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Sample records for quality-adjusted life years

  1. QALYs (Quality Adjusted Life Years): a nurse's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C A

    1993-01-01

    Examines the political and ideological significance of measures of quality of life, specifically Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Briefly reviews recent developments in the debate surrounding the economic and political functions of quality of life measures. The dialectic between conceptions of the quality of life and the implicit realpolitik of socio-economic pressures, ecological conditions, political ethos and cultural norms and expectations, is conceived as a powerful means for the critique of our aspirations concerning health. Argues that existing approaches to assessing quality of life, in denying this dialectic, have jeopardized their potential contribution to the planning, implementation and evaluation of health are policy. Resource allocation challenges us to develop openly ideological strategies and measures.

  2. Quality Adjusted Life Years and Trade Off Exercises : exploring methodology and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) are a popular outcome measure in cost-effectiveness analyses. QALYs are computed by multiplying follow-up or survival by a scaling factor reflecting health related quality of life, and as such capture quantity and quality gains simultaneously. Issues with regard t

  3. Quality-adjusted life years gained in patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Pedersen, P.U.; Søballe, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    rationale for a discussion within Western European health care systems, we undertook a prospective assessment of the benefit of THR from the patients´ perspective and as measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Aim: To measure the difference in health related quality of life between an intervention......Background: Total hip replacement (THR) is an effective, but also cost-intensive health care procedure for the elderly. Because of demographic changes in Western Europe, THR-associated financial investment for health care has become a question of priorities in society. To provide a quantitative...... treatment and telephone intervention. QALYs were calculated from measures of health-related quality of life using questionnaire SF-36. These scores were transformed to QALYs using a formula based on the method developed by Brazier (Brazier 1998). Results: Both the control and the intervention patients...

  4. Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term life expectancy is used for statistical estimates of how long a particular kind of people will live. Such estimates are based on the observed length of life of similar people who have died in the past and on probable future changes in mortality. Used in this

  5. Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term life expectancy is used for statistical estimates of how long a particular kind of people will live. Such estimates are based on the observed length of life of similar people who have died in the past and on probable future changes in mortality. Used in this se

  6. Gain in Quality-adjusted Life-years in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis During 1 Year of Biological Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is used to measure outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) studies; identification of drivers of a gain in QALY might help predict a treatment response. We investigated how changes in components of the Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28) were associated...... with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) responses; and what baseline variables predicted the change in QALY following 1 year of biological therapy....

  7. Utilitarianism and the measurement and aggregation of quality--adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, P

    2001-01-01

    It is widely accepted that one of the main objectives of government expenditure on health care is to generate health. Since health is a function of both length of life and quality of life, the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) has been developed in an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY approach--and particularly the decision rule that health care resources should be allocated so as to maximise the number of QALYs generated--has often been equated with the utilitarian philosophy of maximising 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number'. This paper considers the extent to which the measurement and aggregation of QALYs really is utilitarian by developing a new taxonomy in order to classify utilitarianism and the different aspects of the QALY approach. It is shown that the measurement of QALYs is consistent with a number of different moral positions and that QALYs do not have to be aggregated according to the maximisation rule. Therefore it is inappropriate to necessarily equate QALYs with utilitarianism. It is shown that much turns on what in principle the QALY represents and how in practice it can be operationalised. The paper highlights the category confusion that is often present here and suggests possible avenues for future theoretical and empirical research.

  8. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value.

  9. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy Mm; Stalmeier, Peep Fm; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra Jfj; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-04-01

    In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year's value for palliative care. The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to-in addition to the EQ-5D- make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year.

  10. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010.

  11. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-02-18

    To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement "gold standard" among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life.

  12. Cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year and lifetime cost of prolonged mechanical ventilation in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chuan Hung

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV are increasing and producing financial burdens worldwide. This study determines the cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year, out-of-pocket expenses, and lifetime costs for PMV patients stratified by underlying diseases and cognition levels. METHODS: A nationwide sample of 50,481 patients with continual mechanical ventilation for more than 21 days was collected during 1997-2007. After stratifying the patients according to specific diagnoses, a latent class analysis (LCA was performed to categorise PMV patients with multiple co-morbidities into several homogeneous groups. The survival functions were estimated for individual groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and extrapolated to 300 months through a semi-parametric method. The survival functions were adjusted using an EQ-5D utility value derived from a convenience sample of 142 PMV patients to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALE. Another convenience sample of 165 patients was used to estimate the out-of-pocket expenses. The lifetime expenditures paid by the single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI system and patients' families were estimated by multiplying average monthly expenditures by the survival probabilities and summing the values over lifetime. RESULTS: PMV therapy costs more than 100,000 U.S. dollars (USD per QALY for all patients with poor cognition. For patients with partial cognition, PMV therapy costs less than 56,000 USD per QALY for those with liver cirrhosis, intracranial or spinal cord injuries, and 57,000-69,000 USD for patients with multiple co-morbidities under age of 65. The average lifetime cost of PMV was usually below 56,000 USD. The out-of-pocket expenses were often more than one-third of the total cost of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PMV treatment for patients with poor cognition would cost more than 5 times Taiwan's GDP (gross domestic products, or less cost-effective. The out

  13. Treating Urge Incontinence in Older Women: A Cost-Effective Investment in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of urge incontinence treatments for older women. Methods. Decision-analytic models assessed three treatment pathways: (1 limited behavioral therapy (LBT; (2 full behavioral therapy (FBT with biofeedback; and (3 drug (DRUG, with allowances for crossover options following initial treatments. Model inputs were gathered from published data. Cost data were based on third party payer reimbursement. Outcomes were measured as the number of incontinence episodes avoided and quality-adjusted life years gained (QALYs. Results. At baseline values costs per QALY gained ranged from US$3696 to $10609. LBT was the least costly with the lowest benefit. Switching from LBT to FBT, with the greatest gain, was $415 per additional QALY. DRUG was the most expensive option. Sensitivity analyses showed that only small changes in key inputs were required for DRUG to generate greater gains than FBT. Medication costs had to fall substantially for DRUG to be cost competitive. Conclusion. All treatment strategies provide QALYs gains at a bargain price, compared to the standard of US$50,000 per QALY gained. No single treatment strategy dominated under all conditions. Clinicians should offer multiple treatment options to older women with urge incontinence.

  14. Accrued Cost Savings of a Free Clinic Using Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved and Return on Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Lacey, Marcus; Guse, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    Savings garnered through the provision of preventive services is a form of profit for health systems. Free clinics have been using this logic to demonstrate their cost-savings. The Community-Based Chronic Disease Management (CCDM) clinic treats hypertension using nurse-led teams, clinical protocols, and community-based settings. We calculated CCDM's cost-effectiveness from 2007 to 2013 using 2 metrics: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved and return on investment (ROI). QALYs were calculated using the Clinical Preventive Burden (CPB) score for hypertension care. ROI was calculated by tallying the savings from prevented heart attacks, strokes, and emergency department visits against the total operating costs. Using conservative assumptions for cost estimates, hypertension care resulted in a value of QALYs saved of $711,000 to $2,133,000 and an ROI ratio range of 0.35 to 1.20. Our study shows that when using conservative assumptions to calculate cost-savings, our free clinic did not save money. Cost-savings did occur, but the amount was modest, was less than that of cost-inputs, and was not likely captured by any single health entity. Although free clinics remain a vital health care access point for many Americans, it has yet to be demonstrated that they generate a net savings. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Exploring the willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life-year in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafie AA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asrul Akmal Shafie, Yen Wei Lim, Gin Nie Chua, Mohammed Azmi Ahmad Hassali Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains, Penang, Malaysia Introduction: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER is typically compared with a reference value to support the cost-effectiveness of a decision. One method for estimating this value is to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP for a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY. This study was conducted to explore the WTP for a QALY in the Malaysian population. Methods: A cross-sectional, contingent valuation study was conducted in Penang, Malaysia. Respondents were selected from randomly chosen geographical grids of Penang. Respondents’ sociodemographic information, qualities of life, and WTP for one additional QALY were collected using predesigned questionnaires in face-to-face interviews. WTP values were elicited using a double-bound dichotomous choice via a bidding game approach. The Heckman selection model was applied to the analysis of the mean WTP/QALY values, where the “protest zero” values, which may contribute to selection bias, were excluded. Results: The mean value of WTP for an additional QALY gained was estimated to be MYR (Malaysian Ringgit 29,080 (~USD 9,000. Key factors that affected the WTP include ethnicity and estimated monthly household income. Conclusion: The study findings suggested that the cost-effectiveness threshold value as studied in Penang, Malaysia was estimated to be MYR 29,080. Keywords: WTP, QALY, cost-effectiveness threshold, contingent valuation method, Malaysia

  16. Incremental decreases in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms for U.S. Adults aged 65 years and older.

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    Jia, Haomiao; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2017-01-11

    Quality-adjusted life years (QALY) is a single value index that quantifies the overall burden of disease. It reflects all aspects of heath, including nonfatal illness and mortality outcomes by weighting life-years lived with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores. This study examine the burden of disease due to increasing levels of depressive symptoms by examining the association between the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores and QALY for U.S. adults aged 65 years and older. We ascertained respondents' HRQOL scores and mortality status from the 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011. This analysis included respondents aged 65 years and older (n = 3,680). We estimated the mean QALY throughout the remaining lifetime according to participants' depression severity categories: none or minimal (PHQ-9 score 0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and moderately severs and severe (15 or higher). We estimated QALY loss due to major depressive disorder (PHQ-9 score 10 or higher) and to mild depression (5-9). The QALY for persons with none/minimal, mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe depression were 14.0, 7.8, 4.7, and 3.3 years, respectively. Compared to persons without major depressive disorder, persons with major depressive disorder had 8.3 fewer QALY (12.7 vs. 4.4), or a 65% loss. Compared to persons who reported "none" or minimal depressive symptoms, persons who reported mild depressive symptoms had 6.2 fewer QALY (14.0 vs. 7.8), or a 44% loss. The same patterns were noted in demographic and socioeconomic subgroups and according to number of comorbidities. This study not only confirmed the significant burden of disease for major depressive disorder among the U.S. elderly, but also showed an incremental decrease in QALY with an increasing severity of depressive symptoms as well as significant QALY loss due to mild

  17. Bleeding out the quality-adjusted life years: evaluating the burden of primary dysmenorrhea using time trade-off and willingness-to-pay methods.

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    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Brodszky, Valentin; Ruzsa, Gábor; Gradvohl, Edina; Baji, Petra; Gulácsi, László

    2017-07-31

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD), or painful menstruation in the absence of identified uterine pathology, affects 5 to 9 in every 10 reproductive-aged women. Despite its high prevalence, just a few studies with very small patient numbers have focused on health-related quality of life impairment in PD. We aimed to assess health-related quality of life values for a severe and a mild hypothetical PD health state using 10-year time trade-off and willingness-to-pay methods. In 2015, a nationwide convenience sample of women, aged between 18 and 40 years, was recruited using an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in Hungary. Respondents with a known history of secondary dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data on 1836 and 160 women, with and without a history of PD, respectively, were analysed. Mean utility values for the severe and mild health states were 0.85 (median 0.95) and 0.94 (median 1), respectively. Participants were willing to pay a mean of €1127 (median €161) and €142 (median €16) for a complete cure from the severe and mild PD health states. Compared with the non-PD group, women with PD valued both health states worse according to willingness to pay (P < 0.05) but similar in the time trade-off. It seems that PD substantially contributes to the quality-adjusted life year loss in this age group, which is comparable with losses from chronic diseases such as type 1 diabetes, asthma, atopic eczema, or chronic migraine. Our findings provide a useful input to cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of PD treatments.

  18. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J

    2015-01-01

    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  19. Willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: is one threshold enough for decision-making?: results from a study in patients with chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei-Li; Yue, Ming; Yang, Hua; Wang, Tian; Wu, Jiu-Hong; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) ratio with the stated preference data and compare the results obtained between chronic prostatitis (CP) patients and general population (GP). WTP per QALY was calculated with the subjects' own health-related utility and the WTP value. Two widely used preference-based health-related quality of life instruments, EuroQol (EQ-5D) and Short Form 6D (SF-6D), were used to elicit utility for participants' own health. The monthly WTP values for moving from participants' current health to a perfect health were elicited using closed-ended iterative bidding contingent valuation method. A total of 268 CP patients and 364 participants from GP completed the questionnaire. We obtained 4 WTP/QALY ratios ranging from $4700 to $7400, which is close to the lower bound of local gross domestic product per capita, a threshold proposed by World Health Organization. Nevertheless, these values were lower than other proposed thresholds and published empirical researches on diseases with mortality risk. Furthermore, the WTP/QALY ratios from the GP were significantly lower than those from the CP patients, and different determinants were associated with the within group variation identified by multiple linear regression. Preference elicitation methods are acceptable and feasible in the socio-cultural context of an Asian environment and the calculation of WTP/QALY ratio produced meaningful answers. The necessity of considering the QALY type or disease-specific QALY in estimating WTP/QALY ratio was highlighted and 1 to 3 times of gross domestic product/capita recommended by World Health Organization could potentially serve as a benchmark for threshold in this Asian context.

  20. Estimating the willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year in Thailand: does the context of health gain matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavorncharoensap M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Montarat Thavorncharoensap,1,2 Yot Teerawattananon,2 Sirin Natanant,2 Wantanee Kulpeng,2 Jomkwan Yothasamut,2 Pitsaphun Werayingyong21Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Thailand; 2Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP, Ministry of Public Health, ThailandBackground: This study aims to elicit the value of the willingness to pay (WTP for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY and to examine the factors associated with the WTP for a QALY (WTP/QALY value under the Thai health care setting.Methods: A community-based survey was conducted among 1191 randomly selected respondents. Each respondent was interviewed face-to-face to elicit his/her health state preference in each of three pairs of health conditions: (1 unilateral and bilateral blindness, (2 paraplegia and quadriplegia, and (3 mild and moderate allergies. A visual analog scale (VAS and time trade off (TTO were used as the eliciting methods. Subsequently, the respondents were asked about their WTP for the treatment and prevention of each pair of health conditions by using a bidding-game technique.Results: With regards to treatment, the mean WTP for a QALY value (WTP/QALYtreatment estimated by the TTO method ranged from 59,000 to 285,000 baht (16.49 baht = US$1 purchasing power parity [PPP]. In contrast, the mean WTP for a QALY value in terms of prevention (WTP/QALYprevention was significantly lower, ranging from 26,000 to 137,000 baht. Gender, household income, and hypothetical scenarios were also significant factors associated with the WTP/QALY values.Conclusion: The WTP/QALY values elicited in this study were approximately 0.4 to 2 times Thailand's 2008 GDP per capita. These values were in line with previous studies conducted in several different settings. This study's findings clearly support the opinion that a single ceiling threshold should not be used for the resource allocation of all types of interventions.Keywords: ceiling threshold

  1. 癫痫患者质量调整生命年的研究%Quality Adjusted Life Years of Patients with Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常亮

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价癫痫患者的质量调整生命年(QALY)及其影响因素.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法,于2005年1月-2011年7月在河南省焦作市的孟州市、修武县,漯河市的郾城区、源汇区、舞阳县、临颍县、召陵区,南阳市的新野县和方城县9个项目示范点,采用癫痫患者生存质量量表和抑郁自评量表对874例癫痫患者(分为干预组、对照组)的多个指标进行测量,利用R 2.10.0对QALY及其影响因素进行单因素和多因素分析.结果 本研究地区癫痫患者人均获得的QALY为21.24年.经过综合干预的癫痫患者获得的QALY(27.95)高于对照组(14.98),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).年龄、病程、发病年龄、发作频率和焦虑状况是患者QALY的危险因素,服单药和依从性好是QALY的保护因素.结论 今后应针对重点人群、重点的可干预影响因素加强干预,以规范治疗+随访管理与健康教育+心理干预治疗为主要手段的综合干预措施是切实可行的.%Objective To evaluate the quality adjusted life years ( QALYs ) and its influencing factors in patients with epilepsy. Methods We used a multi - stage random sampling method to select patients of epilepsy from nine counties/districts of Henan Province. The subjects were divided into a study group and a control group based on their inclusion into a government funded comprehensive management program which encompassed standardized treatment, follow - ups, health education, and psychological intervention. Quality of Life ( QOL ) Scale and Self - rating Depression Scale ( SDS ) were used to measure the multiple indicators. Software R 2. 10. 0 was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate QALY and its influencing factors. Results Altogether 874 patients of epilepsy were included in this study, with 422 in the study group and 452 in the control group. The overall QALY of all subjects was 21. 24 per person. The average QALY of the study

  2. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

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    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  3. Impact of selected risk factors on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The construct quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) combines mortality and overall health status and can be used to quantify the impact of risk factors on population health. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity...... Health Survey 2000, and Danish EQ-5D values. RESULTS: The quality-adjusted life expectancy of 25-year-olds was 10-11 QALYs shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke. The difference in life expectancy was 9-10 years. Men and women with high alcohol consumption could expect to lose about 5...... and 3 QALYs, respectively. Sedentary persons could expect to have about 7 fewer QALYs than physically active persons. Obesity shortened QALYs by almost 3 for men and 6 for women. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity strongly reduce life expectancy and health...

  4. New findings from the time trade-off for income approach to elicit willingness to pay for a quality adjusted life year.

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    Attema, Arthur E; Krol, Marieke; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2017-03-08

    In this paper we empirically investigate how to appropriately model utility of wealth and health. We use a recently proposed alternative approach to value willingness to pay (WTP) for health, making use of trade-offs between income and life years or quality of life, which we extend to allow for a more realistic multiplicative utility function over health and money. Moreover, we show how reference-dependency can be incorporated into this model and derive its predictions for WTP elicitation. We propose three experimental elicitation procedures and test these in a feasibility study, analysing the responses under different assumptions about the discount rate. Several interesting results are reported: first, the data are highly skewed, but if we trim the 5% lowest and highest values, we obtain plausible WTP estimates. Second, the results differ considerably between procedures, indicating that WTP estimates are sensitive to the assumed utility function. Third, respondents appear to be loss averse for both health and money, which is consistent with assumptions from prospect theory. Finally, our results also indicate that respondents are more willing to trade quality of life than life years.

  5. [We are living longer, but in good health? Inequality in quality-adjusted life expectancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, P; Gheorghe, M

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying trends in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by level of education in the Netherlands 2001-2011. Retrospective study. For this study we used data from several sources. Using regression models we estimated mortality rates and quality of life as functions of age, gender, calendar year and educational level. Quality of life was measured using the SF-6D questionnaire. In order to calculate QALE we combined estimates of mortality rates and quality of life into Sullivan's life tables. Over the period 2001-2011 quality of life and survival increased at all educational levels. This resulted in an increase of QALE varying from 1.5 to 3 years depending on gender and education. QALE increased less strongly in people with lower education than in those with higher education, which to a large extent was due to widening inequalities in mortality. The Dutch are living longer and have a better quality of life but inequalities in QALE have increased.

  6. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60 data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60 and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for each group. Results: Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion: Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  7. What's Happened to the Price of College? Quality-Adjusted Net Price Indexes for Four Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Scafidi, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Hedonic models of the price of college to construct quality-adjusted net price indexes for U.S. four-year colleges were estimated. A 22 percent decline in the estimated price index is reported by adjusting for financial aid, while quality adjusting results lead to a smaller decline, for academic years 1990-91 to 1994-95.

  8. Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancies in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis-Comparison of Index Scores from EQ-5D, 15D, and SF-6D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis generated from three generic health-related quality-of-life instruments.......The aim of this study was to compare quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis generated from three generic health-related quality-of-life instruments....

  9. Using a survey to estimate health expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy to assess inequalities in health and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2013-06-01

    There has been a policy debate in the United Kingdom about moving beyond traditional measures of life expectancy and economic output to developing more meaningful ways of measuring national well-being. To test whether quality adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was a useful indicator of health inequalities. EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire data from a well-being survey was combined with actuarial life expectancy (LE) data to estimate healthy LE (HLE), that is, years of life lived in good health, and QALE, that is, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lived for Wirral, a borough in the north west of England. The gap between Wirral and the most deprived areas was 4.45 years for LE, 5.34 for QALE, and 7.55 for HLE. The gap in QALE was 20% greater than the gap in LE, while the gap in HLE was 70% greater. The fact that the QALE gap value lies between the HLE value and the LE value suggests that QALE is a more sensitive indicator than HLE, as in this study QALE is derived from 243 possible EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire profiles whereas HLE is based only on whether or not an individual rates his or her health as good, a binary variable. This study discusses how QALE could be a useful indicator for measuring health inequalities in future, especially as cost utility and QALYs are seen as the gold standard used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom to measure outcomes for health interventions in England, and discusses how a monetary valuation of QALYs could be used to put a societal cost on health inequalities. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Models of Quality-Adjusted Life Years when Health varies over Time: Survey and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2006-01-01

    time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. This discussion includes questioning the SG method as the gold standard of the health state index, re-examining the role...... of the constant-proportional trade-off condition, revisiting the problem of double discounting of QALYs, and suggesting that it is not a matter of choosing between TTO and SG procedures as the combination of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken...

  11. Models of quality-adjusted life years when health varies over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2006-01-01

    time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. The second part of the paper discusses four issues recurrently debated in the literature. This discussion includes questioning...... the SG method as the gold standard for estimation of the health state index, reexamining the role of the constantproportional tradeoff condition, revisiting the problem of double discounting of QALYs, and suggesting that it is not a matter of choosing between TTO and SG procedures as the combination...

  12. Monetary Value of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY) among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: a Willingness to Pay Study (WTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Najmeh; Rashidian, Arash; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Foroughi, Mahnoosh; Mohammadi, Teymoor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the monetary value of a QALY among patients with heart disease and to identify its determinants. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interview on 196 patients with cardiovascular disease from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran, to estimate the value of QALY using disaggregated and aggregated approaches. The EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Time Trade-Off (TTO) and contingent valuation WTP techniques were employed, first to elicit patients' preferences and then, to estimate WTP for QALY. The association of patients' characteristics with WTP for QALY, was assessed through Heckman selection model. The Mean willingness to pay per QALY, estimated by the disaggregated approach ranged from 2,799 to 3599 US dollars. It is higher than the values, estimated from aggregated methods (USD 2,256 to 3,137). However, in both approaches, the values were less than one Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of Iran. Significant variables were: Current health state, education, age, marital status, number of comorbidities, and household's cost group. Our results challenge two major issues: the first, is a policy challenge which concerns the WHO recommendation to use less than 3 GDP per capita as a cost-effectiveness threshold value. The second, is an analytical challenge related to patients with zero QALY gain. More scrutiny is suggested on the issue of how patients with full health state valuation should be dealt with and what arbitrary value could be included in the estimation value of QALY when the disaggregated approach used.

  13. Quality of life and quality-adjusted survival (Q-TWiST) in patients receiving dose-intensive or standard dose chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, J; Zahrieh, D; Zhang, J J; Martinelli, G; Basser, R; Hürny, C; Forbes, J F; Aebi, S; Yeo, W; Thürlimann, B; Green, M D; Colleoni, M; Gelber, R D; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Price, K N; Goldhirsch, A; Coates, A S

    2008-01-15

    Quality of life (QL) is an important consideration when comparing adjuvant therapies for early breast cancer, especially if they differ substantially in toxicity. We evaluated QL and Q-TWiST among patients randomised to adjuvant dose-intensive epirubicin and cyclophosphamide administered with filgrastim and progenitor cell support (DI-EC) or standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy (SD-CT). We estimated the duration of chemotherapy toxicity (TOX), time without disease symptoms and toxicity (TWiST), and time following relapse (REL). Patients scored QL indicators. Mean durations for the three transition times were weighted with patient reported utilities to obtain mean Q-TWiST. Patients receiving DI-EC reported worse QL during TOX, especially treatment burden (month 3: PQ-TWiST was 1.8 months longer for patients receiving DI-EC (95% CI, -2.5 to 6.1). Q-TWiST favoured DI-EC for most values of utilities attached to TOX and REL. Despite greater initial toxicity, quality-adjusted survival was similar or better with dose-intensive treatment as compared to standard treatment. Thus, QL considerations should not be prohibitive if future intensive therapies show superior efficacy.

  14. Happy Life Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractIntro Need for a measure of quality of life in nations How to assess how well a nation is doing? One way is to look at the quality-of-life of the people who live there. This view is gaining prominence, both among policy makers and the general public. This begs the question

  15. [How much should a gained life-year cost? Study on the assessment of a QALY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Paul F; Schoemaker, Casper G; Polder, Johan J

    2013-01-01

    Increasing healthcare costs force policy makers to make difficult choices in the insurance package. In order to make rational choices, there must be an understanding of the healthcare costs as well as the value of the health that the care provides. Health economists have in recent years carried out extensive research into the value that people attribute to health. Health is of great social value, and is difficult to express in concrete monetary terms. One extra life-year in good health ('quality-adjusted life year', QALY) seems to be valued on average at no less than 50,000 euros by people. Methodology needs to be developed in this area so that study results are more uniform and can be better compared. Physicians and policy makers will thus gain more insight into the value of health.

  16. The joint action on healthy life years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Nusselder, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Life expectancy has been increasing during the last century within the European Union (EU). To measure progress in population health it is no longer sufficient to focus on the duration of life but quality of life should be considered. Healthy Life Years (HLY) allow estimating...... the quality of the remaining years that a person is expected to live, in terms of being free of long-standing activity limitation. The Joint Action on Healthy Life Years (JA: EHLEIS) is a joint action of European Member States (MS) and the European Union aiming at analysing trends, patterns and differences...... in HLY, as well as in other Summary Measures of Population Health (SMPH) indicators, across the European member states. METHODS: The JA: EHLEIS consolidates existing information on life and health expectancy by maximising the European comparability; by analysing trends in HLY within the EU; by analysing...

  17. An Extraordinary Year of My Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rednikov, A. Ye.

    Most of the time, life goes on at a regular pace. This does not mean that nothing interesting happens. It is just regular, normal happy daily life. But there are times when things accelerate and impressions overflow. The periods like this leave a deep impact on one's life. For me, the first year of my postdoc with Manuel, in 1992, at Instituto Pluridisciplinar (IP) of the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM), was definitely one of such occasions. In a word, it was a shock, in a good sense of the word, both scientific and cultural.

  18. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer Duncan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required.

