Der im Kyoto-Protokoll als flexibler Mechanismus aufgefuehrte Emissionshandel gilt als marktwirtschaftlicher Weg in den Klimaschutz. Das Europaeische Emissionshandelssystem (EU ETS) ist seit 2005 das zentrale klimapolitische Instrument zur Senkung des Ausstosses von Treibhausgasen, insbesondere fuer Kohlenstoffdioxid (CO{sub 2}). Seit Jahren ist der CO{sub 2}-Preis jedoch zu gering, um die politisch und gesellschaftlich angestrebten technischen Innovationen im Stromsektor und der Industrie zu lenken. Der Artikel untersucht die temporaeren und strukturellen Ursachen dieses Problems, beleuchtet die Reformbestrebungen der EU und zeigt Handlungsfelder auf, anhand derer das EU ETS auch in Zukunft als zentrales Instrument fuer Klimaschutz in der Europaeischen Union fungieren kann.

  10. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche positive und negative Effekte des European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) in Bezug auf diese Neuausrichtung besondere Beachtung.

  11. Civil classification of the acquirer and operator of a photovoltaic power plant. Consumer or entrepreneur?; Zivilrechtliche Einordnung des Erwerbers und Betreibers einer Photovoltaikanlage. Verbraucher oder Unternehmer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidewindt, Holger [Verbraucherzentrale Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    With the prospect of revenue from the feed consumption and cost savings by means of private 'small investors' for the energy policy turnaround are obtained. The civil protection in acquisition and operation of the photovoltaic power plant largely depends on their classification according to paragraph paragraph 13, 14 Civil Law Code (BGB). paragraph paragraph 305 ff. BGB are fully applicable only to consumers. Consumer organizations can act only under the participation of consumers. The recent judgments show that the registration of relevant aspects and their proper legal assessment are a major challenge. Therefore, the feed-in tariff as a demarcation criterion was a wrong decision.

  12. Eco-balance of sewage sludge disposal: Agricultural uses, monocombustion or co-combustion; Oekobilanz der Klaerschlammentsorgung: Landwirtschaftliche Verwertung, Mono- oder Co-Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    fhe German state of Nordrhein-Westfalen envisages a state-wide strategy for sewage sludge utilization. The ifeu-Institute, Heidelberg, was commissioned to provide the planning fundamentals. About 530,000 t of dried sewage sludge are produced in NRW every year. Utilization concepts included the use as an agricultural fertilizer, in landscaping, and several variants of incineration. The methodology and results are presented here. [German] Das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen strebt eine landesweite Abfallwirtschaftsplanung fuer Klaerschlamm an, die sich an den genannten Grundsaetzen orientieren soll. Das ifeu-Institut, Heidelberg, wurde vom Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (MUNLV) beauftragt, die abfallwirtschaftlichen und oekobilanziellen Grundlagen fuer die Planung zu erstellen. Fuer die Entsorgung des in NRW mit 530.000 t Trockenmasse im Jahr anfallenden Klaerschlamms wurden dabei die Verwertung in der Landwirtschaft, der Einsatz im Landschaftsbau und die Verbrennung, mit jeweils allen wesentlichen in NRW realisierten technischen Varianten bewertet. Die Vorgehensweise sowie die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der oekobilanziellen Bewertung der Optionen der Klaerschlammentsorgung werden hier zusammengefasst. (orig.)

  13. 10. Frankfurter Medienrechtstage 2011 "Medienfreiheit in Europa - auf med Rückzug?" : 14.-15. November 2011, Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Terve ajakirja number on pühendatud konverentsi materjalidele. Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu praktikast meediavabaduse asjades, meediavabaduse kindlustamise hädavajalikkusest, Euroopa organisatsioonide võimalustest takistada ajakirjanike represseerimist, ajakirjandusvabaduse piiramise kohtuasjast Ungaris, meedia mõjutamise võimalustest, meedia enesereguleerimise võimalustest ja pressinõukogudest erinevates riikides (Bosnia ja Hertsegoviina, Valgevene), meedia tulevikust eriti digimeedia seisukohalt, Venemaa ajakirjanduse probleemidest

  14. Nie wieder Krieg, nie wieder allein, nie wieder Auschwitz oder? - Saksan liittotasavallan ulko- ja turvallisuuspoliittiset periaatteet strategisen kulttuurin näkökulmasta 1993-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Seppo, Antti

    2006-01-01

    Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler. Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library. Vain tiivi...

  15. Paradigm shift in transport legislation or rather at the 'bottleneck'; Paradigmenwechsel im Befoerderungsrecht oder am 'Flaschenhals'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeser, Hanns [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    In the year just started significant decisions with considerable consequences by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the field of nuclear law are expected. Especially the decision with regards to 'nuclear phase-out' within the 13th amendment of the Atomic Energy Act is being eagerly expected, as with its far-reaching consequences also fundamental constitutional questions need to be answered. The Federal Administrative Court will need to decide on the question, whether she admits the appeal against the Brunsbuettel decision by the Higher Administrative Court Schleswig-Holstein (HAC), which from the view of claimant shifted the fundamental basis of demarcation of responsibilities between the executive and judiciary power. In comparison to these fundamental decisions the awaited decision by the HAC on nuclear transport legislation seems of subordinate importance, although she will proceed with a paradigm shift in the legal area. The decision deals with the question as to whether and when a right of action from a third party within the nuclear transport legislation can be accepted or more precisely under which preconditions a third party has clear standing against a nuclear transport authorisation. As the site selection law (issued on 23 July 2013 BGBI I p. 2552) excludes the recirculation of vitrified waste block canisters from reprocessing spent fuel elements to the transport cask storage facility Gorleben, the decision by the HAC Lueneburg for this site will only be relevant for present unpredictable transportations from the transport cask storage facility Gorleben to a final repository. If necessary interest to seek a declaratory judgment for declaratory action, in concreto danger of recurrence will be approved, is another matter.

  16. Mädchenschulen: Dramatisierung oder Entdramatisierung von Geschlecht? Eine verschränkende Darstellung vertiefter quantitativer und qualitativer empirischer Analysen zur 'Wirkungsweise' der Geschlechtersegregation

    OpenAIRE

    Schurt, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Wie die Ergebnisse aktueller Bildungsstudien verdeutlichen, werden die Unterschiede zwischen Mädchen und Jungen zwar insbesondere in Bezug auf den formalen Schulerfolg immer geringer, allerdings bestehen nach wie vor bereichsspezifische Geschlechterdifferenzen, die ihren Niederschlag u.a. in der (ökonomisch und sozial) meist ungünstigeren Situation von Frauen im Erwerbsleben finden. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt sich die Ausgangsfrage, ob monoedukative Schulen Chancen für eine Nivellierung ge...

  17. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?; Ethik-Codes. Feigenblatt, Ballast oder Kulturelement fuer den Strahlenschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  18. Diskurse – Medien – Dispositive oder Die Situationen des Diskurses. Anmerkungen zur postfoucaultschen Diskussion um die Medialität von Diskurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Meiler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper turns Post-Foucauldian discourse linguistics upside down to explore the situatedness of discourses as their material possibility condition. In order to do so I firstly clarify Foucault's notion of discourse oscillating between the poles of macro (knowledge order and micro (material event. In a second step recent media discourse analysis is discussed as an attempt to understand "la matérialité de l'énoncé" (Foucault 1969: 135 as a possibility condition of discourses. In a third step I propose an approach that conceptualizes the possibility conditions of communicational acting systematically between media technologies and communicative genres. The media linguistic notion of Forms of Communication (cf. Domke 2010a; Holly 2011a; Meiler 2013a promisingly conceptualizes these conditions as enabling communication, hence discourse in situ. Following this, in a fourth step three generic examples are analyzed from the related position of semiological pragmatics (cf. Jäger 2008; Rehbein 2001. By these three examples (taken from a corpus of communication in public space the paper demonstrates how different Forms of Communication shape specific possibilities to communicate different types of discursive knowledge (and vice versa: verified, temporarily relevant, and contested knowledge. It is also worked out in which way the production conditions of each Form of Communication determine how accessible a discourse is. In this respect, public space and mass media appear to be remarkably opposed to one another.

  19. Adaption oder Anpassung? Umweltbewusstsein in der Region um den Plattensee/Balaton (Adaptation or a Change in Attitude? Environmental Awareness in the Region of Lake Balaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdolna Leveleki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, climate change has become one of the most relevant issues of modern society. According to the main trends observed in the last decades, it can be concluded that current human efforts are not sufficient to reverse climate change. Therefore, two possible ways of reaction may be envisaged: on the one hand, increasing efforts for prevention and, on the other, preparing for the inevitable changes. As far as the latter is concerned, research on climate change has become a top priority worldwide, as well as, in the European Union, including Hungary. Our sociology working group at Pannon University carried out a research during the years of 2013-2014 related to the social effects of climate change, entitled „Regional effects of extreme weather conditions due to climate change and the possibilities of reducing damage in the upcoming decades”. The Hungarian eco-philopsophical literature highights two main issues concerning the adaptation and a change in values and in attitude related to climate change. The first question is whether we agree with natural scientits, for whom it is undisputed that climate change is caused to a great extent by antropogene effects, and kowing the negative consequences, whether we consider human responsibility in general, and more specifically, our own personal one. The second question is whether a shift in our mindset and in our values is necessary in order to adapt successfully to the new circumstances. If so, what could be the essence of this „paradigm shift” and whether any sign of change can be observed. Our research examined this latter aspect with a special focus on environmental values and attitudes. We have collected empirical data in a region of Eastern-Central Europe that is especially sensitive to the effects of climate change both from an ecological and a social point of view. We compared the results of our research to those of the Eurobarometer and of the Hungarian value sociology. According to our analyses, there are no apparent ecologically desirable changes among the inhabitants of the region of Lake Balaton, and when examining the social differentiation of the trends, one does not find any sign of higher environmental awareness among young people — who, according to Eurobarometer surveys tend to show higher environmental sensitivity. The results of our measures show that the social differences are attributed, therefore, not to age groups, but to the degree of education and to philosophical belief. The questionnaire, which was conducted among the permanent population of the Balaton region also identified a huge gap between the values and the acceptance of the environmentally friendly forms of action. Even though environmental values usually score at the top of the pyramide of values, support for actions aiming at solving environmental problems is not too strong.

  20. The '2000-Watt per person'- industrial society - Utopia, vision or necessity?; Die '2000 Watt pro Kopf'-Industriegesellschaft - Utopie, Vision oder Notwendigkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochem, E

    2006-07-01

    This short article takes a look at the '2000-Watt per person' concept initially developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1998. The author is of the opinion that the concept is not utopian but a vision that can be realised - providing it is accepted socially and that politics can implement it. Further work on the concept done at the ETH over the years is listed and commented on. A diagram provides an overview of energy resources, energy transformation and energy flows to final energy consumption. The question as to if the realisation of such a '2000-Watt'-society is actually necessary is posed.

  1. Electrodynamic support and/or guide device for a magnetic levitation train. Elektrodynamische Trag- und/oder Fuehrungsvorrichtung fuer eine Magnetschwebebahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A

    1979-02-15

    The invention refers to an electrodynamic support and/or guide device for a magnetic levitation train, in which magnets, particularly superconducting magnets are situated on a vehicle, which has rail-like electrically conducting plates or loops on the track. The purpose of the invention is to describe such an electrodynamic support and/or guide device, which can achieve contactless support or guidance of an electrodynamic levitation vehicle when stopped. According to the invention, the problem is solved by the magnetic fields of the support and/or guide magnets acting on the electrically conducting plates or loops of the track being controlled so that moving magnetic fields relative to the vehicle are produced. In this way it is possible to support and/or to guide the vehicle electro-dynamically from standstill to the maximum speed and to drive or brake it.

  2. Non-medical application of radioactive materials or ionizing radiation. German legal regulations; Die Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung ausserhalb der Medizin. Deutsche Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Non-medical imaging is regulated in Germany since the 2011 radiation protection law amendment and the simultaneous X-ray regulation amendment based on the Euratom guideline 96/29. The regulations contain lists with justified and non-justified activities.

  3. X- or gamma ray converter and manufacturing method for its cathode system. Roentgen- oder Gammastrahlenkonverter und Verfahren zur Herstellung seines Kathodensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerlein, R; Uhl, D; Diepers, H; Jablonski, K H

    1981-09-17

    The X-ray converter serves for application in medical diagnostics. For the cathode system of the converter a system based on low-pressure ionography is suited making use of the X-ray photoelectric emission. The electrodes of the cathode system consist of double-layer films with two external conduction layers and an insulator in between. As an auxiliary voltage can be applied between the individual layers the field gradient in the holes may be adjusted, thus increasing the quantum yield.

  4. Jaguar und Wildschwein, eine Fabel für Menschen oder: Der Aufstieg des Jaguars zum Himmel, ein Karriereleitfaden für Wissenschaftler

    OpenAIRE

    Münzel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Der sog. „Indianische Perspektivismus“ (Perspectivismo Ameríndio) stellt einen Versuch dar, europäische Philosophie, nicht zuletzt die Machtphantasien eines faschistoid verstandenen Nietzsche, südamerikanischen Schamanen anzulasten. Das erzähle ich in Form einer Tierparabel, die den Stil südamerikanischer indianischer Tierparabeln nachahmt, dabei aber den Schematismus des Strukturalismus und des Perspektivismus karikiert. The so-called „Amerindian Perspectivism“ (Perspectivi...

  5. BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) models in plant construction; BOT-Modelle im Anlagenbau. Ein neues strategisches Instrument oder nur Akquisitionsunterstuetzung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, B. [Kienbaum Management Consultants GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Bereich Stahl und Anlagenbau; Roeben, K.W. [Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Thermodynamik und Verfahrenstechnik

    1998-05-01

    So as to survive in the tight situation on the world market for plant construction, new concepts are required. In addition to technical innovation, there are an increasing number of additional services that occupy the midpoint of plant business. The article discusses the prospects and risks, which arise from the involvement of the plant designer in a BOT project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um sich in der angespannten Situation am Weltmarkt des Anlagenbaus behaupten zu koennen, bedarf es neuer Konzepte. Neben der technischen Innovation stehen immer mehr flankierende Dienstleistungen im Mittelpunkt des Anlagengeschaeftes. Der Beitrag eroertert die Chancen und Risiken, die sich aus einem Engagement des Anlagenbauers in einem BOT-Projekt ergeben. (orig.)

  6. The discovery of the electron. Fundamental reseach or how jobs are created; Die Entdeckung des Elektrons. Grundlagenforschung oder wie man Arbeitsplaetze schafft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Rudolf

    2009-07-01

    The present volume is an easily understandable excerpt from the extensive work provided for the specialist ''Electrical discharges in gases at low pressure''. Additionally the curriculae vitae of the contributing researchers are reproduced and in one of the main chapters the practical effects of the purely scientific research shown.

  7. Radiation therapy in patients with cardiac pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Interdisciplinary safety recommendations; Strahlentherapie bei Patienten mit Herzschrittmachern oder implantierbaren Kardioverter-Defibrillatoren. Interdisziplinaere Sicherheitsempfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenkamp, M.; Haverkmap, W.; Roser, M. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Kardiologie; Stromberger, C.; Wust, P. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Heymann, C. von [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie mit Schwerpunkt operative Intensivmedizin

    2013-01-15

    Background: With increasing numbers of implanted pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and a rising incidence of malignant tumors, there is a growing probability of radiation-mediated device dysfunction. The only guidelines for the management of patients with cardiac pacemakers in the case of radiation therapy were published in 1994 and have not been updated since then. Based on the current evidence and modern device technology, the present paper aims to develop contemporary and interdisciplinary safety recommendations for the minimization of patient risk. Methods and results: A systematic literature research was carried out including the most relevant medical electronic databases. The search yielded 147 articles published between 1994 and 2012 of which 45 met the selection criteria and of these studies 34 presented primary data (9 in vitro and 25 in vivo studies). The impact of ionizing radiation varied significantly between implanted devices and ranged from no functional changes to complete loss of function. Important device dysfunctions included changes in sensing capability, altered pacing pulses or rate, changed or disabled tachyarrhythmia ICD therapies, early battery depletion and loss of telemetry. Modern pacemakers and ICDs are more sensitive to radiation than older models. Potentially life-threatening complications were observed after exposure of the pulse generator to comparatively low radiation doses (0.11 Gy). Conclusions: Practical recommendations for patient management and safety are presented that can be readily adopted by any institution carrying out radiation therapy. (orig.)

  8. Zu den Begriffen Moderne und Postmoderne oder die Architektur als Zeitmaschine. Ein Versuch der Begriffsnäherung aus kunstwissenschaftlicher Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Barz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Während einer Reise durch Lúcio Costas und Oskar Niemeyers Brasília in diesem Sommer ist mir eine ungewöhnliche Einführung in die Architekturtheorie mit dem Titel «Zeitmaschine Architektur» in die Hände gefallen, die mich inspirierte, den inflationär gebrauchten Begriffen Moderne und Postmoderne etwas nachzuspüren. Die Autoren Wolfgang Amsoneit und Walter Ollenik wollen mit ihrem Buch «keinen stilistischen Regelmäßigkeiten einer systematischen und konsensfähigen Kunstgeschichte folgen» und...

  9. Anonyme Kindesabgabe – ein passgenaues Angebot für hilfesuchende Frauen oder der Preis für ein kollektives gutes Gewissen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bradna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Das erste Angebot zur anonymen Kindesabgabe in Deutschland wurde 1999 initiiert. Mit der Zielsetzung, Kindstötung und Aussetzung zu verhindern sowie Schwangere und Mütter in problematischen Lebenssituationen zu unterstützen, wurden in den Folgejahren weitere Babyklappen und Möglichkeiten der anonymen Geburt bzw. der anonymen Übergabe geschaffen. Zugleich regen sich seit ihrer Einführung ethische und rechtliche Bedenken.  In einer bundesweiten Studie untersuchte das Deutsche Jugendinstitut, wie sich die Angebote der anonymen Kindesabgabe entwickelt haben und von wem bzw. wie sie in Anspruch genommen werden. Die Studie zeigt, dass sich die gegenwärtige Praxis in einer rechtlichen Grauzone bewegt und Routinen manifestiert, die weder rechtmäßig noch fachlich stets angemessen sind. Zu den wesentlichen Befunden gehört, dass die Zielgruppen, die bei der Einrichtung der Angebote im Fokus standen, nicht erreicht werden. Nicht die Zugehörigkeit zu einer bestimmten sozialen Gruppe ist für die Nutzung von Angeboten anonymer Geburt ausschlaggebend, sondern vielmehr eine Häufung von Belastungen und Problemen schwangerer Frauen.  Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit einer auf Anonymität verengten Problemlösungspraxis und fokussiert die Konsequenzen für betroffene Frauen.  Dem gegenübergestellt werden die Argumentationsmuster, die die anonyme Kindesabgabe rechtfertigen. Sie werden hinsichtlich ihrer gesellschaftlichen Bedeutung für Frauen in (sozialen Notlagen kritisch hinterfragt.

  10. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  11. Resonances in field-cycling NMR on molecular crystals. (reversible) Spin dynamics or (irreversible) relaxation?; Resonanzen in Field-Cycling-NMR an Molekuelkristallen. (reversible) Spindynamik oder (irreversible) Relaxation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Multi spin systems with spin 1/2 nuclei and dipolar coupled quadrupolar nuclei can show so called ''quadrupolar dips''. There are two main reasons for this behavior: polarization transfer and relaxation. They look quite alike and without additional research cannot be differentiated easily in most cases. These two phenomena have quite different physical and theoretical backgrounds. For no or very slow dynamics, polarization transfer will take place, which is energy conserving inside the spin system. This effect can entirely be described using quantum mechanics on the spin system. Detailed knowledge about the crystallography is needed, because this affects the relevant hamiltonians directly. For systems with fast enough dynamics, relaxation takes over, and the energy flows from the spin system to the lattice; thus a more complex theoretical description is needed. This description has to include a dynamic model, usually in the form of a spectral density function. Both models should include detailed modelling of the complete spin system. A software library was developed to be able to model complex spin systems. It allows to simulate polarization transfer or relaxation effects. NMR measurements were performed on the protonic conductor K{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. A single crystal shows sharp quadrupolar dips at room temperature. Dynamics could be excluded using relaxation measurements and literature values. Thus, a polarization transfer analysis was used to describe those dips with good agreement. As a second system, imidazolium based molecular crystals were analyzed. The quadrupolar dips were expected to be caused by polarization transfer; this was carefully analyzed and found not to be true. A relaxation based analysis shows good agreement with the measured data in the high temperature area. It leverages a two step spectral density function, which indicates two distinct dynamic processes happening in this system.

  12. The discovery of the Higgs particle. Or how the universe got its mass. 3. ed.; Die Entdeckung des Higgs-Teilchens. Oder wie das Universum seine Masse bekam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, Harald (ed.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik

    2013-07-01

    Higgs - that is a physicist, a field, a particle. 1964 only the idea of Peter Higgs and some other physicists existed: A theory for specialists of particle physics. Since the 1980th years then in the underground at Geneva the largest machine of mankind was built - consisting of a nearly 27 kilometers long ring tunnel and gigantic detectors. In this enormous facility, called LHC (Large Hadron Collider), particles were accelerated nearly to light velocity. In its collisions they should produce the predicted Higgs particle. Finally in 2012 the detection succeeded - the Higgs particle exists really. And also a Higgs field exists. It penetrates the whole cosmos and mediates to the particles the property of the rest mass. Nearly men have never came to the big bang. And Peter Higgs received 2013 with Francois Englert the Nobel prize of physics. Harald Lesch and his coworkers report from the expensive search for the Higgs particle, the theoretical conditions and consequences for the particle physics. They clarify what it's called ''God particle'' or fears about a black hole arising in the LHC experiment. An exciting narrative about the foundations of our universe and the fascination at the fringe of the recognizable reality.

  13. Assessment of suspected infection of hip or knee endoprosthesis by nuclear medicine techniques; Nuklearmedizinische Abklaerung bei vermuteter Infektion einer Hueft- oder Knie-TEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Delank, K.S. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie

    2007-06-15

    Complications after hip endoprosthesis operation occur with a frequency of 1-2 % after primary operation and with 3-5 % after revision arthroplasty and are even more frequent after knee arthroplasty. The differentiation between aseptic loosening and bacterial infection is very important. In aseptic loosening a one-step revision is usually possible. In case of bacterial infection, all foreign material has to be removed first to allow cure from the infection. After healing and absence of bacteria a follow-up operation is possible with insertion of a new prosthesis. Diagnosis and therapy of a painful hip or knee endoprosthesis are difficult, because patient history, clinical examination, laboratory results including microbiological investigation of puncture material and results of radiological examinations may all be inconclusive. Quite a number of nuclear medicine procedures have been published in the past to help in the differentiation between aseptic loosening and bacterial infection of a painful hip or knee endoprosthesis. No single method can be regarded as excellent and without disadvantages. In the international literature the combined leucocyte-marrow imaging has been propageted as superior technique. In Germany, combined leucocyte-marrow imaging is not available in the published form. Moreover, this technique is time consuming, cost intensive and requires direct work with blood. Therefore, infection imaging with labelled antibodies or labelled fragments of antibodies may be regarded as the method of choice for most nuclear medicine physicians. With semiquantitative evaluation a comparative diagnostic accuracy may be achieved. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET is not able to differentiate reliably between abacterial polyethylene abrasion and septic inflammation. However, with pattern recognition of the distribution of {sup 18}F-FDG around a hip prosthesis an approach with clinically acceptable results has been published. A normal {sup 18}F-FDG-PET can reliably exclude an infection. Concerning knee prostheses such a differentiation with the help of {sup 18}F-FDG pattern recognition has not been successful so far. Therefore, in knee endoprosthesis labelled antibodies or labelled fragments of antibodies may be regarded as the method of choice for most nuclear medicine physicians. It may be regarded as somehow disappointing that a basically attractive approach with {sup 99m}Tc-ciprofloxacine has not fulfilled the expectations of excellent discrimination between prosthetic loosening and septic inflammation. No single diagnostic procedure in nuclear medicine is able to detect bacterial infection in a direct manner. Therefore, it is important to know the limitations of the diagnostic methods in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  14. Results and toxicity of the treatment of anal canal carcinoma by radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy. Therapieergebniss, Frueh- und Spaettoxizitaet der Behandlung des Analkanalkarzinoms durch Strahlentherapie oder Chemoradiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, K.; Brockmann, W.P.; Wiegel, T.; Kruell, A.; Huebener, K.H.; Birk, S. (Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie)

    1991-08-01

    From 1975 to 1989 114 patients with analcanal carcinoma were treated, 81 of these with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 33 with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). 80% respectively 82% of the patients were colostomy-free at the onset of therapy. RT was given to a total dose of 60 Gy in six weeks, for CRT additional simultaneous 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12) and mitomycin C (5 mg/m{sup 2} days 5 and 12) was administered. 67% respectively 82% of the patients had UICC stage II to IIIB disease predominantly with G2 and G3 squamous cell carcinomas. Local control after three years was 79% for the RT group vs. 82% for the CRT group. Three-year survival rate was 68% and 71%, respectively. These differences were not signficant. Only for G1-compared to G3-tumors there is a significantly higher survival rate. Acute and late damage was slightly lower for the RT treatment group (77% and 25%) compared to the CRT group (79% and 30%). In both treatment groups there was one patient needing a permanent colostomy due to radiation induced proctitis. In conclusion, RT or CRT should be the primary form of treatment in patients with anal canal carcinoma and abdominoperineal resection should only be performed in case of local recurrence or tumor persitence. The final decision about the indications for RT or CRT can only be made with the results of a prospective randomized trial. (orig.).

  15. Solar cell phones. Communication solution for the future or technological dead-end?; Sonne am Ohr. Solarhandys. Kommunikationsloesung der Zukunft oder technologische Sackgasse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, Jochen

    2010-06-15

    There are still only very few cell phones with photovoltaic power supply as the technical problems are insurmountable. The perfect solar cell phone will not be commercially available for a long time. Still, there are some interesting solutions in the market. PHOTON presents a market survey of solar cell phones that are commercially available in Germany. (orig.)

  16. Contact method or automated immersion technique: possible application and limitations of ultrasonic testing in the fusion reactor; Kontakttechnik oder automatisierte Tauchtechnik. Einsatzmoeglichkeiten und Beschraenkungen der Ultraschallpruefung im Fusionsreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Tatiana; Knaak, Stefan; Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Materialien Werkstoff- und Biomechanik (IAM-WBM); Rey, Joerg; Neuberger, Heiko [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik (INR); Krueger, Friedhelm [Krueger Erodiertechnik GmbH und Co.KG, Biedenkopf (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The tritium breeding blanket is the most important component of a thermonuclear reactor combining the protective function against plasma impact and heat exchange. The breeding blanket concept is based on the use of helium as coolant and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. As structural material the low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER (9Cr-W-V-T) is used. For quality assurance the components of the breeding blankets are tested using different non-destructive testing methods. The contact methodology applies the testing equipment VEO in combination of the 10 MHz array-wheel sensor of the ultrasonic phased array series. Immersion testing is performed using the automated facility KC 200 from GE Inspection technologies.

  17. The Three Gorges Project of China. An engineering project of the century, or megalomania?; Chinas ``Drei-Schluchten-Project``. Jahrhundertwerk oder Groessenwahn?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1998-03-01

    The Three Gorges Project on the Yangtse River is one of the biggest hydraulic engineering projects ever. Its objectives are threefold: Improve flood control for a region with a population of several millions of people, generate power of an order of magnitude comparable to the output of ten nuclear power plants, and improve the navigability of China`s most important waterway. Just as any other big, international hydraulic engineering project, this one, too, has raised a storm of protest from opponents. Primarily the re-settlement of 1.3 million of people and aspects of the structural stability of the dam and related hazards are issues of controversy. In the eyes of the author of this article, opponents in the western hemisphere are drawing a far too gloomy picture in their rejection of the project. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das `Drei-Schluchten-Projekt` am Jangtse ist eines der anspruchsvollsten Wasserbauvorhaben, die je in Angriff genommen wurden. Es soll drei Zwecke erfuellen: Verbesserten Hochwasserschutz fuer Millionen von Menschen, Stromerzeugung in der Groessenordnung von zehn Kernkraftwerken sowie Erleichterung der Schiffahrt auf Chinas wichtigster Wasserstrasse. Wie wohl jedes internationale Wasserbauprojekt hat auch dieses gewaltige Vorhaben Protest bei Gegnern weltweit hervorgerufen. Insbesondere die erforderliche Umsiedlung von 1,3 Millionen Menschen und die Frage der Staumauersicherheit werden heftigst kritisiert bzw. angezweifelt. Mit der Verteufelung des Projektes schiessen die Anti-Staudamm-Gruppen aus dem Westen aber weit uebers Ziel hinaus. (orig./RHM)

  18. Der Runen-Stein von Rök und Snorri Sturluson - oder 'Wie aussagekräftig sind unsere Quellen zur Religionsgeschichte der Wikingerzeit?'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preben Meulengracht Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contributes to the discussion on source criticism within the research field of Old Norse religion. It examines the common assumption that archaeological sources are always to prefer above written sources from the Middle Ages where the Viking Era is described as such accounts are invariably tendentious and biased. Influenced by theories from the field of social anthropology, however, the article argues for the worth of written sources as a complement to the material ones. As an example, the effort to interpret the inscriptions on the runic stone from Rök are introduced. The article suggests that different kinds of source material offer a spectrum of possibilities out of which none alone, but rather all taken together, can deepen the researcher’s knowledge about the object under study.

  19. EEG, job motor or job killer? Symposium for a more rational discussion; EEG - Jobmotor oder Jobkiller? Symposium fuehrt zur Versachlichung der Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeder, M. [Fachhochschule Bochum (Germany); Schulz, E. [Verband der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft - VDEW - e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2005-12-12

    The authors investigated the job effects of the Renewables Act (EEG) discussed at the VDEW symposium of October 2004. There are many divergent factors which necessitated the use of differentiated econometric models. The conclusion was that the EEG should not be judged on the basis of job effects but from environmental and energy aspects. Positive job effects may be expected from more efficient production of electric power from renewable energy sources, which may be achieved by funding on the basis of a EU funding model. (orig.)

  20. New heating system for heaters-treaters and glycol regenerators using liquid or gaseous fuel. Neues Beheizungsverfahren von Heatern-Treatern und Glykolregeneratoren mittels fluessigen oder gasfoermigen Brennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidtke, G.

    1990-12-01

    A new system for the heating of heaters-treaters and glycol regnerators is described. The main difference to the customary technique is that instead of an atmospheric gas burner, which uses the injector principle for drawing in gas, a compressed-air gas bruner with a blower is used. Burners of this type can be installed directly inside the flame tubes of the plants, so that flame arrestors with be unnecessary. Apart from its low noise, this combination technology has the further advantage of permitting near-stoichiometric operation in a wide control range. This will reduce the off-gas losses to a much lower level, as is illustrated by the dramtically lower off-gas values measured in the test phase. (orig.).

  1. Problems with earth fault detecting relays assigned to parallel cables or overhead lines; Probleme bei der Erdschlussortung mit wattmetrischen Erdschlussrichtungsrelais bei parallelen Kabeln oder Leitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P.; Foerg, R. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    1998-06-29

    For practical conditions one can find currents in underground electrical conductors like cable coverings earthed on both sides. As an example these currents are due to the alternating current system of the railroad or to the alternating current system of a Peterson coil, that tries to find a minimum resistance way from the transformer station to the place of the earth fault. Currents like these create a series voltage in the cable by inductive coupling. The voltage depends on the type and the length of the cable. The series voltages of all three phases form a zero sequence system. Taking into consideration that two cable systems running parallel to another, under certain circumstances it is possible to achieve a circulating zero sequence current. Additionally there is a shift voltage between the neutral point and the earth in the case of an earth fault in another place in the grid. The combination of these two factors can cause a malfunction of the earth fault detecting relays that are assigned to the parallel cable system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Erdreich vorhandene elektrische Leiter, z.B. die beidseitig geerdeten Schirme von Energiekabeln, werden in der Praxis nicht selten von Stroemen beaufschlagt. Dabei kann es sich z.B. auch um den Wechselstrom einer Petersenspule, der sich im Erdschlussfall einen widerstandsminimierten Weg vom Umspannwerk zur Fehlerstelle sucht, handeln. Ueber induktive Einkopplung entsteht im Leiter des Kabels eine Laengsspannung. Deren Hoehe ist vom Kabeltyp und der Kabellaenge abhaengig. Liegt als Netzkonfiguration eine Doppelleitung vor, die parallel betrieben wird, so koennen sich unter gewissen Randbedingungen kreisende Nullstroeme ausbilden. Diese wiederum koennen bei Vorhandensein einer Verlagerungsspannung zu einem Fehlansprechen von wattmetrischen Erdschlussrichtungsrelais fuehren. (orig.)

  2. Geo-engineering: effective climate protection or megalomania? Methods, legal frameworks, environmental political claims; Geo-Engineering: wirksamer Klimaschutz oder Groessenwahn? Methoden, Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen, Umweltpolitische Forderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzky, Harald; Herrmann, Friederike; Kartschall, Karin; Leujak, Wera; Lipsius, Kai; Maeder, Claudia; Schwermer, Sylvia; Straube, Georg

    2011-04-15

    Today, strategies for climate protection use two main approaches. First, measures should be taken in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans. Second, measures should be carried out so that people and the environment can be adapted to unavoidable climatic changes. For some time, proposals are being discussed in order to meet the effect of climatic changes by large-scale intervention in global ecological processes. These measures are grouped under the term geo-engineering.

  3. AC, DC or EC motor? What type of engine for what purpose?; AC-, DC- oder EC-Motor? Welche Motorausfuehrung fuer welchen Zweck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiff, Andreas; Homburg, Dietrich

    2009-01-15

    Electronics is the key technology in control engineering, but even the best control system requires reliable modules to transmit signals. Modern electric motors have become indispensable here. There are nearly as many motor types as there are applications. Electromagnetic conversion of electric into mechanical power is directly related to motor design. There are AC and DC motors, one-speed motors and variable-speed motors. Rotary momentum and synchronisation can be optimized by selecting the appropriate motor type, as can dynamics and detent torque. Correct selection of the electric motor therefore is essential for an optimal drive concept. (orig.)

  4. Floating market bonus in the Renewable Energy Law. Opportunity or risk for renewable energies?; Gleitende Marktpraemie im EEG. Chance oder Risiko fuer die Erneuerbaren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Uwe [Buendnis 90/die Gruenen, Flensburg (Germany). Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Energie

    2011-03-15

    The call for market integration amid the discussion about the future development of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) can no longer be overheard. One instrument frequently mentioned in this context is the so-called ''floating market bonus'', which the German Federal Government is considering to introduce, as it declares in its Energy Concept. On weighing the pros and cons of a floating market bonus it becomes clear that the goals it is intended to achieve such as adjusting feed-in to demand cannot be brought about in this way. At the same time it poses a menace to the continued rapid deployment of renewable energy production plants for electricity generation. It would therefore be better turn to other instruments that are better suited for achieving the purpose of the floating market bonus.

  5. The location selection act or 'the Emperor's new clothes'; Das Standortauswahlgesetz oder 'Des Kaisers neue Kleider'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2013-10-15

    As is generally known, the governing parties CDU/CSU and FDP agreed a few weeks ago in the 17{sup th} legislative period of the German Bundestag in a rare show of unanimity, together with the parties SPD and Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen, as well as with the Laender, on a 'law to search and select a location for a permanent disposal site for heat-generating radioactive waste products and to change other laws', in brief a location selection act also called StandAG. The law was received with animated approval from the ranks of the parties - with the exception of the (left-wing) party Die Linke. This praise is a tad bewildering, since the Bundesumweltministerium (Federal Department of the Environment) named solving the task within a single generation as one of the principles for the StandAG, and it was emphasised again and again in the debates about the StandAG that the problem of permanent disposal must not be shifted to the next generation. Conclusion: - The StandAG leads to a postponement of solving the permanent disposal site issue by a least several generations with its predictable, long-winded selection method. - The decision not to explore Gorleben conclusively could lead to the site being permanently ('wasted' or) 'burned'. - The de-central, interim disposal site Gorleben is likewise 'burned' without having a resilient alternative solution for the glass coquilles that must be taken back. - The people's protest is exponentiated by the number of the potential sites for the StandAG. - The costs for the alternative site search will not be shifted to the producers of the waste that are obliged by law to deliver the waste because of the financial provisions of the constitution. - The third party protection dogma has not been broken up, which will at least lead to delays in the procedure and will have effects on other major projects in the long run. (orig.)

  6. Trace analysis of radionuclides in the environment - sense or nonesense?; Spurenanalyse von Radionukliden in der Umwelt - Sinn oder Unsinn?: Wozu Spurenanalyse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, H. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheitswesen (BAG), Fribourg (Switzerland). Sektion Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet

    1999-07-01

    Tracing and measuring very small concentrations of radionuclides in our environment, mostly far below any dangerous levels, is often considered today as an orchid science, causing only an unnecessary expenditure. The examples given here are nevertheless showing that the internationally existing measuring network meets two very important tasks. On the one hand, it serves for survey and recognition of illegal releases of radioactive substances, up to forbidden nuclear weapons testing. On the other hand, it enlarges our knowledge on meteorological distribution ways of radioactivity that could be of great importance for the precautions at major nuclear accidents. (orig.) [German] Das Aufspueren und Messen kleinster Konzentrationen von Radionukliden in unserer Umwelt, die meist weit unterhalb einer Gefaehrdungsgrenze liegen, gilt heute haeufig als eine Orchideenwissenschaft, die nur unnoetigen Aufwand treibt. Die hier zusammengestellten Beispiele fuer Methoden und Erfolge der Spurenanalyse zeigen jedoch, dass das international aufgebaute Messnetz zwei wichtige Aufgaben erfuellt. Es dient einerseits der Ueberwachung und Erkennung von illegalen Freisetzungen radioaktiver Stoffe bis hin zu verbotenen Nuklearwaffentests weltweit, und es vertieft andererseits die Erkenntnisse ueber die meteorologischen Ausbreitungswege radioaktiver Stoffe, die zur Vorsorge bei schwerwiegenden nuklearen Unfaellen aeusserst wichtig sein koennen. (orig.)

  7. Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid or the future of power industry; Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid oder die Zukunft der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for smart grids, energy information networks, smart metering, new tariffs offering incentives for load shifting to household customers and load reduction options to energy providers are discussed increasingly. The privacy protection of customers being threatened by detailed consumption profiles also needs attention. Practitioners and researches from enterprises and research institutions present results from their field of work in nine papers. This book mainly focusses on three topics: 'Energy 2020', 'Data protection and data security within smart grids' and 'Smart grid and energy information networks'. On the one hand this volume addresses researchers and practitioners from enterprises and research institutions, on the other hand teachers and students dealing with questions concerning the energy market of the future. (orig.)

  8. Dimensioning of refrigeration components. Pt. 1. Solenoid valves. Directly controlled and servo controlled; Dimensionierung von Kaeltekomponenten. T. 1. Magnetventile. Direkt- oder servogesteuert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Stephan [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Kaeltetechnik

    2011-03-15

    In the modern world of the refrigeration the focus increasingly is put on energy efficiency and sustainability. Often electronic control systems are in the focus. However, it should not be forgotten that also the dimensioning of cooling components can make an important contribution to the reduction of operating cost of refrigerators. This refers to the reduction of pressure drops and equally to the avoidance of malfunctions in systems. The contribution under consideration reports on the correct dimensioning of solenoid valves for refrigerants as medium.

  9. Fluidized bed furnace for coating nuclear fuel and/or breeder material cores. Wirbelschichtofen zur Beschichtung von nuklearen Brennstoff- und/oder Brutstoffkernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert, E; Ringel, H; Schmitz, H; Zimmer, E

    1982-10-21

    The insulation of the fluidized bed chamber is divided into two parts, where the inner part can have a mechanical load on it, while the outer part has a low thermal conductivity. The latter makes it possible to use cooling gases, instead of water, for cooling the fluidized bed furnace. The cooling gas has no effect on the critical mass to be taken into account in dimensioning the volume of the fluidized bed, and the quantity of fuel and/or breeder material can be increased by about 20 times in the fluidized bed chamber, compared with the water-cooled fluidized bed furnace. For safety reasons, particularly in order to reduce the fire danger if there is a fault, inert gases, for example nitrogen, carbon dioxide etc. are preferred as cooling gases.

  10. Industrial power plants. Modernisation or replacement plant engineering. Framework conditions and future development; Industriekraftwerke. Modernisierung oder Ersatzanlagenbau. Rahmenbedingungen und zukuenftige Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk; Gatena, Jens [trend:research GmbH, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    For a number of years, a trend towards decentralised power supply, partly due to the 'Energiewende' and other reasons, could be observed. In Germany currently around 200 industrial power plants with a respective installed capacity of over 10 MW{sub el} exist. About one third of these plants were built between 1990 and 2010. Plant operators therefore face the question, if they should modernise the old assets or build new installations in the coming years. Whereas a modernisation bears cost and time advantages, amongst other things, higher efficiency and improved flexibility can be achieved with new plants. (orig.)

  11. Process for producing ethane and/or ethylene from methane. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Ethan und bzw. oder Ethylen aus Methan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerns, M.; Hinsen, W.

    1984-04-12

    According to the invention, methane is converted into hydrocarbons with oxygen with high selectivity. This is done in the presence of a catalyst fluidized in a fluidized bed - preferably lead oxide or a mixture of this with antimony oxide - at temperatures between 600 and 800/sup 0/C and at oxygen partial pressures preferably below 0.1-0.2 bar. The ratio of methane partial pressure to oxygen partial pressure should be greater than 2 to 5 if possible. The reactor is operated with gas feedback, in order to raise the selectivity even more.

  12. Kampf der Generationen oder Solidarität zwischen Jung und Alt? Das österreichische Pflegesystem im europäischen Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Schmidt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Arbeit geht der Frage nach, wie sich das österreichische System der Langzeitbetreuung älterer Menschen mit Augenmerk auf die nachhaltige Solidarität zwischen Generationen u.a. im Vergleich mit anderen europäischen Ländern gestaltet. Besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei auf Finanzierungs-, Versorgungs- und Governance-Strukturen gelegt, sowie auf den Vergleich mit anderen sozialpolitischen Bereichen (Familienleistungen, Kinderbetreuung. Österreich hat im internationalen Vergleich ein relativ großzügiges System der öffentlichen Unterstützung älterer Menschen, das stark auf Geldleistungen aufbaut. Dies gilt auch für die Langzeitbetreuung, wo eine große Anzahl pflegebedürftiger Menschen erreicht wird, diese aber pro Kopf eher wenig erhalten. Die Pflegeleistungen werden aus allgemeinen Steuermitteln sowie Kostenbeiträgen von NutzerInnen finanziert, was bedeutet, dass die Finanzierung primär über die Besteuerung von Arbeitseinkommen erfolgt. Unterschiedliche Kostenbeitrags- und Regressregelungen auf Bundesländerebene führen zudem zu großen Differenzen in der finanziellen und faktischen Verantwortung von Familien, insbesondere jüngerer Generationen, die Pflege und Betreuung pflegebedürftiger Angehöriger sicherzustellen. Es folgt, dass die Einführung vermögensbezogener „Pflegesteuern“ zu mehr Ausgewogenheit in den solidarischen Elementen des Pflegesystems beitragen könnte – nicht nur aus Generationensicht. Der flächendeckende Ausbau von Pflege- und Betreuungsdiensten und bundesweit einheitliche Regelungen zu privaten Kostenbeiträgen stellen zudem eine Voraussetzung dafür dar, dass Solidarität zwischen den Generationen unabhängig von sozialer Schicht und Wohnort beurteilt werden kann.

  13. Selbstorganisation: ein neues Paradigma für die Schulpädagogik — oder alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel-Eisele, Gabi

    1996-09-01

    School education has long been accustomed to accommodating theories from other scientific disciplines. The paradigm of self-organization provides a complex concept which will stimulate reflection on the phenomenon of "schools" within educational science. Analysis of systems in the light of different theory, motivated by this paradigm, can give a clearer view of the potential and limitations of a modern social system, which is what a school now is. By employing this paradigm, answers can be found to the questions whether schools can deliver education that compensates for family systems, and whether teaching can also provide therapy.

  14. Nuclear supervision - federal executive administration or federal self-administration. From the view of an optimum task fulfillment; Atomaufsicht - Bundesauftragsverwaltung oder Bundeseigenverwaltung? Aus der Sicht optimaler Aufgabenerfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renneberg, W. [BMU, Bonn (Germany)]|[BMU, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The problem of the nuclear supervision, i.e. the question wether the federal executive administration can be considered a sustainable concept for the future within the framework of the atomic energy law is discussed in the paper. Without a complete refinancing of the nuclear supervision it is not possible to develop or at least keep a scientific and technical competence within the federal administration. In this context the results of the Kienbaum survey are reported. The objections and concerns with respect to the discussed federal self-administration model as alternative include possibly required changes of the constitutional law, aggravation of the loss of competence, the future of radiation protection, and interfaces to other fields of law, like emergency management.

  15. Nuclear supervision - federal executive administration or federal self-administration. From the view of an optimum task fulfillment; Atomaufsicht - Bundesauftragsverwaltung oder Bundeseigenverwaltung? Aus der sicht optimaler Aufgabenerfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloosters, W. [MSGV Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper is focussed on the organization of the supervising authorities in the framework of the atomic energy law in Germany. The topics discussed include the distribution of administrative competences within the nuclear supervision, the practical experience of nuclear reactor supervision, the considerations of transferring the nuclear supervision from the federal executive administration into a federal self-administration, and an evaluation of the reform considerations.

  16. Person oder Situation? Umweltpsychologische Interventionen zur Änderung individuellen Verhaltens (Person or situation? Conservation-psychological interventions to change individual behavior)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheuthle, H.; Kaiser, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Changing a person’s conservation behavior requires determining his or her intentions and aspirations along with the actual behavioral options open to that person. Such an approach provides a basis for deciding whether psychological interventions (such as environmental education, attitude change, and

  17. Der Pelz des Hermelins oder Von Sommer- und Winterkleidern, Tarn- und Warntrachten, Putz-, Schutz- und Trutzfärbungen sowie der Jäger’schen Normalkleidung

    OpenAIRE

    Toepfer, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Der Pelz des Hermelins ist im Sommer braun und im Winter weiß. Das ist ein schönes Phänomen für sich, zumal das Weiß von einer Reinheit ist, die sich im Tierreich selten findet. Die Reinheit ihres weißen Fells wurde vielen Hermelinen zum Verhängnis: Sie endeten als Stück in einem adligen Mantel, ihr Weiß noch unterstrichen durch die schwarze Schwanzspitze, die mitverarbeitet wurde. Das reine Weiß des Winterpelzes machte das Hermelin auch zu einer brauchbaren Projektionsfläche des Volksglauben...

  18. Medical emergency protection in case of radiologic or nuclear accidents in Germany; Medizinischer Notfallschutz bei radiologischen oder nuklearen Notfaellen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, Matthias [Ulm Univ. (Germany); Institut fuer Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Radiological or nuclear accidents with an overexposure of ionizing radiation are extremely seldom events in Germany. Even physicians in nuclear medicine working with high-dose radiotherapy will very probably never be confronted with real radiation injuries. This is also true for authorized physicians in the medical care for persons with occupational exposures. A smart radiation protection system provides a comprehensive protection even in accidental and unplanned situations.

  19. Assessment of organic contaminants in sediments of the western Oder estuary and rivers of West Pomerania; Organische Schadstoffbelastung in Sedimenten des westlichen Oderaestuars und dessen vorpommerschen Zufluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberger, D.; Witt, G.; Lerz, A.; Trost, E. [Rostock Univ., Warnemuende (Germany). Inst. fuer Ostseeforschung

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary investigations were made in 1994 and 1995 of organic micro-contaminants in sediments of coastal waters of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. On this basis a new, more detailed sampling strategy was developed to investigate contamination levels of selected area of the western Oderhaff and various revers (Peene, Uecker, Randow, Zarow and Ziese). Distribution patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment samples were investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Status-Quo-Untersuchungen zur Belastung der Oberflaechensedimente mit organischen Schadstoffen in den Kuestengewaessern Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns wurden erstmalig 1994 und 1995 im Rahmen eines Projektes mit dem Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Natur Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (LAUN) durchgefuehrt. Auf Grund der vorliegenden Ergebnisse aus den Jahren 1994 und 1995 wurde eine neue Messstrategie entwickelt. Dabei sollen ausgewaehlte Gebiete der inneren Kuestengewaesser eingehender, das heisst in einem engeren Stationsraster, beprobt werden. Ziel dieser Untersuchungen war es, Aussagen ueber die Belastungssituation eines Gewaessers machen zu koennen. Die vorliegende Publikation umfasst die Darstellung und Diskussion der Ergebnisse zur organischen Schadstoffbelastung der Oberflaechensedimente im wesentlichen Oderaestuar (Kleines Haff, Peenestrom) und in dessen vorpommerschen Zufluessen (Peene, Uecker, Randow, Zarow, Ziese). In den Sedimentproben wurden die Verteilungsmuster von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (CKW) und polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) untersucht. (orig.)