  19. Life: the first two billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H; Bergmann, Kristin D; Strauss, Justin V

    2016-11-05

    Microfossils, stromatolites, preserved lipids and biologically informative isotopic ratios provide a substantial record of bacterial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in Proterozoic (2500-541 Ma) oceans that can be interpreted, at least broadly, in terms of present-day organisms and metabolic processes. Archean (more than 2500 Ma) sedimentary rocks add at least a billion years to the recorded history of life, with sedimentological and biogeochemical evidence for life at 3500 Ma, and possibly earlier; phylogenetic and functional details, however, are limited. Geochemistry provides a major constraint on early evolution, indicating that the first bacteria were shaped by anoxic environments, with distinct patterns of major and micronutrient availability. Archean rocks appear to record the Earth's first iron age, with reduced Fe as the principal electron donor for photosynthesis, oxidized Fe the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for respiration, and Fe a key cofactor in proteins. With the permanent oxygenation of the atmosphere and surface ocean ca 2400 Ma, photic zone O2 limited the access of photosynthetic bacteria to electron donors other than water, while expanding the inventory of oxidants available for respiration and chemoautotrophy. Thus, halfway through Earth history, the microbial underpinnings of modern marine ecosystems began to take shape.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  20. Cause-specific measures of life years lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Kragh Andersen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new measure of the number of life years lost due to specific causes of death is introduced. Methods: This measure is based on the cumulative incidence of death, it does not require "independence" of causes, and it satisfies simple balance equations: "total number of life years lost = sum of cause-specific life years lost", and "total number of life years lost before age x + temporary life expectancy between birth and age x = x". Results: The measure is contrasted to alternatives suggested in the demographic literature and allmethods are illustrated using Danish and Russian multiple decrement life-tables.

  1. Values for health states with different life durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalone, Luciana; Stalmeier, Peep F. M.; Milani, Silvano; Krabbe, Paul F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that the value of health states may depend on their duration, implying a more complex relationship between quality and quantity of life than the standard linear relationship assumed in the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) model. Objective This study models how d

  2. Cause-specific measures of life years lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Keiding, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Background: A new measure of the number of life years lost due to specific causes of death is introduced. Methods: This measure is based on the cumulative incidence of death, it does not require "independence" of causes, and it satisfies simple balance equations: "total number of life years lost...... = sum of cause-specific life years lost", and "total number of life years lost before age x + temporary life expectancy between birth and age x = x". Results: The measure is contrasted to alternatives suggested in the demographic literature and all methods are illustrated using Danish and Russian...

  3. The joint action on healthy life years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Nusselder, Wilma;

    2013-01-01

    on HLY in the national languages is available. The JA: EHLEIS is developing statistical attribution and decomposition tools which will be helpful to determine the impact of specific diseases, life styles or other determinants on differences in HLY. Through a set of international workshops the JA: EHLEIS...

  4. Estimating quality adjusted progression free survival of first-line treatments for EGFR mutation positive non small cell lung cancer patients in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduyn, S Cora; Biesma, Bonne; Schramel, Franz M N H; van der Scheer, Feike W; Langenfeld, Merel K; de Peuter, Maria A; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C

    2012-09-10

    Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an effective treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an activating mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Randomised clinical trials showed a benefit in progression free survival for gefitinib versus doublet chemotherapy regimens in patients with an activated EGFR mutation (EGFR M+). From a patient perspective, progression free survival is important, but so is health-related quality of life. Therefore, this analysis evaluates the Quality Adjusted progression free survival of gefitinib versus three relevant doublet chemotherapies (gemcitabine/cisplatin (Gem/Cis); pemetrexed/cisplatin (Pem/Cis); paclitaxel/carboplatin (Pac/Carb)) in a Dutch health care setting in patients with EGFR M+ stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. This study uses progression free survival rather than overall survival for its time frame in order to better compare the treatments and to account for the influence that subsequent treatment lines would have on overall survival analysis. Mean progression free survival for Pac/Carb was obtained by extrapolating the median progression free survival as reported in the Iressa-Pan-Asia Study (IPASS). Data from a network meta-analysis was used to estimate the mean progression free survival for therapies of interest relative to Pac/Carb. Adjustment for health-related quality of life was done by incorporating utilities for the Dutch population, obtained by converting FACT-L data (from IPASS) to utility values and multiplying these with the mean progression free survival for each treatment arm to determine the Quality Adjusted progression free survival. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine 95% credibility intervals. The Quality Adjusted progression free survival (PFS) (mean, (95% credibility interval)) was 5.2 months (4.5; 5.8) for Gem/Cis, 5.3 months (4.6; 6.1) for Pem/Cis; 4.9 months (4.4; 5.5) for Pac/Carb and 8.3 (7.0; 9.9) for gefitinib. In the Dutch

  5. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  6. Disability-adjusted life years analysis: implications for stroke research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keun-Sik

    2011-09-01

    Stroke is a prototype disorder that disables as well as kills people. The disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric developed by the World Health Organization to measure the global burden of disease integrates healthy life years lost due to both premature mortality and living with disability. Accordingly, it is well suited to stroke research. The DALY has previously been applied only to large but relatively crude population-level data analyses, but now it is possible to calculate the DALY lost in individual stroke patients. Measuring each patient's stroke outcome with DALY lost has expanded its application to the analysis of treatment effect in acute stroke trials, delineating the poststroke complication impact, the differential weighting of discrete vascular events, and estimating a more refined stroke burden in a specific population. The DALY metric has several advantages over conventional stroke outcome measures: 1) Since the DALY measures the burden of diverse health conditions with a common metric of life years lost, stroke burden and benefits of stroke interventions can be directly compared to other health conditions and their treatments. 2) Quantifying stroke burden or interventional benefits as the life years lost or gained makes the DALY metric more intuitively accessible for public and health system planners. 3) As a continuous, equal-interval scale, the DALY analysis might be statistically more powerful than either binary or ordinal rank outcome analyses in detecting the treatment effects of clinical trials. 4) While currently employed stroke outcome measures take one-time snapshots of disability or mortality and implicitly indicate long-term health impact, the DALY explicitly indicates the burdens of living with disability for an individual's remaining life.

  7. Index of years of potential life lost in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Aguilar, L

    1990-01-01

    The index of years of potential life lost (IYPL) is calculated for the states of Mexico in comparison to that of Mexico as a whole. Based on deaths notified in 1985, standardized reasons for mortality and the IYPL were calculated for 5-year cohorts in 32 Mexican states. The IYPL was first calculated for the State of Aguascalientes, a small state in central Mexico, using the formula of Haenszel and Yerushalmy. Columns were generated showing 1) the middle point for each cohort, by calculating the semi-sum of the relative limits in each age category; 2) number of deaths subtracted from an arbitrary life expectancy of 70; 3) population of each cohort; 4) rate of general mortality for each cohort; 5) expected deaths the state had a mortality equal to the Mexican Republic; and 6) IYPL. Results for IYPL for all the Mexican states are tabulated, next to life expectancy, and standardized reason for mortality. The results are also plotted graphically on maps. While at first the 2 figures do not seem consistent, socioeconomic factors such as child mortality, occupational mortality, nutrition, and environmental sanitation can explain some of the discrepancies. Usually mortality rates and life expectancy are used to describe and compare health in different regions. IYPL has it uses, despite its simple calculation, because it can suggest ways to allocate resources according to health needs.

  8. Years of potential life lost among a Native American population.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, M C; Michalek, A M; Cummings, K M; Hanley, J; Snyder, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of years of potential life lost (YPLL) can aid in monitoring changes in premature mortality among various population groups. While premature mortality has been shown to differ among blacks and whites, patterns of YPLL have not been well established among other racial groups. The Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) is a Native American group residing primarily in western New York State (NYS). A review of SNI necrology records revealed that 55 percent (510 of 924) of the deaths bet...

  9. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  10. Course of autism signs in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, S; Muratori, F; Cesari, A; Cavallaro, M C; Paziente, A; Pecini, C; Grassi, C; Manfredi, A; Sommario, C

    2005-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to be present right from birth, even if a minority of children displays a normal course during infancy followed by a regression during the second year of life. However, established criteria are not yet available to differentiate these different courses of ASD, and data coming from different sources have not yet been organized into a clear definition. The aim of this study was to elucidate the time of onset, as well as type, frequency and stability of symptoms during the first year of life in ASD. The behavioral summarized evaluation scale, applied to 40 home movies of children later diagnosed as having ASD, showed that most of the subjects (87.5%) display symptoms within the first year of life, when only a small group (12.5%) is completely symptom free. A group of more rated symptoms was found, constituting a typical pattern characterized by being withdrawn, and displaying poor social initiative, hypoactivity, and lack of emotional modulation. The importance of these findings is discussed in relation to early diagnosis and treatment.

  11. From clinically relevant outcome measures to quality of life in epilepsy : A time trade-off study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kinderen, Reina J A; Wijnen, Ben F M; van Breukelen, Gerard; Postulart, Debby; Majoie, Marian H J M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A proposed method for bridging the gap between clinically relevant epilepsy outcome measures and quality-adjusted life years is to derive utility scores for epilepsy health states. The aim of this study is to develop such a utility-function and to investigate the impact of the epilepsy o

  12. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal...... study of the 1914 population in Glostrup, Copenhagen. Participants were all interviewed in their homes by an occupational therapist. Findings provide evidence that frail older adults more frequently express satisfaction with their daily lives when they (1) are occupied as usual; (2) have friends; (3......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  13. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country.

  14. Modigliani's life-cycle theory of savings fifty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baranzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, Modigliani proposed a theory of spending in which people make intelligent choices about their spending at each age limited by the resources available over their lives. By using assets and debts, working people can provide for their retirement and tailor their spending to their needs at each age independent of income at each age. The theory predicts that national saving depends on the growth of national income, not its level, and that aggregate wealth depends on the length of retirement. Fifty years later, the life-cycle hypothesis remains an essential part of economists' thinking. Without it, we would have much less to say about the private and public provision of social security, the effects of the stock market on the economy, the effects of demographic change on national saving, the role of saving in economic growth, and the determinants of national wealth.

  15. Constructing quality-adjusted price indices from revenue and cost data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aquino DeSouza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to construct quality adjusted price indices without direct observation of product-level data (prices, quantities and characteristics. The technique used here allows for a welfare based measurement of price change using commonly available (at least for the manufacturing sector plant-level data on revenue and cost. However, one has to be explicit about the evolution of the outside good quality and the structure of demand and supply. Using data on the Colombian beer industry and combining the methodologies originally proposed by Katayama, Lu and Tybout (2003, DeSouza (2006a and Trajtenberg (1990 I am able to uncover the demand parameters and build welfare-based price indices for the 1977-1990 period.Este artigo demonstra como construir um índice de preços ajustados pela qualidade sem a observação direta de dados ao nível de produto (preços, quantidades e características. A técnica aplicada no artigo permite medir a inflação dos preços com base na variação intertemporal de bem-estar através do uso de dados de receita e despesa comumente disponíveis (pelo menos para o setor industrial ao nível de empresas. No entanto, tal técnica exige a imposição de hipóteses sobre a evolução da qualidade do bem externo assim como a estrutura da demanda e da oferta. Com dados sobre a indústria colombiana de cerveja e combinando metodologias originalmente desenvolvidas por Katayama, Lu e Tybout (2003, DeSouza (2006a e Trajtenberg (1990 estimam-se os parâmetros da demanda e constroem-se índices de preços para o período de 1977 a 1990 a partir da mensuração do bem-estar dos consumidores.

  16. At Stake: 500,000,000 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1972-01-01

    Traces the history of life on earth from the Cambrian period to present. Stresses the importance of inter-dependence of individual and species and the dependence of life upon non-life. Discusses the speed at which man has altered nature's balance and the question of how an ecological balance is to be maintained. (LK)

  17. At Stake: 500,000,000 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1972-01-01

    Traces the history of life on earth from the Cambrian period to present. Stresses the importance of inter-dependence of individual and species and the dependence of life upon non-life. Discusses the speed at which man has altered nature's balance and the question of how an ecological balance is to be maintained. (LK)

  18. [Diversification in the first year of food life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Isabel; Aguiar, Hélder Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    Diversifying food during the first year of life is an extremely important step for the adequate nutritional status of infants and their physical and psychological development, functioning as a means of transition from lactation to feed the family. Despite the introduction of food diversification is a necessary step for human development, some issues still exist today, not only for the initiation but also in relation to the proper sequence for the various types of food, causing different perspectives and ways of acting on part of clinicians. To determine the best time for the start of food diversification and the best time to introduce certain foods. Bibliographic search of the literature in English and Portuguese, from January 2004 to May 2010 through Medline / Pubmed sites and Evidence Based Medicine. Twenty-five of fifty-eight articles were selected, given the full availability of publications and relevance to the topic. The food diversification should never start before 17 or after 2 6 weeks. There is no current evidence that delaying the introduction of any antigen after six months reduces the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema, even if there is family history of allergy. It is prudent to avoid the introduction of both prior (less than four months) and late (more than seven months) of gluten and a gradual introduction will reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes and allergy to it. The introduction of fish at one year of age reduces the risk of allergic diseases at age four at the immunological benefits of its early introduction outweigh the risks of sensitization to its antigens. It is important that the onset of food diversification and the introduction of antigens is performed within a specified time interval. It is crucial to implement a healthy diet for the whole family, to the extent that children learn by example.

  19. The AIDS epidemic in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark: potential years of life lost and impact on life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Smith, Else; Juel, Knud;

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to describe the impact of AIDS on the city of Copenhagen by estimating potential years of life lost (PYLL) before the age of 65 years and to estimate the impact of AIDS deaths on life expectancy for males and females. METHODS: All AIDS cases reported to the national AIDS...... cancer were the leading causes of PYLL in women. It was shown that AIDS deaths at the top of the epidemic in 1991-95 were responsible for a loss of 0.76 years in life expectancy for men and 0.08 years for women. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS has had a considerable impact on potential years of life lost....... A significant decline in AIDS deaths has been seen since 1995 with an effect on life expectancy for men in the city of Copenhagen....

  20. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  1. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...... lost (mortality) and years of impaired life (morbidity). Qualitative severity approaches tend to arrange potency-based indicators in categories, avoiding the need to quantitatively express differences in severity. Based on the proposed criteria and current state of the knowledge, toxicological potency...

  2. [Disability-free life expectancy among 60-year-olds in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2003-06-02

    Life expectancy can be expressed as average expected lifetime in different health states. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy, i.e. average lifetime without disabilities, in Denmark and in the counties of Denmark and evaluate the relation between life expectancy and the proportion of disability-free life expectancy. Prevalence rates of disability (in terms of walking, walking on stairs, carrying 5 kg, reading, hearing and speaking) derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 were combined with life-table data and disability-free life expectancy was calculated by Sullivan's method. In 2000 expected lifetime of 60-year-old men and women was 18.8 years and 22.0 years respectively and disability-free life expectancy was 14.7 years for both sexes corresponding to 78.4% and 66.6% of the remaining lifetime for men and women respectively. Differences in disability-free life expectancy between counties ranged from zero to three years. In counties with the highest life expectancy among women they tended to have a higher proportion of life years with disabilities, but there was no correlation between life expectancy and the proportion of disability-free life expectancy for men. The results may illustrate theories about the relation between increased lifetime and quality of life in terms of health. Increased total lifetime for women prolongs the proportion of expected lifetime with disability ("expansion of morbidity"), whereas for men no correlation was found ("dynamic equilibrium").

  3. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  4. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 Years for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Tawfik, Magdy; Lybeck, Nancy

    2011-09-23

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring instead of periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  5. Health-related quality of life in the elderly three years after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panasewicz, Anna; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Veenhuis, Stefanie J G;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the elderly after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We 1) compared HRQOL of elderly (≥70 years) with younger patients (......Long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the elderly after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We 1) compared HRQOL of elderly (≥70 years) with younger patients (...

  6. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, W.; Hanekamp, M.N.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Tibboel, D.; Jongste, J.C. de; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenati

  7. The Best Years of Life: A Study of Older Hong Kong Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jik-Joen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines elderly respondents' self-reported best years of life and the reasons to support their choices. A total of 842 Chinese people aged 60 and over participated in this cross-sectional study, giving an overall response rate of 91%. This study used information from an index entitled "The Best Years of Life", which was…

  8. Body length and head growth in the first year of life in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalen, E. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Dietz, C.; Engeland, H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Data on the growth of the head in the first year of life in children with autism spectrum disorders are inconsistent. We measured head circumference and body length during the first year of life, and determined whether the head grew in proportion to body length. This is a case-control study nested i

  9. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in expected severity......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...

  10. Quality of life one year post myocardial revascularization and aortic valve replacement in patients aged 70 year or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markou, A L; Selten, K; Krabbe, P F; Noyez, L

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at one year post myocardial revascularization (CABG) and post aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: Of 102 CABG patients and 69 AVR patients preoperative and

  11. Quality of life one year post myocardial revascularization and aortic valve replacement in patients aged 70 year or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markou, A.L.; Selten, K.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Noyez, L.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at one year post myocardial revascularization (CABG) and post aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: Of 102 CABG patients and 69 AVR patients preoperative and

  12. Quality of life one year post myocardial revascularization and aortic valve replacement in patients aged 70 year or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markou, A L; Selten, K; Krabbe, P F; Noyez, L

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at one year post myocardial revascularization (CABG) and post aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients aged 70 years or older. METHODS: Of 102 CABG patients and 69 AVR patients preoperative and follow-u

  13. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  14. Twelve Years in the Life of Airline Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michael Powell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps no innovation in history has affected marketing management as pervasively as has the advent of e-commerce. This revolutionary new channel has required businesses to acquire an entirely new set of skills and approaches to promotion, pricing, and distribution. The necessity for e-commerce website operators to more deeply understand consumer behavior when engaged in e-commerce has become a central and crucial factor in website success or failure. As predicted nearly 20 years ago, travel bookings have moved almost entirely to the World Wide Web (WWW. For the past 12 years, data have been collected concerning traveler’s preferences, concerns, and perceptions of airline websites in particular. This research reviews and comments on the evolution of those sites and consumer perceptions of efficiency, ease of use, and usefulness. The results of this study are intended to guide airlines in their pursuit of customer satisfaction and increased profits.

  15. 1959 - 1969 Ten years in the life of a machine

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Operation and development of the PS have brought a dramatic improvement in its capabilities. This article describes the years of getting to know the machine and of developing its potential, picking out some major landmarks on the way. The article was put together with the help of P.H. Standley (PS Division Head), C.S. Taylor (Linac), G. Plass, W. Richter (Mam Ring), M. Georgijevic (Power Supply), J.H.B. Madsen (Operation), and G.L. Munday (Experimental Areas).

  16. An opportune life: 50 years in human cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article is one person's view of human cytogenetics over the past 50 years. The flowering of human cytogenetics led the way to the establishment of clinical genetics as one of the most important developments in medicine in the twentieth century. The article is written from the viewpoint of a scientist who never tired of analyzing the images of dividing cells on the light microscope and interpreting the wealth of information contained in them.

  17. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations.

  18. [Years of life lost as a measure of cancer burden in Colombia, 1997-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Esther; Meneses, María Ximena; Piñeros, Marion

    2016-12-01

    There is hardly any information regarding years of life lost due to cancer in Colombia. To quantify total and average years of life lost due to cancer in Colombia, and to investigate changes in this burden between 1997 and 2012. We obtained sex-specific data on age distribution, remaining life expectancy, deaths due to specific cancers and total number of deaths from the Colombian Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas. We calculated years of life lost based on each individual´s age at death and the remaining life expectancy at that age; as for average years of life, we divided these by the number of deaths due to specific cancers. The total number of cancer deaths increased by 33% between 1997 and 2012, comprising 15% of male and 20% of female deaths in the period 2010-2012. Total years of life lost due to cancer increased by 25.1% for males and 31.1% for females over the study period. The highest increases (>40%) were observed for colorectal, pancreas and kidney cancers in both sexes, for melanomas and bladder cancer in men, and for breast and ovarian cancer in women. Trends in average years of life lost were stable. Almost half (48-50%) of the years of life lost due to childhood cancers were due to leukemia. Cancer is an increasing health burden in Colombia. The high average years of life lost illustrate the poor prognosis of the disease compared to other countries. Primary prevention, early detection, and adequate and timely treatments are needed to change this situation.

  19. Progress of Ambiente & Agua Journal after three years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available After completing three years since its first issue was published on August 2006, we are proud to report the development of Ambiente & Agua - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, ISSN:1980-993X, doi:10.4136/1980-993X that is publishing its 10th issue with 17 peer reviewed articles. Thanks to the great support of the scientific community, especially to the authorse and peer reviewers, all issues have been published on-time, i.e. at the end of April, August and December. Missions and goals are progressively being achieved. We have two new metadata harvester agencies listing the journal: the Portal of the Brazilian Agency from the Ministry of Education concerned with the graduate level education, known as CAPES in its service “Portal de Periódicos da CAPES” accessed by most of the scientific community in Brazil and the Summary of Brazilian Journals (Sumarios.org. We report in this current issue the growing international interest in the journal, by monitoring the access of readers, using several tools. Therefore, we anticipate a growing interest in the journal from not only the Brazilian but also from the global scientific community.

  20. Progress of Ambiente & Agua Journal after three years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available After completing three years since its first issue was published on August 2006, we are proud to report the development of Ambiente & Agua - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, ISSN:1980-993X, doi:10.4136/1980-993X that is publishing its 10th issue with 17 peer reviewed articles. Thanks to the great support of the scientific community, especially to the authors e peer reviewers, all issues have been published on-time, i.e. at the end of April, August and December. Missions and goals are progressively being achieved. We have two new metadata harvester agencies listing the journal: the Portal of the Brazilian Agency from the Ministry of Education concerned with the graduate level education, known as CAPES in its service “Portal de Periódicos da CAPES” accessed by most of the scientific community in Brazil and the Summary of Brazilian Journals (Sumarios.org. We report in this current issue the growing international interest in the journal, by monitoring the access of readers, using several tools. Therefore, we anticipate a growing interest in the journal from notonly the Brazilian but also from the global scientific community.

  1. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  2. How Shall I Live? Constructing a Life Story in the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Dan P.; Guo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter applies the concept of narrative identity to college student development. The authors describe a narrative interview method that can be used to promote the development of a purposeful life story in the college years.

  3. Quality of life in post-stroke patients at one year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoany Mesa Barrera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: Cerebrovascular diseases impact on quality of life. Factors associated to a greater impairment vary from one study to another. Objective: To describe the factors that affect Quality of life in stroke survivors at one year.Methods: It is a longitudinal descriptive study of a cohort of 110 stroke survivors with outpatient follow-up for one year after the initial evaluation. Quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life Scale for Stroke.Results: Women predominated with 52.3%. The degree of neurological involvement was moderate to severe in more than two thirds of patients and at a year follow up, it improved (slight to moderate, with average score of 3.5 ± 3.8. More than one third presented high burden of depressive symptoms for an average score of 7.8 ± 3.6, which increased to 56% per year. Factors associated with the impairment of quality of life were: worse neurological status (OR: 2.63, CI: 1.48, 2.82, major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.94, CI: 1 17; 1.89 and older (OR: 1.14, CI: 1.04, 1.25. Conclusion: Quality of life was determined by the degree of neurological impairment, cognitive status, older age and the presence of depressive symptoms. The only factors associated with quality of life which were modified at a year of follow-up were the neurological involvement and the presence of depressive symptoms.

  4. The impact of healthcare costs in the last year of life and in all life years gained on the cost-effectiveness of cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kok, I M C M; Polder, J J; Habbema, J D F;

    2009-01-01

    It is under debate whether healthcare costs related to death and in life years gained (LysG) due to life saving interventions should be included in economic evaluations. We estimated the impact of including these costs on cost-effectiveness of cancer screening. We obtained health insurance, home...... care, nursing homes, and mortality data for 2.1 million inhabitants in the Netherlands in 1998-1999. Costs related to death were approximated by the healthcare costs in the last year of life (LastYL), by cause and age of death. Costs in LYsG were estimated by calculating the healthcare costs in any...... life year. We calculated the change in cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) if unrelated healthcare costs in the LastYL or in LYsG would be included. Costs in the LastYL were on average 33% higher for persons dying from cancer than from any cause. Including costs in LysG increased the CER by 4040 euro...

  5. Spatial Quantile Regression In Analysis Of Healthy Life Years In The European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzpiot Grażyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of the selected factors on the healthy life years of men and women in the EU countries. The multiple quantile spatial autoregression models are used in order to account for substantial differences in the healthy life years and life quality across the EU members. Quantile regression allows studying dependencies between variables in different quantiles of the response distribution. Moreover, this statistical tool is robust against violations of the classical regression assumption about the distribution of the error term. Parameters of the models were estimated using instrumental variable method (Kim, Muller 2004, whereas the confidence intervals and p-values were bootstrapped.

  6. Race/skin color differentials in potential years of life lost due to external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Edna Maria de; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Hogan, Vijaya K; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Deaths by external causes represent one of the most important challenges for public health and are the second cause of death in Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze differentials in mortality by external causes according to race/skin color. A descriptive study was carried out in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, using 9,626 cases of deaths by external causes between 1998 and 2003. Data were obtained from the Forensic Medicine Institute and from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The indicator 'potential years of life lost' was utilized to identify the existence of differences among age groups, sex groups and race/skin color groups. Deaths by external causes provoked the loss of 339,220 potential years of life, of which 210,000 were due to homicides. Nonwhite individuals died at earlier ages and lost 12.2 times as much potential years of life due to deaths by homicidies than white individuals. Although the nonwhite (black and mixed) population was three times larger than the white population, its number of potential years of life lost was 30 times higher. The population of blacks was 11.4 % smaller than the white population, but its loss of potential years of life was almost three times higher. Even after the adjustment for age, the differences observed in the indicator potential years of life lost/100,000 inhabitants and in the ratios between strata according to race/skin color were maintained. The results showed differentials in mortality by external causes according to race/skin color in Salvador. The nonwhite population had greater loss of potential years of life, higher average number of years not lived and, on average, they died at an earlier age due to homicides, traffic accidents an all other external causes.

  7. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2014-01-01

    of quality-adjusted rental prices for apartments across the residential locations within the city of Berlin. The resulting pattern of ‘residual’ rental prices with a growing concentration of hot spots in central districts of Berlin can be interpreted as the tenants’ valorization of apartments in geographic...

  8. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2014-01-01

    find that districts’ net in-migration balances are positively correlated with quality-adjusted rental price levels for higher quantiles of the distribution, thereby potentially proxying the price dynamics of underlying gentrification processes. Using statistical tests from the explanatory spatial data...

  9. Telling Their Stories: Representation and Reenactment of Traumatic Experiences Occurring in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensbauer, Theodore J.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on infants in the first year of life who have experienced single or very circumscribed episodes of trauma in the context of otherwise relatively normal developmental trajectories. Young infants who experience pain may show heightened reactions to pain even years later. Children may remember, and may even reenact, traumatic…

  10. Predictors of motor developmental milestones during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    of a broad selection of possible predictors of age at milestone attainment and to identify factors that explain significant inter-individual variance. Mothers of 5765 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (1959-61) recorded 12 developmental milestones prospectively during the child's first year of life...... in the first year, were significantly associated with milestone attainment in the first year of life. Variables within the domain of Pregnancy and delivery explained the largest proportion of variance in milestone attainment compared to the other domains. What is known: • Younger age at attainment of motor...

  11. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and... § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a) Effective July 23, 1953, all or any part of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan...