  20. Process for removing heat from liquid manure in containers, cesspits and/or stables. Verfahren zur Entwaermung von Fluessigmist in Behaeltern, Gruben und/oder Stallungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, G.; Hell, F.

    1979-07-16

    The invention bears on a process for energy conservation through heat recovery from liquid manure. By airing the manure, a biological oxidation process is initiated releasing heat and producing a low-odour biofertilizer. The heat itself can be intercepted by means of energy-collecting lines in combination with a heat pump.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef; Takeda, Soichi; Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca 2+ -binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na + /H + -exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å

  2. Residues 28 to 39 of the Extracellular Loop 1 of Chicken Na+/H+ Exchanger Type I Mediate Cell Binding and Entry of Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Mengmeng; Ren, Chaoqi; Gao, Yanni; Yun, Bingling; Liu, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Pan, Qing; Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2018-01-01

    Chicken Na + /H + exchanger type I (chNHE1), a multispan transmembrane protein, is a cellular receptor of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). To identify the functional determinants of chNHE1 responsible for the ALV-J receptor activity, a series of chimeric receptors was created by exchanging the extracellular loops (ECL) of human NHE1 (huNHE1) and chNHE1 and by ECL replacement with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag. These chimeric receptors then were used in binding and entry assays to map the minimal ALV-J gp85-binding domain of chNHE1. We show that ECL1 of chNHE1 (chECL1) is the critical functional ECL that interacts directly with ALV-J gp85; ECL3 is also involved in ALV-J gp85 binding. Amino acid residues 28 to 39 of the N-terminal membrane-proximal region of chECL1 constitute the minimal domain required for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85. These residues are sufficient to mediate viral entry into ALV-J nonpermissive cells. Point mutation analysis revealed that A30, V33, W38, and E39 of chECL1 are the key residues mediating the binding between chNHE1 and ALV-J gp85. Further, the replacement of residues 28 to 39 of huNHE1 with the corresponding chNHE1 residues converted the nonfunctional ALV-J receptor huNHE1 to a functional one. Importantly, soluble chECL1 and huECL1 harboring chNHE1 residues 28 to 39 both could effectively block ALV-J infection. Collectively, our findings indicate that residues 28 to 39 of chNHE1 constitute a domain that is critical for receptor function and mediate ALV-J entry. IMPORTANCE chNHE1 is a cellular receptor of ALV-J, a retrovirus that causes infections in chickens and serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Until now, the domains determining the chNHE1 receptor function remained unknown. We demonstrate that chECL1 is critical for receptor function, with residues 28 to 39 constituting the minimal functional domain responsible for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85 and efficiently mediating ALV-J cell entry. These residues are located in the membrane-proximal region of the N terminus of chECL1, suggesting that the binding site of ALV-J gp85 on chNHE1 is probably located on the apex of the molecule; the receptor-binding mode might be different from that of retroviruses. We also found that soluble chECL1, as well as huECL1 harboring chNHE1 residues 28 to 39, effectively blocked ALV-J infection. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the ALV-J infection mechanism and also provide new insights into the control strategies for ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Precise gene editing of chicken Na+/H+ exchange type 1 (chNHE1) confers resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Kyung Youn; Jung, Kyung Min; Park, Kyung Je; Lee, Ko On; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal; Han, Jae Yong

    2017-12-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in the late 1980s, has caused economic losses to the poultry industry in many countries. As all chicken lines studied to date are susceptible to ALV infection, there is enormous interest in developing resistant chicken lines. The ALV-J receptor, chicken Na + /H + exchange 1 (chNHE1) and the critical amino acid sequences involved in viral attachment and entry have already been characterized. However, there are no reported attempts to induce resistance to the virus by targeted genome modification of the receptor sequences. In an attempt to induce resistance to ALV-J infection, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (CRISPR/Cas9)-based genome editing approaches to modify critical residues of the chNHE1 receptor in chicken cells. The susceptibility of the modified cell lines to ALV-J infection was examined using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing marker viruses. We showed that modifying the chNHE1 receptor by artificially generating a premature stop codon induced absolute resistance to viral infection, with mutations of the tryptophan residue at position 38 (Trp38) being very critical. Single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN)-mediated targeted recombination of the Trp38 region revealed that deletions involving the Trp38 residue were most effective in conferring resistance to ALV-J. Moreover, protein structure analysis of the chNHE1 receptor sequence suggested that its intrinsically disordered region undergoes local conformational changes through genetic alteration. Collectively, these results demonstrate that targeted mutations on chNHE1 alter the susceptibility to ALV-J and the technique is expected to contribute to develop disease-resistant chicken lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacillus subtilis NhaC, an Na+/H+ antiporter, influences expression of the phoPR operon and production of alkaline phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pragai, Z; Eschevins, C; Bron, S; Harwood, CR

    When Bacillus subtilis is subjected to phosphate starvation, genes of the Pho regulon are either induced or repressed. Among those induced are genes encoding alkaline phosphatases (APases). A set of isogenic mutants, with a beta -galactosidase gene transcriptionally fused to the inactivated target

  5. Activation of the plasma membrane Na/H antiporter salt-overly-sensitive 1 (SOS1) by phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory C-terminal domain

    KAUST Repository

    Quintero, Francisco J.; Martí nez-Atienza, Juliana; Villalta, Irene; Jiang, Xingyu; Kim, Woeyeon; Ali, Zhair; Fujii, Hiroaki; Mendoza, Imelda; Yun, Daejin; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Pardo, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane sodium/proton exchanger Salt-Overly-Sensitive 1 (SOS1) is a critical salt tolerance determinant in plants. The SOS2-SOS3 calcium-dependent protein kinase complex upregulates SOS1 activity, but the mechanistic details of this crucial event remain unresolved. Here we show that SOS1 is maintained in a resting state by a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain that is the target of SOS2-SOS3. The auto-inhibitory domain interacts intramolecularly with an adjacent domain of SOS1 that is essential for activity. SOS1 is relieved from auto-inhibition upon phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory domain by SOS2-SOS3. Mutation of the SOS2 phosphorylation and recognition site impeded the activation of SOS1 in vivo and in vitro. Additional amino acid residues critically important for SOS1 activity and regulation were identified in a genetic screen for hypermorphic alleles.

  6. Pravásí bháratíj džó pravásí nahín rahe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Dagmar

    -, č. 60 (2011), s. 18-19 ISSN 2249-5967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Nirmal Varma * non-resident Indian Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision http://www.garbhanal.com

  7. Potentials of district heating grids for climate protection up to the year 2020; Potenziale von Nah- und Fernwaermenetzen fuer den Klimaschutz bis zum Jahr 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Schuewer, Dietmar; Venjakob, Johannes; Merten, Frank; Mitze, Dirk [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany); Nast, Michael; Schillings, Christoph; Krewitt, Wolfram [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Bohnenschaefer, Werner; Lindner, Klaus [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    District heat is one of Germany's traditional end use energy sources, with a connected capacity of about 57,000 MWth. The heat is distributed via 1,400 grids with a total length of about 19,000 km. The number of households supplied with district heat increased from 9.7 percent in 1993 to 13.7 percent in 2003. About 550 out of about 1,000 German utilities provide district heat to households. During the past few years, the connected capacity of district heating has been stagnating. This is the result of thermal insulation measures, dismantling and abandonment of supply grids, but also of changes on the demand side that can still be compensated by concentration and expansion potentials.

  8. Potentials of district heating grids for climate protection up to the year 2020; Potenziale von Nah- und Fernwaermenetzen fuer den Klimaschutz bis zum Jahr 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Schuewer, Dietmar; Venjakob, Johannes; Merten, Frank; Mitze, Dirk [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany); Nast, Michael; Schillings, Christoph; Krewitt, Wolfram [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Bohnenschaefer, Werner; Lindner, Klaus [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    District heat is one of Germany's traditional end use energy sources, with a connected capacity of about 57,000 MWth. The heat is distributed via 1,400 grids with a total length of about 19,000 km. The number of households supplied with district heat increased from 9.7 percent in 1993 to 13.7 percent in 2003. About 550 out of about 1,000 German utilities provide district heat to households. During the past few years, the connected capacity of district heating has been stagnating. This is the result of thermal insulation measures, dismantling and abandonment of supply grids, but also of changes on the demand side that can still be compensated by concentration and expansion potentials.

  9. Photolabeling of tonoplast from sugar beet cell suspensions by [3H]5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkla, B.J.; Charuk, J.H.M.; Blumwald, E.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA), an amiloride analog, was tested on the Na + /H + antiport activity of intact vacuoles and tonoplast vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cell suspension cultures. MIA inhibited Na + /H + exchange in a competitive manner with a K i of 2.5 and 5.9 micromolar for ΔpH-dependent 22 Na + influx in tonoplast vesicles and Na + -dependent H + efflux in intact vacuoles, respectively. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [ 3 H]MIA to tonoplast membranes revealed a high affinity binding component with a K d of 1.3 micromolar. The close relationship between the dissociation constant value obtained and the constants of inhibition for MIA obtained by fluorescence quenching and isotope exchange suggests that the high affinity component represents a class of sites associated with the tonoplast Na + /H + antiport. Photolabeling of the tonoplast with [ 3 H]MIA revealed two sets of polypeptides with a different affinity to amiloride and its analog

  10. Photolabeling of tonoplast from sugar beet cell suspensions by [3H]-MIA, an inhibitor of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkla, B.J.; Blumwald, E.

    1990-01-01

    A radiolabeled amiloride analog, [ 3 H]-MIA, was used for equilibrium binding studies and photolabeling of purified tonoplast vesicles. Scatchard analysis revealed a high affinity binding component with a K 4 of 1.4 μM which is closely related to constants of inhibition obtained for Na + -dependent H + efflux (5.9 μM) and pH-dependent 22 Na + influx (2.5 μM). This suggests that the high affinity component represents a class of sites associated with the Na + /H + antiport. Photolabeling of tonoplast with [ 3 H]-MIA in the presence of amiloride revealed the presence of two classes of receptors with distinct affinities for MIA, possibly representing the Na + /H + antiport and the Na + channel. In order to identify these receptors, amiloride analogues specific for the Na + /H + antiport or the Na + channel are being used to protect differentially against labeling of tonoplast proteins by photo-irradiation of [ 3 H]-MIA

  11. Cnh1 Na+/H+ antiporter and Ena1 Na+-ATPase play different roles in cation homeostasis and cell physiology of Candida glabrata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 29-41 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Candida glabrata * potassium homeostasis * podium detoxification * Ena 1 ATPase * Cnh1 antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.403, year: 2011

  12. The Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1, differentially regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamilies after osmotic shrinkage in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Rasmussen, Maria; Darborg, Barbara Vasek

    2007-01-01

    Osmotic stress modulates mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, leading to altered gene transcription and cell death/survival balance, however, the mechanisms involved are incompletely elucidated. Here, we show, using a combination of biochemical and molecular biology approaches...... by human (h) NHE1 expression in cells lacking endogenous NHE1 activity. The effect of NHE1 on ERK1/2 was pH(i)-independent and upstream of MEK1/2. Shrinkage-activation of JNK1/2 was attenuated by EIPA, augmented by hNHE1 expression, and abolished in the presence of HCO(3)(-). Basal JNK activity...

  13. Activation of the plasma membrane Na/H antiporter salt-overly-sensitive 1 (SOS1) by phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory C-terminal domain

    KAUST Repository

    Quintero, Francisco J.

    2011-01-24

    The plasma membrane sodium/proton exchanger Salt-Overly-Sensitive 1 (SOS1) is a critical salt tolerance determinant in plants. The SOS2-SOS3 calcium-dependent protein kinase complex upregulates SOS1 activity, but the mechanistic details of this crucial event remain unresolved. Here we show that SOS1 is maintained in a resting state by a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain that is the target of SOS2-SOS3. The auto-inhibitory domain interacts intramolecularly with an adjacent domain of SOS1 that is essential for activity. SOS1 is relieved from auto-inhibition upon phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory domain by SOS2-SOS3. Mutation of the SOS2 phosphorylation and recognition site impeded the activation of SOS1 in vivo and in vitro. Additional amino acid residues critically important for SOS1 activity and regulation were identified in a genetic screen for hypermorphic alleles.

  14. CARS spectroscopy of the NaH2 collision complex: The nature of the Na(3 2P)H2 exciplex - ab initio calculations and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivie-Riedle, R. de; Hering, P.; Kompa, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    CARS has been used to analyze the rovibronic state distribution of H 2 after collision with Na(3 2 P). New lines, which do not correspond to H 2 lines are observed in the CARS spectrum. The experiments point to the formation of a complex of Na(3 2 P)H 2 in A 2 B 2 symmetry. Ab initio calculations of the A 2 B 2 potential were performed. On this surface the vibrational spectra of the exciplex is evaluated. The observed lines can be attributed to vibrational transitions in the complex, in which combinational modes are involved. The connection of experimental and theoretical results indicates that a collisionally stabilized exciplex molecule is formed during the quenching process. (orig.)

  15. Innovative leakage monitoring for local and district heating systems. Development of a new device; Innovative Leckageueberwachung fuer Nah- und Fernwaermesysteme. Entwicklung eines neuen Geraets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugebauer, Horst [Stadtwerke Rosenheim (Germany). Abt. Fernwaermenetz; Schober, Wilhelm [Elnic, Rosenheim (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    District heating plants and local heating systems are one of the most important future technologies for the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energies. In order to hedge the cost and to extend the life of these systems, it is even more important in the future to pay more attention to a preventive monitoring of leakages of pipeline routes. Together with the development specialists Elnic (Rosenheim, Federal Republic of Germany), the Stadtwerke Rosenheim (Federal Republic of Germany) have brought a new leak detection system on the market.

  16. The murine choroid plexus epithelium expresses the 2Cl-/H+-exchanger ClC-7 and Na+/H+ exchanger NHE6 in the luminal membrane domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, Helle H; Christensen, Henriette L; Christensen, Inga B

    2017-01-01

    , but the pH value seems nonetheless maintained within narrow limits, even when faced with acid/base challenges. The involvement of choroid plexus acid/base transporters in CSF pH regulation is highlighted by the expression of several acid/base transporters in the epithelium. The aim of the current study...... was to identify novel acid/base transporters expressed in the luminal membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium to pave the way for systematic investigations of each candidate transporter in the regulation of CSF pH. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins from epithelial cells isolated by fluorescence activated...... cell sorting identified the Cl-/H+ exchangers ClC-3, -4, -5, and -7 in addition to known choroid plexus acid/base transporters. RT-PCR on FACS isolated epithelial cells confirmed the expression of the corresponding mRNAs, as well as NHE6 mRNA. Both NHE6 and ClC-7 were immunolocalized to the luminal...

  17. Novel roles of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 and the Na+,HCO3 - cotransporter NBCn1 in cell survival, proliferation and motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Gitte Ehrenreich

    and cell motility. The molecular mechanisms contributing to altered pHi regulation in cancer cells are incomplete understood. Overexpression of ErbB2 is common in breast cancer and the expression of an N-terminally truncated, constitutively active ErbB2 receptor (ΔNErbB2) is associated with increased....... Pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 enhances cisdiamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) induced cell death, especially in ΔNErbB2 expressing cells. In Paper III we show that upon cisplatin treatment, expression of ΔNErbB2 results in increased caspase-9 and -7 cleavage, which is further augmented by specific...... inhibition of NHE1. Moreover, NBCN1, yet not NHE1, is lost from the plasma membrane upon cisplatin treatment, and this may explain why inhibition of NHE1 sensitizes the cells to cisplatin-induced cell death. In Paper II we show that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the expression levels of NBCn1 and NHE1...

  18. HL-1 mouse cardiomyocyte injury and death after simulated ischemia and reperfusion: roles of pH, Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2, and Na+/H+ exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann-Dorit; Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Lambert, Ian H

    2009-01-01

    activation were reduced after acidic compared with neutral SI, whereas necrotic death, estimated as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase release, was similar in the two conditions. Inhibition of iPLA(2)-VI activity by bromoenol lactone (BEL) elicited cardiomyocyte necrosis during normoxia and after acidic, yet...

  19. Process to dry and preheat fine-grained bituminous coal using non- or weakly baking coal and/or carbon materials. Verfahren zur Trocknung und Vorerhitzung von feinkoerniger Steinkohle unter Verwendung nicht oder nur schwach backender Kohle und/oder Kohlenstofftraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echterhoff, J.; Frick, H.; Schaper, A.; Mohmeyer, H.

    1982-11-04

    Fine-grained bituminous coal is dried and preheated in an inert gas to prevent its oxidation. The inert gas consists essentially of steam which originates from the coal to be dried. The coal is heated besides by using steam intensively but gently. The drying is carried out in a drying drum in co-current flow. The coal is mixed with a binding agent in the presence of steam. The dried and preheated coal is taken out and, after being covered with a binding agent, transported without further safety measures to the atmosphere, stored and further processed. (KHH).

  20. Technical safety management district heating; Technisches Sicherheitsmanagement (TSM) Fernwaerme. Ueberpruefung der Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation sowie der technischen Sicherheit von FVU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunn, H. von [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Herbst, A. [DREWAG Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH (Germany); Hoffer, A. [EVH GmbH, Halle (Germany); Meigen, M. [Stadtwerke Leipzig (Germany); Siedler, W. [Stadtwerke Hannover AG (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Anyone creating sources of danger in a public place must take proper precautions to prevent a hazard from actually arising. Work such as the construction or renovation of generating plants, pipe networks or district heat substations, the operation of heating installations and plants and the use of heating water and steam as media for the supply or district heating are potential sources of danger which may lead to accidents. The utility is liable for material damage and bodily harm. The only possible way of precluding liability is to prove that it has taken all possible measures for precluding risk at the outset within the organization itself, to the greatest possible extent. Not only must administration and line management be properly structured for this purpose, but administrative efficiency must also be demonstrated by a working system of delegation of tasks and responsibilities and the optimum organisation of processes and interfaces. (orig.) [German] Im AGFW-Arbeitsblatt FW 1000 'Anforderungen an die Qualifikation und die Organisation des technischen Bereichs von Fernwaermeversorgungsunternehmen' werden organisatorische, personelle sowie sicherheits- und betriebstechnische Mindestanforderungen fuer die Planung den Bau und den Betrieb von Nah- und Fernwaermeversorgungsanlagen beschrieben. Zur Bestaetigung der Anforderungserfuellung ist entweder eine Selbsteinschaetzung durch das Unternehmen oder die Ueberpruefung durch die AGFW vorgesehen. Hierfuer wurde ein Zertifizierungsverfahren entwickelt, das ab sofort von der gesamten Branche genutzt werden kann. (orig.)

  1. Attempt of an answer on the question: What burns better, grain or straw?; Versuch einer Antwort auf die Frage ''Was brennt besser, Getreide oder Stroh?''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, F. [Grimm GmbH und Co. KG, Amberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Just in times in which fossil fuels become more scarcely and in which the prices of fuel oil and natural oil increase, alternative fuels for thermal utilization are discovered once again. Under this aspect, within the scope of the 3rd symposium ''Processes and materials for energy technologies'', held between 20th and 21st June, 2007, at the ATZ Entwicklungszentrum in Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the author reports on a project for the new development of an adapted firing equipment and exhaust technology for the fuels grain and straw. Grain and straw are compared with respect to operational safety, emission of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides as well as emission of dust. Grain is the better combustion material according to the operational safety. It can be utilized energetically without further rework.

  2. ''How small is small enough?'' or the limits of optimization; ''Wie wenig ist wenig genug?'' oder die Grenzen der Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    In order to kick-off a discussion of the reasons underlying the limits and reference values in radiation protection, the different types of exposures and exposure situations are discussed under these aspects. Arising problems are identified and a proposal for a trivial (de minimis) annual dose of 0,1 mSv is made. The outstanding importance of educating and preparing society for the process of optimization in existing and emergency exposure situations is emphasized.

  3. Information management on the basis of semantic-web techniques, or a Google for developers; Informationsmanagement auf der Basis von Semantic-Web Techniken oder Ein Google fuer Entwickler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, B. [Schenck Pegasus GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Sevilmis, N.; Stork, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Graphische Datenverarbeitung, Darmstadt (Germany); Castro, R. [Centro de Computacao Grafica, Guimaraes (Portugal); Jimenez, I.; Marcos, G.; Posada, J.; Smithers, T. [VICOMTech, San Sebastian (Spain); Mauri, M.; Pianciamore, M.; Selvini, P. [CEFRIEL, Milano (Italy); Zecchino, V. [Italdesign - Giugiaro SpA, Moncalieri, Torino (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Information retrieval often suffers from the lack of suitable search tools or the query complexity. The search of some concrete information on the base of file names or the coincidental occurrence of key words in files is little helpful because the obtainable matches are too much subject to chance. Therefore an effective search must be based on the semantic interpretation of the query and additionally casts of the query into the context of an application domain. Here the development of the search machine prototype WIDE is presented, which builds up the query interpretation on Semantic Web techniques. The search machine can be configured for application domains and is able to map a query to different data sources in parallel. The search machine processes the retrieved results graphically and associates the concepts used in the Query with thematically related concepts. The search machine can be used to retrieve text documents or test bed results of experiments archived in ASAM-ODS data sources. (orig.)

  4. Oxidation kinetics of innovative carbon materials with respect to severe air ingress accidents in HTRs and graphite disposal or processing; Oxidationskinetik innovativer Kohlenstoffmaterialien hinsichtlich schwerer Lufteinbruchstoerfaelle in HTR's und Graphitentsorgung oder Aufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegel, Baerbel

    2010-07-01

    Currently future nuclear reactor concepts of the Fourth Generation (Gen IV) are under development. To some extend they apply with new, innovative materials developed just for this purpose. This thesis work aims at a concept of Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) in the framework of the European project RAPHAEL (ReActor for Process heat, Hydrogen And ELectricity generation). The concept named ANTARES (AREVA New Technology based on advanced gas-cooled Reactors for Energy Supply) was developed by AEVA NP. It is a helium cooled, graphite moderated modular reactor for electricity and hydrogen production, by providing the necessary process heat due to its high working temperature. Particular attention is given here to oxidation kinetics of newly developed carbon materials (NBG-17) with still unknown but needed information in context of severe air ingress accident in VHTR's. Special interest is paid to the Boudouard reaction, the oxidation of carbon by CO{sub 2}. In case of an air ingress accident, carbon dioxide is produced in the primary reaction of atmospheric oxygen with reflector graphite. From there CO{sub 2} could flow into the reactor core causing further damage by conversion into CO. The purpose of this thesis is to ascertain if and to what degree this could happen. First of all oxidation kinetic data of the Boudouard reaction with NBG-17 is determined by experiments in a thermo gravimetric facility. The measurements are evaluated and converted into a common formula and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood similar oxidation kinetic equation, as input for the computer code REACT/THERMIX. This code is then applied to analyse severe air ingress accidents for several air flow rates. The results are discussed for two accident situations, in which a certain graphite burn off is achieved. All cases show much more damage to the graphite bottom reflector than to the reactor core. Thus the bottom reflector will lose its structural integrity much earlier than the core itself will be damaged by oxidation. (orig.)