  12. The valuation of prenatal life in economic evaluations of perinatal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judit; Petrou, Stavros; Gray, Alastair

    2009-04-01

    Perinatal interventions delivered during the prenatal period have the potential to directly impact prenatal life. The decision on when to begin 'counting' the life of an infant in the calculus has received little attention in previous economic evaluations of perinatal interventions. We illustrate, using data from a recent trial-based economic evaluation of magnesium sulphate given to women with pre-eclampsia to prevent eclampsia, how different definitions of when human life commences can have a significant impact upon cost-effectiveness estimates based on composite outcome measures such as life years or quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted. Further, we suggest ways in which methods in this area can be improved.

  13. J. M. Keynes; Liberalism and Keynes; Keynes's Personal Life; Keynes's School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gumus, Erdal

    2003-01-01

    History has witnessed many great individuals who have had unforgettable impact and great influences on societies that they may not last for centuries. Among these, doubtless to say, John Maynard Keynes was one of the most influenced social scientists. It is therefore the subject of this study to briefly examine his personal life from his birth and school years. This study shows that John Maynard Keynes life carries so many distinguished features that are to be invaluable examples for young ec...

  14. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  15. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  16. Years of life lost due to external causes of death in the lodz province, poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Pikala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is the analysis of years of life lost due to external causes of death, particularly due to traffic accidents and suicides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material includes a database containing information gathered from 376,281 death certificates of inhabitants of the Lodz province who died between 1999 and 2010. The Lodz province is characterized by the highest mortality rates in Poland. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person and the SEYLLd (per death indices were used to determine years of life lost. Joinpoint models were used to analyze time trends. RESULTS: In 2010, deaths due to external causes constituted 6.0% of the total number of deaths. The standardized death rate (SDR due to external causes was 110.0 per 100,000 males and was five times higher than for females (22.0 per 100,000 females. In 2010, the SEYLLp due to external causes was 3746 per 100,000 males and 721 per 100,000 females. Among males, suicides and traffic accidents were the most common causes of death (the values of the SEYLLp were: 1098 years and 887 years per 100,000 people, respectively. Among females, the SEYLLp values were 183 years due to traffic accidents and 143 years due to suicides (per 100,000 people. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in the number of years of life lost due to external causes is much higher among females. The authors observe that a growing number of suicides contribute to an increase in the value of the SEYLLp index. This directly contributes to over-mortality of males due to external causes. The analysis of the years of life lost focuses on the social and economic aspects of premature mortality due to external causes.

  17. Perioperative morbidity and mortality in the first year of life: a systematic review (1997-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catré, Dora; Lopes, Maria Francelina; Viana, Joaquim Silva; Cabrita, António Silvério

    2015-01-01

    Although many recognize that the first year of life and specifically the neonatal period are associated with increased risk of anesthetic morbidity and mortality, there are no studies directed to these pediatric subpopulations. This systematic review of the scientific literature including the last 15 years aimed to analyze the epidemiology of morbidity and mortality associated with general anesthesia and surgery in the first year of life and particularly in the neonatal (first month) period. The review was conducted by searching publications in Medline/PubMed databases, and the following outcomes were evaluated: early mortality in the first year of life (<1 year) and in subgroups of different vulnerability in this age group (0-30 days and 1-12 months) and the prevalence of cardiac arrest and perioperative critical/adverse events of various types in the same subgroups. The current literature indicates great variability in mortality and morbidity in the age group under consideration and in its subgroups. However, despite the obvious methodological heterogeneity and absence of specific studies, epidemiological profiles of morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia in children in the first year of life show higher frequency of morbidity and mortality in this age group, with the highest peaks of incidence in the neonates' anesthesia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of wheeze in Dutch infants in their first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Chantal A N; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Eggink, Jenny; Brand, Paul L P

    2010-02-01

    Factors operating in the first year of life are critical in determining the onset and persistence of wheezing in preschool children. This study was designed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of wheeze in the first year of life in Dutch infants. This was a population-based survey of 13-month-old infants visiting well baby clinics for a scheduled immunization. Parents/caregivers completed a standardized validated questionnaire on respiratory symptoms in the first year of life and putative risk factors. The independent influence of these factors for wheeze was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,115 questionnaires were completed. Wheeze ever (with a prevalence in the first year of life of 28.5%) was independently associated with male gender, eczema, sibs with asthma, any allergic disease in the family, day care, damp housing, and asphyxia. Recurrent wheeze (prevalence 14.5%) showed independent associations with eczema, sibs with asthma, and day care. In addition to these factors, severe wheeze (prevalence 15.4%) was also associated with premature rupture of membranes during birth, and with damp housing. Wheeze is common during the first year of life, and places a major burden on families and the health care system. Factors associated with wheeze are mainly related to markers of atopic susceptibility, and to exposure to infections. The strongest modifiable risk factor for wheeze in the first year of life is home dampness. Interventions to reduce home dampness to reduce wheeze in infancy should be examined. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Monograph use at an academic health sciences library: the first three years of shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the circulation of monographs during the first three years of shelf life at an academic health sciences library. Method: A record was kept of monographs added to the circulating collection from mid-1994 to mid-1995. After three years, each monograph was located and the number of times it circulated during the first, second, and third year of shelf life determined by counting checkout stamps on the circulation slip. Results: Of the 1,958 monographs studied, 1,674 had complete data for the first three years of shelf life. Of those 1,674 titles, 81.48% circulated at least once. A total of 7,659 circulations were recorded; 38.69% occurred in the first year of shelf life, 32.37% in the second year, and 28.95% in the third year. The data did not fit the well-known 80/20 rule. Instead, approximately 38% of monographs accounted for 80% of circulation. A small percentage, 2.21%, of monographs accounted for a substantial percentage of circulation, 21.84%. Conclusions: A large percentage of the monographs circulated and use did not decline sharply with age within the first three years of shelf life, indicating a high demand for monographs at this academic health sciences library. These results, combined with the findings of earlier studies, suggested two possibilities. First, academic health sciences libraries might exhibit use of a higher percentage of monograph acquisitions than other types of libraries; or, second, a low monograph-to-user ratio might result in a higher percentage of monographs being used. Perhaps both factors contributed to the results found in this study. Further investigation would be needed to determine the extent to which library type and monograph-to-user ratio influenced monograph use. PMID:10783969

  20. Disability-adjusted Life Years Lost to Ischemic Heart Disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Álvarez-Martín, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The health indicator disability-adjusted life years combines the fatal and nonfatal consequences of a disease in a single measure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of ischemic heart disease in 2008 in Spain by calculating disability-adjusted life years. The years of life lost due to premature death were calculated using the ischemic heart disease deaths by age and sex recorded in the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and the life-table in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. The years lived with disability, calculated for acute coronary syndrome, stable angina, and ischemic heart failure, used hospital discharge data and information from population studies. Disability weights were taken from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. We calculated crude and age standardized rates (European Standard Population). Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. In 2008, 539 570 disability-adjusted life years were lost due to ischemic heart disease in Spain (crude rate, 11.8/1000 population; standardized, 8.6/1000). Of the total years lost, 96% were due to premature death and 4% due to disability. Among the years lost due to disability, heart failure accounted for 83%, stable angina 15%, and acute coronary syndrome 2%. In the sensitivity analysis, weighting by age was the factor that changed the results to the greatest degree. Ischemic heart disease continues to have a huge impact on the health of our population, mainly because of premature death. The results of this study provide an overall vision of the epidemiologic situation in Spain and could serve as the basis for evaluating interventions targeting the acute and chronic manifestations of cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Perioperative morbidity and mortality in the first year of life: a systematic review (1997-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catré, Dora; Lopes, Maria Francelina; Viana, Joaquim Silva; Cabrita, António Silvério

    2015-01-01

    Although many recognize that the first year of life and specifically the neonatal period are associated with increased risk of anesthetic morbidity and mortality, there are no studies directed to these pediatric subpopulations. This systematic review of the scientific literature including the last 15 years aimed to analyze the epidemiology of morbidity and mortality associated with general anesthesia and surgery in the first year of life and particularly in the neonatal (first month) period. The review was conducted by searching publications in Medline/PubMed databases, and the following outcomes were evaluated: early mortality in the first year of life (<1 Yr) and in subgroups of different vulnerability in this age group (0-30 days and 1-12 months) and the prevalence of cardiac arrest and perioperative critical/adverse events of various types in the same subgroups. The current literature indicates great variability in mortality and morbidity in the age group under consideration and in its subgroups. However, despite the obvious methodological heterogeneity and absence of specific studies, epidemiological profiles of morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia in children in the first year of life show higher frequency of morbidity and mortality in this age group, with the highest peaks of incidence in the neonates' anesthesia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Trajectories of life satisfaction five years after medical discharge for traumatically acquired disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Caitlin L; Elliott, Timothy R; Berry, Jack W; Underhill, Andrea T; Fine, Philip R; Lai, Mark H C

    2014-05-01

    We studied the predictive impact of family satisfaction, marital status, and functional impairment on the trajectories of life satisfaction over the first 5 years following medical treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury, burns, or interarticular fractures (total N = 662). It was anticipated that fewer functional impairments, being married, and greater family satisfaction would predict higher life satisfaction trajectories. The Functional Independence Measure, the Family Satisfaction Scale, and the Life Satisfaction Index were administered 12, 24, 48, and 60 months postdischarge. Trajectory modeling revealed that greater functional impairment significantly predicted lower life satisfaction, regardless of injury type. However, this association diminished when marital status and family satisfaction were entered into the models. Greater family satisfaction and being married predicted greater life satisfaction across time. Moreover, there was no evidence for increases in life satisfaction trajectories over time: Trajectories were stable across time for all injury groups. Results suggest that being married and greater family satisfaction promote life satisfaction among those who traumatically acquire disability, and these beneficial effects may be more salient than the degree of functional impairment imposed by the condition. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Occupational gaps in everyday life one year after stroke and the association with life satisfaction and impact of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gunilla; Aasnes, Monica; Tistad, Malin; Guidetti, Susanne; von Koch, Lena

    2012-01-01

    To examine the presence, frequency, and distribution of occupational gaps and to explore whether there are associations between occupational gaps and life satisfaction, self-rated recovery, and functioning and participation in activities of daily living (ADLs) 1 year after stroke. Data were collected at onset and at 12 months after stroke from 161 patients admitted to a stroke unit in central Sweden by using Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, LiSat-11, Stroke Impact Scale, Katz ADL Index, and Barthel Index. Spearman rank correlation and Mann Whitney U test were used in the analyses. Occupational gaps were reported by 87% of the participants. The number of occupational gaps was moderately associated with participation and self-rated recovery. There was a significant difference in the number of occupational gaps between the participants who were independent in ADLs and those who were not, both at baseline and at 12 months after stroke. There was, however, no significant association between occupational gaps and life satisfaction. Occupational gaps 1 year after stroke are very common, particularly among individuals experiencing difficulties in ADLs. Increased efforts are vital to enable individuals to do the activities that are important to them, irrespective of whether these are instrumental ADLs or leisure or social activities. Occupational gaps could be reduced by developing rehabilitation interventions that enable desired activities in different contexts that are crucial for individual patients.

  4. Meeting report: Measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints within the first years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Hauser, R.; Swan, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    An international workshop tided "Assessing Endocrine-Related Endpoints within the First Years of Life" was held 30 April-1 May 2007, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Representatives from a number of pregnancy cohort studies in North America and Europe presented options for measuring various endocrine-...

  5. Co-benefits of climate mitigation: Counting statistical lives or life-years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    periods and the number of affected victims. These lifetable simulations are based on WHO consensus estimates for the mortality risk ratio related to long-term exposures and suggest an average loss of life expectancy of 9–11 years for an annual air pollution exposure increase of 10 ugPM2.5/m3...

  6. Subjective quality of life in first-episode psychosis. A ten year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein;

    2016-01-01

    patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms...

  7. Neonatal BCG vaccination has no effect on recurrent wheeze in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2017-01-01

    are not fully understood, but a shift from a TH2 to a TH1 response has been suggested as a possible explanation. Objective: We hypothesized that BCG at birth would reduce the cumulative incidence of RW during the first year of life. Methods: The Danish Calmette Study is a multicenter randomized trial conducted...

  8. Systematic review of general burden of disease studies using disability-adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Polinder (Suzanne); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); C. Stein (Claudia); A.H. Havelaar (Arie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To systematically review the methodology of general burden of disease studies. Three key questions were addressed: 1) what was the quality of the data, 2) which methodological choices were made to calculate disability adjusted life years (DALYs), and 3) were uncertainty and ri

  9. Quality of life in elder adults one-year after coronary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokzijl, Fredrike; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Keus, Eric; Waterbolk, Tjalling W; Mariani, Massimo A; Dieperink, Willem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival rates in the elderly after cardiac surgery have improved over the last decades and therewith more attention is directed toward Quality of Life (QoL) as a patient reported outcome measure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore QoL in patients one year after coronary

  10. Comparing Years of Healthy Life, Measured in 16 Ways, for Normal Weight and Overweight Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The traditional definitions of overweight and obesity are not age specific, even though the relationship of weight to mortality is different for older adults. Effects of adiposity on aspects of health beside mortality have not been well investigated. Methods. We calculated the number of years of healthy life (YHL in the 10 years after baseline, for 5,747 older adults. YHL was defined in 16 different ways. We compared Normal and Overweight persons, classified either by body mass index (BMI or by waist circumference (WC. Findings. YHL for Normal and Overweight persons differed significantly in 25% of the comparisons, of which half favored the Overweight. Measures of physical health favored Normal weight, while measures of mental health and quality of life favored Overweight. Overweight was less favorable when defined by WC than by BMI. Obese persons usually had worse outcomes. Discussion. Overweight older adults averaged as many years of life and years of healthy life as those of Normal weight. There may be no outcome based reason to distinguish Normal from Overweight for older adults. Conclusion. The “Overweight paradox” appears to hold for nonmortality outcomes. New adiposity standards are needed for older adults, possibly different by race and sex.

  11. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  12. Predictors and Characteristics of Erikson's Life Cycle Model Among Men: A 32-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess Erikson's life cycle model, 86 men, initially selected for health, were prospectively studied at age 21, and reassessed 32 years later at age 53. Using the Vaillant and Milofsky (1980) modification of Erikson's model, 48 men (56%) achieved generativity, an advanced developmental stage, at follow-up. Results generally support Erikson's…

  13. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  14. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  15. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gæde, Peter; Øllgaard, Jens Christian; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    approaches. After 7.8 years the study continued as an observational follow-up with all patients receiving treatment as for the original intensive-therapy group. The primary endpoint of this follow-up 21.2 years after intervention start was difference in median survival time between the original treatment...... for all microvascular complications was decreased in the intensive-therapy group in the range 0.52 to 0.67, except for peripheral neuropathy (HR 1.12). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: At 21.2 years of follow-up of 7.8 years of intensified, multifactorial, target-driven treatment of type 2 diabetes......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to study the potential long-term impact of a 7.8 years intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria in terms of gained years of life and years free from incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS...

  16. How Stable Is the Personal Past? Stability of Most Important Autobiographical Memories and Life Narratives Across Eight Years in a Life Span Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-03-23

    Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story. We also explored whether normative age-graded life events form more stable parts of life narratives. In a longitudinal life span study covering up to 3 measurements across 8 years and 6 age groups (N = 164) the stability of important memories and of entire life narratives was measured as the percentage of events and narrative segments which were repeated in later tellings. Stability increased between ages 8 and 24, leveling off in middle adulthood. Beyond age, stability of life narratives was also predicted by proportion of normative age-graded life events and by causal-motivational text coherence in younger participants. Memories of normative developmental and social transitional life events were more stable than other memories. Stability of segments of life narratives exceeded the stability of single most important memories. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive, personality, and narrative psychology and point to research questions in each of these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; de Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males). More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%), individuals with low schooling (24.0%), and motorcyclists (28.5%). The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality), in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists. PMID:27706375

  18. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males. More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%, individuals with low schooling (24.0%, and motorcyclists (28.5%. The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality, in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists.

  19. Lost productive life years caused by chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years, 2010-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert J

    2015-09-21

    To estimate (1) productive life years (PLYs) lost because of chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years from 2010 to 2030, and (2) the impact of this loss on gross domestic product (GDP) over the same period. A microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to project lost PLYs caused by chronic conditions from 2010 to 2030. The base population consisted of respondents aged 45-64 years to the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009. The national impact of lost PLYs was assessed with Treasury's GDP equation. Lost PLYs due to chronic disease at 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030 (ie, whole life years lost because of chronic disease); the national impact of lost PLYs at the same time points (GDP loss caused by PLYs); the effects of population growth, labour force trends and chronic disease trends on lost PLYs and GDP at each time point. Using Health&WealthMOD2030, we estimated a loss of 347,000 PLYs in 2010; this was projected to increase to 459,000 in 2030 (32.28% increase over 20 years). The leading chronic conditions associated with premature exits from the labour force were back problems, arthritis and mental and behavioural problems. The percentage increase in the number of PLYs lost by those aged 45-64 years was greater than that of population growth for this age group (32.28% v 27.80%). The strongest driver of the increase in lost PLYs was population growth (accounting for 89.18% of the increase), followed by chronic condition trends (8.28%). Our study estimates an increase of 112 000 lost PLYs caused by chronic illness in older workers in Australia between 2010 and 2030, with the most rapid growth projected to occur in men aged 55-59 years and in women aged 60-64 years. The national impact of this lost labour force participation on GDP was estimated to be $37.79 billion in 2010, increasing to $63.73 billion in 2030.

  20. Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Adults Aged 20-64 Years in 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Moran, Andrew E; Feigin, Valery L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that stroke is increasing as a cause of morbidity and mortality in younger adults, where it carries particular significance for working individuals. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of stroke burden are important for planning stroke prevention and management...... in younger adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and their trends for total, ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in the world for 1990-2013 in adults aged 20-64 years. METHODOLOGY: Stroke prevalence, mortality and DALYs...... were estimated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 methods. All available data on rates of stroke incidence, excess mortality, prevalence and death were collected. Statistical models were used along with country-level covariates to estimate country-specific stroke burden. Stroke...

  1. Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first...... year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota...

  2. Swimming pool attendance, respiratory symptoms and infections in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Ballester, Ferran; Santa Marina, Loreto; Tardón, Adonina; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez Dehli, Cristina; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the relationship between indoor and outdoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and infections during the first year of life. A population-based mother-child cohort study was conducted in four Spanish areas (INMA project). Study subjects were recruited at pregnancy, followed to delivery and 14 months after birth. Information on swimming pool attendance and health manifestations during the first year of life was collected at 14 months: low respiratory tract infection (LRTI), persistent cough, wheezing, atopic eczema and otitis. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence interval (OR 95 %CI) were calculated by logistic regression adjusting for confounders. Among the 2,205 babies included, 37 % reported having LRTI, 37 % wheezing, 16 % persistent cough, 22 % atopic eczema, 33 % otitis and 50 % attended swimming pools during the first year of life. Around 40 % went to outdoor pools in summer with a median cumulative duration of 7.5 h/year, and 20 % attended indoor pools with a median cumulative duration of 18 h/year. Pool attendance differed by area, season of birth and sociodemographic characteristics, and was not associated with LRTI, wheezing, persistent cough, atopic eczema or otitis. Adjusted OR of wheezing and LRTI were, respectively, 1.06 (95 %CI, 0.88-1.28) and 1.09 (0.90-1.31) for babies attending vs. babies not attending pools. Stratification by type of swimming pool, cumulative duration or parental atopy did not modify the results. No association was detected between pool attendance and LRTI, wheezing, persistent cough, atopic eczema or otitis during the first year of life in Spain.

  3. A Year in the Life of a Person Recently Diagnosed with Atrial Fibrillation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Vibeke; Cummings, Elisabeth; Riahi, Sam;

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services target delivery of a connected patient journey as an indicator of a high quality of care, but knowledge of the patients’ experience is sparse. This case study explores the lived experience of the quality of life and perception of health during the first year of the journey of ...... at stake. Despite two ablations the participant is affected in his daily life and family life due to physical limitations. Along the study adjustment to the situation is seen, and his new status as grandfather is surprisingly seen to facilitate this adjustment......., and recognizing bodily reactions, are elaborated. In conclusion, hope for a better future is evident throughout the journey. Difficulties of balancing responsibility, conflicting information and lack of support and connection between general practice and the hospital result in putting the participant’s dignity...

  4. [DOPPS estimate of patient life years attributable to modifiable hemodialysis practices in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Combe, Christian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Eichleay, Margaret A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Port, Friedrich K

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we used a prevalent cross-sectional sample of French hemodialysis patients from Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) 2 (2002-2004) to determine the percentage of patients whose values failed to meet targets in six different areas of hemodialysis practice (dialysis dose, anemia, serum phosphorus (PO(4)), serum calcium (Ca), serum albumin and catheter use for vascular access). Cox survival models, with adjustments for patient characteristics, were used for these analyses to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR). Based on the mortality HR, the fraction of patients outside each target and the total HD population in France, we estimated the number of patient life years that could potentially be gained if every chronic, in-center hemodialysis patient in France who is currently outside of the specified target was able to achieve it. The proportion of patients failing to meet one of the six practice targets in France varied from 15% (dialysis dose) to 75% (albumin) while the percentage of patients complying with all six targets was restricted to 1.2%. The relative risk of mortality (RR) associated with being outside these targets varied from 1.12 to 1.46. Based on these two measures the life-years survival was estimated. The projected number of patients and life years potentially gained from adherence to the six targets was estimated close to 10,600 years-patient. In conclusion, this study suggests large opportunities to improve hemodialysis patient care in France still exist. Compliance with two major practice targets, such as albumin and restriction of catheter use will save highly significant life years of hemodialysis patient. Implementing and strict adherence to national and international guidelines should serve as a basic inspiration for continual improvement of hemodialysis patient care.

  5. Role of adiponectin and leptin on body development in infants during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparoni Antonella

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of growth and nutritional status in the foetus and neonate is a complex mechanism, in which also hormones produced by adipose tissue, such as adiponectin and leptin are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in appropriate (AGA and small for gestational age (SGA children during the 1st year of life and to correlate these with auxological parameters. Methods In 33 AGA and 29 SGA infants, weight, length, head circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels were evaluated at the second day of life, and at one, six and twelve months, during which a portion of SGA could show catch-up growth (rapid growth in infants born small for their gestational age. Results Both total and isoform adiponectin levels were comparable between AGA and SGA infants at birth and until age one year. These levels significantly increased from birth to the first month of life and then decreased to lower values at 1 year of age in all subjects. Circulating leptin concentrations were higher in AGA (2.1 ± 4.1 ng/ml than in SGA neonates (0.88 ± 1.03 ng/ml, p st and the 6th month of age, but they increased in SGA from six months to one year, when they showed catch-up growth. Circulating insulin levels were not statistically different in AGA and SGA neonates at any study time point. Insulin levels in both AGA and SGA infants increased over the study period, and were significantly lower at birth compared to one, six and 12 months of age. Conclusions During the first year of life, in both AGA and SGA infants a progressive decrease in adiponectin levels was observed, while a difference in leptin values was correlated with the nutritional status.

  6. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  8. Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

    2013-12-01

    Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later.

  9. Life expectancy and years of life lost in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the NHANES III Follow-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Shavelle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert M Shavelle1, David R Paculdo1, Scott J Kush1, David M Mannino2, David J Strauss11Life Expectancy Project, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Lexington, KY, USARationale: Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD causes increased mortality in the general population. But life expectancy and the years of life lost have not been reported.Objectives: To quantify mortality, examine how it varies with age, sex, and other risk factors, and determine how life expectancy is affected.Methods: We constructed mortality models using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, adjusting for age, sex, race, and major medical conditions. We used these to compute life expectancy and the years of life lost. Measurements and main results: Pulmonary function testing classifi ed patients as having Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stage 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 COPD or restriction. COPD is associated with only a modest reduction in life expectancy for never smokers, but with a very large reduction for current and former smokers. At age 65, the reductions in male life expectancy for stage 1, stage 2, and stages 3 or 4 disease in current smokers are 0.3 years, 2.2 years, and 5.8 years. These are in addition to the 3.5 years lost due to smoking. In former smokers the reductions are 1.4 years and 5.6 years for stage 2 and stages 3 or 4 disease, and in never smokers they are 0.7 and 1.3 years.Conclusions: Persons with COPD have an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not, with consequent reduction in life expectancy. The effect is most marked in current smokers, and this is further reason for smokers to quit.Keywords: survival, mortality, longevity, COPD

  10. 26 CFR 20.2031-7A - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of 4 percent a year, compounded annually, and life contingencies as to each life involved from values... of 31/2 percent a year, compounded annually, and life contingencies as to each life involved are..., and life contingencies are determined as to each male and female life involved, from values that...

  11. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, Tomás J; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Katcher, Brian S; Reiter, Randy; Katz, Mitchell H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death amo...

  12. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    OpenAIRE

    Katcher Brian S; Lichtensztajn Daphne Y; Aragón Tomás J; Reiter Randy; Katz Mitchell H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature d...

  13. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  14. Development of atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Liselotte Brydensholt; Loland, Lotte; Buchvald, Frederik F

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first 3 years of life and identify the localization of the early skin lesions that predicts the development of AD. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of children born to mothers with a history of asthma....... Predictive odds ratios of early skin lesions for those who developed AD vs those who did not were calculated. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of AD by age 3 years was 44% (155/356). The prevalence rate peaked at age 2 years for boys and at age 2.5 years for girls, but there were no other sex differences...... in the proportion of children developing AD. Skin involvement in infants with AD was found to begin at the scalp, forehead, ear, and neck in a balaclava-like pattern and continue to the extensor sides and trunk, finally affecting the flexor sides of the extremities. Early skin lesions of arms and joints best...

  15. Right hepatic lobe donation adversely affects donor life insurability up to one year after donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissing, Matthew H; Hayashi, Paul H

    2005-07-01

    There are no data regarding hepatic lobe donation effects on donor life insurability. Two investigators called 10 agents of 10 different large life insurance companies. One investigator gave a fictitious profile: Caucasian man, 33 years old, nonsmoker, without medical problems (control profile [CP]). The other investigator used the same profile with a history of uncomplicated right lobe donation 12 months earlier (donor profile [DP]). Investigators asked for premium quotes on a $100,000 term life policy. No medical testing or record review was allowed. Investigators were blinded to the results of each other's calls. Agents were unaware of the study. We documented underwriting decisions, premiums quoted, stipulations, number of phone calls, and phone time. All 10 companies would pursue underwriting CP at their lowest, "preferred" rate. Five would do the same for DP. Two might underwrite DP at a more expensive "standard" rate, but a "preferred" rate would be less likely. One would underwrite DP at the "standard" rate; one would not underwrite DP. One agent did not return follow-up calls (DP insurability premiums were lower for CP vs. DP ($189/yr. vs. $202/yr., P = 0.56). Median number of phone calls required was 1 for CP and 3 for DP (P = 0.01). Mean telephone minutes were 4.2 for CP and 8.0 for DP (P = 0.004). In conclusion, right hepatic lobe donation decreases life insurability 1 year after uncomplicated donation. Donors can expect some increased difficulty obtaining life insurance, but they should find a company willing to pursue underwriting. The premium paid may be slightly higher.