  5. Switzerland as Europe's ''battery''. Wishful dream or reality?; Die Schweiz als ''Batterie Europas''. Utopie oder Realitaet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, Adrian; Zurmuehle, Damian; Salzmann, Michael; Baumgartner, Raphael; Mignone, Domenico [Bernische Kraftwerke (BKW), Bern (Switzerland). Energiewirtschaftliche Planung und Prognose

    2015-04-15

    There are plans for Swiss pumped hydrostorage systems to absorb large quantities of excess electricity from European wind and solar power generation. Model-based analyses have shown however that ''Europe's battery'', as Switzerland would like to see itself, will not be needed until the middle of this century. Even if all extension projects currently in progress should be completed, Switzerland will not have sufficient pump capacity or import capacity to absorb large amounts of excess electricity. Furthermore, the primary means of making storage capacity available for import electricity would be to reduce reservoir power plant capacity. In view of all this Switzerland's hopes for a role as a major European electricity storage provider appear somewhat exaggerated even in the long-term perspective.

  6. Energy efficiency and demand side management. Complement or contradiction? The impact of energy efficiency measures on the potential for demand side management; Energieeffizienz und Lastflexibilisierung. Partner oder Gegenspieler? Der Einfluss von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen auf das Lastflexibilisierungspotenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peraus, Sebastian [TU Muenchen (Germany). Maschinenwesen; Gruber, Anna; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    The success of the so called ''Energiewende'' in Germany is based on two major elements: the improvements in energy efficiency and the increase of renewable energy sources (RES). But the supply of RES cannot always be regulated according to the electricity demand. As a result both flexible electricity generation and demand side management will become increasingly important. Consequently, it has to be discussed, whether the improvement of energy efficiency and demand side management could interfere. This publication will illustrate the possible impact of energy efficiency measures on the potential for demand side management.

  7. Recommendations of the Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) on quality control in nuclear medicine. Progress or a step backwards?; Empfehlungen der Strahlenschutzkommission zur Qualitaetskontrolle in der Nuklearmedizin. Fortschritt oder Rueckschritt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Juergen

    2015-07-01

    Recommendations of the Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) on quality control in nuclear medicine specification of reaction threshold and tolerance limits that were adopted in September 2010 were supposed to harmonize the consideration of results. The author shows that based on the compiled experiences the specification o reaction thresholds and tolerance limits in imaging systems is not sufficient to release a gamma camera after quality control without visual evaluation of the scintigram.

  8. Component for the manufacture of sound and thermally insulating shell for walls, ceilings or floors. Baueelement fuer die Herstellung einer schall- und/oder waermedaemmenden Vorsatzschale fuer Waende, Decken und Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehldorfer, H

    1977-07-04

    The invention concerns a component for the manufacture of a sound and/or thermally insulating shell for walls, ceilings or floors, which can be connected to these and is used directly to carry the cover plates or the plaster as an ouside shell. The problem is solved by having the component consisting of two spring loaded connected profiles, whose free ends, as seen in cross section, overlap with play in the operating position. There is a pin to connect the two profiles, which passes through openings in the free ends of the profiles and is elastically supported in them. The profiles may be made of metal, wood or plastic material. Compared with the well known ''swinging timbers'', the component is distinguished by the fact that the whole cladding can be covered with fibrous feld, instead of the strips of fibrous felt between the rows of swinging timbers, and the component can therefore be fixed to the wall.

  9. „Haben wir nur das Wasser, das vom Himmel fällt?“ Kontinuitäten technokratischen Denkens in der sozialistischen Tschechoslowakei am Beispiel des Donau-Oder-Elbe-Kanalprojekts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 115-147 ISSN 0523-8587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : water management * technocracy * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History ( history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  10. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive Unterrichtsformen bisher nur wenig erprobt. Die vorliegende Studie wurde mit dem Ziel durchgeführt, herauszufinden, welchen Einfluss die Unterrichtsform auf den Wissenszuwachs und die studentische Beurteilung des Biochemie-Unterrichts hat. Methodik: Studierende des 4. Fachsemesters (n=421 wurden für eine Seminarveranstaltung in zwei Gruppen randomisiert. Die Kontrollgruppe erhielt konventionellen Frontalunterricht, die Studiengruppe erarbeitete sich dieselben Lerninhalte anhand konkreter Fragestellungen in interaktiven Arbeitsgruppen. Als Messinstrument zur Beurteilung des kognitiven Erfolges diente ein Wissenstest unmittelbar nach der Veranstaltung und nach 4-6 Wochen. Die Beurteilung der beiden Unterrichtsformen durch die Studierenden erfolgte anhand eines Fragebogens. Ergebnisse: Studierende, die Frontalunterricht erhielten, schnitten in einem ersten Wissenstest, direkt nach der Veranstaltung, signifikant besser ab als Studierende, die sich die Inhalte in interaktiven Gruppen selbst erarbeiteten. Im Wiederholungstest waren keine signifikanten Wissensunterschiede mehr messbar. In der Evaluation beurteilten Studierende, die Frontalunterricht erhielten, die Veranstaltung signifikant besser als diejenigen, die in Gruppen arbeiteten. Schlussfolgerung: Die schlechtere studentische Bewertung der interaktiven Unterrichtsform gegenüber Frontalunterricht in einem Biochemieseminar kann verschiedene Ursachen haben. Eine Ursache könnte die starke Orientierung des Faches an Faktenwissen sein. Dieses Wissen wurde nach Meinung der Studierenden - in dem in dieser Studie gegebenen Rahmen – vom Dozenten besser vermittelt als es in einer interaktiven Gruppenarbeit von Studierenden selbst erarbeitet werden konnte. Andere Ursachen könnten Prüfungsmethoden und curriculare Vorgaben sein.

  11. Fast Expansion oder doch 4-Gate-Push? - Kompetenzerwerb und Transfer beim Spielen von Echtzeit-Strategiespielen im Mehrspielermodus am Beispiel von StarCraft II – Wings of Liberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steininger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Derzeit ist unklar, inwiefern in Computerspielen erworbene Kompetenzen in andere Kontexte transferiert werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der subjektiv wahrgenommene Wissenstransfer von 444 SpielerInnen und eines Online-Echtzeitstrategiespieles untersucht. Etwas weniger als die Hälfte der Befragten sehen einen Wissenstransfer im Bereich der sozialen Kompetenz, der Medienkompetenz, der persönlichkeitsorientierten Kompetenz und der kognitiven Kompetenz. Mehr als 50% der Befragten nehmen subjektiv einen Wissenstransfer im Bereich der sensomotorischen Kompetenzen und der Fremdsprachkenntnisse wahr.The transfer of competencies acquired in video games into other contexts is hardly researched yet. For this paper, the transfer of competencies is researched from players point of view. 444 players of a real time strategy game have been interviewed. Slightly less than 50% perceived a knowledge transfer for media competencies, personality, social competences and cognitive competencies. More than 50% perceived a transfer for sensomotor skills and foreign language competence.

  12. What is the right way to run a transport route infrastructure?; Wie betreibt man Verkehrswegeinfrastruktur richtig? Behoerde oder Gesellschaft nach Handelsrecht: Welche Organisation garantiert in Zeiten knapper Kassen der oeffentlichen Hand hoehere Effizienz bei gleicher Qualitaet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherz, Wolfgang [Hessische Landesbahn GmbH (HLB), Kassel (Germany). Infrastruktur-Agentur Hessen; Averkamp, Michael

    2010-07-01

    From the perspective of owners of publicly accessible transport route infrastructure - especially at a time when budgets are tight - there are two major questions that need to be posed and a rapid answer demanded: does a maintenance organisation established in the form of a public agency or a commercial enterprise yield better results, that is, higher and better output with declining input (agency versus company); and should an agency or transport infrastructure firm outsource all or part of its maintenance organisation (make-or-buy)? The authors, based on their experience gained in a variety of management functions in corporations and agencies as well as in executive coaching, provide quite different perspectives on these issues. (orig.)

  13. Recognizing IT risks - acting with foresight or: ''practical reasons for comprehensive IT security''; IT-Risiken erkennen, vorausschauend handeln oder: ''Praktische Gruende fuer umfassende IT-Security''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, P.A.R. [TUeV Rheinland Secure iT GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Comprehensive IT security expects all threats and every possible consequence to be identified in order to deduce and develop appropriate counter measures. This article describes two exemplary threats to an IT infrastructure: 'Hacking Internal Networks' and 'A High Promising Target: Web Applications'. (orig.)

  14. Shopping Mall: Konsumtempel oder neuer ‚Frauenraum‘ im Zentrum der Stadt? The Shopping Mall: Temple of Consumerism or the New “Women’s Space” in the City Center?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bock

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Die in den USA entstandene Shopping Mall ist aus den europäischen Stadtzentren nicht mehr wegzudenken. Kerstin Dörhöfer geht in ihrem Buch an ausgewählten Berliner Beispielen der Frage nach der Wirkung dieser vermeintlich homogenen baulichen ‚Monolithen‘ auf urbane Kultur und vor allem auf die Geschlechterverhältnisse nach. Die allmähliche Eroberung der Innenstädte durch die Shopping Mall ist – so das Fazit der lesenswerten Arbeit – kein Ausdruck einer verstärkten Teilhabe von Frauen am städtischen Leben. Vielmehr konterkariert der neue Innenraum im öffentlichen Stadtraum die mit Urbanität verbundene Vorstellung einer Aneignung städtischen Raums.We can no longer imagine European city centers without those shopping malls originating from the USA. Using select examples from Berlin, Kerstin Dörhöfer questions the effect of these supposedly homogenously built ‘monoliths’ on urban culture and especially on gender relations. The shopping mall’s gradual conquest of city centers—at least according to the conclusion of this well-worth reading work—is not an expression of the ever-strengthening share women have in city life. Instead, this central space within the public sphere of the city thwarts the urban-based belief in the appropriation of the city space.

  15. Black coal and lignite from biomass as fuel or alternative to carbon dioxide capture and storage; Stein- und Braunkohle aus Biomasse als Brennstoff oder als Alternative zur CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung und -Speicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, S.; Koch, C.; Scheer, J.; Stadlbauer, E.A.; Richarts, F.; Altensen, R.; Richter, H. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany); Weber, B. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM), Toluca (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Bayer, M.P.; Albert, K. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2012-05-15

    This article refers to coalification of biomass in light of embedding this technique in the regional material flow management. From a process engineering point of view the focus is set on Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Low Temperature Conversion (LTC). Based on monosaccharides as building blocks of polysaccharides and ligneous biomass, the thermal behavior of glucose, fructose and xylose depending on reaction time and temperature is tracked. Consequently mainly hemicellulosic structures are affected under HTC conditions. However LTC converts both hemicelluloses as well as cellulose. The classification of HTC and LTC products from spent grains in terms of H/C and C/O ratio according to Meunier's coalification diagram ranges HTC coal in the area of lignite and the LTC coal in the area of black coal. This grading in terms of elementary analysis is confirmed by solid state{sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The spectrum of LTC coal from spent grains fashioned at 400 C for duration of 3 h is undistinguishable from the spectrum of black coal. From the chemical point of view these two coals has to be described as identical. However the spectrum of the HTC product made of spent grains fashioned at 250 C for 3 h in a pressurized environment shows similarity to the spectrum of lignite. As engineering usage HTC products are a tool to convert cellulose-based residues in a uniform, high-energy matter for incineration processes. For this in-house waste management of e.g. breweries or sugar refineries could be enhanced. LTC coals are due to their stability eligible to extract CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and transfer carbon to the long-term stable geological cycle of matter. Consequential LTC offers an alternative to CCS. As a side effect LTC coals contribute to the elevation of carbon content in soils, which facilitates their water-holding and nutrient-holding capacity. (orig.)

  16. Vom Sprechen des Unsagbaren und vom Sehen des Unsichtbaren oder die essayistische Suche nach der verlorenen Ganzheit On Speaking about the Unspeakable and Seeing the Invisible or: The Search for Lost Entirety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marchetta

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Scherer weist in ihrer Dissertation die strukturelle Äquivalenz zwischen einer essayistischen Filmästhetik und dem Prozess des Erinnerns auf. Ivens, Marker, Godard und Jarman thematisieren in und mit ihren Filmen die Unverfügbarkeit der Erinnerung und halten trotz ihres Zweifels an der Abbildbarkeit von Welt und ihrer Einsicht in die Uneinholbarkeit der Vergangenheit den Horizont der Möglichkeit von Erinnerung offen. In Essayfilmen sind es vor allem die selbstreflexive Selbstvergewisserung, die Einsicht in das unausweichliche Verfehlen der Vergangenheit und der melancholische Rückblick auf eine verloren gegangene Ganzheit, die einen fühlenden Verstand und ein denkendes Herz generieren.Christina Scherer’s dissertation points to the structural equivalence between the aesthetics of the essay film and the process of remembering. Ivens, Marker, Godard and Jarman make the unavailability of memory their central theme. Despite the filmmakers’ doubts about the possibility of replicating a true image of the world and their knowledge of the irretrievability of the past they nonetheless insist on the possibility of memory. Reflectively positioning oneself, acknowledging inevitable errors of the past, and looking back in melancholy on a lost entirety are some of the strategies in essay films which generate a sympathetic mind and a thinking heart.

  17. Screw compressor system for industrial-scale helium refrigerators or industrial ammonia screw compressors for helium refrigeration systems; Schraubenkompressor-System fuer Helium-Grosskaelteanlage oder Ammoniak-Schraubenverdichter aus Industrieanwendungen fuer Helium-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, O.; Mosemann, D.; Zaytsev, D. [GEA Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Material characteristics, requirements and measured data of ammonia and helium compression are compared. The compressor lines for industrial ammonia and helium refrigerators are presented, and important characteristics of the compressors are explained. The test stand for performance measurements with helium and ammonia is described, and results are presented. In spite of the different characteristics of the fluids, the compressor-specific efficiencies (supply characteristic, quality characteristic) were found to be largely identical. The values calculated for helium on the basis of NH3 test runs were found to be realistic, which means that the decades of experience with ammonia in industrial applications can be applied to helium compression as well. The design of screw compressor aggregates (skids) in industrial refrigeration is discussed and illustrated by examples. (orig.)

  18. Robust and parliamentary or informal and participative? The pitfalls of decision-making processes in complex procedures; Robust-parlamentarisch oder informell-partizipativ? Die Tuecken der Entscheidungsfindung in komplexen Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocke, Peter [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technikfolgenabschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS); Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the question whether the site selection decision for a final nuclear waste repository should be a parliamentary representative process or an informal pragmatic process based on public participation. In the frame of the German site selection law possibilities for innovative participation procedures were developed. The pitfalls of decision-making processes in complex procedures are discussed.

  19. Frauen. Kultur. Mittel- und Osteuropa oder: Über den langsamen Einzug der gender studies in die slawistischen Kulturwissenschaften Women. Culture. Middle and Eastern Europe or: On the Slow Introduction of gender studies into the Slavonic Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wurm

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Sammelband, entstanden anläßlich einer Konferenz, die im September 1997 vom Institut für Slawistik der Universität Innsbruck in Zusammenarbeit mit der österreichischen UNESCO-Kommission veranstaltet wurde, untersucht aus soziologischer, kulturhistorischer, literatur- und filmwissenschaftlicher Perspektive verschiedenste Aspekte der Institutionalisierung und Repräsentation von „Frauen in der Kultur“ Mittel- und Osteuropas.This anthology, the result of a conference organized in September 1997 by the Institute for Slavonic studies at the University of Innsbruck in co-operation with the Austrian UNESCO commission, examines various aspects of the institutionalization and representation of women in Middle and Eastern European culture from a sociological and cultural historical perspective and from that of literary and film sciences.

  20. The perfect wave. With neutrinos to the limits of space and time or why particle physics is like surfing. 2 ed.; Die perfekte Welle. Mit Neutrinos an die Grenzen von Raum und Zeit oder warum Teilchenphysik wie Surfen ist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Heinrich [TU Dortmund (Germany). Theoretische Hochenergie- und Astroteilchen-Physik

    2011-07-01

    Heinrich Paes tells the incredible history of the neutrinos. These completely crazy particles present to the physicists the possibly greatest scientific discovery of the century: By latest measurements they exceed in their voyage through the dimension even the light velocity - by Albert Einstein the absolute cosmic tempo limit. Had the greatest physicists of all times been wrong?.

  1. Do we need an emergency planning for contamination with alpha or beta emitting materials and how should this be?; Brauchen wir eine Notfallschutzplanung fuer Kontaminationen mit Alpha- oder Beta-Strahlern und wie soll sie aussehen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Kueppers, Christian [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); Urbach, Michael [Behoerde fuer Umwelt und Energie, Hamburg (Germany). Amt fuer Immissionsschutz und Betriebe; Schnadt, Horst; Lange, Florentin

    2016-07-01

    The emergency planning up to now was geared to the consequences of accidents in nuclear facilities. There were no planning guidelines like the recommendations for emergency planning in the vicinity of nuclear facilities for other radiological incidents. According to article 98 of the new European radiation protection standards the member states have to take care for the preparation of emergency plans fir the case of emergency exposure scenarios. The study discusses several scenarios that might induce alpha or beta contamination, existing approaches for guiding contamination values, intervention benchmarks, protection strategies including continuing public information, selected radionuclides that might be involved, exposure paths, guidance benchmarks for person decontamination, and recommendations for new emergency plans.

  2. Method for the reduction of metallic ores with gases obtained by gasification of solid or liquid fossil fuels. Verfahren fuer die Gasreduktion von Metallerzen unter Verwendung eines durch Vergasung fester oder fluessiger Fossilbrennstoffe gewonnenen Reduziergases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price-Falcon, J F; Martinez-Vera, E R

    1979-10-31

    The reducing gas produced by coal gasification has an unfavourable H/sub 2//CO ratio for the manufacture of spongy iron. In this process, this ratio is improved by the addition of water with catalytic effect on the material containing iron. This reformed gas is introduced to the reduction zone in the same reactor. The reaction speed is increased and the dwell time of the ore is reduced by the higher proportion of H/sub 2/ in the reduction gas. The gas flow is returned to the reactor circuit.

  3. Shared service centre in customer management. An inevitable conglomerate or an evil of the liberalisation of the European energy market?; Shared Service Center Kundenmanagement. Notwendiges Konglomerat oder Fluch der Liberalisierung des Energiemarktes in Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macula, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The degree to which the German legislature intervenes in the organisational structure of power supply companies is unique worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine and describe in detail how these regulatory measures are framed. This scientific inquiry focussed on the planning, implementation and control of shared service centres in power supply companies' customer management. It can already be said that the use of the ''SSC concept'' has led to a more efficient and cost-effective use of customer management among power supply companies and that this contributes to a greater satisfaction on the part of the internal customer. It can be assumed that this concept will gain in popularity, particularly among small-scale power supply companies. These will join forces with partner companies for this purpose in order to streamline processes.

  4. Die kunjugative Verbrückung metallorganischer Reaktionszentren Heterozweikernkomplexen [(OC)3ClRe(.mu.-L)MCl(C5Me5)]+, M=Rh oder Ir Spektroskopische Konsequenzen reduktiver Aktivierung

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaim, W.; Scheiring, T.; Weber, M.; Fiedler, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 630, - (2004), s. 1883-1893 ISSN 0044-2313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D15.10; GA MŠk OC D14.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : electrochemistry * iridium * rhenium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.086, year: 2004

  5. Network or non-network? The status of customer installations in the German Energy Economy Law; Netz oder nicht-Netz? Die Stellung von Kundenanlagen im EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmes, Sebastian [Sozietaet SCHOLTKA und PARTNER Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    It is widespread practice for final consumers to procure their energy supply through the ''private'' installations of third parties, that is, outside the public supply grids. This applies to many industrial sites with their own, historically evolved supply structures but also to airports, office buildings, camping sites and hotels. The regulatory treatment of this category of energy distribution plant is anything but trivial. Until the enactment of the 2011 amendment to the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) these installations were often regarded as object-related networks not amenable to regulation, a position which the European Court of Justice saw as violating European law in some cases. In view of the fact that the successor regulation concerning ''stand-alone distribution networks'' in paragraph 110 EnWG provides little scope for privileges, many today consider the concept of ''customer installation'', which only came under explicit regulation through the 2011 amendment, to be the ideal way to keep these installations clear of regulation. Customer installations do not count as energy distribution plants. One question that yet remains to be defined by law is at what point the regulated grid ends and the customer installation begins. This delimitation is fraught with problems because it touches on many legal concepts requiring interpretation. Another question quite aside from this is whether the legislature might have yet again violated European law through these provisions.

  6. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials; Eskalation des Terrors? Ueber das Anschlagsrisiko mit chemischen, biologischen, radiologischen und nuklearen Waffen oder Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-07-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  7. Blackmail with wilful intent or energy policy with intent? The use of the oil weapon 1973/74 from an Arab point of view; Boeswillige Erpressung oder bewusste Energiepolitik? Der Einsatz der Oelwaffe 1973/74 aus arabischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohensee, J. [IBM Deutschland Informationssysteme GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany). Wissenschaftliches Zentrum

    1993-12-31

    The essay describes the political and economic background of the temporary boycott of oil supplies of the States around the Persian Gulf and the Arab Gulf against the industrial states (esp. the Netherlands and the US). The boycott and its effects and impacts are described. (UA) [Deutsch] Es werden die politischen und wirtschaftlichen Hintergruende des zeitweiligen Boykotts von Oellieferungen seitens der am perisch-arabischen Golf gelegenen Erdoelfoerderlaender gegenueber den Industreistatten, insbesondre den Niederlanden und den USA beleuchtet, weiterhin werden der Verlauf des Boykotts und seine Wirkungen beschrieben. (UA)

  8. Open Internal Market, or rather dictated market structures? The proposed draft amendment of the internal gas market directive of the EU; Freiheitlicher Binnenmarkt oder diktierte Marktstruktur? Zur neuen Gasrichtlinie der EG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, R. [Inst. fuer Politik und Oeffentliches Recht der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The European Commission recently presented a draft amendment of the directives for establishment of the Internal Market in network energy. The proposed amendment brings up many legal and economic issues. The article discusses the major issue, the 'legal unbundling' of interconnected network energy systems, and focuses on the implications of the proposed amendment for the natural gas pools in Europe. (orig./CB) [German] Der Richtlinienvorschlag wirft eine Fuelle rechtlicher wie wirtschaftlicher Probleme auf, in deren Mittelpunkt der Komplex des sog. 'Legal Unbundling', d.h. entsprechender Entflechtungsregelungen gegenueber den integrierten Energieversorgungsunternehmen, steht. Nachstehend wird dieses neue Regelungsvorhaben in seiner speziellen Ausrichtung auf den Gasmarkt innerhalb des EU kommentiert. (orig./CB)

  9. Accident or maltreatment? Radiographic X-ray patterns in non-accidental trauma. The concept of sentinel injuries; Unfall oder Misshandlung? Radiologische Befunde beim nichtakzidentiellen Trauma. Das Konzept der ''sentinel injuries''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, F.W.; Sorge, I.; Roth, C. [Uniklinikum Leipzig AoeR, Abteilung fuer Kinderradiologie, Leipzig (Germany); Gosemann, J.H. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Uniklinikum Leipzig AoeR, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinderchirurgie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The focus of this review article is on child abuse and the radiographic pattern of X-ray findings. The radiologist should be able to recognize typical injuries resulting from child abuse. In some cases the findings are highly specific for abuse and these include metaphyseal corner fractures of the long bones in children aged up to 24 months. In other cases the fractures are not specific but highly indicative of child abuse: rib fractures, for example can be associated with child abuse in more than 50 % of the cases; however, maltreatment is difficult to diagnose without taking the entire pattern of skeletal findings into consideration so that a radiological screening of the entire skeleton is often necessary. The concept of sentinel injuries might be helpful for deciding in which cases a complete skeletal screening should be performed. In the age group up to 24 months old a complete skeletal status (with some exceptions) is recommended if one of the three sentinel injuries of rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and abdominal trauma is present. (orig.) [German] Die Kindesmisshandlung und ihre radiologischen Befundmuster sind Gegenstand dieser Uebersicht. Der Radiologe sollte in der Lage sein, typische Verletzungen als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen. In Einzelfaellen ist der Befund hochspezifisch fuer eine Misshandlung. Hierzu zaehlen z. B. metaphysaere Kantenabsprengungen an den langen Roehrenknochen bei bis 24 Monate alten Kindern. In anderen Faellen sind die Frakturen nicht spezifisch, aber hochsensitiv fuer das Vorliegen einer Misshandlung, z. B. bei Rippenfrakturen, die in ueber 50 % der Faelle mit einer Misshandlung assoziiert sein koennen. Die Misshandlung kann allerdings oft nur aus der Zusammenschau der unterschiedlichen Befunde, also nach Beurteilung des gesamten Skelettstatus, diagnostiziert werden. Fuer die Entscheidung, in welchen Faellen ein kompletter Skelettstatus angefertigt werden sollte, stellt sich das Konzept der ''sentinel injuries'' als hilfreiches Tool heraus. In der Altersgruppe bis 24 Monate wird hierbei (mit Ausnahmen) ein kompletter Skelettstatus bei den 3 ''sentinel injuries'' Rippenfrakturen, intrakranielle Blutung und Abdominaltrauma empfohlen. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear supervision - Administration by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government or direct federal administration for optimum achievement; Atomaufsicht - Bundesautragsverwaltung oder Bundeseigenverwaltung aus der Sicht optimaler Aufgabenerfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renneberg, W. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    One year ago, Federal Minister for the Environment Juergen Trittin expressed doubt about the long-term viability of the federal states' acting on behalf of the federal government in the field of atomic energy law administration. An alternative to this type of administration was mentioned, namely direct execution by the feral government, and a thorough examination was announced. This was to show which type of administration would achieve maximum safety for the residual operating lives of nuclear power plants. Kienbaum Management Consultants were commissioned to evaluate the current status and potential alternative structures. That study was performed within the framework of one of the key projects in reactor safety of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU), namely the reform of nuclear administration. Further steps to be taken by the BMU by the end of this parliamentary term are presented. The federal state are to be approached in an attempt to conduct an unbiased discussion of the pros and cons of the alternatives to administration by the federal states on behalf of the federal government. Questions will be clarified which need to be examined in depth before direct administration by the federal government can be introduced. These include constitutional matters and matters of costing in financing the higher-level federal authority as well as specific questions about the organization of that authority. The purpose is to elaborate, by the end of this parliamentary term, a workable concept of introducing direct federal administration of nuclear safety. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear supervision - Administration by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government or direct federal administration? Evaluation from a practical point of view; Atomaufsicht - Bundesauftragsverwaltung oder Bundeseigenverwaltung? Bewertung aus der Sicht der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloosters, W. [Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Abt. Reaktorsicherheit

    2005-01-01

    The organization of supervisory authorities under the Atomic Energy Act is not a new issue. In fact, it was discussed vehemently in the Federal Republic of Germany as far back as in the early fifties. Federal legislation in late 1959 decided to have the Atomic Energy Act executed in part under direct federal responsibility and, as far as the important supervision of the nuclear power plants operated in the Federal Republic of Germany was concerned, by the federal states on behalf of the federal government. Federal Minister for the Environment Trittin reopened the debate about the organization of nuclear administration by announcing his intention to transfer the supervision of nuclear power plants to direct federal administration. This announcement not only raises the question of legal permissibility of transferring nuclear power plant oversight to federal administration, but also requires a critical review, as presented in this article, of practical regulatory supervision to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. In this connection, both the actual content of supervisory activities and the way in which they are carried out must be examined in an effort to find an answer based on solid premises to the question raised above. For reasons explained in the contribution, oversight of nuclear power plants cannot be carried out as a centralized function. Instead, the legislative decision of 1959 in favor of the federal states exercising supervision on behalf of the federal government continues to be correct at the present stage also in the light of the steps initiated to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. (orig.)

  12. Different dose-dependent effects of hydrogen sulfide on ischemia-reperfusion induced acute kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that different doses of Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS can play diverse role in renal ischemia reperfusion injury. However, NaHS in the low-doses could protect the kidney from the RIR injury, in a higher dose NaHS exaggerated the renal function by increases plasma creatinine and BUN. Therefore, determining of the therapeutic doses of NaHS may be important in the protection of kidney from the RIR injury.

  13. Single site mutations in the hetero-oligomeric Mrp antiporter from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 that affect Na+/H+ antiport activity, sodium exclusion, individual Mrp protein levels, or Mrp complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Ono, Tomohiro; Swartz, Talia H; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Mrp systems are widely distributed and structurally complex cation/proton antiporters. Antiport activity requires hetero-oligomeric complexes of all six or seven hydrophobic Mrp proteins (MrpA-MrpG). Here, a panel of site-directed mutants in conserved or proposed motif residues was made in the Mrp Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter from an alkaliphilic Bacillus. The mutant operons were expressed in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc and assessed for antiport properties, support of sodium resistance, membrane levels of each Mrp protein, and presence of monomeric and dimeric Mrp complexes. Antiport did not depend on a VFF motif or a conserved tyrosine pair, but a role for a conserved histidine in a potential quinone binding site of MrpA was supported. The importance of several acidic residues for antiport was confirmed, and the importance of additional residues was demonstrated (e.g. three lysine residues conserved across MrpA, MrpD, and membrane-bound respiratory Complex I subunits (NuoL/M/N)). The results extended indications that MrpE is required for normal membrane levels of other Mrp proteins and for complex formation. Moreover, mutations in several other Mrp proteins lead to greatly reduced membrane levels of MrpE. Thus, changes in either of the two Mrp modules, MrpA-MrpD and MrpE-MrpG, influence the other. Two mutants, MrpB-P37G and MrpC-Q70A, showed a normal phenotype but lacked the MrpA-MrpG monomeric complex while retaining the dimeric hetero-oligomeric complex. Finally, MrpG-P81A and MrpG-P81G mutants exhibited no antiport activity but supported sodium resistance and a low [Na(+)](in). Such mutants could be used to screen hypothesized but uncharacterized sodium efflux functions of Mrp apart from Na(+) (Li(+))/H(+) antiport.

  14. Single Gene Deletions of mrpA to mrpG and mrpE Point Mutations Affect Activity of the Mrp Na+/H+ Antiporter of Alkaliphilic Bacillus and Formation of Hetero-Oligomeric Mrp Complexes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Swartz, Talia H.; Krulwich, Terry A.; Ito, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Mrp antiporters catalyze secondary Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport and/or K+/H+ antiport that is physiologically important in diverse bacteria. An additional capacity for anion flux has been observed for a few systems. Mrp is unique among antiporters in that it requires all six or seven hydrophobic gene products (MrpA to MrpG) of the mrp operon for full antiporter activity, but MrpE has been reported to be dispensable. Here, the membrane complexes formed by Mrp proteins were examined using a cloned mrp ...

  15. Single Site Mutations in the Hetero-oligomeric Mrp Antiporter from Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 That Affect Na+/H+ Antiport Activity, Sodium Exclusion, Individual Mrp Protein Levels, or Mrp Complex Formation*

    OpenAIRE

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Ono, Tomohiro; Swartz, Talia H.; Krulwich, Terry A.; Ito, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Mrp systems are widely distributed and structurally complex cation/proton antiporters. Antiport activity requires hetero-oligomeric complexes of all six or seven hydrophobic Mrp proteins (MrpA–MrpG). Here, a panel of site-directed mutants in conserved or proposed motif residues was made in the Mrp Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter from an alkaliphilic Bacillus. The mutant operons were expressed in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc and assessed for antiport properties, support of sodium resista...

  16. Differences in the phenotypic effects of mutations in homologous MrpA and MrpD subunits of the multi-subunit Mrp-type Na+/H+ antiporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Masato; Ogoda, Shinichiro; Krulwich, Terry Ann; Ito, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Mrp antiporters are the sole antiporters in the Cation/Proton Antiporter 3 family of transporter databases because of their unusual structural complexity, 6-7 hydrophobic proteins that function as a hetero-oligomeric complex. The two largest and homologous subunits, MrpA and MrpD, are essential for antiport activity and have direct roles in ion transport. They also show striking homology with proton-conducting, membrane-embedded Nuo subunits of respiratory chain complex I of bacteria, e.g., Escherichia coli. MrpA has the closest homology to the complex I NuoL subunit and MrpD has the closest homology to the complex I NuoM and N subunits. Here, introduction of mutations in MrpD, in residues that are also present in MrpA, led to defects in antiport function and/or complex formation. No significant phenotypes were detected in strains with mutations in corresponding residues of MrpA, but site-directed changes in the C-terminal region of MrpA had profound effects, showing that the MrpA C-terminal region has indispensable roles in antiport function. The results are consistent with a divergence in adaptations that support the roles of MrpA and MrpD in secondary antiport, as compared to later adaptations supporting homologs in primary proton pumping by the respiratory chain complex I.

  17. [Pt(O,O’-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] Alters SH-SY5Y Cell Migration and Invasion by the Inhibition of Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Occurring through a PKC-ε/ERK/mTOR Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Calabriso, Nadia; Cossa, Luca Giulio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that [Pt(O,O’-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(acac)2(DMS)]) exerted substantial cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and decreased metalloproteases (MMPs) production and cells migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ubiquitously distributed sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is involved in motility and invasion of many solid tumours. The present study focuses on the effects of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] in SH-SY5Y cell migration and also on the possibility that NHE1 may be involved in such effect. After sublethal [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] treatment cell migration was examined by wounding assay and cell invasion by transwell assay. NHE1 activity was measured in BCECF-loaded SH-SY5Y as the rate of Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2/9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, mTOR, S6 and PKCs and small interfering RNAs to PKC-ε/-δ mRNA were performed. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] decreases NHE1 activity, inhibites cell migration and invasion and decreases expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] administered to SH-SY5Y cells provokes the increment of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase, responsible for the PKC-ε and PKC-δ activation. Whilst PKC-δ activates p38/MAPK, responsible for the inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 secretion, PKC-ε activates a pathway made of ERK1/2, mTOR and S6K responsible for the inhibition of NHE1 activity and cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown a drastic impairment in tumour cell metastatization in response to inhibition of NHE1 and MMPs activities by [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] occurring through a novel mechanism mediated by PKC-δ/-ε activation. PMID:25372487

  18. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] alters SH-SY5Y cell migration and invasion by the inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 occurring through a PKC-ε/ERK/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, Antonella; Vetrugno, Carla; Calabriso, Nadia; Cossa, Luca Giulio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(acac)2(DMS)]) exerted substantial cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and decreased metalloproteases (MMPs) production and cells migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The ubiquitously distributed sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is involved in motility and invasion of many solid tumours. The present study focuses on the effects of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] in SH-SY5Y cell migration and also on the possibility that NHE1 may be involved in such effect. After sublethal [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] treatment cell migration was examined by wounding assay and cell invasion by transwell assay. NHE1 activity was measured in BCECF-loaded SH-SY5Y as the rate of Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Gelatin zymography for MMP-2/9 activities, Western blottings of MMPs, MAPKs, mTOR, S6 and PKCs and small interfering RNAs to PKC-ε/-δ mRNA were performed. Sublethal concentrations of [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] decreases NHE1 activity, inhibits cell migration and invasion and decreases expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] administered to SH-SY5Y cells provokes the increment of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase, responsible for the PKC-ε and PKC-δ activation. Whilst PKC-δ activates p38/MAPK, responsible for the inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 secretion, PKC-ε activates a pathway made of ERK1/2, mTOR and S6K responsible for the inhibition of NHE1 activity and cell migration. In conclusion, we have shown a drastic impairment in tumour cell metastatization in response to inhibition of NHE1 and MMPs activities by [Pt(acac)2(DMS)] occurring through a novel mechanism mediated by PKC-δ/-ε activation.

  19. Revoluce odkládá sametový háv. Erotika a nahé tělo v českém veřejném prostoru po roce 1989

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gjuričová, Adéla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 11 (2011), s. 40-43 ISSN 0418-5129 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/0423 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : body * public space * Czechoslovakia after 1989 Subject RIV: AB - History

  20. Trommel

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Schlaginstrumente (von mittelhochdt.: tru[m]me, trumel, trumbel [lautmalerisch]), bei denen über einem meist zylindrischen Korpus (Zarge) aus Holz oder, seit dem 18. Jh. üblich, aus Metall an einer oder beiden Öffnungen ein (Tier-)Fell gespannt ist und welche mit T.-Stöcken (meist aus Holz oder Elfenbein), Schlägeln oder Händen gespielt werden.

  1. New naphthalene whole-cell bioreporter for measuring and assessing naphthalene in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Wei E; Zhang, Huichun

    2017-11-01

    A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples. This whole-cell bioreporter did not respond to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) and demonstrated a positive response in the presence of 0.01 μM naphthalene, showing high specificity and sensitivity. The bioluminescent response was quantitatively measured after a 4 h exposure to naphthalene, and the model simulation further proved the naphthalene metabolism dynamics and the salicylate-activation mechanisms. The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter also achieved a rapid evaluation of the naphthalene in the PAH-contaminated site after chemical spill accidents, showing high consistency with chemical analysis. The engineered Acinetobacter variant had significant advantages in rapid naphthalene detection in the laboratory and potential in situ detection. The state-of-the-art concept of cloning PAHs-degrading pathway in salicylate bioreporter hosts led to the construction and assembly of high-throughput PAH bioreporter array, capable of crude oil contamination assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Teuer war gestern und wir lieben billig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Kanonischerweise werden Qualitätsadjektive wie teuer oder billig attributiv oder prädikativ verwendet, um einem anderen Referenten die betreffende Eigenschaft zuzuschreiben. Im heutigen Deutsch werden Qualitätsadjektive jedoch auch unflektiert als Subjekte, Objekte oder Komplemente einer Präposit...... Qualitätsadjektive und zeigt, dass die Konstruktion keine Ellipse darstellt....

  3. Electromagnetic converters and sensors. Fundamentals, fieldnumerical calculation of electromagnetic fields and application in mechatronics. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Elektromagnetische Wandler und Sensoren. Grundlagen, feldnumerische Berechnung elektromagnetischer Felder und Anwendungen in der Mechatronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassing, W.; Stanek, W.; Erd, L.; Huebner, K.D.; Koch, J.; Dukart, A.

    2002-07-01

    Electrodynamic theories and calculation methods are discussed with particular regard to permanent electromagnetic circuits in mechatronics. Design strategies and computer calculation methods are explained by examples and applied to magnetic sensors, e.g. in automotive, electrically switched permanent magnet systems and actuators. The theoretical background is based primarily on the complete Maxwell's equations with their interdisciplinary related fields and up to compact formulations for use in relativistic quantum electrodynamics. [German] In diesem Fachbuch werden elektrodynamische Theorien und verschiedene Berechnungsverfahren unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung dauerelektromagnetischer Kreise in der Mechatronik behandelt. An ausgewaehlten Berechnungsbeispielen werden die wichtigsten Entwurfsstrategien und computerorientierten Rechenverfahren erlaeutert und auf magnetische Sensoren u.a. aus dem Bereich Automotive, elektrisch schaltbare Dauermagnetsysteme und Aktuatoren angewendet. Der theoretische Hintergrund hierfuer sind vorrangig die kompletten Maxwell'schen Gleichungen mit interdisziplinaeren Nachbargebieten bis hin zu kompakten Formulierungen fuer die relativistische Quantenelektrodynamik. (orig.)

  4. Neonatal Adrenal Hemorrhage Associated with Scrotal Hematoma: An Unusual Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Lai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage (NAH is rare and is found in only 0.2% of newborns. Scrotal hematoma (SH in newborns is also rare. NAH associated with SH is extremely rare, with only 29 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a baby boy who presented with SH; after ultrasonography examinations, the diagnosis of NAH associated with SH was made. He received conservative treatment only. From our experience and that of others, appropriate integration of clinical information, physical examination and the results of abdominal and scrotal ultrasonography can achieve the accurate diagnosis of NAH associated with SH. This association allows conservative treatment that avoids unnecessary surgical exploration.

  5. Die Rolle von Charaktereigenschaften, Umwelt und dem Genpolymorphismus des Serotonintransporters bei der Entstehung on Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Hintergrund und Ziele Weltweit sind derzeit 121 Millionen Menschen von Depressionen betroffen. Unter diesem Krankheitsbild versteht man einen Verlust von Interesse oder Freude, depressive Verstimmung, Müdigkeit und Energieverlust, verminderte Denk- und Entscheidungsfähigkeit, Unruhe oder Verlangsamung, aber auch körperliche Symptome wie Schlafstörungen oder Appetitverlust gehören dazu. Je nach Schwere und Ausprägungsgrad der Erkrankung sind die Betroffenen in ihrem Lebensalltag enorm beei...

  6. Analyse und Konstruktion blinder interaktiver Signaturen

    OpenAIRE

    Fremdt, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Eine der zentralen Errungenschaften der Public-Key-Kryptographie ist die Möglichkeit, digitale Signaturen zu realisieren. Diese werden heute einerseits als alleine stehendes Primitiv zur Authentifikation von Personen oder Nachrichten angewendet. Andererseits gibt es zahlreiche Vorschläge für komplexe kryptographische Anwendungen, wie z.B. elektronische Geldsysteme oder elektronische Wahlen, welche digitale Signaturen oder Varianten von digitalen Signaturen als Bausteine verwenden. Von besonde...

  7. Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung von Selen-Spezies in human-biologischem Material

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selen ist essentieller Bestandteil von mehr als 25 physiologisch wichtigen menschlichen Enzymen. Der tägliche Bedarf wird überwiegend in Form von organischen Selenverbindungen wie Selenmethionin oder Selenocystein aus der Nahrung aufgenommen. Weitere Expositionswege sind die Einnahme von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln zur Selensupplementation sowie die inhalative oder dermale Aufnahme von in erster Linie anorganischen Selenverbindungen oder elementarem Selen an Arbeitsplätzen der Selen-verarbeiten...

  8. Isolation and preliminary function analysis of a Na + /H + antiporter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA Na+/H+ antiporter gene (MzNHX1) was isolated from Malus zumi according to the homologous Na+/H+ antiporter gene region in plants. Sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA was 2062 bp in length, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1629 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 542 ...

  9. Near field acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method and pressure-velocity transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recen...... generated by sources on the two sides of the hologram plane is also examined....

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2526 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2526 ref|ZP_00371235.1| NA+/H+ antiporter (napA) [Campylobacter upsaliens...is RM3195] gb|EAL53227.1| NA+/H+ antiporter (napA) [Campylobacter upsaliensis RM3195] ZP_00371235.1 0.025 22% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1301 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1301 ref|YP_063833.1| Na+/H+ antiporter [Desulfotalea psychrophila LSv...54] emb|CAG34826.1| probable Na+/H+ antiporter [Desulfotalea psychrophila LSv54] YP_063833.1 7e-79 53% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0021 ref|YP_001140588.1| Na+/H antiporter NhaA [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmon...icida A449] gb|ABO88840.1| Na+/H antiporter NhaA [Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449] YP_001140588.1 1e-123 94% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1346 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1346 ref|NP_939160.1| Na(+)/H(+) antiporter homolog [Corynebacterium diphtheria...e NCTC 13129] emb|CAE49312.1| Na(+)/H(+) antiporter homolog [Corynebacterium diphtheriae] NP_939160.1 2e-34 34% ...

  14. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters play important roles in cellular ion homeostasis,vacuolar pH regulation and sequestration of Na+ ions into the vacuole. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na+/H+ transporting activity. In this study, we truncated the ...

  15. Hydrogen vacancies facilitate hydrogen transport kinetics in sodium hydride nanocrystallites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Eijt, S.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory, of the vacancy-mediated hydrogen migration energy in bulk NaH and near the NaH(001) surface. The estimated rate of the vacancy mediated hydrogen transport, obtained within a hopping diffusion model, is consistent with the reaction

  16. Gaming supports youth with aquired brain injury? : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karen van Stein Callenfels; A.J. (Arend) de Kloet; Inge Verhoeven; M.A.M. (Monique) Berger; Thea Vliet Vlieland

    2012-01-01

    De incidentie van niet aangeboren hersenletsel (NAH) bij personen in de leeftijd tot 25 jaar in Nederland is aanzienlijk, met ca. 18.000 nieuwe gevallen per jaar. Kinderen en jongeren met NAH hebben naast fysieke, cognitieve en emotionele beperkingen, een significant lager niveau van sociale

  17. CO{sub 2}-effective protection against scaling in solar installations. Physical scale protection: mumbo-jumbo or reality? Experience gained in a research project; CO{sub 2}-Effizienter Kalkschutz bei Solaranlagen. Physikalischer Kalkschutz: Hokuspokus oder Realitaet? Erfahrungen aus einem Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, U.

    2000-07-01

    This paper takes a look at two methods used to prevent the scaling-up of flat-plate heat-exchangers often used in large solar installations. The mechanisms involved in the development of 'hardness' in water and the precipitation of scale are described and the problems caused by the latter are discussed. The first method for fighting scale discussed is the controlled addition of carbon dioxide to the water passing through the heat-exchanger. An example of the use of this method in a solar plant with 94 m{sup 2} of vacuum collectors and 17,000 litres of storage is given. The second method of reducing scaling discussed is the treatment of the water with electromagnetic fields. The various types of units available (permanent magnets, electrodes, AC-driven apparatus) are briefly described and compared. Work done and the results obtained in a research project using an AC-based system are described in detail.

  18. Method for the production of solid hydroxides contained in mineral oils, mineral oil-like materials or mineral oil-containing materials and uses of products thus obtained. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Mineraloele, mineraloelaehnliche Stoffe oder mineraloelhaltige Stoffe enthaltenden festen Hydroxiden sowie die Verwendung danach erhaltener Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelsing, F

    1975-07-29

    A method has been developed which permits mineral oils, mineral oil-like substances or mineral oil-containing substances (eg waste oil) to be separated in powder form, even when these substance are present in a continuous phase with water (for example, oil slurries). A compound (eg. line) which forms a hydroxide with water is added, the formed hydroxide then acts as carrier substance. Prerequisite for obtaining the end-product in powdered form is that the homogeneous mixing of the oil-containing substance and hydroxide-forming substance takes place at a faster rate than the necessary auxilliary reaction, namely hydroxide formation, and further that water in present in at least stoichiometric quantities. The powdered end-product finds numerous applications eg. road construction, soil conditioning and compacting, recultivation measures in cement manufacture, and others.

  19. The intestinal leiomyoblastoma and its classification as benign or malignant neoplasm; Report on a rare case of benign multiple leiomyosarcoma finally developing into a malignant tumour. Intestinales Leiomyoblastom - gutartig oder boesartig; Der seltene Fall eines gutartigen Leiomyoblastoms mit dreifacher Lokalisation und einer protrahierten malignen Entartung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A. (Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Krankenanstalten Konstanz (Germany)); Lieke, M. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Mundinger, A. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Adler, H.P. (Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    A symptom-causing duodenal stenosis diagnosed in a 47-year-old patient was found to be attributable to a malignant leiomyoblastoma. Ultrasonography, computerized tomography and MRI permitted a space-occupying process to be detected in the duodenum and a further tumour in the jejunum could be revealed by examinations of gastrointestinal transit. The presence of a total of three substantial tumours, one each in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, was however proven by angiography alone. (orig./MG)

  20. Computer programs for waste disposal; Rapid detection of damage or accidents and guides to the treatment of wastes, waste water and sewage sludges. Computerprogramme fuer die Entsorgung; Schnelles Erkennen von Schaeden oder Unfaellen und Wegweiser bei der Behandlung von Abfall, Abwasser und Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, A.S.

    1993-09-01

    Those responsible for the disposal of wastes often surrender to the numerous waste disposal laws and ordinances. Computer programs are useful tools which help to manage the required formalities. The present state of user programs is outlined. (orig./BBR)

  1. Design fault at more than 600,000 modules. Suncycle repairs defective Scheuten modules - at the expense of the customer or product liability; Designfehler an ueber 600.000 Modulen. Suncycle repariert mangelhafte Scheuten-Module - zu Lasten der Kunden oder der Produkthaftpflicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutschmann, Ines

    2013-01-15

    In the last summer, a serial fault in the production of Scheuten modules came to be known. This serial fault already has caused a lot of fires. From the view of the successor company of the insolvent manufacturer, this could be a design fault: All connector boxes of the type Solexus had a contact problem sooner or later. The repair process of the service provider Suncycle GmbH (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) shall be used to repair 644,575 modules. If a plant very flammable, the liability insurance of the producer has to pay for all costs.

  2. Theoretical and experimental investigations of on-board control of combustion air and/or fuel for emission reduction in internal combustion engines. Final report; Durchfuehrung theoretischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen zu den Moeglichkeiten der On-Board-Beeinflussung der Verbrennungsluftzusammensetzung und/oder des Kraftstoffs fuer Verbrennungsmotoren mit dem Ziel der Emissionsminderung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velji, A.; Hofmann, U.