  16. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  17. Survival and quality of life of cholangiocarcinoma patients: a prospective study over a 4 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Florentina; Tantau, Marcel; Diaconu, Brindusa; Acalovschi, Monica

    2010-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are tumors with a poor prognosis and a lower quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and quality of life in CCA patients. We prospectively enrolled 133 patients diagnosed with CCA in the 3rd Medical Clinic, Cluj Napoca, over a 4-year period (2005-2009). The QoL was evaluated by means of a QoL questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). The mean age of the patients was 65 +/- 10.6 years: 55% were males. 71% of the patients had hilar tumor (Klatskin), 23% distal and 6% intrahepatic CCA (IH). Only 11.3% of the patients were eligible to receive curative treatment. The 1-year overall survival was 22.3 +/- 4.4% and the 2-year survival was 3.4 +/- 2.1%. The patients receiving metallic stents had better survival than those receiving plastic stents (40.4% vs 12.5% at 1 year, 9.1% vs 5.0% at 2 years, respectively). The 1-year survival was significantly improved for patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy. The post-therapy QoL demonstrated a less improvement in Klatskin tumor patients than in patients with other types of tumors. Endoscopic palliative therapy allowed a faster community reintegration, but with variable evolution. The highest 2-year survival rate was 5.5%. Slightly longer survival was recorded when chemotherapy was added and also after endoscopic placement of metallic stents. Endoscopic biliary decompression improved the QoL faster than surgery.

  18. Global Burden of Leptospirosis: Estimated in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonosis, occurs in diverse epidemiological settings and affects vulnerable populations, such as rural subsistence farmers and urban slum dwellers. Although leptospirosis can cause life-threatening disease, there is no global burden of disease estimate in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs available.We utilised the results of a parallel publication that reported global estimates of morbidity and mortality due to leptospirosis. We estimated Years of Life Lost (YLLs from age and gender stratified mortality rates. Years of Life with Disability (YLDs were developed from a simple disease model indicating likely sequelae. DALYs were estimated from the sum of YLLs and YLDs. The study suggested that globally approximately 2.90 million DALYs are lost per annum (UIs 1.25-4.54 million from the approximately annual 1.03 million cases reported previously. Males are predominantly affected with an estimated 2.33 million DALYs (UIs 0.98-3.69 or approximately 80% of the total burden. For comparison, this is over 70% of the global burden of cholera estimated by GBD 2010. Tropical regions of South and South-east Asia, Western Pacific, Central and South America, and Africa had the highest estimated leptospirosis disease burden.Leptospirosis imparts a significant health burden worldwide, which approach or exceed those encountered for a number of other zoonotic and neglected tropical diseases. The study findings indicate that highest burden estimates occur in resource-poor tropical countries, which include regions of Africa where the burden of leptospirosis has been under-appreciated and possibly misallocated to other febrile illnesses such as malaria.

  19. Junior doctors in their first year: mental health, quality of life, burnout and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Marcus A; Sollers, John; Strom, Joanna M; Hill, Andrew G; Lyndon, Mataroria P; Cumin, David; Hawken, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in, and evidence of, quality of life and burnout issues among doctors. It was hypothesized that the junior doctors in this study would experience psychosocial and physiological changes over time, and that the obtained measures would indicate psychosocial and physiological anomalies. In addition, it was hypothesized that their psychosocial perceptions would be significantly associated with their physiological measures. A total sample of 17 junior doctors in their first year of training volunteered for this study. Over four time periods separated by 6 week phases, the doctors completed a set of quality of life and psychosocial inventories and wore a Polar RS800 Heart Rate Monitor over a day and night time interval. The findings showed that this sample of doctors did not report any problems associated with depression, anxiety, stress, burnout or quality of life (psychosocial measures). In addition, their heart rate variability scores (physiological measures) did not show any significant fluctuations. Furthermore, the responses from the self-report instruments measuring stress, anxiety, depression, quality of life and burnout did not consistently correlate with the HRV information suggesting a mind-body disconnection. More work needs to be done on larger samples to investigate these findings further given that the literature shows that junior doctors are likely to be stressed and working in stress-provoking environments.

  20. Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Wayne C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linker, David T;

    2009-01-01

    in the COMET trial, in which carvedilol vs. metoprolol tartrate resulted in 17% lower mortality over 4.8 years. A multivariate Cox model was used to predict survival. Remaining years of life were estimated using the mortality-life-table method. At trial-end, survival was 9% higher in the carvedilol arm....... Assuming that patients remained on the same therapy post-trial, the average total years of life for carvedilol vs. metoprolol were 10.63 +/- 0.19 vs. 9.48 +/- 0.18 (P

  1. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  2. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  3. Improved quality of life over one year is associated with improved adherence in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, K P; Drake, R J; Massie, J A; Dunn, G; Barnes, T R E; Jones, P B; Lewis, S W

    2014-03-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly considered an important outcome in health research. We wished to explore the determinants of change in QoL in patients with schizophrenia over the course of a one-year RCT. Predictors of change in observer-rated QoL (Quality of Life Scale: QLS) were assessed in 363 patients with schizophrenia during the CUtLASS clinical trial. Change in QLS score over the course of a year correlated with change in psychotic and depressive symptoms and treatment adherence. Linear regression showed that improvement in QoL was predicted by reduction in negative and depressive symptoms and improvement in adherence rating. These three change scores together explained 38% of the variance in QLS change. Exploration of the direction of any possible causal effect, using TETRAD, indicated that improved adherence leads to improved QoL, and that change in depression also leads to QoL change. The relationship between QoL and negative symptoms suggests that greater social activity (reflected as better QoL scores) improves negative symptoms. Such a direct relationship between treatment adherence and QoL has not been reported before. Improving adherence to medication would appear to be a key approach to improving measured quality of life in people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Subglottic stenosis in the first year of life. Characteristics and treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittel, C

    2012-07-01

    Subglottic stenosis of congenital origin or acquired within the first 12 months of life are challenging in many aspects. Surgical reconstruction is difficult due to the small anatomic dimensions. Tracheostomy is an additional risk factor attributing to mortality and should be avoided, if possible. In this paper, the most important types of subglottic stenosis in the first year of life are discussed. Conservative, endoscopic, and open surgical treatment options are presented and evaluated. Laryngotracheal reconstruction with autologous thyroid cartilage is the treatment of choice for the majority of significant subglottic stenosis cases in this age group. This technique is comparatively less invasive, versatile, and allows all options for open reconstruction using other techniques in case of recurrent stenosis. Subglottic stenosis in early infancy requires expertise and experience in diagnosis and treatment. Considering the limited incidence, these cases should be managed in a referral center.

  5. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.

  6. Life-Space Mobility and Cognitive Decline Among Mexican Americans Aged 75 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberschmidt, Seraina; Kumar, Amit; Raji, Mukaila M; Markides, Kyriakos; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between life-space mobility and cognitive decline over a five-year period among older Mexican Americans. Longitudinal study. Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly survey conducted in the southwestern of United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and California). Four hundred thirty-two Mexican Americans aged 75 and older with normal or high cognitive function at baseline. Socio-demographic factors, living arrangement, type of household, social support, financial strain, self-reported medical conditions, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), depressive symptoms, activities of daily living (ADLs), and Short Physical Performance Battery. Life-space assessment (LSA) during the past 4 weeks was assessed during in-home interview. Scores ranged from 0 (daily restriction to the bedroom) to 120 (daily trips outside of their own town without assistance) and categorized as 0 to 20, 21 to 40, 41 to 60, 61 to 80, and 81 to 120. Because of the small sample size in the category of 81 to 120, the two highest categories were combined into a single group. The mean LSA score and MMSE score of participants at baseline was 44.6 (Standard Deviation [SD], 20.7) and 25.7 (SD, 3.2), respectively. Mixed Model analyses showed that participants in the highest life-space category (≥61) experienced slower rates of cognitive decline over time compared to participants in the lowest category (0 to 20) (β = 1.03, Standard Error [SE] = 0.29, P = 0.0004), after adjusting for all covariates. Greater life-space mobility at baseline was predictor of slower rates of cognitive decline over 5 years in older Mexican Americans. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Linking concurrent self-reports and retrospective proxy reports about the last year of life: a prevailing picture of life satisfaction decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-09-01

    We examined the extent to which retrospective proxy reports of well-being mirror participant self-reports at 12-24 months before death and how proxy reports of well-being change over the last year of life. We also explored the role of sociodemographic, cognitive, and health factors of both participants and proxies in moderating such associations. We used retrospective proxy ratings obtained in the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N = 164; age at death = 19-99 years). Results revealed moderate agreement between self- and proxy reports (r = .42), but proxies, on average, overestimated participants' life satisfaction by two thirds of a scale point on a 0-10 scale (or 0.4 SD). Discrepancies were particularly pronounced when proxies themselves reported low life satisfaction. Over the last year of life, participants were viewed to have experienced declines in life satisfaction (-0.54 SD). Declines were stronger for ill participants and proxies who reported low life satisfaction. Results qualify theoretical expectations and empirical results based on self-report data that are typically available 1 or 2 years before death. We discuss that retrospective proxy reports in panel surveys can be used as a hypothesis-generating tool to gather insights into late life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Traumatic brain injury in the Netherlands: incidence, costs and disability-adjusted life years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke C Scholten

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering and huge costs to society. Integrated knowledge on epidemiology, economic consequences and disease burden of TBI is scarce but essential for optimizing healthcare policy and preventing TBI. This study aimed to estimate incidence, cost-of-illness and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of TBI in the Netherlands.This study included data on all TBI patients who were treated at an Emergency Department (ED - National Injury Surveillance System, hospitalized (National Medical Registration, or died due to their injuries in the Netherlands between 2010-2012. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Disease burden was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLL owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLD and DALYs. Incidence, costs and disease burden were stratified by age and gender.TBI incidence was 213.6 per 100,000 person years. Total costs were €314.6 (USD $433.8 million per year and disease burden resulted in 171,200 DALYs (on average 7.1 DALYs per case. Men had highest mean costs per case (€19,540 versus €14,940, driven by indirect costs. 0-24-year-olds had high incidence and disease burden but low economic costs, whereas 25-64-year-olds had relatively low incidence but high economic costs. Patients aged 65+ had highest incidence, leading to considerable direct healthcare costs. 0-24-year-olds, men aged 25-64 years, traffic injury victims (especially bicyclists and home and leisure injury victims (especially 0-5-year-old and elderly fallers are identified as risk groups in TBI.The economic and health consequences of TBI are substantial. The integrated approach of assessing incidence, costs and disease burden enables detection of important risk groups in TBI, development of prevention programs that target these risk groups and assessment of the

  9. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and child growth during the first year of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garced, Sheyla, E-mail: sgarced@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Torres-Sanchez, Luisa, E-mail: ltorress@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E., E-mail: mcebrian@cinvestav.mx [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F., Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Claudio, Luz, E-mail: luz.claudio@mssm.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Background: Due to its long-term persistence in the environment and its ability to cross the placental barrier, prenatal p,p Prime -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) exposure continues to be a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth, at birth and during the first year of life. Methods: 253 pregnant women were recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 in a prospective cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Serum levels of DDE were measured during each trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Using the generalized mixed-effects models, the association between DDE and child growth parameters (weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, BMI-for-age and head circumference-for-age Z-scores) from birth to 1 year of age was assessed. Maternal dietary intake was considered as covariable among others. Results: DDE levels were 6.3{+-}2.8 ng/mL (first trimester), 6.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (second trimester), and 7.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (third trimester). After adjusting for potential confounder variables, no significant associations were observed with prenatal DDE exposure and each of the selected parameters. Conclusions: Our results show no evidence of an association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth during the first year of life.

  10. Health related quality of life in renal transplantation: 2 years of longitudinal follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell, M Carmen; Moreso, Francesc; Parramon, Gemma; Seron, Daniel

    2017-08-10

    Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is recognized as an outcome measure in kidney transplantation. In this study was assessed changes on HRQoL and kidney-specific symptoms, also was evaluated the effect of socio-demographic and clinical parameters on patient's perceived HRQoL. A longitudinal study was done, at 5 time-points over 2 years after transplantation. To evaluate HRQoL the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form was administrated, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress. At 6-months after transplantation, patients had similar HRQoL scores compared to the general population. The improvement on effects of kidney disease domain could be considered as large (η(2)=0.29), and medium on burden of kidney disease domain (η(2)=0.12), work status domain (η(2)=0.12), and sexual function domain (η(2)=0.13). Psychological distress, depressive symptoms, haemoglobin, and serum creatinine had significant influence on patient's perceived HRQoL over 2 years after transplantation. An improvement of HRQoL was observed on general and specific-targeted symptoms over 2 years after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture.

  12. Long-term life and partnership satisfaction in infertile patients: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Stefan; Reimer, Thorisa; Eichner, Martin; Hautzinger, Martin; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Fierlbeck, Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    To describe the long-term effects of infertility on life and partnership satisfaction. Longitudinal cohort study. A university outpatient andrology and gynecology infertility clinic. 275 men and 272 women treated for infertility between August 2000 and December 2001. None. The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ), the Partnership Questionnaire (PFB), and sociodemographic items at baseline (T1) and 5 years later (T2). Compared with a representative sample, our male and female participants had higher Finance and Partnership scores and lower Health scores on the FLZ at T1. They also had markedly higher PFB scores, with the exception of Conflict Behavior. After 5 years (T2), 101 men and 113 women rated the Partnership and Sexuality FLZ subscales as well as all the PFB subscales statistically significantly lower than at baseline. Only the women rated the Self-esteem FLZ subscale lower than at baseline (T1). Participants who became parents had lower Leisure and Partnership FLZ subscale scores, and fathers had lower Finance FLZ subscale scores. Satisfaction declined over 5 years for both men and women, but only in the partnership-related domains. Women were more affected than men. The success of infertility treatment had only a minor influence on a couple's future satisfaction. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Relationship between tongue strength and 1-year life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Yuri; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-05

    Tongue strength is a useful indicator of oral function and has been found to decrease with aging and reduced physical functioning. The present study aimed to assess the relationships of tongue strength with physical function, mental function, and nutritional status, and also between these factors and 1-year outcomes, to determine whether tongue strength is related to life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. The subjects were 140 elderly individuals requiring needing nursing care (49 men and 91 women; ≥65 years). The investigated items included sex, age, activities of daily living (ADL), comorbidity, cognitive function, nutritional status, eating function, occlusal support, and tongue strength. Furthermore, a follow-up study was conducted 1 year later, and factors related to death were identified. The mean tongue strength of the total 140 subjects was 20.3 ± 8.6 kPa. Tongue strength was assessed relative to each of the investigated items, using the t test and one-way analysis of variance. Tongue strength was significantly related to ADL, comorbidity, cognitive function, calf circumference, food intake, and occlusal support. Fifteen subjects were found to have died at the 1-year follow-up study. We assessed the relationships of 1-year outcomes with each of the factors examined, and 1-year outcomes were found to be significantly related to ADL and tongue strength.

  14. Is breast feeding a risk factor for eczema during the first year of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariachvili, Manana; Droste, Jos; Dom, Sandra; Wieringa, Marjan; Vellinga, Akke; Hagendorens, Margo; Bridts, Chris; Stevens, Wim; Sprundel, Marc Van; Desager, Kristine; Weyler, Joost

    2007-08-01

    Breast feeding (BF) provides many advantages to the offspring; however, at present there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it prevents allergic diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of duration of BF on eczema in the first year of life. A birth cohort of 1128 infants was followed prospectively from 5 months of pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, a medical examination and blood tests for allergy at the age of 1 yr. Breast feeding was not statistically significant associated with eczema in the first year of life [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.8 (0.4-1.3), 0.8 (0.5-1.3) and 1.0 (0.6-1.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively]. Eczema was positively associated with atopy and educational level of the mother, use of antibiotics in pregnancy and passive smoking by the child during the first 12 months. Regular postnatal contact of the infants with dogs was inversely associated with eczema. Breast feeding was positively associated with eczema among children with non-atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 2.1 (0.4-10.6), 2.2 (0.4-11.3) and 1.9 (0.4-8.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively], whereas an inverse association was found among children with atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) for the same BF durations]. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Breast feeding has no significant effect on the prevalence of eczema in the first year of life. The effect of BF on eczema in children depends on parental atopy.

  15. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis [University Hospital of Ioannina, Radiology Department, Ioannina (Greece); Andronikou, Styliani [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina Medical School, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-10-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length ({+-} SD) of 56{+-}4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9{+-}4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3{+-}4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2{+-}4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6{+-}4.6, 62.8{+-}4.3, and 62.3{+-}4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  16. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009-2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0-3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China.

  17. Speech perception and language acquisition in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants pass important milestones in language development. We review some of the experimental evidence concerning these milestones in the domains of speech perception, phonological development, word learning, morphosyntactic acquisition, and bilingualism, emphasizing their interactions. We discuss them in the context of their biological underpinnings, introducing the most recent advances not only in language development, but also in neighboring areas such as genetics and the comparative research on animal communication systems. We argue for a theory of language acquisition that integrates behavioral, cognitive, neural, and evolutionary considerations and proposes to unify previously opposing theoretical stances, such as statistical learning, rule-based nativist accounts, and perceptual learning theories.

  18. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yongling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. Methods The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Results Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males. Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively. Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30 mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14. Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0

  19. Reciprocity in Interaction: A Window on the First Year of Life in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Apicella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From early infancy onwards, young children appear motivated to engage reciprocally with others and share psychological states during dyadic interactions. Although poor reciprocity is one of the defining features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, few studies have focused on the direct assessment of real-life reciprocal behavior; consequently, our knowledge of the nature and the development of this core feature of autism is still limited. In this study, we describe the phenomenon of reciprocity in infant-caregiver interaction by analyzing family movies taken during the first year of life of 10 infants with ASD and 9 infants with typical development (TD. We analyzed reciprocal behaviors by means of a coding scheme developed for this purpose (caregiver-infant reciprocity scale (CIRS. Infants with ASD displayed less motor activity during the first semester and subsequently fewer vocalizations, compared to TD infants. Caregivers of ASD infants showed in the second semester shorter periods of involvement and a reduction of affectionate touch. These results suggest that from the first months of life a nonsynchronic motor-vocal pattern may interfere in different ways with the development of reciprocity in the primary relationship between infants later diagnosed with ASD and their caregivers.

  20. Years off your life? The effects of homicide on life expectancy by neighborhood and race/ethnicity in Los Angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelings, Matthew; Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001-2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers.

  1. [Language acquisition in preterm infants during the first year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, T; Nishibayashi, L L; Berdasco-Muñoz, E; Baud, O; Biran, V; Gonzalez-Gomez, N

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that preterm children are at a higher risk for cognitive and language delays than full-term children. Most of these studies have concentrated on the effects of prematurity during the preschool or school years, while the effect of preterm birth on the early development of language, much of which occurs during the first year of life, remains very little explored. This article focuses on this crucial period and reviews the studies that have explored early phonological and lexical development in preterm infants. The results of these studies show uneven proficiency in different language subdomains in preterm infants. This raises the possibility that different constraints apply to the acquisition of different linguistic subcomponents in this population, in part as a result of a complex interaction between maturation, experience, and language subdomains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Rebecca J

    2008-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a class of neurodevelopmental disorders defined by qualitative impairments in social functioning and communication, often accompanied by repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. The term 'ASD' encompasses autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, and Asperger's syndrome. ASDs show etiologic heterogeneity, and there is no definitive medical test or cure for these conditions. Around 1 in 150 children have an ASD, with males being affected three to four times more frequently than females. The age at diagnosis of ASD ranges from 3 to 6 years, but there is increasing evidence that diagnosis in the second year of life is possible in some children. Early diagnosis will lead to earlier behavior-based intervention, which is associated with improvements in core areas, such as social functioning and communication. Early detection of-and intervention to treat-ASD is crucial because it is likely to lead to an improved outcome.

  3. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Tomás J; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Katcher, Brian S; Reiter, Randy; Katz, Mitchell H

    2008-04-10

    A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003-2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs). The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. In the years 2003-2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost), and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost). The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year). The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and monitor the leading causes of premature death, and to measure and monitor

  4. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  5. Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe: magnetic resonance imaging findings in the first six years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Neto, Arnolfo de; Ono, Sergio Eiji; Cardoso, Georgina de Melo; Santos, Mara Lucia Schmitz Ferreira; Celidonio, Izabela [Hospital Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ono.sergio@gmail.com

    2009-06-15

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), was first recognized as a distinct disease in 1952 by Drs. Lowe, Terrey and MacLachlan at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Boston, USA, describing three male children with organic aciduria, decreased renal ammonia production, hydrophtalmos and mental retardation. The X-linked recessive inheritance pattern was recognized first by LeFebvre. It is present in all races, with a predominance in those of Caucasian and Asian ancestries. Rarely females are affected. It is a very rare disease, with estimated prevalence in the general population of 1 in 500,000. In USA the Lowe Syndrome Association (LSA) documented 190 living patients in the year 2000 (0.67 x million inhabitants). It is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding oculocerebrorenal- Lowe protein (OCRL1), isolated in 1992, linked to the Xq24-q26 region of the X chromosome,4-6. Approximately 60% of OCRL patients demonstrate a loss of OCRL gene expression, and the definitive laboratory test, that can be used for prenatal diagnosis, is the biochemical assay for deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate 5-phosphate in cultured fibroblasts. The classic triad of eye, central nervous system, and kidney involvement are required for the diagnosis of Lowe's syndrome. Cataract is present at birth in all patients and glaucoma is detected within the first year of life. Hypotonia compromises suction and causes serious respiratory problems in the first period of life. Motor development is retarded and mental retardation is moderate or severe in almost all cases. Obsessive-compulsive behavior is typical. Seizure is seen in approximately 50% of the patients over 18 years old. Renal disease is primarily characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome but many children are asymptomatic at birth. Renal involvement is initially related to bicarbonate, salt and water wasting, causing failure to thrive. Later, a significant number of patients develop chronic renal failure. The

  6. Quality of life in paediatric population from 8 to 12 years with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Maldonado Guzmán

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life in patients with chronic problems as the asthma, at present performs major importance in view of the increase of the life expectancy. Nevertheless, often this one does not accompany of conditions biopsicosocial acceptable, that allow to the person to enjoy good emotional condition, as well as the accomplishment of his or her physical, social and school activities. The objective of this study is to know the quality life of the physical, emotional, social, and scholar valuation. Methodology: This study was realized with a number of 124 children sample in ages of 8 to 12 years old with asthma diagnostic.Results: The most damage aspects within quality life dimension were run, work out; lower energy and feeling pain. Emotional aspects were be worried about the future and insomnia, respect to social dimension the problem was children can’t keep in the same condition than others while they are playing; and about school dimension the problem was school absence because of their need of going to the doctor or hospital. Discussion: The aspects of the physical dimension that were more affected to are the follow: run, to do exercise, to have little energy, and to feel pain. Both first ones have relation with the (reported by the Spanish Society of Neumología and Paediatrics (s.f., Where they brought (reported that the children more affected because of the asthma to were those that run and to do exercise. With regard to having little energy and feeling pain, this can owe to persistent accesses of cough, that really they cause weakness and pain in the thoracic box. Conclusions: These results suggest that it is important to stimulate the self-esteem of the children who endure asthma across his participation in an equipment or group.

  7. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  8. Size at birth and morbidity in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdelia Figueredo Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: delay in growth during childhood is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, decreased activity and patterns of interaction, including the child’s psychomotor development, school performance and socio-emotional functioning. Objective: to identify the incidence of diseases during the first year of life in infants who were small at birth. Methods: a longitudinal and prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of live-born infants in January 2011 in the Eusebio Hernández Maternity Hospital in the municipality of Playa. Physical exam was performed for each individual measurement. Medical history was gathered. Several analyses of variance were conducted for repeated observations. Results: there were no significant differences between infants born small and those with normal birth size, regarding the incidence of diseases. Conclusions: small size at birth was not found to be an important variable to measure the incidence of diseases during the first year of life. It was not considered a risk marker either, at least during the study period.

  9. Postnatal testosterone levels and disorder relevant behavior in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Janet; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between testosterone collected at 3-4 months of age and sex-linked disorder-relevant behaviors in the second year of life. Eighty-four children participated at 3-4 (when salivary testosterone levels were obtained and second to fourth digit ratios were measured) and 18-24 months of age (when behavioral ratings of aggression and verbal ability were coded from two 8-min play sessions). Parents also completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, and the four subscales (Internalizing, Externalizing, Dysregulation, and Autism Spectrum Disorder) were used to indicate child specific problems. Greater postnatal testosterone levels in early infancy were predictive of more male-typical behaviors in the second year of life (i.e., more autism spectrum behaviors, less time vocalizing, and more Internalizing Problems). These results support the hypothesis that early infancy may be another critical period for the development of gender-linked behavior.

  10. Mortality trends and years of potential life lost from gastric cancer in Mexico, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, J J

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 in Mexico, gastric cancer (GC) was the third leading cause of death from cancer in individuals 20 years of age or older. GC remains a public health problem in Mexico due to its high mortality and low survival rates, and the significantly lower quality of life of patients with this condition. The aims of this study were to determine mortality trends nationwide, by state and socioeconomic region, and to determine rates of age-adjusted years of potential life lost due to GC, by state and socioeconomic region, within the period of 2000-2012. Mortality records associated with GC for 2000-2012 were obtained from the National Health Information System of the Mexican Department of Health. Codes from the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases corresponding to the basic cause of death from GC were identified. Mortality and age-adjusted years of potential life lost rates, by state and socioeconomic region, were also calculated. In Mexico, 69,107 individuals died from GC within the time frame of 2000-2012. The age-adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants decreased from 7.5 to 5.6. The male:female ratio was 1.15:1.0. Chiapas had the highest death rate from GC (9.2, 95% CI 8.2-10.3 [2000] and 8.2, 95% CI 7.3-9 [2012]), as well as regions 1, 2, and 5. Chiapas and socioeconomic region 1 had the highest rate of years of potential life lost. Using the world population age distribution as the standard, the age-adjusted mortality rate in Mexico per 100,000 inhabitants that died from GC decreased from 7.5 to 5.6 between 2000 and 2012. Chiapas and socioeconomic regions 1, 2, and 5 had the highest mortality from GC (Chiapas: 9.2, 95% CI 8.2-10.3 [2000] and 8.2, 95% CI 7.3-9 [2012], region 1: 5.5, 95% CI 5.2-5.9 [2000] and 5.3, 95% CI 4.9-5.7 [2012]; region 2: 5.3, 95% CI 5-5.6 [2000] and 5.4, 95% CI 5.1-5.8 [2012]; region 5: 6.1, 95% CI 5.6-6.6 [2000] and 4.6, 95% CI 4.2-5 [2012]). Chiapas and socioeconomic region 1 had the highest rate of years of

  11. Quality of Life in Under-14-Year-Old Children After Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah Behnoud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures especially in children. Several indications and contraindications have been suggested for this procedure. The benefits and the negative results of this operation have been studied by different researchers; nevertheless, to date, it is still a common procedure. The main purpose of this study is to obtain extensive information on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy, according to the patient's physical, emotional and behavioral changes and also on the overall changes in his/her quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: All the children, aged 1-14, referred to the Besat Hospital clinics (Hamadan, Iran between March 2008 and March 2009 were included in this study. Overall, 86 children with documented indications underwent adenotonsillectomy, and were followed up for one year.  Two modified standard questionnaires for QOL were completed before and one year after the tonsillectomy. Upon the completion of this two-year study, statistical analyses were performed, and the demographic data of the study groups were compared with those of a same-age group. Results: Changes were observed in five main complaints as follow: Acute Recurrent tonsillitis was present in 86 patients preoperatively, but in only three cases postoperatively (pharyngitis. Confirmed chronic sinusitis was present in 24 patients preoperatively, but only in three cases during the year after the surgery. Oral breathing was seen in 82 patients preoperatively, but only in one patient during the year after the surgery. Nocturnal snoring was seen in 83 children preoperatively, but in 25 cases during the year after the surgery. Halitosis was present in 71 patients, while and halitosis was seen in 27 during the year after the surgery. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of the parameters studied showed significant differences after surgery.

  12. Burden of epilepsy in rural Kenya measured in disability-adjusted life years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinda, Fredrick; Wagner, Ryan G; Bertram, Melanie Y; Ngugi, Anthony K; Bauni, Evasius; Vos, Theo; Sander, Josemir W; Newton, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The burden of epilepsy, in terms of both morbidity and mortality, is likely to vary depending on the etiology (primary [genetic/unknown] vs. secondary [structural/metabolic]) and with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We estimated the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and modeled the remission rates of active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) using epidemiologic data collected over the last decade in rural Kilifi, Kenya. Methods We used measures of prevalence, incidence, and mortality to model the remission of epilepsy using disease-modeling software (DisMod II). DALYs were calculated as the sum of Years Lost to Disability (YLD) and Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature death using the prevalence approach, with disability weights (DWs) from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. DALYs were calculated with R statistical software with the associated uncertainty intervals (UIs) computed by bootstrapping. Results A total of 1,005 (95% UI 797–1,213) DALYs were lost to ACE, which is 433 (95% UI 393–469) DALYs lost per 100,000 people. Twenty-six percent (113/100,000/year, 95% UI 106–117) of the DALYs were due to YLD and 74% (320/100,000/year, 95% UI 248–416) to YLL. Primary epilepsy accounted for fewer DALYs than secondary epilepsy (98 vs. 334 DALYs per 100,000 people). Those taking AEDs contributed fewer DALYs than those not taking AEDs (167 vs. 266 DALYs per 100,000 people). The proportion of people with ACE in remission per year was estimated at 11.0% in males and 12.0% in females, with highest rates in the 0–5 year age group. Significance The DALYs for ACE are high in rural Kenya, but less than the estimates of 2010 GBD study. Three-fourths of DALYs resulted from secondary epilepsy. Use of AEDs was associated with 40% reduction of DALYs. Improving adherence to AEDs may reduce the burden of epilepsy in this area. PMID:25131901

  13. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy: A Register-Based Study of Swedes Aged 65 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. Nationwide register-based study. A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1 to September 30, 2008. Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent with polypharmacy after the age of 75 years. Women had a longer life expectancy, but also lived more years with polypharmacy than men. Older women and men spend a considerable proportion of their lives with polypharmacy. Given the negative health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, efforts should be made to reduce the number of years older adults spend with polypharmacy to minimize the risk of unwanted consequences. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcome and quality of life after surgically treated ankle fractures in patients 65 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekdahl Charlotte

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high incidence of ankle fractures in the elderly, studies evaluating outcome and impact of quality of life in this age group specifically are sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome and quality of life 6 and 12 months after injury in patients 65 years or older who had been operated on due to an ankle fracture. Methods Sixty patients 65 years or older were invited to participate in the study. 6 and 12 months after the injury a questionnaire including inquiry to participate, the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS, Short-Form 36 (SF-36, Linear Analogue Scale (LAS, Self-rated Ankle Function and some supplementary questions was sent home to the patients. The supplementary questions concerned subjective experience of ankle instability, sporting and physical activity level before injury and recaptured activity level at follow-ups, need of walking aid before injury, state of living before injury and at follow-ups and co-morbidities. After the 12-month follow-up the patients were also called for a radiological examination. Results Fifty patients (83% answered the questionnaire at 6-month and 46 (77% at the 12-month follow-up. Although, 45 (90% fractures were low-energy trauma 44 (88% were bi- or trimalleolar and post-operative reduction results were complete in 23 (46% ankles. The median OMAS improved from 60 (Interquartile range (IQR 36 at 6-month to 70 (IQR 35 at 12-month (p = 0.002, but at 12-month still sixty percent or more of the patients reported pain, swelling, problems when stair-climbing and reduced activities of daily life. Twenty (40% rated their ankle function as 'good' or 'very good' at 6-month and 30 (60% at 12-month. Forty-one (82% were physically active before injury but still one year after only 18/41 had returned to their pre-injury physical activity level. According to SF-36 four dimensions differed from the age- and gender matched normative data of the Swedish population, 'physical function

  15. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  16. Five-year study of quality of life in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, S; Vujnic, M; Dobricic, V; Marjanovic, A; Basta, I; Novakovic, I; Lavrnic, D; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, V

    2016-11-01

    Background - Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. There is a complete lack of studies that assessed quality of life (QoL) trajectory during time in DM1 cohorts. Aim - To analyze changes of QoL in patients with DM1 during a 5-year follow-up period and to assess responsiveness of the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients and Method - At the baseline, this study comprised 84 DM1 patients, of whom 62 were retested after the mean period of 64.2 ± 3.9 months. Severity of muscular weakness was assessed using the Muscular Impairment Rating Scale (MIRS). Patients completed Serbian version of the SF-36 questionnaire as a measure of health-related QoL. Results - After 5 years, MIRS score of our DM1 patients showed significant progression of 0.5 grade (P < 0.01). All mental subdomains, role physical, and total SF-36 scores significantly improved after 5 years (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, worsening of muscular weakness from mild to severe was in association with improvement of QoL. Conclusion - QoL improved in our cohort of DM1 patients during a 5-year period despite the progression of the disease. SF-36 should be used with caution as a patient-reported outcome measure in DM1 clinical trials.

  17. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. Method: The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55–65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Results: Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Conclusions: Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers. PMID:26098030

  18. Work Values during the Transition to Adulthood and Mid-Life Satisfaction: Cascading Effects across 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.

    2017-01-01

    This 25-year longitudinal study of a sample of Canadian high school seniors (N = 373) examined pathways from work values at age 18 to mid-life (age 43) career satisfaction and life satisfaction through several possible mediators: age 25 and 32 work values, months of postsecondary education (PSE) by age 25, and age 43 work rewards. Gender and…

  19. Life Satisfaction and Perceived Meaningfulness of Learning Experience among First-Year Traditional Graduate Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakunmoju, Sunday; Donahue, Gilpatrick R.; McCoy, Shandria; Mengel, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about life satisfaction and learning experience among first-year graduate students is sparse, despite its relevance to instructional decisions, academic support, and success of students. Adequate knowledge is crucial, as it may help graduate students manage personal and professional life changes associated with graduate education. Using…

  20. Work Values during the Transition to Adulthood and Mid-Life Satisfaction: Cascading Effects across 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.

    2017-01-01

    This 25-year longitudinal study of a sample of Canadian high school seniors (N = 373) examined pathways from work values at age 18 to mid-life (age 43) career satisfaction and life satisfaction through several possible mediators: age 25 and 32 work values, months of postsecondary education (PSE) by age 25, and age 43 work rewards. Gender and…

  1. In 6- to 8-year-old children, cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Hanssen, Henner; Pühse, Uwe; Zahner, Lukas

    2017-03-01

    In children, the pathways by which physical activity and fitness are associated with physical and psychological wellbeing are still not fully understood. The present study examines for the first time in young children whether high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity moderate the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life. Three hundred and seventy-eight children (188 girls, 190 boys, M age = 7.27 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Parental education, gender, age, severity of life events, health-related quality of life and physical activity were assessed via parental questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with the 20 m shuttle run test. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test whether physical activity and fitness interacted with critical life events to explain health-related quality of life. When exposed to critical life events, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher levels of psychological wellbeing, relative to their less fit peers. On the other hand, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher physical wellbeing and more positive friendship relationships when severity of life events was low. A similar moderation effect was found for physical activity with overall quality of life as outcome. Recent stressful experiences alone were not sufficient to explain negative health outcomes in young children. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels experienced lower psychological wellbeing when they were exposed to critical life events. More research is needed to find out whether similar findings emerge with objective physical activity measurements and when critical life events are assessed over longer periods of time.

  2. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  4. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  5. Schizophrenia and quality of life: a one-year follow-up in four EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalmontie Elisabeth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article systematically monitors the quality of life (QOL of patients with schizophrenia from seven different sites across four European countries: France, Ireland, Portugal and Spain. Methods A one-year prospective cohort study was carried out. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20 diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and 65 years and at least one contact with mental health services in 1993. Data concerning QOL were recorded in seven sites from four countries: France, Portugal, Ireland and Spain, and were obtained using the Baker and Intagliata scale. At baseline, 339 patients answered the QOL questionnaire. At one-year follow-up, Spain could not participate, so only 263 patients were contacted and 219 agreed to take part. QOL was compared across centres by areas and according to a global index. QOL was correlated with presence of clinical and social problems, needs for care and interventions provided during the one-year follow-up. Results We did not find any link between gender and QOL. There were some significant differences between centres concerning many items. What is more, these differences were relative: in Lisbon where the lowest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were satisfied with food but highly dissatisfied with finances, whereas in St Etienne, where the highest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were less satisfied with food when they were more satisfied with finances. The evolution in one year among those respondents who took part in the follow-up (excluding the subjects from Granada showed different patterns depending on the items. Conclusion The four countries have different resources and patients live in rather different conditions. However, the main differences as far as their QOL is concerned very much depend on extra-psychiatric variables, principally marital status and income.

  6. Schizophrenia and quality of life: a one-year follow-up in four EU countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article systematically monitors the quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia from seven different sites across four European countries: France, Ireland, Portugal and Spain. METHODS: A one-year prospective cohort study was carried out. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20) diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and 65 years and at least one contact with mental health services in 1993. Data concerning QOL were recorded in seven sites from four countries: France, Portugal, Ireland and Spain, and were obtained using the Baker and Intagliata scale. At baseline, 339 patients answered the QOL questionnaire. At one-year follow-up, Spain could not participate, so only 263 patients were contacted and 219 agreed to take part. QOL was compared across centres by areas and according to a global index. QOL was correlated with presence of clinical and social problems, needs for care and interventions provided during the one-year follow-up. RESULTS: We did not find any link between gender and QOL. There were some significant differences between centres concerning many items. What is more, these differences were relative: in Lisbon where the lowest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were satisfied with food but highly dissatisfied with finances, whereas in St Etienne, where the highest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were less satisfied with food when they were more satisfied with finances. The evolution in one year among those respondents who took part in the follow-up (excluding the subjects from Granada) showed different patterns depending on the items. CONCLUSION: The four countries have different resources and patients live in rather different conditions. However, the main differences as far as their QOL is concerned very much depend on extra-psychiatric variables, principally marital status and income.

  7. Predictors of Poor Quality of Life 1 Year After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufique, Zahrah; May, Teresa; Meyers, Emma; Falo, Cristina; Mayer, Stephan A; Agarwal, Sachin; Park, Soojin; Connolly, E Sander; Claassen, Jan; Schmidt, J Michael

    2016-02-01

    Risk factors for poor quality of life (QOL) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain poorly described. To identify the frequency and predictors of poor QOL 1 year after SAH. We studied 1-year QOL in a prospectively collected cohort of 1181 consecutively admitted SAH survivors between July 1996 and May 2013. Patient clinical, radiographic, surgical, and acute clinical course information was recorded. Reduced QOL (overall, physical, and psychosocial) at 1 year was assessed with the Sickness Impact Profile and defined as 2 SD below population-based normative Sickness Impact Profile values. Logistic regression leveraging multiple imputation to handle missing data was used to evaluate reduced QOL. Poor overall QOL was observed in 35% of patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that nonwhite ethnicity, high school education or less, history of depression, poor clinical grade (Hunt-Hess Grade ≥3), and delayed infarction were predictors of poor overall and psychosocial QOL. Poor physical QOL was additionally associated with older age, hydrocephalus, pneumonia, and sepsis. At 1 year, patients with poor QOL had increased difficulty concentrating, cognitive dysfunction, depression, and reduced activities of daily living. More than 91% of patients with poor QOL failed to fully return to work. These patients frequently received physical rehabilitation, but few received cognitive rehabilitation or emotional-behavioral support. Reduced QOL affects as many as one-third of SAH survivors 1 year after SAH. Delayed infarction is the most important in-hospital modifiable factor that affects QOL. Increased attention to cognitive and emotional difficulties after hospital discharge may help patients achieve greater QOL.

  8. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-22

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease.

  9. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  10. A Computational Growth Model for Measuring Dynamic Cortical Development in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili

    2012-01-01

    Human cerebral cortex develops extremely fast in the first year of life. Quantitative measurement of cortical development during this early stage plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural and high-level functional development. This paper presents a computational growth model to simulate the dynamic development of the cerebral cortex from birth to 1 year old by modeling the cerebral cortex as a deformable elastoplasticity surface driven via a growth model. To achieve a high accuracy, a guidance model is also incorporated to estimate the growth parameters and cortical shapes at later developmental stages. The proposed growth model has been applied to 10 healthy subjects with longitudinal brain MR images acquired at every 3 months from birth to 1 year old. The experimental results show that our proposed method can capture the dynamic developmental process of the cortex, with the average surface distance error smaller than 0.6 mm compared with the ground truth surfaces, and the results also show that 1) the curvedness and sharpness decrease from 2 weeks to 12 months and 2) the frontal lobe shows rapidly increasing cortical folding during this period, with relatively slower increase of the cortical folding in the occipital and parietal lobes. PMID:22047969

  11. Sleep is more sensitive to high doses of caffeine in the middle years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Bouchard, Maude; Cartier, Annick; Nicolau, Laurence; Carrier, Julie

    2015-06-01

    During the middle years of life, sleep becomes more fragile and its sensitivity to psychostimulants may increase. This study evaluated the effects of 200 mg and 400 mg of caffeine on sleep in young and middle-aged adults. The sleep of 22 young (23.5 ± 1.9 years) and 24 middle-aged (51.7 ± 11.5 years) adults was recorded using polysomnography in two conditions (placebo and caffeine) in a double-blind cross-over design. Compared to placebo, caffeine increased sleep latency, shortened total sleep duration and reduced sleep efficiency. At the higher dose, these effects were more pronounced in middle-aged than in young adults. Furthermore, the higher dose of caffeine increased absolute stage 1 sleep in young adults, whereas it decreased absolute stage 2 sleep in middle-aged adults. Caffeine also induced dose-dependent increases in relative stage 1 sleep and reductions in absolute and relative slow wave sleep and absolute rapid eye movement sleep in both age groups. There was no dose- or age-related modulation of the effects of caffeine on quantified electroencephalographic measures. These results indicate that, compared to young adults, middle-aged adults are generally more sensitive to the effects of a high dose of caffeine on sleep quantity and quality.

  12. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pew-Thian Yap

    Full Text Available The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  13. Does life satisfaction predict five-year mortality in community-living older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Philip D; Mackenzie, Corey; Menec, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms predict death, but it is less clear if more general measures of life satisfaction (LS) predict death. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if LS predicts mortality over a five-year period in community-living older adults; and (2) which aspects of LS predict death. 1751 adults over the age of 65 who were living in the community were sampled from a representative population sampling frame in 1991/1992 and followed five years later. Age, gender, and education were self-reported. An index of multimorbidity and the Older American Resource Survey measured health and functional status, and the Terrible-Delightful Scale assessed overall LS as well as satisfaction with: health, finances, family, friends, housing, recreation, self-esteem, religion, and transportation. Cox proportional hazards models examined the influence of LS on time to death. 417 participants died during the five-year study period. Overall LS and all aspects of LS except finances, religion, and self-esteem predicted death in unadjusted analyses. In fully adjusted analyses, LS with health, housing, and recreation predicted death. Other aspects of LS did not predict death after accounting for functional status and multimorbidity. LS predicted death, but certain aspects of LS are more strongly associated with death. The effect of LS is complex and may be mediated or confounded by health and functional status. It is important to consider different domains of LS when considering the impact of this important emotional indicator on mortality among older adults.

  14. DISTURBANCE OF NORMAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dimitrijević

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the basic motor skills in the first year of life (postural head control, lateral transfers into a lying position, sitting, standing, walking, crawling, grasping... goes on quite spontaneously. A child learns all the motor actions by itself and that is why it is not necessary to “teach” a child to seat, grasp, stand, walk... Teaching a child the basic motor skills stands for a rough, unnecessary and undesirable involvement into spontaneous motor development, and, due to this, the normal adoption of motor skills is slowed down. For the normal motor development, children do not need helping devices (baby buggy, baby jump.... Helping devices suppress in children their natural urge to walk, complicate its development and may have harmful effects like equinus feet, deformed feet and spine and so on.

  15. [The acoustic aspect of the speech development in children during the third year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakso, E E; Gromova, A D; Frolova, O V; Romanova, O D

    2004-01-01

    The current part of a Russian language acquisition longitudinal study based on auditory, phonetic and instrumental analysis is devoted to the third year of child's life. We examined the development of supplementary acoustic and phonetic features of the child's speech providing for the possibility for the speech to be recognized. The instrumental analysis and statistical processing of vowel formant dynamics as well as stress, palatalization and VOT development, has been performed for the first time in Russian children. We showed that the high probability of children words recognition by auditors was due to establishment of a system of acoustically stable features which, in combination with each other, provide for the informative sufficiency of a message.

  16. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  17. Health-related quality-of-life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, A.; Christensen, Steen Bach; Carreon, L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long term clinical outcomes using validated measures of health-related qualityof- life (HRQOL), 25 years after termination of scoliosis treatment, in a cohort of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. Method: 219 consecutive patients.......6 %), 1 brace pt and 3 Harrington-DDT pt. SRS22R domain scores were within the range described as normal for the general population with no statistical difference between the groups except in the Satisfaction domain, where the PSF group had better scores than the braced group. The SF36 PCS and MCS scores...... in both AIS cohorts were similar to the scores for the general population. Conclusion: HRQOLs, as measured by the SRS22R and SF-36, of adult AIS patients treated with Boston brace or PSF during adolescence were similar to the general population. No clinical progression of the deformity has been detected...

  18. [Eating habits in the first year of life: social representations of young mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Paula Esmeraldo; Javorski, Marly; Amorim, Rosemary de Jesus Machado; de Oliveira, Sheyla Costa; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena

    2014-01-01

    This is qualitative research that investigates the social representations of adolescent mothers on child eating habits in the first year of life. Its subjects were 10 adolescent mothers, whose children were aged seven to twelve months. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, besides the use of visual material. The analysis followed the technique of content analysis, relying on the framework of Social Representations Theory. That analysis revealed four themes: the conflict of breastfeeding versus consecration of porridge; establishing complementary feeding of the child; crystallized speech: "yogurt is better than a little steak"; the (un)definition of maternal eating habits: implications for infant feeding. The representations that drive maternal practices in selecting, preparing and offering food follow a particular logic, where adolescents reinterpret technical speeches in terms of their culture.

  19. Spousal Breadwinning Across 30 Years of Marriage and Husbands' Health: A Gendered Life Course Stress Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W; Lee, Chioun; Carr, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Wives increasingly outearn their husbands, and gender relations theory suggests this arrangement may undermine men's well-being. We explore how long-term histories of spousal breadwinning may be associated with older men's self-rated mental and physical health, and risk of nine health diagnoses. Using 30 years of couple-level income data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 1,095 couples), we use latent class analyses to identify six classes that differ with respect to the timing and level of wife breadwinning. We link these classes to older husbands' later-life health. Classes that transitioned from husband breadwinning to wife breadwinning in early or later adulthood were associated with husbands' poorer overall physical health and risk of cardiometabolic and stress-related diseases. Patterns persist net of sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and adolescent health. Violating cultural expectations, such as the masculinity ideal of male breadwinning, is associated with older men's poorer health.

  20. Last year, the life and work of Tchaikovsky, "way" of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Gryshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the last year of his life and work of Tchaikovsky, which is interpreted as a nonlinear process involving a "cascade" of bifurcations and is divided into three stages: the order - chaos - a new order. We are talking about fractals processes elementary, middle and final stages of development, as well as the presence of "the point of the golden section", which is characteristic of non-linear systems of different origin having similar processes of self-organization. From the standpoint of synergy version of the composer's death appears in a different light. It becomes clear contours, as synergistic simulation is based on real and specific facts of the biography of the composer. It becomes clear that Tchaikovsky himself "create" their own future, leading to a restructuring of his mind. Feeling the fear of death disappears, and a tired soul finds peace.

  1. IL MERAVIGLIOSO PRIMO ANNO DI VITA. THE WONDERFUL FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongari, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le immense potenzialità del primo anno di vita ed il loro essere a fondamento dello sviluppo della personalità vengono discusse qui in una prospettiva relazionale, evidenziando il significato fondamentale della qualità delle interazioni precoci, verbali e non verbali, tra il bambino ed i suoi caregiver. Viene sottolineato anche il ruolo-chiave delle emozioni e dei vissuti interpersonali nella costruzione dell’architettura della mente infantile. The extraordinary potentialities during the first year of life and the fact that they are at the basis of the development of personality are proposed here using a relational prospective. The fundamental significance connected to the quality of the precocious verbal and non–verbal interactions between infants and their caregiver is evidenced as well. The key-role of the interpersonal emotions and feelings inside the construction of the infants’ mind architecture is highlighted.

  2. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 65 in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcà, M; di Orio, F; Forastiere, F; Tasco, C; Perucci, C A

    1988-09-01

    The Italian death rates and years of potential life lost (YPLL) for all causes and for 12 selected aggregations of causes are reported for 1979 and 1983, with the latter compared to United States data. Cancer is the leading cause of YPLL in Italy (23.8 per cent of total YPLL), followed by unintentional injuries (16.3 per cent) and heart disease (11.2 per cent). Rates of YPLL for all causes decreased 12.0 per cent from 1979 to 1983, the strongest declines in absolute terms being observed for prematurity and unintentional injuries, and in percentage decline for pneumonia and influenza, and infectious diseases; during the same period, YPLL for diabetes increased. The rates of YPLL are higher for males than for females (rate ratio = 1.9) especially for causes related to lifestyle factors. Premature mortality is lower in Italy than in the USA, because of the striking difference in mortality from injuries and heart diseases.

  3. A sound spectrogram analysis of children's crying after painful stimuli during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runefors, P; Arnbjönsson, E

    2005-01-01

    In a prospective study we tested the hypothesis that a cry from an infant can be used as part of an instrument to measure pain. Ten healthy newly born infants were subjected to painful stimuli on four occasions during their first year of life. The sound of the crying was analysed with regard to duration. With the help of a sound spectrogram, the fundamental frequencies of the first five crying sounds were analysed. The number of crying sounds decreased with age. There was a considerable difference between the 10 children, and also between the different pricking occasions for the respective children. We conclude that if crying is to be used as part of an instrument for measuring pain, the child's age has to be taken into account.

  4. Investing in Lead-Time Variability Reduction in a Quality-Adjusted Inventory Model with Finite-Range Stochastic Lead-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Affisco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of the efforts aimed at reducing the lead-time variability in a quality-adjusted stochastic inventory model. We assume that each lot contains a random number of defective units. More specifically, a logarithmic investment function is used that allows investment to be made to reduce lead-time variability. Explicit results for the optimal values of decision variables as well as optimal value of the variance of lead-time are obtained. A series of numerical exercises is presented to demonstrate the use of the models developed in this paper. Initially the lead-time variance reduction model (LTVR is compared to the quality-adjusted model (QA for different values of initial lead-time over uniformly distributed lead-time intervals from one to seven weeks. In all cases where investment is warranted, investment in lead-time reduction results in reduced lot sizes, variances, and total inventory costs. Further, both the reduction in lot-size and lead-time variance increase as the lead-time interval increases. Similar results are obtained when lead-time follows a truncated normal distribution. The impact of proportion of defective items was also examined for the uniform case resulting in the finding that the total inventory related costs of investing in lead-time variance reduction decrease significantly as the proportion defective decreases. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis relating to proportion defective, interest rate, and setup cost show the lead-time variance reduction model to be quite robust and representative of practice.

  5. Quality of Life and Hearing Eight Years After Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Kati; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Rautiainen, Markus; Kotti, Voitto; Vasama, Juha-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    To explore long-term hearing results, quality of life (QoL), quality of hearing (QoH), work-related stress, tinnitus, and balance problems after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Cross-sectional study. We reviewed the audiograms of 680 patients with unilateral ISSNHL on average 8 years after the hearing impairment, and then divided the patients into two study groups based on whether their ISSNHL had recovered to normal (pure tone average [PTA] ≤ 30 dB) or not (PTA > 30 dB). The inclusion criteria were a hearing threshold decrease of 30 dB or more in at least three contiguous frequencies occurring within 72 hours in the affected ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear. Audiograms of 217 patients fulfilled the criteria. We reviewed their medical records; measured present QoL, QoH, and work-related stress with specific questionnaires; and updated the hearing status. Poor hearing outcome after ISSNHL was correlated with age, severity of hearing loss, and vertigo together with ISSNHL. Quality of life and QoH were statistically significantly better in patients with recovered hearing, and the patients had statistically significantly less tinnitus and balance problems. During the 8-year follow-up, the PTA of the affected ear deteriorated on average 7 dB, and healthy ear deteriorated 6 dB. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss that failed to recover had a negative impact on long-term QoL and QoH. The hearing deteriorated as a function of age similarly both in the affected and the healthy ear, and there were no differences between the groups. The cumulative recurrence rate for ISSNHL was 3.5%. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:927-931, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Margarido, M R R A; Caires, I S; Santos, R A N; Souza, S G; Souza, J M A; Martimiano, R R; Dutra, C S K; Palha, P; Zanetti, A C G; Pazin-Filho, A

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, Pstudents recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  7. [Burden of cancer in China: data on disability-adjusted life years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jufang; Zhang, Yue; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Lanwei; Dai, Min; He, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) has been increasingly used to estimate burden of disease worldwide. By giving a particular attention to DALYs, the objectives of the study were to review various data sources and to conduct an extended estimation on the burden of cancer in China. Based on the publications released by the GLOBOCAN 2008 program and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD 2010) program, we reviewed the methodological information and gathered DALY data associated with burden of cancer in China, and then we extracted and summarized the data and conducted an extended analysis. From a methodological perspective, both of the programs applied the utility weights mainly from populations other than China. The data from GLOBOCAN 2008 suggests that liver cancer has replaced lung cancer and became the leading cancer in males in China when using DALY rather than mortality rate as the indicator (6.3 million and 5.4 million DALYs, respectively); although the ranking is different, data from the GBD 2010 project shows DALYs caused by liver cancer is comparable to that associated with lung cancer (7.9 million and 8.0 million, respectively). The years lived with disability (YLDs) comprised 26% and 12% of the total DALYs associated with breast cancer and colorectal cancer in China. Both projects suggest that liver cancer might have become or is becoming the leading contributor to males' DALYs in China. There are indications that, along with economic development, YLD will play a more important role in estimation of burden of cancer in China; it suggests that China should consider introducing DALY into the estimation system as early as possible. It also suggests that research on quality of life and utility associated with the major cancers in China need to be systematically conducted to facilitate more accurate DALY estimation.