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made in order to find the optimal composition of combustion air for simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions. The effect was found to be in the same order of magnitude as with exhaust recirculation. 'Optimized' air should have an oxygen content of more than 20 percent and a CO2 content of more than 10 percent, with nitrogen more or less accounting for the rest. [German] Ausgehend von der Abgasrueckfuehrung wurde in theoretischen und experimentellen Untersuchungen die optimale Zusammensetzung der Verbrennungsluft zur gleichzeitigen Reduktion der NO{sub x}- und Partikelemission ermittelt. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es mit dieser Verbrennungsluft moeglich ist, eine aehnlich hohe NO{sub x}-Reduktion wie bei der Abgasrueckfuehrung zu erzielen, ohne dass die Partikelemission drastisch ansteigt. Die 'optimale' Verbrennungsluft muss einen Sauerstoffgehalt groesser als 20% und einen CO{sub 2}-Gehalt groesser als 10% aufweisen. Der Rest besteht im Wesentlichen aus Stickstoff. (orig.)

  3. Process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Filterstoffes zur Reinigung von industriellen oder Brennkraftmaschinen-Abgasen und ein hiernach hergestellter Filterstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumbalek, A.

    1986-01-02

    This is a process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. The filter material is manufactured from the mineralized combustion product of peel of tropical fruits burnt at a temperature of 820/sup 0/C to 840/sup 0/C in an oxidising atmosphere excluding the production of carbon, particularly using banana skins and orange peels, which product is granulated with carrier materials or compressed.

  4. The nuclear detectives. The international atomic energy agency IAEA is supposed to trace countries that produce or disseminate nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. A team from Juelich is supporting the process; Die Nukleardetektive. Die internationale Atomenergie-Organisation IAEO soll Staaten aufspueren, die heimlich nukleares Material fuer Atomwaffen herstellen oder verbreiten. Ein Juelicher Team unterstuetzt sie dabei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Frank

    2015-07-01

    The Juelich Team is part of the International Standing Advisory Group on Safeguard Implementation that is supposed to find violations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Using wipe cloth in nuclear facilities it is possible to find uranium or plutonium containing particles. The study of the isotopic composition of uranium particles allows the identification of the uranium enrichment in the facility. In Juelich reference uranium particles with defined isotopic composition are produced for calibration purposes. The Juelich team supporting IAEA is also developing computer programs for the automatic processing of satellite data with respect to nuclear facilities.

  5. Climate protection by means of waste management or waste management by means of climate protection? About the financial sustainability of advanced waste management systems in developing countries, emerging countries and transformation countries; Klimaschutz durch Abfallwirtschaft oder Abfallwirtschaft durch Klimaschutz? Zur finanziellen Nachhaltigkeit fortschrittliche Abfallwirtschaftssysteme in Entwicklungs-, Schwellen- und Transformationslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaff-Simoneit, Wolfgang [KfW Entwicklungsbank, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Nassour, Abdallah; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Fricke, Klaus [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Leichtweiss-Institut; Mutz, Dieter [GIZ, Indo-German Environment Partnership (IGEP) Programme, New Delhi (India)

    2012-09-15

    Almost all projects in solid waste management (SWM) implemented in developing, emerging and transition countries (DETC) envisage the disposal of residual waste on a landfill. In view of the increasing shortage of resources and climate change leading environmental experts recommend the implementation of advanced solid waste management (SWM) systems even in DETC. In doing this these countries could lower their national greenhouse gas balance by 10-15 %. The provision of low-interest credits or even grants alone can not secure financial sustainability of advanced SWM systems in DETC. SWM systems require steady and reliable revenues to cover the operating cost. Levying user fees faces serious restrictions in DETC. Financial compensations for the greenhouse gas reduction effects of advanced SWM systems could - depending on type of SWM concept and frame conditions - could cover between 30 % and 50 % of the total cost. The appropriate remuneration of these greenhouse gas reduction efforts turns out as the crucial question for guaranteeing financial sustainability of advanced SWM in DETC. To the extent industrialized countries meet their commitments given in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto-Protocol and other international agreements on climate change, DETC with a GDP of about more than 2.000 EUR per cap and year could afford advanced SWM systems. Besides that DETC have to be supported in a holistic approach with technology transfer, capacity building and the development of conducive framework conditions in order to develop their own technological competence in the long run.

  6. Kurokawa's secret. Or: Why you need lemonade to feed more than 10 kW of solar power into the public grid; Kurokawas Geheimnis. Oder: Warum man in Japan Brause braucht, um mehr als zehn Kilowatt Solarstrom ans Netz zu bringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.

    2011-05-15

    Japan was among the first countries to think about solar power in gigawatt dimensions, but then the country opted increasingly for nuclear power. Now, after the earthquake and tsunami in March and with the ongoing nuclear catastrophe, there appears to be a renaissance of renewable energy sources and especially photovoltaic conversion. To make it happen, the government must take steps and permit competition in the energy market.

  7. Three ways to storage solution. ''Lead or Lithium?''. This is not the only basic issue in a storage system; Drei Wege zur Speicherloesung. ''Blei oder Lithium?'' Dies ist nicht die einzige Grundsatzfrage bei einem Speichersystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, Philippe; Siemer, Jochen

    2013-06-15

    The number of solar power storage systems offered is now in the hundreds, if one includes all possible product combinations. We show in the following pages a selection of examples of typical solutions, which are by the KfW program ''Renewable Energy - Storage'' eligible''. With various modifications, they can be divided into three groups: battery inverter with built-in storage, external storage on the DC side of the PV system and stand-alone systems on AC power. [German] Die Zahl der angebotenen Solarstromspeichersysteme geht mittlerweile in die Hunderte, wenn man alle moeglichen Produktkombinationen einbezieht. Wir zeigen auf den folgenden Seiten eine exemplarische Auswahl an typischen Loesungen, die mittels KfW-Programm ''Erneuerbare Energien - Speicher'' foerderfaehig sind. Mit diversen Modifikationen lassen sie sich in drei Gruppen einteilen: Akkuwechselrichter mit integriertem Speicher, externe Speicher an der Gleichstromseite der Photovoltaikanlage und Stand-alone-Systeme am Wechselstromnetz.

  8. HIT-Sanyo: Revolutionary technology, what is the truth and what a hoax? New technology from Japan tested in Germany; ''Sanyo-HIT: Revolutionaere Technik oder mehr Schein als Sein?''. Neue Technik aus Japan in Deutschland erprobt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, T. [Atmosphaere GmbH, Laatzen (Germany); Kohake, D. [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik; Rossner, M. [Fachhochschule Coburg (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informatik

    2004-07-01

    The new modules from Japanese manufacturer Sanyo with the HIT-Technology are supposed to have the worlds best efficiency. In addition the manufacturer claims that by the HIT-Technology the modules supply more energy output compared to conventional crystalline solar modules. This article tries to prove these statements by outdoor investigation. Measurements of one grid connected system, which contains Sanyo, Kyocera and Ersol modules, show that Sanyo modules have at least 7% more energy output than the other modules. DC-measurements at Sanyo and BP modules even prove that due to the low temperature coefficient the Sanyo modules cope better with high cell temperatures compared to the BP ones. In addition the inspection sheets given by Sanyo seem to contain lower power data than determined in field measurements which may be caused by the different spectral consistence of the test light in Japan. The data collected during the second half of 2003 reveals that systems with Sanyo modules can provide 7% and more plus of energy output than systems with other well-known modules. Nevertheless it will be interesting to gather long time data of plants with Sanyo modules in order to achieve a statement of how the energy output evolves during the period of at least one year. (orig.)

  9. Electricity imports from outside the Community in the EC Internal Market in electricity. Commercial policy of the EC, a subject matter of the EU internal electricity market Directive, or within national law-making competence of the EU member states?; Stromimporte aus Drittstaaten im EG-Binnenmarkt fuer Energie. Handelspolitik der EG, Gegenstand der Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien oder eigene Regelungszustaendigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Voelkerrecht, Euoparecht und Auslaendisches Oeffentliches Recht

    2000-07-01

    The author analyses in great depth the applicable laws and regulations as well as the Treaty of Rome in connection with the question of whether the implementation of the EU IEM Directive and the deregulation of electricity markets of EU member states really weakened the legal position of EC member states vis a vis non-member states to the extent that Community members have no means to defend themselves against dumping practices of electricity traders from outside the Community. The concluding statement of the legal analysis is that the EC member states do have the right to use the legal provisions governing competitive electricity trade inside the Community as well in dealing with traders from outside the Community. (orig./CB) [German] Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage, ob die Herstellung des Binnenmarkts fuer Elektrizitaet tatsaechlich dazu gefuehrt hat, dass Importeure aus Drittstaaten von den Mitgliedstaaten der Gemeinschaft in keiner Weise mehr beschraenkt werden koennen. Eine genauere Untersuchung der einschlaegigen Bestimmungen des EGV und des Sekundaerrechts ergibt ein differenziertes Bild; in jedem Fall sind die Mitgliedstaaten berechtigt, Beschraenkungen, die die Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien im Verhaeltnis zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten zulassen, auch im Verhaeltnis zu Drittstaaten anzuwenden. (orig./CB)

  10. Investigation of possible primary energy conservation using different coupling scenarios of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery on processes of space - and service water heating.; Untersuchung der erzielbaren Primaerenergieeinsparung bei unterschiedlichen Kopplungsvarianten mechanischer Lueftungsanlagen mit Waermerueckgewinnung an Verfahren zur Heizenergiebereitstellung und/oder Brauchwassererwaermung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, F.; Bruckmann, O.

    2001-07-01

    The criteria for acceptance testing of ventilation systems with integrated heat recovery were specified by the Deutsches Institut fuer Bautechnik (DIBt), Berlin, for systems for heat supply to the fresh air stream (air-to-air systems). This includes requirements on the test facilities of the technical inspection services, e.g. test stand layout and measuring systems to ensure a standard accuracy. The contribution describes these requirements for the example of the test facility of the Institute of Applied Thermodynamics and Air Conditioning Engineering at Essen University. (orig.) [German] Die Pruefkriterien fuer Zulassungspruefungen von Wohnungslueftungsgeraeten mit Waermerueckgewinnung wurden, zumindest sofern es Geraete zur Waermeuebertragung an den Zuluftstrom betrifft (Luft/Luft-Technik), vom Deutschen Institut fuer Bautechnik (DIBt) in Berlin verbindlich festgelegt. Hiermit verbunden sind nicht zuletzt die Anforderungen an die Versuchsstaende der Pruefstellen zur Durchfuehrung dieser Zulassungspruefungen hinsichtlich des Aufbaus und der einzusetzenden Messtechnik, bzw. der zu erzielenden Messgenauigkeit. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt diese Anforderungen am Beispiel des Pruefstandes des Instituts fuer Angewandte Thermodynamik und Klimatechnik an der Universitaet Essen. (orig.)

  11. Combined Therapy of Septicemia with Ofloxacin and/or Synthetic Trehalose Dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) in Irradiated and Wounded Mice (Die Kombinierte Therapie der Septikaemie mit Ofloxacin und/oder Synthetischem Trehalose- Dicorynomycolat (S-TDCM) bei Bestrahlten und Verwundeten Maeusen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    ceptibility to bacterial infection from either endogenous or exogenous origin. Treatment with ofloxacin or synthetic trehalose dicorynemycolate (S...sterile. pyrogen -free water and was in- C3H-l :fN female mice (8 - 12 weeks) were jected into mice (0.l1 ml’mouse. s.c.) at adose or given a whole

  12. Aufklärungspflichten über Innenprovisionen, Kick-backs und Retrozessionen bei der Kapitalanlage

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Gegenstand der Arbeit Das Phänomen der Innenprovisionen - auch Kick-backs, Rückvergütungen oder Retrozessionen genannt - ist im Bereich der Kapitalanlage weit verbreitet. Dabei erhält z.B. der Vermittler eines Anlageproduktes oder ein Vermögensverwalter vom Anlageanbieter bzw. einem sonstigen Dritten eine Provision für die Vermittlung bzw. das Erwerben oder "Halten" eines bestimmten Produktes. Der Anleger, welcher den Vermittler oder Vermögensverwalter beauftragt hat, ist sich herkömmlich...

  13. Hassrede und Katzenbilder : Wie können im globalen Netz nationale Gesetze respektiert werden?

    OpenAIRE

    Kettemann, Matthias C.

    2017-01-01

    Der Zugang zum Internet ist die Voraussetzung, um online aktiv zu sein, zu kommunizieren oder einzukaufen. Zugang allein reicht aber nicht: Erst sogenannte Internet-Intermediäre (oder Internet-Inhalt-Vermittler) wie Google, Facebook oder Amazon ermöglichen es, das Internet zu nutzen, um über Social Media zu kommunizieren, auf Musik, Filme und Texte zuzugreifen oder überhaupt erst via Suchmaschine passende Online-Angebote ausfindig zu machen. Intermediäre verbinden Nutzer mit dem Internet, sie...

  14. [Thiele, C. Minderheitenschutz in Estland : werden die Rechtsnormen der politischen Wirklichkeit gerecht?] / Г. Андреева

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Андреева, Г. Н.

    2002-01-01

    Tutv. art.: Thiele, Carmen. Minderheitenschutz in Estland : werden die Rechtsnormen der politischen Wirklichkeit gerecht? // Moderner Minderheitenschutz : rechtliche oder politische Absicherung? Bonn, 1998, lk. 185-194

  15. The administration of hydrogen sulphide prior to ischemic reperfusion has neuroprotective effects in an acute stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Woong Woo

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S may alleviate the cellular damage associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. In this study, we assessed using 1H-magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRI/MRS and histologic analysis whether H2S administration prior to reperfusion has neuroprotective effects. We also evaluated for differences in the effects of H2S treatment at 2 time points. 1H-MRI/MRS data were obtained at baseline, and at 3, 9, and 24 h after ischemia from 4 groups: sham, control (I/R injury, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS-30 and NaHS-1 (NaHS delivery at 30 and 1 min before reperfusion, respectively. The total infarct volume and the midline shift at 24 h post-ischemia were lowest in the NaHS-1, followed by the NaHS-30 and control groups. Peri-infarct volume was significantly lower in the NaHS-1 compared to NaHS-30 and control animals. The relative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in the peri-infarct region showed that the NaHS-1 group had significantly lower values compared to the NaHS-30 and control animals and that NaHS-1 rats showed significantly higher relative T2 values in the peri-infarct region compared to the controls. The relative ADC value, relative T2 value, levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA, and the NAA, glutamate, and taurine combination score (NGT in the ischemic core region at 24 h post-ischemia did not differ significantly between the 2 NaHS groups and the control except that the NAA and NGT values were higher in the peri-infarct region of the NaHS-1 animals at 9 h post-ischemia. In the ischemic core and peri-infarct regions, the apoptosis rate was lowest in the NaHS-1 group, followed by the NaHS-30 and control groups. Our results suggest that H2S treatment has neuroprotective effects on the peri-infarct region during the evolution of I/R injury. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the administration of H2S immediately prior to reperfusion produces the

  16. Černá vlajka pirátů znovu nahání strach? Opatření proti pirátství a ozbrojenému lupičství na moři na začátku 21. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2009), s. 193-197 ISSN 1213-5313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : maritime law * public international law * fight against piracy Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  17. Vasoconstriction triggered by hydrogen sulfide: Evidence for Na+,K+,2Cl-cotransport and L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Gusakova, Svetlana V; Smaglii, Liudmila V; Koltsova, Svetlana V; Sidorenko, Svetalana V

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na + /K + -pump and Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the 86 Rb influx, respectively. NaHS exhibited the bimodal action on contractions triggered by modest depolarization ([K + ] o =30 mM). At 10 -4 M, NaHS augmented contractions of intact and endothelium-denuded strips by ~ 15% and 25%, respectively, whereas at concentration of 10 -3  M it decreased contractile responses by more than two-fold. Contractions evoked by 10 -4  M NaHS were completely abolished by bumetanide, a potent inhibitor of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport, whereas the inhibition seen at 10 -3  M NaHS was suppressed in the presence of K + channel blocker TEA. In cultured SMC, 5×10 -5  M NaHS increased Na + ,K + ,2Cl - - cotransport without any effect on the activity of this carrier in endothelial cells. In depolarized SMC, 45 Ca influx was enhanced in the presence of 10 -4  M NaHS and suppressed under elevation of [NaHS] up to 10 -3  M. 45 Ca influx triggered by 10 -4  M NaHS was abolished by bumetanide and L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Our results strongly suggest that contractions of rat aortic rings triggered by low doses of NaHS are mediated by activation of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport and Ca 2+ influx via L-type channels.

  18. Die Milch kommt aus dem Supermarkt? Ein ungewöhnliches Medienpaket zum Thema Milch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Berthold

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dass Kühe nicht lila sind, dürfte sich bei den meisten Kindern schon herumgesprochen haben. Fragt man jedoch, woher wohl Milch, Kakao oder andere Milchprodukte kommen, erntet man als Antwort oft nur verständnislose Blicke, Achselzucken oder bestenfalls den Namen einer Supermarktkette.

  19. Verbindungsprogrammierte Steuerung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Petra

    Verbindungsprogrammierte Steuerungen werden eingesetzt, wenn die Anzahl der Verknüpfungsfunktionen gering ist oder spezifische Funktionen es erfordern. Nachteilig gegenüber Speicherprogrammierbaren Steuerungen sind die geringere Flexibilität, ein geringerer Funktionsumfang und die Tatsache, dass sich analoge oder digitale Daten praktisch nicht verarbeiten lassen.

  20. Scribus – Open Source Desktop Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kaindel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Professionelle Layout-Programme wie Quark XPress oder Adobe InDesign sind unerschwinglich teuer und daher im privaten oder Schulbereich kaum legal verfügbar. Das Open Source Programm Scribus stellt hier eine brauchbare Alternative dar.

  1. Increasing Pragmatic Awareness: Die Vagheit der Sprache "und so"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Maryann; Tran, Jennie; Zietze, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a description of some pragmatic expressions ("oder so," "und so," "oder wie") rarely found in textbooks, but common in everyday conversation. Though often treated as vague or superfluous, these expressions perform important functions in interpersonal communication. Focusing on these easily identifiable phrases can help…

  2. Gute Inhalte produzieren und Rahmen schaffen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2004-01-01

    für den Dialog genutzt werden. Bei der Nutzung digita-ler Kommunikationsformen dominiert die E-Mail. Andere Medien wie Homepages oder TV/Film werden, je nachdem, ob sie der internen oder der externen Kommunikation dienen, als unterschied-lich bedeutsam gewertet. Bei den Mitarbeiterqualifikationen...

  3. Scham im Kino : Kleine Phänomenologie eines peinlichen Gefühls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    Wer ans Kino denkt, denkt nicht an Scham. Die Emotionsmaschine „Kino“ rührt das Publikum zu Tränen, versetzt es in Angst und Schrecken oder zwingt es zum Lachen. Zuschauer reagieren wütend, erfreut, angeekelt, sie staunen und bewundern. Vielleicht sind sie sogar heimlich in Cary Grant oder Claudia

  4. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis: association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wener Barbosa Resende

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis (NAHS, metabolic syndrome (MS and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF in obese adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study with a quantitative approach, carried out from June to August 2011. The volunteers were randomly selected and referred to clinical evaluation in the endocrinology and cardiology units at the clinics hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia, being included 34 adolescents of 14-19 years above the 95th percentile of the growth curve. NAHS was assessed by ultrasonography. The MS and CRF were diagnosed by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: The sample consisted of 14 male and 20 female patients aged 16.8 ± 1.6 and body mass index (BMI of 35.7 ± 3.9. The occurrence of NAHS and MS was 76.5% and 50%, respectively. Males had a higher incidence of NAHS (78.6%, SM (64.3% and association of NAHS with MS (50%. Regarding the CRF, 100% (n=34, 61.8% (n=21 and 52.9% (n=18 of the adolescents had elevated values of waist circumference (WC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and systolic blood pressure (SBP, respectively, and 52.9% (n=18 showed low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. There were correlations between MS and triglycerides; systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C; and between NAHS and BMI and WC. Conclusion: A high occurrence of NAHS, SM and CRF was observed in obese adolescents. A strong correlation was observed between MS and NAHS, and between FRC and NAHS and SM. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p131

  5. Life cycle assessment of alternative sewage sludge disposal methods; Oekobilanz von Klaerschlammentsorgungsalternativen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H. [Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung (ifeu), Heidelberg (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    At present there are three principal options for sewage sludge disposal in use or under discussion: agricultural utilisation - landfilling - cold pretreatment prior to disposal or utilisation (e.g., composting or fermentation) - thermal pretreatment prior to disposal or utilisation (e.g., monocombustion, co-combustion, pyrolysis, gasification). 10% of sewage sludge is currently combusted, 60% is landfilled, and 30% is used for agriculture. The ifeu Institute has carried out several studies which examine and compare the environmental impact of sewage sludge disposal options. [Deutsch] Zur Entsorgung bzw. Verwertung von Klaerschlamm stehen derzeit drei grundsaetzliche Optionen in Anwendung oder werden diskutiert: - Landwirtschaftliche Verwertung - Deponierung - kalte Vorbehandlung vor Deponierung oder Verwertung (z.B. Kompostierung oder Vergaerung) - thermische Vorbehandlung vorn Deponierung oder Verwertung (z.B. Mono- oder Mitverbrennung, Pyrolyse, Vergasung). Verbrannt werden gegenwaertig etwa 10%, 60% deponiert und 30% landwirschaftlich verwertet. Das ifeu-Institut hat in verschiedenen Arbeiten die Umweltauswirkungen von Klaerschlammentsorgungsoptionen untersucht und gegenuebergestellt. (orig./SR)

  6. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Generic name: nateglinide) dawn phenomenon (feh-NAH-meh-nun) the early-morning (4 a.m. to 8 ... energy. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) a study by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive ...

  7. Vielversprechende Loesungsmittel. Ionisch Fluessigkeiten als alternative Loesungsmittel bei der Extraction von petrochemikalien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Meindersma, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Die Trennung aromatischer von aliphatischen Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen stellt insofern eine Herausforderung dar, als diese Kohlenwasserstoffe nah beieinander liegende Siedepunkte aufweisen und verschiedene Kombinationen azeotroper Gemische bilden [1]. Die herkömmlichen Verfahren zur Trennung

  8. Physicochemical and Microbial Assessment of Roadside Food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    environmental pollution on them in 3 local government areas (LGAs) representing low, medium ... of the environment where roadside foods are prepared. ..... Association of Hydrogeologists (NAH). ... Isotopic Evidence of global Contamination.

  9. Identification of RAPD markers linked to salinity tolerance in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    armghan_shehzad

    The individual plants from F2 population segregation for salinity tolerance and the parents ..... plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporters that are energized by proton gradients ... tonoplast by vascular Na+/ H+ antiporters into the cell vacuoles ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Commentary: Understanding Anopheles and Plasmodium interactions: lessons from .... An Na/H antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role in stress tolerance ... Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor and its ...