  8. Subjective quality of life in first-episode psychosis. A ten year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2016-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (S-QoL) is an important outcome measure in first episode psychosis (FEP). The aims of this study were to describe S-QoL-development the first 10-years in FEP patients and to identify predictors of this development. A representative sample of 272 patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10 year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms and socio-economic variables and the effects of changes in the same variables on S-QoL-development. S-QoL improved significantly over the follow-up period. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline had a positive and longstanding effect on S-QoL-development, but changes in these variables were not associated with S-QoL-development. Higher depressive symptoms and less daily activities at baseline both had a negative independent effect, but a positive interaction effect with time on S-QoL-development indicating that the independent negative effect diminished over time. In the change analysis, increased daily activities and a decrease in depressive symptoms were associated with a positive S-QoL-development. Treatment of depressive symptoms and measures aimed at increasing daily activities seem important to improve S-QoL in patients with psychosis. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline have a long-standing effect on S-QoL-development in FEP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-04-08

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Sickle-cell anemia in the 1st 5 years of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarch, E; Nordet, I; Machín, S; Fernández, L; Muñiz, A; Wade, M

    1996-02-01

    A programme for antenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell anaemia (SA) and SC haemoglobinopathy (SC) was started in Cuba in 1983. The purpose of this paper is to report the clinical and haematological data of a group of children diagnosed before birth or in the first few months of life. Between June 1986 and December 1992, 78 children under 5 years of age were studied at the Haemoglobinpathies Clinic of the Instituto de Hematología e Inmunologia in La Habana; of them, 53 had SA and 25 had SC, there were 41 girls and 37 boys. A comprehensive questionnaire was carried out during the first visit to the clinic, about the onset of the clinical manifestations, as well as a careful physical examination plus peripheral blood study and Hb A2 and Hb F assay. Parents were informed, and folate and prophylactic penicillin were given orally to the children. The yearly average admissions to hospital were 1.6 +/- 3.8 for SA and 0.1 +/- 0.6 for SC. The average number of veno-occlusive crises was 0.2 +/- 0.6 in SA and 0.1 +/- 0.6 in SC (p < 0.04); the average hand-foot crises were 0.3 +/- 1.1. for SA and nil for SC. The average number of infections per year was 0.3 +/- 0.6 in SA and 0.1 +/-0.3 in SC, without any significant difference. Significant differences were found in the haemoglobin rates and reticulocyte counts between both haemoglobinopathies. Hb F rate was 7.80 +/- 4.78% in SA and 2.83 +/- 3.45% in SC. Admission to hospital, hand-foot crises, infections and splenic sequestration are the commonest clinical events during the first 5 years of life. The number of infections episodes decreases with prophylactic oral penicillin, and overacute pneumococcal infection is suppressed. Parent education allows one to early treat sequestration crises, and partial splenectomy avoids repetition of this complication, while preserving the splenic function.

  11. Perceived School Performance, Life Satisfaction, and Hopelessness: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study of Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined the perceived school performance, life satisfaction, and hopelessness of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Over the period of the study, perceived school performance and life satisfaction decreased, whereas adolescent hopelessness increased. Consistent with our predictions, a positive relationship between perceived school performance and life satisfaction, a negative relationship between life satisfaction and hopelessness, and a negative relationship between perceived school performance and hopelessness were found. Structural equation modeling further showed that life satisfaction functioned as a mediator in the relationship between perceived school performance and hopelessness. The findings underscore the role of perceived school performance in adolescent well-being and suggest that promoting life satisfaction is a possible way of reducing adolescent hopelessness.

  12. Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences: a five-wave, 16-year study to test reciprocal causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimus, Bertus F; Riese, Harriëtte; Sanderman, Robbert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-10-01

    High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reciprocal causation between neuroticism and life experiences and to gauge the magnitude and persistence of these associations. This longitudinal cohort study included 5 assessment waves over 16 years in a random sample of 296 Dutch participants (47% women) with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 12, range 16-63 years). Neuroticism was assessed with the Amsterdam Biographic Questionnaire. The experiences measured included positive and negative life events, long-term difficulties (LTDs), and change in life quality, all assessed by contextual rating procedures adapted from the Life Event and Difficulties Schedule. We fit structural equation models in Mplus. Results showed that neuroticism consistently predicted negative experiences, decreased life quality, and LTDs (β = 0.15 to 0.39), whereas effects on positive experiences were variable (β = 0.14). LTDs and deteriorated life quality each predicted small but persistent increases in neuroticism (β = 0.18), whereas improved life quality predicted small but persistent decreases (β = -0.13). This suggests set point change in neuroticism. Life event aggregates showed no persistent effects on the neuroticism set point. Neuroticism and life experiences showed persistent, bidirectional associations. Experience-driven changes in neuroticism lasted over a decade. Results support the corresponsive principle (reciprocal causation), suggesting a mixed model of change in neuroticism that distinguishes temporary changes in neuroticism from persistent changes in an individual's neuroticism set point.

  13. Qualitative Examination of Adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life at 1 Year Postconcussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadevaia, Cheree; Roiger, Trevor; Zwart, Mary Beth

    2015-11-01

    Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries can negatively influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescent patients. The effect of sport-related concussion on adolescent HRQOL remains unclear. To investigate the perceptions of adolescent student-athletes and their parents regarding the adolescents' HRQOL 1 year after sport-related concussion. Qualitative study. Secondary school. Seven adolescent student-athletes (age range, 12-16 years) who sustained a sport-related concussion at least 1 year (15.3 ± 2.8 months) before the study participated along with their primary care-giving parents (n = 7). Fourteen semistructured face-to-face interviews (7 adolescents, 7 parents) were completed. Interviews were transcribed and inductively analyzed by a team of 3 athletic trainers with 32 combined years of professional experience. Themes were negotiated through a consensual review process. Participant checks were completed to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) significant effect of symptoms, (2) feelings of frustration, (3) influence on school attendance and activities, and (4) nature of interpersonal and team relationships. Participants indicated that the physical symptoms of the concussion substantially affected their emotional and academic function. The influence of the concussion on social interactions seemed to depend on the nature of interpersonal relationships. Sport-related concussion can negatively influence physical and emotional function, academics, and interpersonal interactions as perceived by adolescent student-athletes and their parents. Education of parents and their children, school professionals, coaches, and teammates remains critical to effectively recognize and manage sport-related concussion. Secondary school districts also play a critical role in the concussion-management process by establishing and implementing accommodation policies that alleviate student concerns about falling

  14. Qualitative Examination of Adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life at 1 Year Postconcussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadevaia, Cheree; Roiger, Trevor; Zwart, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Context Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries can negatively influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescent patients. The effect of sport-related concussion on adolescent HRQOL remains unclear. Objective To investigate the perceptions of adolescent student-athletes and their parents regarding the adolescents' HRQOL 1 year after sport-related concussion. Design Qualitative study. Setting Secondary school. Patients or Other Participants Seven adolescent student-athletes (age range, 12–16 years) who sustained a sport-related concussion at least 1 year (15.3 ± 2.8 months) before the study participated along with their primary care-giving parents (n = 7). Data Collection and Analysis Fourteen semistructured face-to-face interviews (7 adolescents, 7 parents) were completed. Interviews were transcribed and inductively analyzed by a team of 3 athletic trainers with 32 combined years of professional experience. Themes were negotiated through a consensual review process. Participant checks were completed to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) significant effect of symptoms, (2) feelings of frustration, (3) influence on school attendance and activities, and (4) nature of interpersonal and team relationships. Participants indicated that the physical symptoms of the concussion substantially affected their emotional and academic function. The influence of the concussion on social interactions seemed to depend on the nature of interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Sport-related concussion can negatively influence physical and emotional function, academics, and interpersonal interactions as perceived by adolescent student-athletes and their parents. Education of parents and their children, school professionals, coaches, and teammates remains critical to effectively recognize and manage sport-related concussion. Secondary school districts also play a critical role in the concussion

  15. Ontogeny of Toll-like receptor mediated cytokine responses of South African infants throughout the first year of life.

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    Brian A Reikie

    Full Text Available The first year of life represents a time of marked susceptibility to infections; this is particularly true for regions in sub-Saharan Africa. As innate immunity directs the adaptive immune response, the observed increased risk for infection as well as a suboptimal response to vaccination in early life may be due to less effective innate immune function. In this study, we followed a longitudinal cohort of infants born and raised in South Africa over the first year of life, employing the most comprehensive analysis of innate immune response to stimulation published to date. Our findings reveal rapid changes in innate immune development over the first year of life. This is the first report depicting dramatic differences in innate immune ontogeny between different populations in the world, with important implications for global vaccination strategies.

  16. Prevention of meningococcal infections in the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-08-01

    program. Debate over the implementation of routine infant meningococcal vaccination in the United States is ongoing. This review focuses on vaccines for the prevention of N. meningitidis infection in infants and young toddlers in the first 2 years of life.

  17. Asthma-like symptoms in the first year of life and health-related quality of life at age 12 months: The Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohangoo, A.D.; Koning, H.J. de; Jongste, J.C. de; Landgraf, J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Raat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares HRQOL among subgroups of infants with asthma-like symptoms to a subgroup without such symptoms and examines independent associations between asthma-like symptoms during the first year of life and HRQOL at age 12 months. Methods: Our study sample included 5,000 infants pa

  18. Asthma-like symptoms in the first year of life and health-related quality of life at age 12 months: The Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohangoo, A.D.; Koning, H.J. de; Jongste, J.C. de; Landgraf, J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Raat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares HRQOL among subgroups of infants with asthma-like symptoms to a subgroup without such symptoms and examines independent associations between asthma-like symptoms during the first year of life and HRQOL at age 12 months. Methods: Our study sample included 5,000 infants pa

  19. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2016-10-03

    To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males). More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%), individuals with low schooling (24.0%), and motorcyclists (28.5%). The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality), in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists. Estimar os anos potenciais de vida perdidos por acidente de transporte terrestre após três anos do início da Década de Ação pela Segurança no Trânsito. Foram analisados os dados do Sistema de Informa

  20. Quality of Life Related to Health on Patients Suffering from Cerebrovascular Diseases at 2 Years of Survival

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    Rubén Bembibre Taboada

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life related to health is a reliable and necessary indicator for the analysis of the sanitary state in a community. It is also a data source to define strategies in health actions in a population. Objective: To describe the aspects related to quality of life in two- year survivors from cerebrovascular disease. Method: A retrospective and prospective, descriptive study of a serie of cases with quality of life assessment related to patient’s health two years after being discharged from hospital due to ictus. A simple random sampling was performed and applied to survivors. Quality of life scale for ECVI–38 ictus was used determining the most affected cerebral dominance by means of statistic techniques. Results: the quality of life assessment in ictus showed a general mean of 46.5. The spheres identified as more engaged were the feelings and the emotional one. Illness in several of the cerebral dominance was confirmed in the majority of survivors although the obtained measurements were not high. The level of recovering at two years of the beginning of the disease was little or none in 31 ill patients. Conclusions: Alterations in quality of life related to health are sequelae which in more or lesser degree suffer from the majority of the survivors to a neuroictus. These can be determined applying ECVI-38. It is necessary to take measures to minimize the deleterious effects and fulfill the objectives for survivors have a satisfactory quality of life.

  1. Echocardiographic Follow up After Surgical Correction of Aortic Coarctation During The First Year of Life

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    Ligere Elīna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of the aorta (AoCo accounts for 6–10% of congenital heart diseases in infants. We analysed echocardiographic findings of patients operated on for AoCo in the University Hospital for Children in Riga during the first year of life to evaluate the long-term findings. Fifty-nine children underwent surgical correction of AoCo at the age of 55 ± 61 days. The methods of surgical correction were anastomosis end-to-end (ETE in 29% (n = 17, subclavian flap aortoplasty (SFA in 64% (n = 38 and extended anastomosis end-to-end (EETE in 7% (n = 4. Recoarctation developed in 15 patients (25% with no difference between surgical techniques (P > 0.05. The recoarcation patients had left ventricle hypertrophy (left ventricle mass index (LVMi 76 ± 19 g/m2.7 normalising after angioplasty (LVMi 42 ± 7 g/m2.7. Patients with recoarctation had a decreased pulsed wave (PW Doppler systolic/diastolic ratio in abdominal aorta 2.3 ± 0.4 versus patientswithout recoarctation 5.3 ± 1.2 and the control group 6.3 ± 1.4 (P < 0.05. A high incidence of recoarctation exists in patients operated on for AoCo as small infants. Life-long surveillance is required to monitor and to intervene in a timely way. Supplementation of the echocardiographic protocol with an evaluation of PW Doppler flow pattern in abdominal aorta can provide additional information about the presence of obstruction.

  2. Changes in quantitative ultrasound in preterm and term infants during the first year of life

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    Tansug, Nermin, E-mail: ntansug@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Yildirim, Sule Aslan, E-mail: sulesln@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Canda, Ebru, E-mail: ebruerbass@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Ozalp, Deniz, E-mail: bluexxdeniz@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ozge, E-mail: oyilmaz_76@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Taneli, Fatma, E-mail: fatma.taneli@bayar.edu.tr [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, 45020 Manisa (Turkey); Ersoy, Betuel, E-mail: betul_e@hotmail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 45020 Manisa (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Since most of in utero bone mass accretion occurs during the third trimester and postnatal need for bone nutrients is increased, preterm infants have an increased risk of low bone mass. Early identification of the risk is of crucial importance. Quantitative ultrasound, which is a relatively inexpensive, portable, noninvasive, and radiation-free method, gives information about bone density, cortical thickness, elasticity and microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to obtain quantitative ultrasound measurements of tibial speed of sound of preterm and term infants and to assess clinical factors associated with these measurements during the first year of life. Seventy-eight preterm and 48 term infants were enrolled in this study. Measurements were made on the 10th day of life in both groups, and were repeated on the 2nd, 6th and 12th months for preterm infants and on the12th month for the term infants. Speed of sound on preterm infants was significantly decreased on the 2nd month but significantly increased on the 12th month (P = 0.00). Comparing speed of sound of term and preterm infants, 10th day measurements were significantly different (P = 0.00), but there was not any significant difference between the 12th month values (P = 0.26). There was not any relation between biochemical parameters and speed of sound. The technique has potential clinical value for assessment of bone status. Further studies with long term follow up are needed to evaluate the value of quantitative ultrasound with other bone markers to predict the risk of fracture.

  3. Reference values for respiratory rate in the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, F; Castagneto, M; Gagliardi, L; Leo, G; Pellegatta, A; Porta, N; Razon, S; Braga, M

    1994-09-01

    Raised respiratory rate is a useful sign to diagnose lower respiratory infections in childhood. However, the normal range for respiratory rate has not been defined in a proper, large sample. To assess the respiratory rate in a large number of infants and young children in order to construct percentile curves by age; to determine the repeatability to the assessment using a stethoscope and compare it with observation. Respiratory rate was recorded for 1 minute with a stethoscope in 618 infants and children, aged 15 days to 3 years old, without respiratory infections or any other severe disease when awake and calm and when asleep. In 50 subjects we compared respiratory rate taken 30 to 60 minutes apart to assess repeatability, and in 50 others we compared simultaneous counts obtained by stethoscope versus observation. Repeatability was good as the standard deviation of differences was 2.5 breaths/minute in awake and 1.7 breaths/minute in asleep children. Respiratory rate obtained with a stethoscope was systematically higher than that obtained by observation (mean difference 2.6 breaths/minute in awake and 1.8 breaths/minute in asleep children; P = .015 and P < .001, respectively). A decrease in respiratory rate with age was seen for both states, and it was faster in the first few months of life when also a greater dispersion of values was observed. A second degree polynomial curve accurately fitted the data. Reference percentile values were developed from these data. The repeatability of respiratory rate measured with a stethoscope was good. Percentile curves would be particularly helpful in the first months of life when the decline in respiratory rate is very rapid and prevents to use cut off values for defining "normality."

  4. Estimating years of life lost from cardiovascular mortality related to air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Song, Yu-Feng; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies have mainly used mortality or morbidity as the health outcome to examine the air pollution-health association. Little evidence is available on relationships between air pollutants and years of life lost (YLL). We aimed to estimate the YLL from cardiovascular mortality due to air pollution. Daily data on weather and air pollutants and individual data of all registered deaths for years 2004-2007 were obtained in Guangzhou, China. The generalized additive model was used to assess the YLL associated with 10μg/m(3) increases in NO2, SO2 and PM10. We found that the mean daily YLL was 248, 87.5 and 73.7 for deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD), respectively. A significant linear correlation was observed between air pollution and YLL due to cardiovascular disease. The effects of air pollutants on YLL were immediate and lasted for two days. A 10μg/m(3) increase above the corresponding threshold of 55.6μg/m(3), 40.4μg/m(3) and 0μg/m(3) in NO2, PM10 and SO2 was related to YLL increase of 1.8 (95% CI: 0.8-2.9), 2.8 (1.7-3.8) and 2.6 (1.2-4.0) years at lag 0-1days for CVD, respectively. The estimates of YLL associated with NO2 and PM10 were higher in men than women. The air pollutants-related YLL was higher among young people and those with low education level, compared to the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. These findings confirmed YLL provides a complementary strategy for assessing the health effect of air pollution. This study underscores the necessity of the reduction of air pollution benefiting public health.

  5. Health care costs in the last four years of life for private health plan beneficiaries in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Miranda, Isaura Cristina; Padovan, Jorge; de Soárez, Patricia Coelho; Ciconellil, Rozana

    2008-08-01

    To examine health care use and expenditures by Brazilians covered by private health care plans in the last four years of life. Health plan provider enrollee files and death certificate data were used for 274 health plan beneficiaries who died in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Resources used for a beneficiary in the year of death and in the three years prior to death were identified. Descriptive statistical analyses were used for clinical and socio-demographic characteristics and to describe the costs. Of the 274 deaths included in this analysis, 92 occurred in 1998, 82 in 1999, and 100 in 2000. Most of the deceased were males (61.4%). Distribution in terms of type of health plan coverage (full versus hospitalization-only coverage) was similar among beneficiaries (53% had hospitalization only and 47% had full coverage). The total health plan expenditure in the last four years of life for the 274 decedents was US$ 26,300,283 (US$ 12,287,723 for beneficiaries with hospitalization-only and US$ 14,012,560 for those with full coverage). Expenditures increased progressively in the four years preceding death. About 70% of medical expenses for decedents in the four years of this analysis were incurred in the last year of life. Relatively large amounts of health care resources are used by Brazilian private health plan participants in their last year of life, suggesting that specific strategies are needed to optimize the allocation of medical care resources for these patients.

  6. Physical symptoms, coping styles and quality of life in recurrent ovarian cancer: a prospective population-based study over the last year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Bell, M L; Sommeijer, D W; Friedlander, M; Stockler, M R; Defazio, A; Webb, P M; Butow, P N

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the trajectory of physical symptoms, coping styles and quality of life (QoL) and the relationship between coping and QoL over the last year of life in women with recurrent ovarian cancer. The patient cohort were women recruited to the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study who subsequently experienced recurrent, invasive ovarian cancer and completed at least one psychosocial assessment (optimism, minimisation, hopelessness/helplessness, QoL) during the last year of life (n=217). QoL declined sharply from six months before death. Lack of energy was the most prevalent symptom over three measurement periods (67-92%) and also the most severe. Anorexia (36-55%), abdominal swelling (33-58%), nausea (26-47%) and pain (26-43%) all increased in prevalence and severity towards the end of life. Higher optimism (p=0.009), higher minimisation (p=0.003) and lower helplessness/hopelessness (p=0.03) at baseline were significant predictors of subsequent higher QoL. Progressive deterioration in quality of life may be an indicator of death within about six months and therefore should be an important consideration in decisions about subsequent treatment. Coping styles which independently predicted subsequent changes in QoL could potentially be targeted by interventions to minimise worsening QoL. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Caring for women with ovarian cancer in the last year of life: a longitudinal study of caregiver quality of life, distress and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis N; Price, Melanie A; Bell, Melanie L; Webb, Penelope M; deFazio, Anna; Friedlander, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Caregiver burden, quality of life (QOL) and unmet needs are poorly understood, particularly at the end of life. We explored these issues in caregivers of women with ovarian cancer. The Australian Ovarian Cancer Study (AOCS) is a prospective population-based study of women newly diagnosed with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Ninety-nine caregivers of women participating in the AOCS QOL sub-study (88% response rate) rated their QOL (SF-12), psychological distress (HADS), optimism (LOT), social support (Duke) and unmet needs (SCNS-carers), and patients rated their QOL (FACT-O), every three months for two years. This analysis included measurements in the patient's last year of life. Caregivers had significantly lower mental and physical QOL than population norms (pquality of life, predict caregiver quality of life and distress. Caregivers need help with managing emotions about prognosis, balancing their own and the patient's needs, work, and decision-making when there is uncertainty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintaining life satisfaction in adolescence: Affective mediators of the influence of perceived emotional intelligence on overall life satisfaction judgments in a two-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás eSanchez-Alvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in a two-year study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys who completed the self-report Perceived Emotional Intelligence Scale (PEIS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS three times at one-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  9. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  10. Life review in advanced age: qualitative research on the 'start in life' of 90-year-olds in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Hilary; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-04-01

    This research report presents findings on 'start in life' from a qualitative study of 90-year-olds from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. The study aimed to contextualise the LBC1921 cohort in time and place, describe cohort members' experiences of family and schooling and stimulate further inquiry into the relationships between 'start in life' and risk and resilience factors relating to longevity and healthy ageing. Scottish education and family life in the early 1930s are briefly described. Life review questionnaire: A qualitative Life Review Questionnaire was developed, requiring free-text handwritten responses. Its 'Start in Life' section focused on schooling and family support. Wave 4 of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 involved testing 129 members near to their 90(th) birthday. They reside largely in Edinburgh and its environs. The Life Review Questionnaire was administered to 126 participants, 54 % women. Qualitative analysis: Thematic analysis was the qualitative technique used to categorise, code and extract meaning from questionnaire text. Narratives were extracted from the data to present illustrative stories. Narratives of start in life gave contextual description. Thematic analysis showed LBC1921 members enjoying their schooling, highlighting teachers, academic achievement, school activities and school friendships. Personal qualities, family circumstances and aspects of schooling sometimes hindered educational performance. Family life was recalled mostly with warmth and parents were often portrayed as valuing education and supporting learning and development. Family adversity from poverty, parental illness and parental death was often mitigated by support from parents (or the remaining parent). Overall, most cohort members believed that they had got off to a good 'start in life'. This qualitative investigation of 'start in life' adds context and richness to quantitative investigations of the sizeable LBC1921 cohort, stimulating fresh insights and hypotheses

  11. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

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    S. V. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU, recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04% new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities, 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02, with an odds ratio (OR=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81 regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16 and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01, with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44 adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  12. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manuela; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy has been associated with improved neuropsychological development in children, although the effects of high dosages of folic acid (FA) supplements are unclear. To examine the association between the use of high dosages of FA supplements during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development after the first year of life. The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project recruited pregnant women from 4 areas of Spain (Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) between November 2003 and January 2008. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the usual dietary folate intake and FA supplements at 10 to 13 weeks and 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. The main analyses were based on a sample of 2213 children with complete information on neuropsychological development and FA supplement intake during pregnancy. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effects of FA supplements on child neuropsychological development. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We calculated mental scale and psychomotor scale scores. One SD below the mean established a delay in neurodevelopment (score 5000 μg/d). In multivariate analysis, we observed that children whose mothers used FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d during pregnancy had a statistically significantly lower mean psychomotor scale score (difference, -4.35 points; 95% CI, -8.34 to -0.36) than children whose mothers used a recommended dosage of FA supplements (400-1000 μg/d). An increased risk of delayed psychomotor development (psychomotor scale score <85) was also evident among children whose mothers took FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d, although the association was not statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.82-3.08). To our knowledge, this is the first time a detrimental effect of high dosages of FA supplements

  13. Strain Level Streptococcus Colonization Patterns during the First Year of Life

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    Meredith S. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal pneumonia has decreased significantly since the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV, nevertheless, in many developing countries pneumonia mortality in infants remains high. We have undertaken a study of the nasopharyngeal (NP microbiome during the first year of life in infants from The Philippines and South Africa. The study entailed the determination of the Streptococcus sp. carriage using a lytA qPCR assay, whole metagenomic sequencing, and in silico serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as 16S rRNA amplicon based community profiling. The lytA carriage in both populations increased with infant age and lytA+ samples ranged from 24 to 85% of the samples at each sampling time point. We next developed informatic tools for determining Streptococcus community composition and pneumococcal serotype from metagenomic sequences derived from a subset of longitudinal lytA-positive Streptococcus enrichment cultures from The Philippines (n = 26 infants, 50% vaccinated and South African (n = 7 infants, 100% vaccinated. NP samples from infants were passaged in enrichment media, and metagenomic DNA was purified and sequenced. In silico capsular serotyping of these 51 metagenomic assemblies assigned known serotypes in 28 samples, and the co-occurrence of serotypes in 5 samples. Eighteen samples were not typeable using known serotypes but did encode for capsule biosynthetic cluster genes similar to non-encapsulated reference sequences. In addition, we performed metagenomic assembly and 16S rRNA amplicon profiling to understand co-colonization dynamics of Streptococcus sp. and other NP genera, revealing the presence of multiple Streptococcus species as well as potential respiratory pathogens in healthy infants. A range of virulence and drug resistant elements were identified as circulating in the NP microbiomes of these infants. This study revealed the frequent co-occurrence of multiple S. pneumoniae strains along with

  14. Learning-based deformable image registration for infant MR images in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunbo; Wei, Lifang; Gao, Yaozong; Guo, Yanrong; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Many brain development studies have been devoted to investigate dynamic structural and functional changes in the first year of life. To quantitatively measure brain development in such a dynamic period, accurate image registration for different infant subjects with possible large age gap is of high demand. Although many state-of-the-art image registration methods have been proposed for young and elderly brain images, very few registration methods work for infant brain images acquired in the first year of life, because of (a) large anatomical changes due to fast brain development and (b) dynamic appearance changes due to white-matter myelination. To address these two difficulties, we propose a learning-based registration method to not only align the anatomical structures but also alleviate the appearance differences between two arbitrary infant MR images (with large age gap) by leveraging the regression forest to predict both the initial displacement vector and appearance changes. Specifically, in the training stage, two regression models are trained separately, with (a) one model learning the relationship between local image appearance (of one development phase) and its displacement toward the template (of another development phase) and (b) another model learning the local appearance changes between the two brain development phases. Then, in the testing stage, to register a new infant image to the template, we first predict both its voxel-wise displacement and appearance changes by the two learned regression models. Since such initializations can alleviate significant appearance and shape differences between new infant image and the template, it is easy to just use a conventional registration method to refine the remaining registration. We apply our proposed registration method to align 24 infant subjects at five different time points (i.e., 2-week-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old, 9-month-old, and 12-month-old), and achieve more accurate and robust registration

  15. Children hospitalised with bronchiolitis in the first year of life have a lower quality of life nine months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Bakkeheim, Egil; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hunderi, Jon Olav Gjengstø; Kvenshagen, Bente Krane; Mowinckel, Petter; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2015-01-01

    Acute bronchiolitis increases the risk of asthma, and reduced quality of life (QoL) is reported in children with asthma and allergy. However, the impact of asthma risk factors on QoL is unclear. This study investigated whether bronchiolitis and common asthma risk factors in infancy had an influence on later QoL. The parents of 209 infants recruited during hospitalisation for bronchiolitis at a mean age of 4 months, and 206 controls responded to the generic Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire 9 months later. We used robust regression analyses to assess the association between four asthma risk factors, atopic eczema, parental asthma, parental allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and second-hand smoke and QoL in the two groups. QoL was lower among children with previous bronchiolitis in the overall health and general health domains and lower in six of 13 domains in children with atopic eczema. Compared with no risk factors, children with previous bronchiolitis and three risk factors had lower scores in four domains, and control children with three risk factors had lower scores in three domains. Having acute bronchiolitis, atopic eczema and three asthma risk factors were negatively associated with later QoL in early childhood. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Trends in life jacket wear among recreational boaters: a dozen years (1999-2010) of US observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Thomas W; Chow, Wendy; Nguyen, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    We report results from 12 years of US observational data on life jacket use among recreational boaters based on more than 480,000 boaters in 175,000 boats between 1999 and 2010. The overall wear rate was 21.7 per cent, with sharp differences by age and boat types. We found strong increasing trends in wear rates among youth boaters, but among adults, the only increase was on sailboats. The increasing trend among youth is probably due to a combination of expanding laws for mandatory life jacket use among this age group, and targeted educational campaigns promoting life jacket use for children. Future efforts to increase the prevalence of life jacket wear should target groups with low wear rates and boaters on boats most likely to capsize. Policymakers should give serious consideration to regulations requiring adult boaters to wear life jackets while boating.

  17. Amount and quality of dietary proteins during the first two years of life in relation to NCD risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    During late infancy many infants have a protein intake, which is more than three times as high as the physiological need. Several observational studies have shown an association between a high-protein intake (>15 energy %) early in life and an increased risk of developing obesity and thereby non...... in life. In conclusion, there is some evidence that a high protein intake during the complementary feeding period is associated with increased risk of NCDs and that avoidance of a high protein intake could reduce the risk of obesity. In low-income countries, emphasis should be on providing sufficient......-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This effect was supported by a recent intervention study with infant formulas with two levels of protein, showing that a higher protein intake during the first year of life resulted in a higher body mass index (BMI) at age 2 years. It is also plausible that an important...

  18. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  19. Basic real immunization coverage for the first year of life in a Family Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Magalhães Villela Carneiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate basic immunization coverage for the first year of life in a family health unit in Maceio, Alagoas, Brazil. Methods: it was a cross-sectional study. Sixty six children from 12 to 24 months old were included. All parents or answerable persons for the children undergone to an interview. Additional data were collected from immunization cards for each child. Basic immunization coverage was considered complete when children received immunization on adequate age and intervals. Categorical variables were disposed in proportions. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for numeral variables. Differences between appropriate and inappropriate vacinal coverage groups were measured through Pearson’s qui-square (p < 0.05. Results: We obtained a sample of 66 children, of whom 24,2% (n = 16 completed the basic immunization schedule. The average number of residents was 4,7 ± 1,8, while the averege number of siblngs was 1,0 ± 1,0. It was found that 75,8% (n = 50 of children were part of the C2 or D. The average age of the person responsible was 30,53 ± 11 ranging from 16 to 62 years. Conclusion: The coverage for each of vaccines was always greater than the coverage for theentire scheme. It was found that a significant portion of children in this research did not receive all recommended doses, at ages appropriate and corret intervals. Therefore, the init needs to improve it’s technical procedures, and administrative in order to ensure full immunization coverage in due course.

  20. [Nutrition of infants during the 1st year of life: viewpoint of the nutritionist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapparov, M M; Levachev, M M

    2001-01-01

    The article of discussion character is devoted to a problem of adequacy of breast milk substitutes to a true breast milk composition. The data on a multiple composition of breast milk including both nutrients and factors of growth--biologically active substances of breast milk are resulted. In paper was accentuated that the solution of a problem of adequate nutrition of children during first year of life in the first place is connected to propagation of need of breast feeding, health nutrition of mother in the pregnancy period and breast feeding and also with further adaptation of breast milk substitutes with the count of physiological need of infant organism in a wide diversification macro- and micro-nutrients. In this connection it is important to take into account not only indispensable nutrients (indispensable amino acids, fatty acids, mineral substances and trace elements), but also wide quantity of trace components of milk with the expressed biological activity, indispensable for normal development of a children[symbol: see text]s organism in early age.?

  1. Temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology during the first two years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The mature brain features high wiring efficiency for information transfer. However, the emerging process of such an efficient topology remains elusive. With resting state functional MRI and a large cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 147 imaged during a critical time period of brain development, 3 wk- to 2 yr-old, the temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology is revealed. The brain possesses the small world topology immediately after birth, followed by a remarkable improvement in whole brain wiring efficiency in 1 yr olds and becomes more stable in 2 yr olds. Regional developments of brain wiring efficiency and the evolution of functional hubs suggest differential development trend for primary and higher order cognitive functions during the first two years of life. Simulations of random errors and targeted attacks reveal an age-dependent improvement of resilience. The lower resilience to targeted attack observed in 3 wk old group is likely due to the fact that there are fewer well-established long-distance functional connections at this age whose elimination might have more profound implications in the overall efficiency of information transfer. Overall, our results offer new insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of brain topology during early brain development.

  2. Antarctic station life: The first 15 years of mixed expeditions to the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Aspa

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the experiences of women who lived and worked on remote and isolated Antarctic stations for up to 15 months at a time. The study employed purposeful sampling and a longitudinal - processual approach to study women's experiences over the first 15 years of mixed gender Antarctic expeditions. The retrospective analysis was based on a semi-structured interview administered to 14 women upon their return to Australia. The results showed that women referred to the natural physical Antarctic environment as one of the best aspects of their experience and the reason they would recommend the Antarctic to their friends as a good place to work. In describing the worst aspect of their experience, women referred to aspects of Antarctic station life, including: (i) the male dominated nature of station culture; (ii) the impact of interpersonal conflict, including gender based conflict and friction between scientists and trades workers; and (iii) the lack of anonymity associated with living and working with the same group of individuals, mainly men, for up to 12 months or more. The results are discussed within the context of the evolution of Antarctic station culture and recommendations are made in terms of the demography of expeditions, expeditioner selection and recruitment and the ongoing monitoring of Antarctic station culture. The study presents a framework that can be applied to groups and teams living and working in analogous isolated, confined and extreme work environments, including outer space missions.

  3. [Multifocal periventricular leukomalacia in children up to 1 year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Sobaniec, W; Ostapiuk, H; Sulkowski, S; Kemona, A; Sulik, M

    The authors present an analysis of the multifocal leucoencephalomalacia in children under 1 year of life based on the material obtained from 2.398 autopsies. It was found that 32 autopsied children suffered from this disease (1.33%). Twenty four of these children were premature. The disease was more frequent in the infants (23 cases) than in neonates (9 cases), and in boys (20 cases) than in girls (12 cases). Multifocal leucoenephalomalacia was manifested mainly as spastic infantile paralysis in the majority of the infants (14 cases). Morphological lesions to the brain most frequently embraced white substance adjacent to the cerebral ventricles (foci of leucoencephalomalacia of 1 cm in diameter) and cerebral vessels. Widening of the ventricular system of the brain was seen in 15 cases. Pathological reaction resulted from the brain anoxia and ischemia in perinatal period (20 cases) or septicaemia (12 cases) while predisposing factors included: prematurity, respiratory failure with hyaline membranes in the lungs and congenital abnormalities of the heart.

  4. Obstetric hysterectomy, still a life saving tool in modern day obstetrics: a five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Singh

    2014-06-01

    Results: During the study period, 105 emergency obstetric hysterectomies were performed giving an incidence of 0.54% .The incidence of hysterectomy following vaginal delivery was 0.54% and that of caesarean hysterectomy was 2.08%. It was most common in the age group 26-35 years (66.66% and in women of parity 3-4 (71.42%.Rupture uterus was the most common indication accounting for 59.04% cases followed by Atonic PPH (18.09%. Febrile illness and wound infection were the two most common co-morbidities. Maternal mortality was 5.71%. Conclusions: Emergency obstetric hysterectomy is potentially a life saving procedure which every obstetrician must be familiar with in cases of catastrophic rupture uterus and intractable haemorrhage. With the help of prostaglandins, modern policies of active management of labor, timely performance of caesarean section, internal iliac artery ligation, compression sutures etc. obstetric hysterectomy should be made a more rare procedure. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 540-543

  5. Mortality trends and years of potential life lost from gastric cancer in Mexico, 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Sánchez-Barriga

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Using the world population age distribution as the standard, the age-adjusted mortality rate in Mexico per 100,000 inhabitants that died from GC decreased from 7.5 to 5.6 between 2000 and 2012. Chiapas and socioeconomic regions 1, 2, and 5 had the highest mortality from GC (Chiapas: 9.2, 95% CI 8.2-10.3 [2000] and 8.2, 95% CI 7.3-9 [2012], region 1: 5.5, 95% CI 5.2-5.9 [2000] and 5.3, 95% CI 4.9-5.7 [2012]; region 2: 5.3, 95% CI 5-5.6 [2000] and 5.4, 95% CI 5.1-5.8 [2012]; region 5: 6.1, 95% CI 5.6-6.6 [2000] and 4.6, 95% CI 4.2-5 [2012]. Chiapas and socioeconomic region 1 had the highest rate of years of potential life lost (Chiapas: 97.4 [2000] and 79.6 [2012] and region 1: 73.5 [2000] 65 [2012].

  6. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation.

  7. Temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology during the first two years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Smith, Jeffery Keith; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    The mature brain features high wiring efficiency for information transfer. However, the emerging process of such an efficient topology remains elusive. With resting state functional MRI and a large cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 147) imaged during a critical time period of brain development, 3 wk- to 2 yr-old, the temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology is revealed. The brain possesses the small world topology immediately after birth, followed by a remarkable improvement in whole brain wiring efficiency in 1 yr olds and becomes more stable in 2 yr olds. Regional developments of brain wiring efficiency and the evolution of functional hubs suggest differential development trend for primary and higher order cognitive functions during the first two years of life. Simulations of random errors and targeted attacks reveal an age-dependent improvement of resilience. The lower resilience to targeted attack observed in 3 wk old group is likely due to the fact that there are fewer well-established long-distance functional connections at this age whose elimination might have more profound implications in the overall efficiency of information transfer. Overall, our results offer new insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of brain topology during early brain development.

  8. Mind the gap - reaching the European target of a 2-year increase in healthy life years in the next decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Carol; McKee, Martin; Christensen, Kaare;

    2013-01-01

    of HLY/LE on year (seven countries retaining same HLY question) or extrapolating the average of HLY/LE in 2008 and 2009 to 2010 (20 countries and EU27). The first scenario continued these trends with three other scenarios exploring different HLY gap reductions between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS......: The estimated gap in HLY in 2010 was 17.5 years (men) and 18.9 years (women). Assuming current trends continue, EU27 HLY increased by 1.4 years (men) and 0.9 years (women), below the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing target, with the HLY gap between countries increasing to 18.3 years...... (men) and 19.5 years (women). To eliminate the HLY gap in 20 years, the EU27 must gain 4.4 HLY (men) and 4.8 HLY (women) in the next decade, which, for some countries, is substantially more than what the current trends suggest. CONCLUSION: Global targets for HLY move attention from inter...

  9. Waist-to-height ratio is more predictive of years of life lost than body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ashwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare the effect of central obesity (measured by waist-to-height ratio, WHtR and total obesity (measured by body mass index, BMI on life expectancy expressed as years of life lost (YLL, using data on British adults.A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to data from the prospective Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS and the cross sectional Health Survey for England (HSE. The number of years of life lost (YLL at three ages (30, 50, 70 years was found by comparing the life expectancies of obese lives with those of lives at optimum levels of BMI and WHtR.Mortality risk associated with BMI in the British HALS survey was similar to that found in US studies. However, WHtR was a better predictor of mortality risk. For the first time, YLL have been quantified for different values of WHtR. This has been done for both sexes separately and for three representative ages.This study supports the simple message "Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height". The use of WHtR in public health screening, with appropriate action, could help add years to life.

  10. Putting health metrics into practice: using the disability-adjusted life year for strategic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Smith, Brian; Gray, Rob; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Vielot, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Implementing organizations are pressured to be accountable for performance. Many health impact metrics present limitations for priority setting; they do not permit comparisons across different interventions or health areas. In response, Population Services International (PSI) adopted the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted as its bottom-line performance metric. While international standards exist for calculating DALYs to determine burden of disease (BOD), PSI's use of DALYs averted is novel. It uses DALYs averted to assess and compare the health impact of its country programs, and to understand the effectiveness of a portfolio of interventions. This paper describes how the adoption of DALYs averted influenced organizational strategy and presents the advantages and constraints of using the metric. Health impact data from 2001-2011 were analyzed by program area and geographic region to measure PSI's performance against its goal of doubling health impact between 2007-2011. Analyzing 10 years of data permitted comparison with previous years' performance. A case study of PSI's Asia and Eastern European (A/EE) region, and PSI/Laos, is presented to illustrate how the adoption of DALYs averted affected strategic decision making. Between 2007-2011, PSI's programs doubled the total number of DALYs averted from 2002-2006. Most DALYs averted were within malaria, followed by HIV/AIDS and family planning (FP). The performance of PSI's A/EE region relative to other regions declined with the switch to DALYs averted. As a result, the region made a strategic shift to align its work with countries' BOD. In PSI/Laos, this redirection led to better-targeted programs and an approximate 50% gain in DALYs averted from 2009-2011. PSI's adoption of DALYs averted shifted the organization's strategic direction away from product sales and toward BOD. Now, many strategic decisions are based on "BOD-relevance," the share of the BOD that interventions can potentially address. This switch

  11. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 2006, chikungunya emerged as a major ever known epidemic in India. Disability adjusted life years (DALY is an appropriate summary measure of population health to express epidemiological burden of diseases. We estimated the burden due to suspected chikungunya using DALYs for the first time and compared between the states and also with the burden due to other vector-borne diseases in India. The economic burden was also assessed in terms of productivity loss.Methods: Data on the reported cases of fever/suspected cases of chikungunya from different states during 2006 in India were used. Years lived with disability (YLD were calculated for non-fatal cases to estimate DALY. Since the disability weight for chikungunya is not available, the weights available for rheumatic arthritis, comparable to the disease outcome of chikungunya were used for the estimation. The burden was estimated for both acute and chronic cases. It is considered that about 11.5% of cases were reported to have extended morbidity with persisting arthralgia. For acute disease, the average duration of illness was considered to be nine days and for chronic cases it was six months on an average. The productivity loss due to income foregone by the working class was calculated using minimum official wage.Results: National burden of chikungunya was estimated to be 25,588 DALYs lost during 2006 epidemic, with an overall burden of 45.26 DALYs per million. It varied from 0.01 to 265.62 per million in different states. Karnataka alone contributed as high as 55% of the national burden. Persistent arthralgia was found to impose heavy burden, accounting for 69% of the total DALYs. The productivity loss in terms of income foregone was estimated to be a minimum of Rs. 391 million. Interpretation & conclusion: The chikungunya epidemic in the year 2006 imposed heavy epidemiological burden and productivity loss to the community. The burden of chikungunya in terms of

  12. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  13. Impact of complications and hospital-free days on health related quality of life 1 year after radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, Chad R; Cookson, Michael S; Chang, Sam S; Clark, Peter E; Resnick, Matthew J; Penson, David F; Smith, Joseph A; May, Alex T; Anderson, Christopher B; You, Chaochen; Lee, Haerin; Barocas, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    We determined the extent to which complications as well as number of hospital-free days within 30 and 90 days of surgery predicted health related quality of life 1 year after radical cystectomy. We used data from a prospective health related quality of life study using a validated instrument, the Vanderbilt Cystectomy Index-15. Complications were graded by the Clavien system, and hospital length of stay and length of stay during readmissions were used to calculate 30 and 90-day hospital-free days, respectively. We compared the number of hospital-free days among patients with varying levels of complications. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictors of Vanderbilt Cystectomy Index-15 score 1 year after surgery adjusting for demographic (age, gender, comorbidities) and clinical variables (stage and diversion type). A total of 100 patients with complete baseline and 1-year followup health related quality of life data were included in the analysis. Median (IQR) 30 and 90-day hospital-free days were 24 (22-25) and 84 (82-85), respectively. Patients who experienced any complications had significantly fewer 30-day hospital-free days (22 vs 24 days, p free days (81 vs 84 days, p free days than those with lower grade or no complications (p quality of life scores. Patients who experience complications after radical cystectomy have fewer 30 and 90-day hospital-free days. However, neither predicts health related quality of life at 1 year. Instead, long-term health related quality of life appears to be driven largely by baseline health related quality of life and gender. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving First-Year Intervention Strategies at Universities by Focusing on Meaning and Purpose in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Research has increasingly appreciated the potential benefits of having a higher sense of meaning in life for positive college student development. Drawing on Steger's (2009) meaning development model, this study investigated the effects of a 6-week web-based intervention designed to enhance a sense of meaning in life among college freshmen. The…

  15. Trajectories of Life Satisfaction: Positive Feedback Loops May Explain Why Life Satisfaction Changes in Multi-year Waves Rather than Oscillating around a Set-Point

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Long term panel data enable researchers to construct Life Satisfaction (LS) trajectories for individuals over time. In this paper we analyse the trajectories of respondents in the German Socio-Economic Panel who recorded their LS for 20 consecutive years in 1991 - 2010. Previous research has shown that at least a quarter of these respondents recorded substantial long term changes in LS (Headey, Muffels and Wagner, 2010, 2012). In this paper, bar charts of LS trajectories, and subsequent stati...

  16. Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Christina; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M; Barregard, Lars; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Brenner, Hermann; Dicker, Daniel J; Chimed-Orchir, Odgerel; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Hancock, Jamie; Hay, Roderick J; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Huynh, Chantal; Hosgood, H Dean; Johnson, Catherine O; Jonas, Jost B; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kumar, G Anil; Kutz, Michael; Lan, Qing; Larson, Heidi J; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lopez, Alan D; MacIntyre, Michael F; Marczak, Laurie; Marquez, Neal; Mokdad, Ali H; Pinho, Christine; Pourmalek, Farshad; Salomon, Joshua A; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Sartorius, Benn; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shackelford, Katya A; Shibuya, Kenji; Stanaway, Jeff; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sun, Jiandong; Takahashi, Ken; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A; Wang, Haidong; Westerman, Ronny; Zeeb, Hajo; Zoeckler, Leo; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alabed, Samer; Alam, Noore K; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alem, Girma; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Ali, Raghib; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Amare, Azmeraw; Amoako, Yaw; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Atnafu, Niguse; Awasthi, Ashish; Saleem, Huda Ba; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Boneya, Dube; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chiang, Peggy; Chibueze, Chioma; Chitheer, Abdulaal; Choi, Jee-Young; Cowie, Benjamin; Damtew, Solomon; das Neves, José; Dey, Suhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath; Dhillon, Preet; Ding, Eric; Driscoll, Tim; Ekwueme, Donatus; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Farvid, Maryam; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao; Fischer, Florian; G/Hiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebru, Alemseged; Gopalani, Sameer; Hailu, Alemayehu; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huybrechts, Inge; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; James, Spencer; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jee, Sun Ha; Kasaeian, Amir; Kedir, Muktar Sano; Khader, Yousef S; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Leigh, James; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Markos, Desalegn; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meles, Kidanu G; Mendoza, Walter; Mengiste, Desalegn Tadese; Meretoja, Tuomo J; Miller, Ted R; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Nagel, Gabriele; Nand, Devina; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nolte, Sandra; Ogbo, Felix A; Oladimeji, Kelechi E; Oren, Eyal; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Pereira, David M; Plass, Dietrich; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rana, Saleem M; Søreide, Kjetil; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, Jun; Shiue, Ivy; Shore, Hirbo Roba; Shrime, Mark G; So, Samuel; Soneji, Samir; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadese, Fentaw; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J S; Tran, Bach Xuan; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S Chudi; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wubshet Terefe, Mamo; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Murray, Christopher J L; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in

  17. Fifteen-year follow-up of quality of life in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter; R; van; Dijk; Susan; JJ; Logtenberg; Klaas; H; Groenier; Joost; C; Keers; Henk; JG; Bilo; Nanne; Kleefstra

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate metabolic control and health-related quality of life(HRQOL)in a type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM)population.METHODS:As part of a prospective cohort study,283T1DM patients treated with various insulin treatment modalities including multiple daily injections(MDI)and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion(CSII)were examined annually.HRQOL was measured using the SF-36 and EuroQol questionnaires.Data regarding HRQOL,glycaemic and metabolic control from baseline and follow-up measures in 2002 and 2010 were analysed.Linear mixed models were used to calculate estimated values and differences between the three moments in time and the three treatment modalities.RESULTS:Significant changes[meanΔ(95%CI)]in body mass index[2.4 kg/m2(1.0,3.8)],systolic blood pressure[-6.4 mmHg(-11.4,-1.3)]and EuroQol-VAS[-7.3(-11.4,-3.3)]were observed over time.In 2010,168 patients were lost to follow-up.Regarding mode of therapy,52 patients remained on MDI,28 remained on CSII,and 33 patients switched from MDI to CSII during follow-up.Among patients on MDI,HRQOL decreased significantly over time:mental component summary[-9.8(-16.3,-3.2)],physical component summary[-8.6(-15.3,-1.8)]and EuroQol-VAS[-8.1(-14.0,-2.3)],P<0.05 for all.For patients using CSII,the EuroQol-VAS decreased[-9.6(-17.5,-1.7)].None of the changes over time in HRQOL differed significantly with the changes over time within the other treatment groups.CONCLUSION:No differences with respect to metabolic and HRQOL parameters between the various insulin treatment modalities were observed after 15 years of follow-up in T1DM patients.

  18. Sources and correlates of sodium consumption in the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen J; Hendrie, Gilly; Nowson, Caryl; Grimes, Carley A; Riley, Malcolm; Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-10-01

    High sodium intake during infancy and early childhood can change salt preference and blood pressure trajectories across life, representing a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Describing young children's sodium intake is important for informing effective targets for sodium reduction. This study aimed to describe food sources and demographic and behavioral correlates of sodium intake in 295 young Australian children using three unscheduled 24-hour recalls (when children were 9 and then 18 months of age) with mothers participating within an existing randomized controlled trial, the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program. Differences in individual-level and family-level demographic and behavioral variables were assessed across tertiles of sodium density (mg/1,000 kcal). Descriptive statistics were used to describe food-group contributions to total energy and sodium intakes at both ages. Mean sodium intake was 486 mg (standard deviation=232 mg) at 9 months and had more than doubled to 1,069 mg (standard deviation=331 mg) at 18 months of age. Fifty-four percent of children at 18 months exceeded the Recommended Daily Upper Level for sodium intake, with bread, cheese, breakfast cereal, soup, and mixed dishes all important sources of sodium at both ages. Yeast extracts, processed meats, and bread products became important additional sources at 18 months. A greater proportion of children in the highest sodium-density tertile had ceased breastfeeding and had commenced solids at an earlier age. The key food sources of sodium for children younger than 2 years are those that contribute to the whole population's high salt burden and highlight the essential role governments and food industry must play to reduce salt in commonly consumed foods. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review of general burden of disease studies using disability-adjusted life years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polinder Suzanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To systematically review the methodology of general burden of disease studies. Three key questions were addressed: 1 what was the quality of the data, 2 which methodological choices were made to calculate disability adjusted life years (DALYs, and 3 were uncertainty and risk factor analyses performed? Furthermore, DALY outcomes of the included studies were compared. Methods Burden of disease studies (1990 to 2011 in international peer-reviewed journals and in grey literature were identified with main inclusion criteria being multiple-cause studies that quantified the burden of disease as the sum of the burden of all distinct diseases expressed in DALYs. Electronic database searches included Medline (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Studies were collated by study population, design, methods used to measure mortality and morbidity, risk factor analyses, and evaluation of results. Results Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. Overall, studies followed the Global Burden of Disease (GBD approach. However, considerable variation existed in disability weights, discounting, age-weighting, and adjustments for uncertainty. Few studies reported whether mortality data were corrected for missing data or underreporting. Comparison with the GBD DALY outcomes by country revealed that for some studies DALY estimates were of similar magnitude; others reported DALY estimates that were two times higher or lower. Conclusions Overcoming “error” variation due to the use of different methodologies and low-quality data is a critical priority for advancing burden of disease studies. This can enlarge the detection of true variation in DALY outcomes between populations or over time.

  20. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger.