  11. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  12. Hydrogen sulfide reduces neutrophil recruitment in hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury in an L-selectin and ADAM-17 dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Carissa J.; Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Chintalapani, Sathvika; Kim, Minsoo; Spector, Jason A.; King, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reperfusion following ischemia leads to neutrophil recruitment injured tissue. Selectins and β2 integrins regulate neutrophil interaction with the endothelium during neutrophil rolling and firm adhesion. Excessive neutrophil infiltration into tissue is thought to contribute to IRI damage. NaHS mitigates the damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). This study's objective was to determine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) on neutrophil adhesion receptor expression. Methods Human neutrophils were either left untreated or incubated in 20 μM NaHS, and/or 50 μg/mL pharmacological ADAM-17 inhibitor TAPI-0; activated by IL-8, fMLP, or TNF-α; and labeled against PSGL-1, LFA-1, Mac-1 α, L-selectin and β2 integrin epitopes CBRM1/5 or KIM127 for flow cytometry. Cohorts of 3 C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous dose of saline vehicle, or 20 μM NaHS with or without 50 μg/mL TAPI-0 before unilateral tourniquet induced hind-limb ischemia for 3 hours followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Bilateral gastrocnemius muscles were processed for histology before neutrophil infiltration quantification. Results NaHS treatment significantly increased L-selectin shedding from human neutrophils following activation by fMLP and IL-8 in an ADAM-17 dependent manner. Mice treated with NaHS to raise bloodstream concentration by 20 μM prior to ischemia or reperfusion showed a significant reduction in neutrophil recruitment into skeletal muscle tissue following tourniquet-induced hindlimb IRI. Conclusions NaHS administration results in the downregulation of L-selectin expression in activated human neutrophils. This leads to a reduction in neutrophil extravasation and tissue infiltration and may partially account for the protective effects of NaHS seen in the setting of IRI. PMID:23446563

  13. Does menopause influence nocturnal awakening with headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, L M; Hachul, H; Yagihara, F; Santos-Silva, R; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether menopausal status influences the occurrence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the female population of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of this complaint to sociodemographic determinants, hot flushes, sleep quality and parameters, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue according to menopausal status. The female population of the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) (n = 576) was divided according to menopausal status (pre-, peri-, early and late menopause) based on questionnaires and hormonal blood measures. The complaint of waking up because of a headache at least once a week was assessed by the UNIFESP Sleep questionnaire. Additionally, hot flushes, sleep complaints, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue were assessed by specific questionnaires. A full-night polysomnography assessed sleep parameters. The prevalence of NAH in women in the Sao Paulo population was 13.3%. Perimenopause was associated with a higher risk of having NAH (odds ratio 13.9; 95% confidence interval 4.3-45.2). More complaints of NAH were observed in obese women. All the groups with NAH showed more hot flushes, worse subjective sleep quality, more complaints of insomnia, anxiety symptoms and fatigue. We observed a constellation of symptoms in women according to menopausal status and NAH that included hot flushes, sleep complaints, more anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Moreover, some of these symptoms were more frequent in perimenopausal women with NAH. Therefore, we concluded that menopausal status influences NAH and the women in perimenopause presented a high risk of having this complaint.

  14. ZB MED ohne Zukunft! Oder doch: Zukunft für ZB MED? Pressemeldungen, Stellungnahmen und Webaktivitäten im Zusammenhang mit der Empfehlung des Senats der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft vom 17. März 2016 für die Beendigung der gemeinsamen Förderung von Bund und Ländern für die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Lebenswissenschaften

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In its statement of March 17, 2016 Leibnitz Association’s senate recommends to stop the co-funding of ZB MED – Leibniz Information Centre for Life Sciences. Immediately after this announcement public incitements endorsing the persistence of ZB MED were published by medical institutions and libraries. Also on the internet initiatives were taken especially by the action group #keepzbmed whose petition was signed by 9,607 people. The controversy also reached the German Bundestag.

  15. Illicit operation of industrial plant subject to licensing, or of other installations within the purview of the German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), which have been shut down for protection against hazards (section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 Penal Code (StGB)); Das unerlaubte Betreiben von genehmigungsbeduerftigen Anlagen oder sonstigen Anlagen im Sinne des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes, deren Betrieb zum Schutz vor Gefahren untersagt worden ist (Paragraph 327 Abs.2 Nr.1 StGB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocker, A.

    1995-12-31

    The 18th act of 28 March 1980 for amendment of the German Criminal Code (StGB) incorporated the provisions governing the criminal offence of illicit operation of installations subject to licensing into the StGB. These provisions have until then been forming part of the BImSchG (Federal Act on Emission Control). The study in hand presents a discussion of section 327, subsection 2, No. 1 StGB, because this provision represents a fundamental type of an administration accessory criminal offence and thus is suitable to be taken as a basis for an analysis of the scope of problems covered by the StGB, but having an effect on and being interlaced with offences governed by other acts and legal provisions. The study addresses inter alia items such as the object of legal protection defined by this section of the StGB, the provisions defining the licensability of a non-licensed installation in operation, and the consequences of defective decisions under administrative law on the applicability of criminal law provisions. The specific aspects of section 327 StGB, which are of a dominantly administrative nature, are discussed, in particular those referring to the definition of the term ``industrial installation`` as defined by the BImSchG. [Deutsch] Durch das 18. Strafrechtsaenderungsgesetz vom 28.3.1980 wurde der Straftatbestand des unerlaubten Betreibens von Anlagen, die einer Genehmigung nach dem Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetz beduerfen, aus dem BImSchG in das Kernstrafrecht ueberfuehrt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung versucht eine eingehendere Auseinandersetzung mit Para. 327 Abs. 2 Nr. 1 StGB, weil diese Vorschrift als ein Grundtypus der verwaltungsakzessorischen Straftatbestaende die Gelegenheiit zur vertieften Diskussion von umfassenderen strafrechtlichen Problemkreisen gibt. Angesprochen sind insoweit vor allem die Frage des geschuetzten Rechtsgutes der Norm, der Behandlung der materiellen Genehmigungsfaehigkeit eines ungenehmigten Anlagenbetriebs sowie der Auswirkungen von verwaltungsrechtlichen Fehlern auf das Strafrecht. Daneben werden die spezifischen Problempunkte des Para. 327 Abs. 2 Nr. 1 StGB beachtet, die eine starke verwaltungsrechtliche Auspraegung aufweisen. Hervorzuheben sind hier insbesondere die Ausfuehrungen zum Anlagenbegriff i.S.d. BImSchG. (orig./HSCH)

  16. N-acetyl-heparin attenuates acute lung injury caused by acid aspiration mainly by antagonizing histones in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Zanmei; Guan, Li; Mao, Lijun; Li, Shuqiang; Guan, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ming; Guo, Lixia; Ding, Lihua; Cong, Cuicui; Wen, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Extracellular histones have recently been recognized to be pivotal inflammatory mediators. Heparin and its derivatives can bind histones through electrostatic interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the role of extracellular histones in the pathogenesis of ALI caused by acid aspiration and 2) whether N-acetyl-heparin (NAH) provides more protection than heparin against histones at the high dose. ALI was induced in mice via intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Lethality rate, blood gas, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lung edema and pathological changes were used to evaluate the degree of ALI. Heparin/NAH was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for 3 days or until death. Acid aspiration caused an obvious increase in extracellular histones. A significant correlation existed between the concentration of HCl aspirated and the circulating histones. Heparin/NAH (10 mg/kg) improved the lethality rate, blood gas, MPO activity, lung edema and pathological score. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, NAH still provided protection, however heparin tended to aggravate the injury due to hemorrhagic complications. The specific interaction between heparin and histones was verified by the binding assay. In summary, high levels of extracellular histones can be pathogenic in ALI caused by acid aspiration. By neutralizing extracellular histones, heparin/NAH can offer similar protection at the moderate doses. At the high dose, NAH provides better protection than heparin.

  17. カフカの動物たち「ある犬の研究」、「歌手ヨゼフィーネもしくはネズミ族」における音楽と身体言語

    OpenAIRE

    三根, 靖久

    2009-01-01

    Dieser Aufsatz behandelt, wie der oder die Held(in) zweier Texte Kafkas über Tiere, sc. „Forschungen eines Hundes“(1922) und „Josefine, die Sängerin oder Das Volk der Mäuse“(1924) Musik empfindet oder ausdrückt, und wie Körper resp. Körperlichkeit als Medium solcher Musik dargestellt werden. Dabei wird auch betont, dass in diesen Texten die Körpersprache eine wichtige Rolle spielt.//„Forschungen eines Hundes“//Der Erzählerhund, der seinem bisherigen Leben nachforscht, führt zwei Musikerfahrun...

  18. Neue Methoden für die Optimierung verfahrenstechnischer Prozesse

    OpenAIRE

    Hokenmaier, Stephania

    2013-01-01

    Die Verfahrenstechnik beschäftigt sich mit der Trennung, Umwandlung oder Verflüssigung chemischer Stoffe, wie zum Beispiel die Zerlegung von Luft in ihre Hauptbestandteile Sauerstoff, Stickstoff und Argon oder die Reinigung und Verflüssigung von Erdgas. Mit Hilfe von Prozesssimulatoren können verfahrenstechnische Anlagen, oder Teile davon, modelliert, simuliert und anschließend optimiert werden. Die Engineering Division der Linde AG, eines der weltweit führenden Unternehmen für die Planung...

  19. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to

  20. Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Trier, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise Social Networks (ESNs), d. h. Informationssysteme, die die Vernetzung von Mitarbeitern in Unternehmen fördern sollen, sind in verschiedenen Varianten und unter verschiedenen Bezeichnungen (etwa Enterprise Social Media, Corporate Social Software, Social Business oder Enterprise 2...

  1. De ethiek en het probleem van het booze. Een studie naar aanleiding van de ethische en godsdienstphilosophische geschriften van Immanuel Kant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasker, Albert Jan

    1935-01-01

    Kap. 1. Kurzgefaszte Interpretation der "transzendentalen Deduktion" in Kants "Kritik der reinen Vernunft", als Rechtfertigung der Erfahrnng durch den "obersten Grundsatz" oder die Idee der Wahrheit. Es ist nicht ausgeschlossen, dasz in der Erfahrung "fremde" Wahrheit anzutreffen ist, welche sich

  2. Neuro-Enhancement — klinische, soziale und ethische Dimensionen: Kognitive Leistungssteigerung in Kindheit und Jugend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, S.K.; Nagel, Saskia Kathi

    2015-01-01

    Der als Neuro-Enhancement bezeichnete Einsatz meist verschreibungspflichtiger Medikamente oder Technologien zur Steigerung kognitiver Leistungen und Verbesserung affektiver Zustände bei Gesunden findet in den letzten Jahren vermehrt Anwendung. Skeptiker befürchten allerdings eine zunehmende

  3. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 2: Forschungsarbeiten und Veroeffentlichungen (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 2: Research Areas and Publications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Messungen mit Nivellements, Zenitdistanzmessungen oder astrono - mischen Azimut, Ulngen- und Breitenbestimmiungen liefert Informationen Ober die geometri...Using Geometric Hilfe des GPS in Ruanda. In: Institut ffir Geod1.sie Levelling, Trigonometric Heighting and Astrono - (Hrsg.): Das Global Positioning

  4. Flora Livonica : kalender 2008 = Calendar 2008 / Tallinna Ülikool, Akadeemiline Raamatukogu ; tekst Katrin Kaugver ; tõlkinud Kristi Rae, Katrin Kaugver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kalendri illustratsioonid pärinevad raamatust: Drümpelmann, Ernst Wilhelm. Flora Livonica, oder: Abbildung und Beschreibung der in Livland wildwachsenden Pflanzen, bearbeitet in Verbindung mit einigen Freunden der vaterländischen Naturkunde. Riga, 1810

  5. Force Protection Common Operational Picture/Common Tactical Picture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter, Russell

    1998-01-01

    ... has taken an integrated approach to Force Protection. There is a recognition that Force Protection is not a Security Police operation; but is a Security Force oDeration. This exemplifies a mindset change and a movement away from pure.

  6. Induction of morphological aberrations by enzyme inhibition in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.; Bijlsma, R.; de Boer, I.M.; den Hollander, J.

    1969-01-01

    Zusatz zum Futter vonDrosophila melanogaster von 5-Fluoro-2-deoxyuridin oder Aminopterin induziert überzählige Skutellar- und Dorsozentralborsten sowie gekerbte Flügel. Diese Modifikationen wurden als Konsequenz von Enzymhemmung interpretiert.

  7. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  8. Velké přeshraniční povodně na Odře

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Stanislav; Munzar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2013), s. 10-11 ISSN 1210-3004 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Oder River * historical floods * 19th and 20th centuries Subject RIV: AB - History http:// geography .cz/geograficke-rozhledy/

  9. Erste Ergebnisse der "Early Prostate Cancer" Programm Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauchenwald M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Da es nach Standardtherapie eines lokalisierten oder lokal fortgeschrittenen Prostatakarzinoms häufig zu einem Fortschreiten der Erkrankung kommt, erscheint in Anlehnung an die Antiöstrogentherapie beim Mammakarzinom eine frühzeitige antiandrogene Therapie sinnvoll, um Rezidivrate und Mortalität zu senken. Patienten & Methoden: In einer multizentrischen prospektiv randomisierten placebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie wurden weltweit 8113 Patienten mit nicht metastasiertem Prostatakarzinom nach Standardtherapie (radikale Prostatektomie, Radiotherapie oder Watchful Waiting mit dem nicht steroidalen Antiandrogen Bicalutamid 150 mg oder Placebo einmal täglich behandelt. Eine Krankheitsprogression wurde durch eine Knochenszintigraphie, CT, MRI, Ultraschall oder durch Biopsie bestätigt, der Tod eines Patienten wurde unabhängig von der jeweiligen Ursache ebenfalls als Progression gewertet. Ergebnisse: Nach einer medianen Beobachtungsdauer von 3 Jahren zeigte sich in der Bicalutamid-Gruppe ein um 42 % signifikant reduziertes Progressionsrisiko im Vergleich zu Placebo. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt fand sich bei 11 % aller Patienten ein Krankheitsprogress. Diese positive Wirkung wurde unabhängig vom zu Grunde liegenden Tumorstadium und der vorhergehenden Therapie beobachtet. Das Auftreten von Knochenmetastasen war in der Bicalutamid-Gruppe um 33 % vermindert, das Risiko einer PSA-Progression um 59 %. Die häufigsten Nebenwirkungen dieser antiandrogenen Therapie waren das Auftreten einer Gynäkomastie und/oder von Brustschmerzen bei insgesamt 86 % der Patienten. Aufgrund der kurzen Beobachtungszeit sind die Überlebensdaten noch nicht aussagekräftig, da erst 6 % aller Patienten verstorben sind, am Prostatakarzinom selbst sogar erst knapp 2 %. Schlußfolgerung: Bicalutamid 150 mg einmal täglich als Soforttherapie, entweder als Mono- oder als adjuvante Therapie zur Standardtherapie mit kurativer Intention, vermindert das Progressionsrisiko bei

  10. Laser mit instabilem Resonator fuer ringfoermige aktive Medien

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosch, U.K.; Habich, U.; Plum, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beschrieben werden Laser mit instabilen Resonatoren, die ringfoermige Medien effektiv ausnutzen, unabhaengig davon, ob es sich um feste, fluessige oder gasfoermige Medien handelt. Die Erfindung zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass die Auskopplung des Strahles (5.1) eines Ringresonators entlang eines Spaltes oder eines Kreisringes ueber dem gesamten Umfang vorgesehen ist, wobei der Laserresonator durch Ringspiegel (1,2) mit torusfoermiger Spiegelflaeche gebildet und von den Waenden des Ringspaltes ...

  11. Spontanes Liquorunterdrucksyndrom - Übersicht und Fallpräsentation anhand von fünf Patienten

    OpenAIRE

    Richter S; Riedl M; Mickocki J; Parigger S; Hartmann W; Brücke T

    2006-01-01

    Das spontane Liquorunterdrucksyndrom (SLUDS) wurde erstmals 1938 beschrieben: Leitsymptom ist ein lageabhängiger, orthostatischer Kopfschmerz, der durch aufrechte Position provoziert wird. Ursächlich besteht ein vermindertes Liquorvolumen mit absolut oder relativ vermindertem Liquordruck, bei vorwiegend zervikalen oder zervikothorakalen Liquorleckagen. Diagnostisch stehen MRT mit Gadoliniumgabe und die Liquorszintigraphie zur Verfügung. Die Therapie der Wahl ist ausreichende Flüssigkeitszu...

  12. Detektion bakterieller Multiresistenzen: Etablierung molekularer Testsysteme für patientennahe Screening-Verfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Kautz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Multiresistente Erreger (MRE), wie der Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-resistente Enterokokken und multiresistente gramnegative Bakterien, die β Lactamasen mit erweitertem Wirkspektrum produzieren und/oder Carbapenem resistent sind, verursachen immer häufiger nosokomiale Infektionen. Diese sind schwer zu behandeln und gehen mit einer höheren Morbidität und Mortalität einher. Da besiedelte oder infizierte Patienten ein Reservoir und Vehikel für die Verbreitung von MRE ...

  13. Sie lebt! Zur Verbraucherforschung im deutschsprachigen Raum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehler, Andreas; Reisch, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    jeweils eine existierende Aktivität; eine deutliche Lücke, die es zu schließen gilt (Wachstumsfelder der Verbraucherforschung). Zur Finanzierung der Verbraucherforschung ergibt sich der deutliche Befund, dass mit weitem Abstand die „Bordmittel“ der jeweiligen Professur bzw. des jeweiligen Lehrstuhls als...... oder des BMELV darauf hindeuten, dass die Verbraucherforschung zunehmend als wichtiges Element oder gar als Voraussetzung für eine fundierte moderne Verbraucherpolitik gesehen wird....

  14. Praktische Festigkeitsberechnungen im Maschinenbau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Gert; Böge, Wolfgang

    Ziel aller Festigkeitsberechnungen ist die Ermittlung der vorhandenen Spannung und der Nachweis, dass ein konstruiertes Bauteil mit Sicherheit "hält". Seine geforderte oder erwartete Tragfähigkeit muss unter allen denkbaren Umständen gewährleistet sein, es darf z. B. auch bei Dauerbelastung in der vorgeschriebenen Lebensdauer nicht brechen oder seine Form bleibend so verändern, dass es seine Funktion nicht mehr ausreichend erfüllt.

  15. Einleitung: Handhabung verbaler Daten in der Sozialforschung

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, Jürgen H. P.

    1992-01-01

    "Die Wahl quantitativer oder qualitativer Verfahren der Datenerhebung ist nicht alternativ möglich, da die Methodenwahl immer von Forschungsziel und Forschungsfrage abhängig ist. Eine die Genauigkeit von Wirkungszusammenhängen, hypothesengeleitet, überprüfende Forschung setzt ein quantitatives Verfahren voraus; sollen aber begründete Vermutungen über Regelhaftigkeiten in einzelnen Bereichen oder Feldern der sozialen Wirklichkeit gewonnen werden, so setzt dieses ein qualitatives Verfahren (in ...

  16. Untersuchung der Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP)-Belastung der Allgemeinbevölkerung – Durchführung eines Human-Biomonitorings

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Holger Martin

    2007-01-01

    i-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalat (DEHP) ist einer der bedeutendsten Weichmacher für PVC-Polymere mit Produktionszahlen im Bereich um 1 Million Tonnen pro Jahr weltweit. Als sog. äußerer Weichmacher ist DEHP nicht kovalent an den Kunststoff gebunden und blutet so mehr oder weniger schnell aus diesem aus und kann so die Umwelt, Nahrungsmittel oder den Menschen belasten. DEHP steht unter dringendem Verdacht, als Endokriner Disruptor/Modulator ins menschliche Hormonsystem einzugreifen und so eine Vielzah...

  17. Aktive Steuerung des Transmissionsverhaltens stochastischer Störquellen durch flächige Leichtbaustrukturen [Active feedforward control of the transmission of stochastic disturbances through lightweight panel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Misol, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Leichtbaustrukturen weisen eine geringe Schalldämmung bei tiefen Frequenzen auf. Ihr Einsatz bei Gebäuden, Fahr- oder Flugzeugen ist daher mit negativen Auswirkungen auf die Innenraumakustik verbunden. Adaptronische Maßnahmen, wie die aktive Struktur-Akustik-Regelung (ASAC), können passive Maßnahmen der Schalldämmung flankieren oder ersetzen. Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Beeinflussung der Transmission stochastischer Störquellen durch ein- und doppelwandige Leichtbaustruktursysteme mithilf...

  18. Politik der Mikroentscheidungen: Edward Snowden, Netzneutralität und die Architekturen des Internets

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Ob beim Aufrufen einer Webseite, beim Versenden einer E-Mail oder beim Hochfrequenzhandel an der Börse: Auf ihrem Weg durch die Weiten digitaler Netze durchqueren Bits zahlreiche Knoten, an denen eine Reihe von Mikroentscheidungen getroffen werden. Diese Entscheidungen betreffen den besten Pfad zum Ziel, die Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit oder die Priorität zwischen den ankommenden Paketen. In ihrer vielschichtigen Gestalt bilden solche Mikroentscheidungen eine bislang nur marginal beachtete Di...

  19. Die Symmelie (Sirenomelie) bei Mensch und Tier : ein komplexes Fehlbildungs-Syndrom ; dargestellt an vier neuen Fällen unter Berücksichtigung der gesamten bisher bekannten Literatur

    OpenAIRE

    Plendl, Philipp Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Der Begriff Symmelie (Sirenomelie, Sympodie oder Meerjungfrauensyndrom) steht für eine Fehlbildung im Bereich des Beckens und der unteren Extremitäten, welche ganz oder teilweise miteinander verschmelzen. Diese seltene Missbildung tritt bei 1 von 100.000 Geburten in Erscheinung und sie ist in den meisten Fällen nicht mit dem Leben vereinbar. Das Synonym »Sirenomelie« findet seinen Ursprung bei den wohl bekannten Sirenen der griechischen Mythology. In dieser Arbeit werden vier bisher unver...

  20. Lexikon der bulgarischen Alltagsgesten

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarova, Zornitza

    2012-01-01

    Die vorliegende Dissertation untersucht die Alltagsgesten der Bulgaren. Das Lexikon der bulgarischen Alltagsgesten umfasst 56 Embleme, die derzeit in Bulgarien benutzt werden und die nicht weltweit und nicht in Nord-und Westeuropa verbreitet sind. Auch solche Gesten, die in Westeuropa bekannt sind, aber in Bulgarien einen oder mehrere morphologische oder semantische Unterschiede aufweisen, wurden in getrennten Einträgen beschrieben. Die Gesten werden in Gestenfamilien – einer Reihe ausdrucksv...

  1. Transplantate und Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 1 (Stand 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Hans-Georg; Lenarz, Thomas; Eckert, Karl-Ludwig

    In Deutschland leben ungefähr 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung, ob die Ursache der Schwerhörigkeit im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. der Schallübertragung, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, der Hörnerven und der zentralen Hörbahnabschnitte, d. h. der Schallempfindung, liegt. 2,5 Millionen Schwerhörige haben dabei das Problem der Schallübertragung, d.h. die Störung liegt im Mittelohrbereich, und hier kann man in der Regel mit operativen, mikrochirurgisch durchgeführten Massnahmen helfen [1, 2]. Im Vordergrund steht als Ursache hier die chronische Mittelohrentzündung, die sich als Perforation des Trommelfells, als Defekt oder Unterbrechung der Gehörknöchelchen oder auch als Cholesteatom, einer sogenannte Knocheneiterung äussern kann [3]. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluss des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen an.

  2. Air quality annual report 1998; Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The German Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG) for protection against the harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibrations and similar processes defines the legal instruments available to provide for air pollution monitoring and control. According to the legal provisions, responsibility for air pollution monitoring lies with the competent Land authorities, and monitoring activities are defined in terms of territory (areas subject to monitoring) and time periods as well as specific tasks for pollution measurement. The areas subject to monitoring are those with detected or expected air pollution very likely to cause harmful effects on the environment due to (1) frequency and prolongation of events, (2) pollutant concentrations, and (3) hazards emanating from synergistic action. (orig.) [German] Das Gesetz zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geraeusche, Erschuetterungen und aehnliche Vorgaenge (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz - BImSchG) enthaelt in Paragraph 44 das gesetzliche Instrumentarium zur Immissionsueberwachung. Demnach haben die nach Landesrecht zustaendigen Behoerden in den durch Rechtsverordnung festgesetzten Untersuchungsgebieten (frueher Belastungsgebiete) Art und Umfang bestimmter Luftverunreinigungen in einem bestimmten Zeitraum oder fortlaufend festzustellen. Gleiches gilt fuer Gebiete, in denen eine Ueberschreitung von Immissionswerten oder Immissionsleitwerten, die in zur Durchfuehrung dieses Gesetzes ergangenen Rechts- und allgemeinen Verwaltungsvorschriften zum Schutz vor Gesundheitsgefahren oder in bindenden Beschluessen der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften festgelegt sind, festgestellt wird oder zu erwarten sind. Untersuchungsgebiete sind Gebiete, in denen Luftverunreinigungen auftreten oder zu erwarten sind, die wegen - der Haeufigkeit und Dauer ihres Auftretens, - ihrer hohen Konzentrationen oder - der Gefahr des Zusammenwirkens verschiedener Luftverunreinigungen schaedliche Umwelteinwirkungen hervorrufen

  3. Involvement of ERK in NMDA receptor-independent cortical neurotoxicity of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kubo, Satoko; Yamasaki, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Sachi; Okamoto, Yukari; Sekimoto, Teruki; Fukatsu, Anna; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrogen sulfide causes NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity in mouse fetal cortical neurons. ► Activation of ERK mediates the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. ► Apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the hydrogen-induced cell death. -- Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a gasotransmitter, exerts both neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, and targets multiple molecules including NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NO synthase (NOS) that might affect neuronal viability. Here, we determined and characterized effects of NaHS, an H 2 S donor, on cell viability in the primary cultures of mouse fetal cortical neurons. NaHS caused neuronal death, as assessed by LDH release and trypan blue staining, but did not significantly reduce the glutamate toxicity. The neurotoxicity of NaHS was resistant to inhibitors of NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NOS, and was blocked by inhibitors of MEK, but not JNK, p38 MAP kinase, PKC and Src. NaHS caused prompt phosphorylation of ERK and upregulation of Bad, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, leading to the nuclear condensation/fragmentation. These effects of NaHS were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor. Our data suggest that the NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity of H 2 S involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and some apoptotic mechanisms.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) α, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways.

  5. Miners' dictionary: English/Fanakalo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamber of Mines, South Africa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available -beh-Iow Sunday Sonta Sawn-tah week wik week this week: lo wik law week next weelk lo wik yena fika law week yhe-nah fee-kah last week: lo wik yena dlulile; law week yhe-nah dIoo- lo wik yena pelile lee-Ieh; law week yhe-nah peh-Iee-Ieh month nyanga... adapta adaptor ah-dahp-tah Agas August Ah-gahs aka erect v. ah-kah aka build v. ah-kah hlanganisa gather (bring together) shlahng-gah-nee-sah Alimak AIimak Ah-lee-maIk ampur almost ahm-pur aptitude test mlabalab mlah-bah-Iab aseyi otis assay...

  6. Tn5-induced pBS286 plasmid mutations blocking early stages of napthalene oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosheleva, I.A.; Tsoi, T.V.; Ivashina, T.V.; Selifonov, S.A.; Starovoitov, I.I.; Boronin, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present data on the further analysis of the structural and functional organization of the nah region of plasmid pBS286 controlling the constitutive oxidation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida cells. They have studied Tn5-induced mutations blocking early stages of naphthalene oxidation. They present and discuss data providing evidence that, in contrast to plasmid NAH7, the mechanism of regulation of the nahl operon of plasmid NPL-1, the parent plasmid of plasmid pBS286, with inducible synthesis of naphthalene dioxygenase can include elements of a negative control with participation of the regulatory locus R, located proximal to the structural nah genes and closely linked to or overlapped by the inverted control DNA segment (4.2 kb). They also present data on the possibility of regulation of the activity of the catechol-splitting meta-pathway genes with the participation of products of early stages of naphthalene oxidation

  7. Effect of complete protein 4.1R deficiency on ion transport properties of murine erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Alicia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard, Philippe; Mohandas, Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Moderate hemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis), and decreased membrane stability are observed in mice with complete deficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms (4.1-/-; Shi TS et al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examined the effects of erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocyte cation transport and volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocyte dehydration that was associated with reduced cellular K and increased Na content. Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostly mediated by Na/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport activities. The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedly activated by exposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2+- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs.9.8 +- 1.3 mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice), with an abnormal dependence on osmolarity, (K0.5=417 +- 42 in 4.1 -/- vs. 460 +- 35 mOsmin control mice) suggestive of an up-regulated functional state. While the affinity for internal protons was not altered (K0.5= 489.7 +- 0.7 vs.537.0 +- 0.56 nM in control mice), the Vmax of the H-induced Na/H exchange activity was markedly elevated in 4.1-/- erythrocytes Vmax 91.47 Moderate hemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis), and decreased membrane stability are observed in mice with complete deficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms (4.1-/-; Shi TSet al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examined the effects of erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocyte cation transport and volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocyte dehydration that was associated with reduced cellular K and increased Na content. Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostly mediated by Na/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport activities. The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedly activated by exposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2 +- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs. 9.8 +- 1.3mmol/1013 cell x h in

  8. Statistically optimized near field acoustic holography using an array of pressure-velocity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Jaud, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    of a measurement aperture that extends well beyond the source can be relaxed. Both NAH and SONAH are based on the assumption that all sources are on one side of the measurement plane whereas the other side is source free. An extension of the SONAH procedure based on measurement with a double layer array...... of pressure microphones has been suggested. The double layer technique makes it possible to distinguish between sources on the two sides of the array and thus suppress the influence of extraneous noise coming from the “wrong” side. It has also recently been demonstrated that there are significant advantages...... in NAH based on an array of acoustic particle velocity transducers (in a single layer) compared with NAH based on an array of pressure microphones. This investigation combines the two ideas and examines SONAH based on an array of pressure-velocity intensity probes through computer simulations as well...

  9. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  10. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits high glucose-induced NADPH oxidase 4 expression and matrix increase by recruiting inducible nitric oxide synthase in kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Doug Yoon; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Feliers, Denis; Ghosh-Choudhury, Goutam; Abboud, Hanna E; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2017-04-07

    High-glucose increases NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and matrix protein synthesis by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in renal cells. Because hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibits high glucose-induced matrix protein increase by activating AMPK in renal cells, we examined whether H 2 S inhibits high glucose-induced expression of NOX4 and matrix protein and whether H 2 S and NO pathways are integrated. High glucose increased NOX4 expression and activity at 24 h in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, which was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a source of H 2 S. High glucose decreased AMPK phosphorylation and activity, which was restored by NaHS. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, prevented NaHS inhibition of high glucose-induced NOX4 expression. NaHS inhibition of high glucose-induced NOX4 expression was abrogated by N (ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NOS. NaHS unexpectedly augmented the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) but not endothelial NOS. iNOS siRNA and 1400W, a selective iNOS inhibitor, abolished the ameliorative effects of NaHS on high glucose-induced NOX4 expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and, matrix laminin expression. Thus, H 2 S recruits iNOS to generate NO to inhibit high glucose-induced NOX4 expression, oxidative stress, and matrix protein accumulation in renal epithelial cells; the two gasotransmitters H 2 S and NO and their interaction may serve as therapeutic targets in diabetic kidney disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt-GSK-3β signaling and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70% warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury.

  12. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Nonarthritic Hip Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Letícia Nunes Carreras; Leporace, Gustavo; Cardinot, Themis Moura; Levy, Roger Abramino; Oliveira, Liszt Palmeira de

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). METHODS Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC]) were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women). RESULTS The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility) was 0.837 (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

  13. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Nonarthritic Hip Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Nunes Carreras Del Castillo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS is a clinical evaluation questionnaire that was developed in the English language to evaluate hip function in young and physically active patients. The aims of this study were to translate this questionnaire into the Brazilian Portuguese language, to adapt it to Brazilian culture and to validate it. DESIGN AND SETTING Cohort study conducted between 2008 and 2010, at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. METHODS Questions about physical activities and household chores were modified to better fit Brazilian culture. Reproducibility, internal consistency and validity (correlations with the Algofunctional Lequesne Index and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] were tested. The NAHS-Brazil, Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires were applied to 64 young and physically active patients (mean age, 40.9 years; 31 women. RESULTS The intraclass correlation coefficient (which measures reproducibility was 0.837 (P < 0.001. Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean error in the difference between the two measurements of 0.42. The internal consistency was confirmed through a Cronbach alpha of 0.944. The validity between NAHS-Brazil and Lequesne and between NAHS-Brazil and WOMAC showed high correlations, r = 0.7340 and r = 0.9073, respectively. NAHS-Brazil showed good validity with no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSION The NAHS was translated into the Brazilian Portuguese language and was cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian culture. It was shown to be a useful tool in clinical practice for assessing the quality of life of young and physically active patients with hip pain.

  14. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  15. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pilar López-Gresa

    Full Text Available Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA, were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH, which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide, a potential novel drug, attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ping Cheng,* Kan Chen,* Yujing Xia, Weiqi Dai, Fan Wang, Miao Shen, Chengfen Wang, Jing Yang, Rong Zhu, Huawei Zhang, Jingjing Li, Yuanyuan Zheng, Junshan Wang, Yan Zhang, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Chuanyong GuoDepartment of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis and autophagy play important roles in concanavalin A (Con A-induced acute hepatitis. The purpose of this study was to explore both the effect and mechanism of H2S on Con A-induced acute hepatitis. Methods: BALB/c mice were randomized into sham group, Con A-injection group, and 14 µmol/kg of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor pretreatment group. Results: Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and pathological damage were significantly ameliorated by NaHS pretreatment. NaHS pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared with those of the Con A group. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3-2, which play important roles in the apoptosis and autophagy pathways, were also clearly affected by NaHS. Furthermore, NaHS affected the p-mTOR and p-AKT. Conclusion: H2S attenuates Con A-induced acute hepatitis by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy, in part, through activation of the PtdIns3K-AKT1 signaling pathway. Keywords: NaHS, apoptosis, PtdIns3K-AKT, autophagy

  17. Interior near-field acoustical holography in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E G; Houston, B H; Herdic, P C; Raveendra, S T; Gardner, B

    2000-10-01

    In this paper boundary element methods (BEM) are mated with near-field acoustical holography (NAH) in order to determine the normal velocity over a large area of a fuselage of a turboprop airplane from a measurement of the pressure (hologram) on a concentric surface in the interior of the aircraft. This work represents the first time NAH has been applied in situ, in-flight. The normal fuselage velocity was successfully reconstructed at the blade passage frequency (BPF) of the propeller and its first two harmonics. This reconstructed velocity reveals structure-borne and airborne sound-transmission paths from the engine to the interior space.

  18. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created...

  19. Near field acoustic holography with microphones mounted on a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Moreno, Guillermo; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2008-01-01

    Spherical near field acoustic holography (spherical NAH) is a technique that makes it pos-sible to reconstruct the sound field inside and just outside an acoustically transparent spherical surface on which the sound pressure is measured with an array of microphones with negligible scattering...... is only valid if it can be assumed that the sphere has a negligible in-fluence on the incident sound field, and this is not necessarily a good assumption when the sphere is very close to a radiating surface. This paper describes the modified spherical NAH theory and examines the matter through simulations...

  20. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits A2A adenosine receptor agonist induced β-amyloid production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via a cAMP dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Vijay Nagpure

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading cause of senile dementia in today's society. Its debilitating symptoms are manifested by disturbances in many important brain functions, which are influenced by adenosine. Hence, adenosinergic system is considered as a potential therapeutic target in AD treatment. In the present study, we found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor, 100 µM attenuated HENECA (a selective A2A receptor agonist, 10-200 nM induced β-amyloid (1-42 (Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y cells. NaHS also interfered with HENECA-stimulated production and post-translational modification of amyloid precursor protein (APP by inhibiting its maturation. Measurement of the C-terminal APP fragments generated from its enzymatic cleavage by β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 showed that NaHS did not have any significant effect on β-secretase activity. However, the direct measurements of HENECA-elevated γ-secretase activity and mRNA expressions of presenilins suggested that the suppression of Aβ42 production in NaHS pretreated cells was mediated by inhibiting γ-secretase. NaHS induced reductions were accompanied by similar decreases in intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB. NaHS significantly reduced the elevated cAMP and Aβ42 production caused by forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase, AC agonist alone or forskolin in combination with IBMX (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but had no effect on those caused by IBMX alone. Moreover, pretreatment with NaHS significantly attenuated HENECA-elevated AC activity and mRNA expressions of various AC isoforms. These data suggest that NaHS may preferentially suppress AC activity when it was stimulated. In conclusion, H2S attenuated HENECA induced Aβ42 production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through inhibiting γ-secretase via a cAMP dependent pathway.

  1. Effect of amiloride on arachidonic acid and histamine release from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, H.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a putative Na/H exchange inhibition on histamine and [C]arachidonic acid ([C]AA) release has been examined in rat peritoneal mast cells, using either addition of amiloride or removal of extracellular Na. The cells were stimulated by non-immunological agents, i.e. calcium ionophore A......23187, nerve growth factor (NGF), thapsigargin and compound 48/80. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible role for Na/H exchange in rat mast cell secretion is discussed....

  2. Liver: radiological methods supplementary; Radiologische Diagnostik der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Onkologische Diagnostik und Therapie

    2000-10-01

    Highly specific methods are required for the diagnostic workup of focal hepatic lesions, since benign circumscribed liver changes are very common. Although cross-sectional imaging techniques have a high diagnostic accuracy, radionuclide imaging techniques such as colloid, red blood cell, or hepatobiliary scan are commonly performed when a benign lesion is assumed since these permit a definite diagnosis with high specificity. The diagnosis of a primary or secondary malignant liver tumor, however, usually relies on radiological imaging techniques along, supported by needle biopsy. Whether positron emission tomography as a primary or supplementary diagnostic tool will have a role in the routine staging of malignant tumors remains to be determined. (orig.) [German] Die Abklaerung umschriebener Leberveraenderungen erfordert den Einsatz von Methoden hoher Spezifitaet, da die Praevalenz benigner, fokaler Laesionen sehr hoch ist. Hierfuer sind radiologische Schnittbildtechniken grundsaetzlich gut geeignet. Wenn aufgrund der sonographischen, computertomographischen oder magnetresonanztomographischen Befunde eine gutartige Laesion anzunehmen ist, werden jedoch haeufig ergaenzend die Kolloiderythrozyten- oder hepatobiliaere Szintigraphie - ggf. in Kombination - eingesetzt, da hiermit rasch eine abschliessende Diagnose mit hoher Spezifitaet gestellt werden kann. Bei malignen primaeren oder sekundaeren Lebertumoren hingegen werden nuklearmedizinische Zusatzuntersuchungen seltener angefordert, da der radiologische Befund, ggf. gestuetzt durch eine Ultraschall- oder CT-gezielte Biopsie, eine Diagnose in den meisten Faellen erlaubt. Inwieweit sich der primaere oder ergaenzende Einsatz der Positronenemissionstomographie im Vergleich zu radiologischen Schnittbildtechniken beim Staging boesartiger Tumoren bewaehrt, ist noch nicht abschliessend geklaert. (orig.)

  3. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary metastases: imaging findings and diagnostic accuracy; Bildgebende Diagnose und Differenzialdiagnose von Lungenmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Nuklearmedizin, Marienhospital Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Pulmonary metastases typically present as mostly multiple and bilateral, well-defined, non-calcified pulmonary nodules with predominantly basal and peripheral location. Ill-defined, cavitating, calcified and endobronchial metastases are uncommon. In the absence of pathognomonic findings precise differentiation from other - even benign - pulmonary nodules is almost impossible. Demonstration of contrast enhancement at CT or MRI or evidence of growth at serial examinations support the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. In uncertain cases percutaneous fine-needle aspiration or cutting needle biopsy will allow diagnosis with acceptable risk of complications and patient discomfort. The only relatively common complication of pneumothorax can and should be controlled by the interventional radiologist by aspiration or drainage. (orig.) [German] Lungenmetastasen stellen sich bildgebend typischerweise als meist multiple und bilaterale, scharf begrenzte weichteildichte Lungenrundherde mit basal und peripher betonter Lokalisation dar. Unscharfe Begrenzung, Einschmelzungen, Verkalkungen oder endobronchiale Lage sind selten. Aufgrund fehlender pathognomonischer Befunde ist eine eindeutige differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung von anderen - auch benignen - Lungenrundherden jedoch kaum moeglich. Der computertomographische oder magnetresonanztomographische Nachweis einer Kontrastmittelaufnahme oder von Wachstum in Verlaufsuntersuchungen unterstuetzt die Diagnose. In Zweifelsfaellen fuehrt die perkutane Biopsie als Feinnadelaspiration oder Stanzbiopsie bei vertretbarer Belastung des Patienten meist zur Diagnose. Die einzige relativ haeufige Nebenwirkung - der postpunktionelle Pneumothorax - kann und sollte vom interventionellen Radiologen durch Aspiration oder Katheterdrainage selbst therapiert werden. (orig.)

  4. Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 2 (Ergänzungen 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieve, M.; Lenarz, Thomas

    In Deutschland leben ca. 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung hinsichtlich des Schädigungsortes im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. eine Schalleitungsschwerhörigkeit, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, d. h. eine Schallempfindungsschwerhörigkeit, wobei hier der Schädigungsort auch am Hörnerven oder in den zentralen Hörabschnitten liegen kann. Therapeutisch lassen sich sowohl Schwerhörigkeiten im Bereich des Mittelohres als auch im Innenohr und sogar im Hirnstammbereich (Hirnstammimplantat) behandeln. 1,9 Millionen Schwerhörige haben eine Erkrankung im Mittelohrbereich, d. h. der Schall kann nur ungenügend auf das Innenohr übertragen werden. Die Ursache besteht meist in einer chronischen Mittelohrentzündung, die zu einer Zerstörung des Trommelfells und der Gehörknöchelchenkette geführt haben. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluß des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen. Mittelohroperationen werden mikrochirurgisch unter dem Operationsmikroskop durchgeführt, wobei zunächst durch eine sanierende Operation der Entzündungsprozeß entfernt wird und nach einer Ausheilungszeit die Gehörknöchelchenkette durch künstliche Prothesen rekonstruiert werden kann.

  5. Vermittlungstechnik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    In einem vorhandenen Nachrichtennetz sorgt die Vermittlungstechnik dafür, dass Informationen zu jeder Zeit von einem beliebigen Zugangspunkt zu einem beliebigen anderen Zugangspunkt übertragen werden können. Der gesamte Vorgang wird mit Vermittlung bezeichnet. Das größte weltweit vorhandene Nachrichtennetz ist das kombinierte Internet-Telefonnetz. Die Zugangspunkte sind die Anschlusspunkte (ortsfeste Anschlussdosen) für die Endgeräte, wie z. B. Rechner, Telefonapparate, Faxgeräte oder Modems, oder aber ortsveränderliche Endgeräte wie Laptops, schnurlose Telefone oder Funktelefone ("Handys"). Die Vermittlungsstelle klassischer Art mit hierarchischem Aufbau ist nahezu vollständig durch komplexe rechnergesteuerte national arbeitende Anlagen ersetzt worden. In diesem Kapitel werden deshalb grundlegende Eigenschaften dargestellt. Stichworte: Grundbegriffe; Vermittlung; Verkehrstheorie; Endgeräte.

  6. Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychala, Anne; Fleischmann, Jürgen

    Kommunikation ist der Austausch von Nachrichten und Informationen zwischen Mitarbeitern eines Unternehmens (O'Hair et al. 1997). Dieser Austausch kann persönlich, aber z.B. auch per Telefon, E-Mail oder durch Computersysteme erfolgen. In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir die persönliche Kommunikation zwischen Vorgesetzten und Mitarbeitern. Zur persönlichen Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern zählen sowohl formelle Gespräche mit Mitarbeitern als auch eher informelle Gespräche zwischen Tür und Angel. Die Gespräche können dabei mit einzelnen Mitarbeitern (z.B. jährliches Mitarbeitergespräch) oder mit Gruppen von Mitarbeitern (z.B. regelmäßige Projekt- oder Teambesprechungen) stattfinden.

  7. Post-surgery lung torsion and haemorrhagic infarction - a case report; Postoperative Lungentorsion und haemorrhagischer Lungeninfarkt - ein Fallbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noemayr, A.; Schmitt, R.; Wichert, C.; Bautz, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Rupprecht, H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Chirurgische Klinik mit Poliklinik

    1998-12-31

    Lung or lobe torsion may occur after thoracic surgery, chest trauma, pneumothorax, pneumonia, or even spontaneously. Lung infarction is a possible complication. The characteristic radiological signs on plain radiographs are opacification and/or displacement of lobes and hilus structures. CT-signs of haemorrhagic infarction are opacification and multiple punctate gas accumulations. The bronchus could be interrupted at the level of the torsion (``bronchus cutoff``). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Torsion der Lunge oder einzelner Lappen kann nach thorax-chirurgischen Eingriffen, Traumen, Pneumothorax, Pneumonie oder spontan auftreten. Der Lungeninfarkt kann die Folge sein. Charakteristische radiologische Zeichen auf der konventionellen Thoraxaufnahme sind die Verdichtung der betroffenen Lungenareale und/oder die Verlagerung von Hilusstrukturen und Lungenlappen. CT-morphologisch lassen sich ebenfalls die Verdichtung sowie kleine Lufteinschluesse als Zeichen der haemorrhagischen Infarzierung nachweisen. Der zugehoerige Bronchus ist peripher verschlossen und scheint zentral `abzubrechen` (`bronchus cutoff`). (orig.)

  8. DRE-binding Transcription factor (DREB1A) as a master regulator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eisa

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(67), pp. ... In this review, we presented evidences which show ... Key words: Abiotic stress, DREB1A gene, tolerance plant. .... membranes and/or proteins (Diamant et al., 2001, Garg et al., 2002). .... suggested that the A. thaliana plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter ...

  9. Educator Perspectives on Indigenous Cultural Content in an Occupational Therapy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchert, Belinda; Gray, Marion; Miller, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals must understand Indigenous perspectives to deliver effective health services. This study set out to determine the amount, type and effectiveness of current Indigenous content in an occupational therapy curriculum at an Australian regional university and the progress in meeting the National Aboriginal Health Strategy (NAHS)…

  10. Intracellular localization of Na + /H + antiporter from Malus zumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined the intracellular localization of the product of Na+/H+ antiporter gene (MzNHX1) cloned from Malus zumi. Analysis using yeast cells expressing a fusion protein of MzNHX1 and green fluorescent protein confirmed the localization of MzNHX1 on the tonoplast.

  11. Effect of ATP on intracellular pH in pancreatic ducts involves P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Katerine L; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    which P2 receptors might be involved. Ducts were obtained from rat pancreas, and the pH sensitive fluorophore BCECF was used to measure pHi and recovery rates from cellular acidosis induced by ammonium pre-pulses. In order to reveal Na+/H+ exchange, Cl-/HCO3- exchange or a Na+-HCO3- cotransport...

  12. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rats were housed in individual cages at a 12 hr light/dark cycle and received food ... MgSO4 1.3, KH2PO4 1.2, NaH2CO3 25, CaCl2 2.5, glucose 7). .... peripheral neurons similar to amphetamine (Kalix, 1992) increases in blood pressure and ...

  13. Patient-Reported Outcome questionnaires for hip arthroscopy: a systematic review of the psychometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 76 - 100 of 1853 ... Vol 27, No 3 (1992), A new record of Craspedacusta sowerbii (Cnidaria: Limnomedusae) from southern Africa, Abstract PDF. Nancy A. Rayner, C.C. Appleton. Vol 5, No 2 (1970), A new record of a moerisiid hydroid from South Africa, Abstract PDF. NAH Millard. Vol 27, No 4 (1992), A new sandperch, ...

  15. Annual Letter Report on ONR (Office of Naval Research) Contract Number N00014-85-K-0228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-02

    olefination, ".. and thioketalization, are currently under way. Stabilization of these polyketones _ with respect to aldolization is particularly important for...11 NaH High Dilution 67 ..- expected that a knotted polyketone will be especially prone to intramolecular trans-annular reactions. The four-rung THYME

  16. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Vol 31, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo effect of quercetin flavonoid on hepatic gene expression and enzyme activity levels in old rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HZ Habib, ML Louka, NAH Nassef, 21-34. The impact of Morus alba leaves extract on neurotransmitters & apoptosis experimental ...

  17. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation of Arachis hypogaea Na /H antiporter and its expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... /H. + antiporter and its expression analysis under salt stress ... Xinguo Li2,3*. 1College of Life Science, Linyi University, Linyi 276005, China. ... gene was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the present work. The full-length ..... balance (Rausch et al., 1996), with the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene ...

  19. Isolation of Arachis hypogaea Na + /H + antiporter and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant Na+/H+ antiporter gene plays a major role in salt tolerance. ... gene was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the present work. ... These results implied that the AhNHX1 plays an important role under salt stress in peanut.

  20. Insights into the Enhanced in vivo Fitness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Driven by a Fluoroquinolone Resistance-Conferring Mutant DNA Gyrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-05

    inoculated into 30 ml of fresh GCB containing 100 µg/ml of streptomycin and supplemented with co-carboxylase, ferric nitrate , and mM NaH2CO3 at the...approximately 8 weeks old, National Cancer Institute, NIH) and cnlp-/- mice in the BALB/c background of a similar age (USUHS breeding colony) were administered