  1. Genetic spectrum of hereditary neuropathies with onset in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baets, Jonathan; Deconinck, Tine; De Vriendt, Els; Zimoń, Magdalena; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Peeters, Kristien; Spiegel, Ronen; Parman, Yesim; Ceulemans, Berten; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Bernert, Günther; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Sallinen, Satu-Leena; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Pauly, Fernand; Van den Bergh, Peter; Bilir, Birdal; Battaloglu, Esra; Madrid, Ricardo E; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Kochanski, Andrzej; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miller, Geoffrey; Jordanova, Albena; Timmerman, Vincent; De Jonghe, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Early onset hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are rare disorders encompassing congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy with disease onset in the direct post-natal period and Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy starting in infancy. The clinical spectrum, however, reaches beyond the boundaries of these two historically defined disease entities. De novo dominant mutations in PMP22, MPZ and EGR2 are known to be a typical cause of very early onset hereditary neuropathies. In addition, mutations in several other dominant and recessive genes for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease may lead to similar phenotypes. To estimate mutation frequencies and to gain detailed insights into the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of early onset hereditary neuropathies, we selected a heterogeneous cohort of 77 unrelated patients who presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy within the first year of life. The majority of these patients were isolated in their family. We performed systematic mutation screening by means of direct sequencing of the coding regions of 11 genes: MFN2, PMP22, MPZ, EGR2, GDAP1, NEFL, FGD4, MTMR2, PRX, SBF2 and SH3TC2. In addition, screening for the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-12 was performed. In 35 patients (45%), mutations were identified. Mutations in MPZ, PMP22 and EGR2 were found most frequently in patients presenting with early hypotonia and breathing difficulties. The recessive genes FGD4, PRX, MTMR2, SBF2, SH3TC2 and GDAP1 were mutated in patients presenting with early foot deformities and variable delay in motor milestones after an uneventful neonatal period. Several patients displaying congenital foot deformities but an otherwise normal early development carried the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A duplication. This study clearly illustrates the genetic heterogeneity underlying hereditary neuropathies with infantile onset.

  2. Advantages of the anterior and mid-shaft hypospadias repair in the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Only a few studies have been performed on the evaluation of complications strictly related to the age at operation of hypospadias repair. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of complications of surgical treatment of anterior and midshaft hypospadias in relation to the age at operation. Materials and Methods: 108 patients from 2005 to 2011 were operated on by the same surgeon (AM for anterior and mid-shaft hypospadias. The patients were divided into two groups according to their age: group A consisted of 48 patients who had undergone surgery before 12 months, group B consisted of 60 patients in whom surgery was performed after 12 months of age (2months - 12 yrs. All patients were corrected with TIPU (Snodgrass technique. For the two groups was evaluated the rate of perioperative complications (hematoma, edema, hemorrhage, suture dehiscence, fistula, stenosis. For the statistical analysis of complications was used the exact test of chi-square Fischer. Results: At a mean follow-up of 36 months. Group A: 2/48 patients presented fistula after 2-6 weeks. Group B: 15/60 patients presented the following complications: 2 hematomas, 1 postoperative bleeding; 5 fistulas arising after 2-6 weeks, 3 minimal meatal regression; 4 thinning flow. The Fisher test was significant. Conclusions: The results of our study confirm that patients with hypospadias, operated within the first years of life, have a statistically lower rate of complications than patients treated at later dates. Therefore, the age is believed to be a pivotal prognostic factor for the functional and aesthetic results.

  3. Mind the gap--reaching the European target of a 2-year increase in healthy life years in the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Carol; McKee, Martin; Christensen, Kaare; Lagiewka, Karolina; Nusselder, Wilma; Van Oyen, Herman; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Jeune, Bernard; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2013-10-01

    The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing seeks an increase of two healthy life years (HLY) at birth in the EU27 for the next 10 years. We assess the feasibility of doing so between 2010 and 2020 and the differential impact among countries by applying different scenarios to current trends in HLY. Data comprised HLY and life expectancy (LE) at birth 2004-09 from Eurostat. We estimated HLY in 2010 in each country by multiplying the Eurostat projections of LE in 2010 by the ratio HLY/LE obtained either from country and sex-specific linear regression models of HLY/LE on year (seven countries retaining same HLY question) or extrapolating the average of HLY/LE in 2008 and 2009 to 2010 (20 countries and EU27). The first scenario continued these trends with three other scenarios exploring different HLY gap reductions between 2010 and 2020. The estimated gap in HLY in 2010 was 17.5 years (men) and 18.9 years (women). Assuming current trends continue, EU27 HLY increased by 1.4 years (men) and 0.9 years (women), below the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing target, with the HLY gap between countries increasing to 18.3 years (men) and 19.5 years (women). To eliminate the HLY gap in 20 years, the EU27 must gain 4.4 HLY (men) and 4.8 HLY (women) in the next decade, which, for some countries, is substantially more than what the current trends suggest. Global targets for HLY move attention from inter-country differences and, alongside the current economic crisis, may contribute to increase health inequalities.

  4. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronvold Nina T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.

  5. The stability of life satisfaction in a 15-year follow-up of adult Finns healthy at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honkanen Risto J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While physical health has improved considerably over recent decades in Finland, the disease burden of mental health, especially that of depression, has become increasingly demanding. However, we lack long-term data on the natural course of subjective well-being in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term course of self-reported life satisfaction. Methods This was a 15-year prospective cohort study on a nationwide sample of adult Finnish twins (N = 9679, aged 18–45 and healthy at baseline, who responded to postal questionnaires in 1975, 1981 and 1990 including a 4-item life satisfaction scale (happiness/easiness/interest in life and feelings of loneliness. Life satisfaction score (range: 4–20 was classified into three categories: satisfied (4–6, intermediate (7–11 and dissatisfied group (12–20. The associations between life satisfaction scores during the follow-up were studied with linear/logistic regression. Results Moderate stability and only a slight effect of age or birth-cohort on mean life satisfaction score (LS were detected. In 1990, 56% of all and 31% of the dissatisfied remained in the same LS category as at baseline. Only 5.9% of the study subjects changed from being satisfied to dissatisfied or vice versa. Correlations between continuous scores (1975, 1981 and 1990 were 0.3–0.4. Baseline dissatisfaction (compared to satisfaction predicted dissatisfaction in 1981 (OR = 10.4; 95%CI 8.3–13.1 and 1990 (5.6; 4.6–6.8. Multiple adjustments decreased the risk only slightly. Conclusions Life satisfaction in adult Finns was moderately stable during 15 years. Among an identifiable group (i.e. the dissatisfied life dissatisfaction may become persistent, which places them at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes.

  6. Self-perception of sexual life and associated factors: a population study conducted in women aged 50 or more years

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares,Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Machado,Vanessa de Souza Santos; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Osis, Maria José; Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto,Aarão Mendes

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of women aged 50 years or more who are sexually active and their self-perception with respect to their sexual lives. Associated factors were also assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based, self-reported household survey involving 622 Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors were evaluated. The sexual life self-perception was classified as very good, good, fair, poor, or very poor. Data were analy...

  7. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Martín Elena; de Larrea-Baz Nerea; Catalá-López Ferrán; Gènova-Maleras Ricard; Morant-Ginestar Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted...

  8. Longitudinal Trajectories of Gestural and Linguistic Abilities in Very Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Justice, Laura; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    The present study involved a systematic longitudinal analysis, with three points of assessment in the second year of life, of gestures/actions, word comprehension, and word production in a sample of very preterm infants compared to a sample of full-term infants. The relationships among these competencies as well as their predictive value on…

  9. Dynamics of Mothers' Goals for Children in Ethnically Diverse Populations across the First Three Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Godfrey, Erin B.; Hunter, Cristina J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Parents' socialization goals are important for cultural transmission across generations, but whether such goals vary by ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds and change over children's first years of life remains unexamined. In Study 1, African-American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 300) reported on the qualities deemed…

  10. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, E. (Edoardo); A. Cassini (Alessandro); D. Lewandowski (Daniel); M.J.J. Mangen; Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.A. McDonald (Scott); R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); Maringhini, G. (Guido); Pini, A. (Alessandro); P Kramarz (Piotr); M.E.E. Kretzschmar (Mirjam)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this met

  11. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam EE

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology pose

  12. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, E. (Edoardo); A. Cassini (Alessandro); D. Lewandowski (Daniel); M.J.J. Mangen; Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.A. McDonald (Scott); R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); Maringhini, G. (Guido); Pini, A. (Alessandro); P Kramarz (Piotr); M.E.E. Kretzschmar (Mirjam)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this

  13. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie Josee J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217293964; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075187981

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology

  14. Unrelated medical costs in life-years gained : should they be included in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappange, David R; van Baal, Pieter H M; van Exel, N Job A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Rutten, Frans F H; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    Which costs and benefits to consider in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions remains an area of much controversy. Unrelated medical costs in life-years gained is an important cost category that is normally ignored in economic evaluations, irrespective of the perspective chosen for the an

  15. Challenges in Implementing Technology-Rich Curricular High School Biology Materials: First Year Findings from the "Exploring Life" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Betsy; Cates, Ward M.; Bodzin, Alex

    Eighteen high school biology teachers from a stratified sample of 13 distinct geographical United States regions participated in evaluation of the first year prototypes of Exploring Life, a biology program that includes a textbook with an accompanying Internet component and wet-lab investigations. Web activities explain and reinforce the text and…

  16. The Effects of Gratitude Journaling on Turkish First Year College Students' College Adjustment, Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Serife; Ergüner-Tekinalp, Bengü

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gratitude journaling on first-year college students' adjustment, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Students who scored high (i.e., scores between 35 and 56) on the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al. in "Journal of Health and Social Behavior," 24, 385-396, 1983) and low (i.e., scores between 48…

  17. Quality of Life: Domains for Understanding Maths Anxiety in First Year Pre-Service Teachers through Identity Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety in primary pre-service teachers' affects their future teaching of mathematics and achievement of students. Data collected via Critical Incident Technique were used to investigate this anxiety as perceived and identified by first year pre-service teachers. This paper proposes the application of the Quality of Life conceptual…

  18. 'Mum, can I have Brussels sprouts again?’ : development of vegetable preferences during the first 2 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Most children do not eat the recommended amount of vegetables. Their low vegetable intake may be attributed to their low preference for vegetables. Since the first years of life is a sensitive period in the development of taste preferences, and since

  19. English Usage in Daily Life by Turkish Students between 15-19 Years of Age: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deha Dogan, C.; Canan Karababa, Z.; Fulya Soguksu, A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess the level of English usage in daily life by students between 15 and 19 years of age, and to compare these students' scale scores according to their achievement levels in an English course. Five hundred and ninety-five participants were randomly selected from a universe.…

  20. ICU survivors show no decline in health-related quality of life after 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, José G M; van Stel, Henk F.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; Rommes, Johannes H.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Severe critical illness requiring treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) may have a serious impact on patients and their families. However, optimal follow-up periods are not defined and data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) before ICU admission as well as those beyond 2 years f

  1. Perceived Life Satisfaction of Workplace Specialist I Faculty and Mentors Participating in a First-Year STEM Teacher Training Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolich, David; Feldhaus, Charles; Cotton, Sam; Barrett, Andrew, II; Smallwood, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure perceived professional and personal life satisfaction of Indiana Workplace Specialist I (WS I) faculty and their mentors. Workplace Specialist I teachers are all first-year career and technical education (CTE) faculty who must complete the WS I training program to be eligible for the Workplace Specialist II…

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of referral criteria for head circumference to detect hydrocephalus in the first year of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Deurloo, J.A.; Gooskens, R.H.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased head circumference is often the first and main sign leading to the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Our aim is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of referral criteria for head circumference to detect hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Methods A reference group with longitud

  3. Life satisfaction in people with spinal cord injury during the first five years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; Post, Marcel W. M.; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Bongers-Janssen, Helma M. H.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; de Groot, Sonja; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the course of life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the first 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and to examine its determinants. Methods: Multi-centre prospective cohort study with four measurements, the first at discharge from inp

  4. 'Mum, can I have Brussels sprouts again?’ : development of vegetable preferences during the first 2 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim Most children do not eat the recommended amount of vegetables. Their low vegetable intake may be attributed to their low preference for vegetables. Since the first years of life is a sensitive period in the development of taste preferences, and since tast

  5. Diary Reports of Concerns in Mothers of Infant Siblings of Children with Autism across the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We examined the home-based concerns reported by mothers of infant siblings of children with autism across the first year of life. At all three ages measured, mothers of high-risk infants were significantly more likely than mothers of low-risk infants to report language, social communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns but were…

  6. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life-The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, Leanne K.; L'Abee, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Methods In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of referral criteria for head circumference to detect hydrocephalus in the first year of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Deurloo, J.A.; Gooskens, R.H.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased head circumference is often the first and main sign leading to the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Our aim is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of referral criteria for head circumference to detect hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Methods A reference group with

  8. Current Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Should We Add Life to the Remaining Years or Add Years to the Remaining Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the ejection fraction, patients with heart failure may be divided into two different groups: heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. In recent years, accumulating studies showed that increased mortality and morbidity rates of these two groups are nearly equal. More importantly, despite decline in mortality after treatment in regard to current guideline in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there are still no trials resulting in improved outcome in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction so far. Thus, novel pathophysiological mechanisms are under development, and other new viewpoints, such as multiple comorbidities resulting in increased non-cardiac deaths in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, were presented recently. In this review, we will focus on the tested as well as the promising therapeutic options that are currently studied in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, along with a brief discussion of pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic options that are helpful to increase our understanding of novel therapeutic strategies.

  9. Costing the Morbidity and Mortality Consequences of Zoonoses Using Health-Adjusted Life Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, H; Dunt, D; Hollingsworth, B; Firestone, S M; Burgman, M

    2016-10-01

    Governments are routinely involved in the biosecurity of agricultural and food imports and exports. This involves controlling the complex ongoing threat of the broad range of zoonoses: endemic, exotic and newly emerging. Policy-related decision-making in these areas requires accurate information and predictions concerning the effects and potential impacts of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this article was to provide information concerning the development and use of utility-based tools, specifically disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for measuring the burden on human disease (morbidity and mortality) as a consequence of zoonotic infections. Issues and challenges to their use are also considered. Non-monetary utility approaches that are reviewed in this paper form one of a number of tools that can be used to estimate the monetary and non-monetary 'cost' of morbidity- and mortality-related consequences. Other tools derive from cost-of-illness, willingness-to-pay and multicriteria approaches. Utility-based approaches are specifically designed to capture the pain, suffering and loss of functioning associated with diseases, zoonotic and otherwise. These effects are typically complicated to define, measure and subsequently 'cost'. Utility-based measures will not be able to capture all of the effects, especially those that extend beyond the health sector. These will more normally be captured in financial terms. Along with other uncommon diseases, the quality of the relevant epidemiological data may not be adequate to support the estimation of losses in utility as a result of zoonoses. Other issues in their use have been identified. New empirical studies have shown some success in addressing these issues. Other issues await further study. It is concluded that, bearing in mind all caveats, utility-based methods are important tools in assessing the magnitude of the impacts of zoonoses in human disease. They make an important contribution to decision-making and priority

  10. [Health-related quality of life in 13-year-old Polish adolescents measured by CHQ-PF28 questionnaire in relation to family socioeconomic status in the first year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of living conditions in early childhood on the health-related quality of life (HRQL - Health-related Quality of Life) among 13-year-olds. A prospective, three-phase study was carried out on the sample of 605 children born in January 1995 and on their parents. Standardized HRQL scores obtained from the Polish version of the CHQ-PF28 (Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form) questionnaire was used as outcome measure. Information on socioeconomic status was derived from: 1) the questionnaire completed by the parents in 1998 on living conditions and fulfilment of families' material needs during the child's first year of life; 2) the questionnaire completed by parents in 2008--parents' education and a subjective evaluation of family affluence; 3) the questionnaire completed simultaneously by the child--the family affluence scale and a subjective evaluation of family and neighbourhood affluence. For all CHQ-PF28 scores, multivariate linear regression models were estimated. The mean summary score of psychosocial health increased from 71.9 to 76.17 (p = 0.029) when comparing children who lived in bad and good conditions during the first year of life. When comparing families which were able and unable to satisfy their material needs 13 years earlier, poorer HRQL results in adolescents were noted in the latter group both in relation to the summary scale of physical (81.1 vs 77.9; p = 0.009) and psychosocial health (75.6 vs 71.0; p families' material needs during the first year of children's life proved to be a HRQL predictor independently of the current SES. However, those models were related only to psychosocial health indices. Family material status during the first year of the child's life has a strong impact on psychosocial health in adolescence. This impact remains, even if current social status was taken into account. The study has confirmed the need for implementing programmes for preventing social inequities in health aimed at families with

  11. Associations of stressful life events with coping strategies of 12-15-year-old Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Sund, Anne Mari

    2017-08-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires strategies to cope with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to examine the role of stressful life events in coping strategies during early adolescence. A representative sample of 2464 adolescents in Norway were assessed at two time-points, one year apart (i.e., at T1, mean age 13.7 years, and at T2, mean age 14.9 years), with identical questionnaires. The participation rate was 88.3% at T1. Stressful life events and daily hassles were measured by questionnaires constructed for this study. Coping with stress was measured by a modified version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), which measures three coping dimensions: emotional, task and avoidance coping. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Standard multiple linear regression methods were applied. Different domains of stressful life events were associated with the coping strategies, and these relationships differed at various time-points by gender. In sum, school stress and stressful life events in one's network (network stress) was associated with coping strategies more strongly among girls, while family and miscellaneous stress showed a stronger association among boys. These relationships were partly mediated by depressive symptom levels, more strongly in cross-sectional than in longitudinal analyses. However, daily hassles seemed to represent smaller events of no importance in coping strategies. In preventive work, reducing stressful events, treating depression and teaching healthier coping strategies are important.

  12. Cortical specialisation to social stimuli from the first days to the second year of life: A rural Gambian cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lloyd-Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain and nervous system development in human infants during the first 1000 days (conception to two years of age is critical, and compromised development during this time (such as from under nutrition or poverty can have life-long effects on physical growth and cognitive function. Cortical mapping of cognitive function during infancy is poorly understood in resource-poor settings due to the lack of transportable and low-cost neuroimaging methods. Having established a signature cortical response to social versus non-social visual and auditory stimuli in infants from 4 to 6 months of age in the UK, here we apply this functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS paradigm to investigate social responses in infants from the first postnatal days to the second year of life in two contrasting environments: rural Gambian and urban UK. Results reveal robust, localized, socially selective brain responses from 9 to 24 months of life to both the visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast at 0–2 months of age infants exhibit non-social auditory selectivity, an effect that persists until 4–8 months when we observe a transition to greater social stimulus selectivity. These findings reveal a robust developmental curve of cortical specialisation over the first two years of life.

  13. Cortical specialisation to social stimuli from the first days to the second year of life: A rural Gambian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Fox, S; Begus, K; Halliday, D; Pirazzoli, L; Blasi, A; Papademetriou, M; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Johnson, M H; Moore, S E; Elwell, C E

    2016-11-27

    Brain and nervous system development in human infants during the first 1000days (conception to two years of age) is critical, and compromised development during this time (such as from under nutrition or poverty) can have life-long effects on physical growth and cognitive function. Cortical mapping of cognitive function during infancy is poorly understood in resource-poor settings due to the lack of transportable and low-cost neuroimaging methods. Having established a signature cortical response to social versus non-social visual and auditory stimuli in infants from 4 to 6 months of age in the UK, here we apply this functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) paradigm to investigate social responses in infants from the first postnatal days to the second year of life in two contrasting environments: rural Gambian and urban UK. Results reveal robust, localized, socially selective brain responses from 9 to 24 months of life to both the visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast at 0-2 months of age infants exhibit non-social auditory selectivity, an effect that persists until 4-8 months when we observe a transition to greater social stimulus selectivity. These findings reveal a robust developmental curve of cortical specialisation over the first two years of life.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: A national cohort study with 14 years follow-up and matched for comorbidities and propensity score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Tzu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Tsai, Min-Sung; Wu, Jia-Ling; Sung, Junne-Ming; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-01-01

    Although treatment for the dialysis population is resource intensive, a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) by matched pairs is still lacking. After matching for clinical characteristics and propensity scores, we identified 4,285 pairs of incident HD and PD patients from a Taiwanese national cohort during 1998–2010. Survival and healthcare expenditure were calculated by data of 14-year follow-up and subsequently extrapolated to lifetime estimates under the assumption of constant excess hazard. We performed a cross-sectional EQ–5D survey on 179 matched pairs of prevalent HD and PD patients of varying dialysis vintages from 12 dialysis units. The product of survival probability and the mean utility value at each time point (dialysis vintage) were summed up throughout lifetime to obtain the quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE). The results revealed the estimated life expectancy between HD and PD were nearly equal (19.11 versus 19.08 years). The QALE’s were also similar, whereas average lifetime healthcare costs were higher in HD than PD (237,795 versus 204,442 USD) and the cost-effectiveness ratios for PD and HD were 13,681 and 16,643 USD per quality-adjusted life year, respectively. In conclusion, PD is more cost-effective than HD, of which the major determinants were the costs for the dialysis modality and its associated complications. PMID:27461186

  15. FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO LIFE SATISFACTION IN ADULTS OVER 60 YEARS OLD IN LIMA-PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO INGA ARANDA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available associated to life satisfaction. For this, it was built a seven levels scale (resentment, satisfaction of life, older adultpunishment, dependence by disability, social support, prosocial friendly identity, antisocial friendly identity. Theresults pointed out that socio demographic features of sample was similar to the national and international olderadults population. By other hand, it was found that interviewed old people has a high life satisfaction; neverthelessthey point out to have a high level of dissatisfaction en aspects such as body weakness, feelings of been given up byrelatives and loneliness or been hopeless. In addition, it was found that resentment was the first factor associated tolife satisfaction, follow by level of instruction, received social support, psychoactive substances consumption, family illtreating and friendly amount.

  16. Effect of maternal dietary counselling during the 1st year of life on glucose profile and insulin resistance at the age of 8 years: a randomised field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cintia S; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Lumey, L H; Vitolo, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Education interventions that stimulate complementary feeding practices can improve the nutritional status of children and may protect against future chronic diseases. We assessed the long-term effectiveness of dietary intervention during the 1st year of life on insulin resistance levels, and investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and weight changes over time. A randomised field trial was conducted among 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants between October 2001 and June 2002 in a low-income area in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mother-child pairs were randomly assigned to intervention (n 200) and control groups (n 300), and the mothers in the intervention group received dietary counselling on breast-feeding and complementary feeding of their children during the 1st year of life. Fieldworkers blinded to assignment assessed socio-demographic, dietary and anthropometric data during follow-up at ages 1, 4 and 8 years. Blood tests were performed in 305 children aged 8 years to measure fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the homoeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). At the age of 8 years, the intervention group showed no changes in glucose and insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR values (change 0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21 for girls; and change -0·07; 95 % CI -0·19, 0·04 for boys) compared with study controls. Insulin resistance was highly correlated, however, with increases in BMI between birth and 8 years of age. Although this dietary intervention had no impact on glucose profile at age 8 years, our findings suggest that BMI changes in early childhood can serve as an effective marker of insulin resistance.

  17. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared...... and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE differed...... from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95...

  18. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arises whether a child may refuse to consent to life-saving medical treatment ... things, that the following be taken into account: (i) the child's age, maturity and stage ... other relevant characteristics; (ii) the child's physical and emotional security ...

  19. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  20. [Family life strategies and their relation with malnutrition in children under 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Priego, Araceli Amada; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Abrego-Blas, Rebeca; Orrico-Torres, Efrén Samuel

    2002-01-01

    To identify the role of family life strategies on malnutrition in children aged 6-23 months of age. This case-control study was conducted in 1998 in the municipality of Teolocholco, State of Tlaxcala, Mexico, among families with children aged 6-23 months of age. The sample was conformed by 105 cases and 210 controls. Family life strategies were grouped into five types: family composition, means and distribution of family income, family and social networks, and life preservation strategies. Malnutrition was classified according to height for age. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Data were collected from 605 families, for a total of 445 controls and 160 cases. The predictive model included mother's schooling, overcrowding, time elapsed between childbirths, per capita monthly income, and time devoted to child-rearing activities. Family life strategies determine children's nutritional status; understanding the influence of the family on the children's health status is necessary to develop effective programs aimed at improving the nutritional status of children.

  1. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  2. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  3. Emblem for the International Year of the Family: A Symbol of Life and Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This is an official IYF emblem. The simple design, created by Catherine Littasy-Rollier, the Swiss-born artist who now resides in Vienna, consists of a heart sheltered by a roof and linked to another heart. The design symbolizes life and love in a home full of warmth,

  4. A one year study of coping, social support and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, K.M.G.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The role of coping and social support in the quality of life for Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients is not well understood. Most studies are cross-sectional and concentrate on depression as an outcome measure. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of coping and social support in qualit

  5. [Body mass, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between objective body mass index and subjective body image, life satisfaction and self-esteem of adolescents. the study was carried in 5 regions in Poland, on the sample of over 8,000 pupils aged 13-15 yrs, from randomly chosen 112 lower secondary schools. School nurses measured the height and weight of pupils, calculated the BMI and qualified overweight pupils (BMI> or =85 percentile) to the obese group (n = 953). Matching gender and age, from the rest of pupils, they found the non-obese group with BMI between 15 and 75 percentile (n = 953). Pupils from both groups participated in a questionnaire study containing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cantril ladder and Stunkard Body Figure Perception Questionnaire. Hierarchic regression analyses and structural equation models were calculated. in the obese group the percentage of pupils satisfied with their life was lower (76% vs 82%, pself-esteem higher than in the non-obese (37% vs 23%, plife satisfaction and self-esteem was subjective body image, and not the objective body mass index. Objective body mass (BMI) determined the body image and relationship between BMI and life satisfaction or self-esteem of adolescents was only indirect. change of subjective body image in obese adolescents is a chance for improving their quality of life and in consequence undertaking effective struggle with obesity.

  6. How do maternal subclinical symptoms influence infant motor development during the first year of life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Piallini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes mother-infant’s dyad.Within this relationship,the presence of depression,somatization,hostility,paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered.Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of infant’s health-status,but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, eelings and intentions,in this study the quality of infants’movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes.The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may lead infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0-11months.Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0-11months-old.Mothers’ symptomatology was screened with SymptomChecklist-90-Revised(SCL-90-R,while infants were tested with Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition.All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however,on the basis of SCL-90-Rscores, mothers’sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical.Descriptive,T-test,correlational analysis between PDMS-2scores and SCL-90-R results are reported,as well as regression models results.Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology,Somatization(SOM,Interpersonal Sensitivity(IS,Depression(DEP,Hostility(HOSand Paranoid Ideation(PARand infants’motor abilities.These results were then further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant motor outcomes on the basis of babies’ age and maternal status.The presence of positive symptoms in SCL-90-Rquestionnaire (subclinical group predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies.In particular,depressive and hostility feelings in mothers seemed to induce an infant

  7. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5% and cardiovascular diseases (24.0% were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5% and lung cancers (8.0% were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%, colorectal cancer (4.1%, road traffic accidents (3.5%, Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%, breast cancer (2.8% and suicides (2.6%. Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability.

  8. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  10. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  11. Older siblings, pets and early life infections: impact on gut microbiota and allergy prevalence during the first three years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    : Bacterial DNA was extracted from a total of 228 fecal samples obtained from 114 infants at both 9 and 18 months of age, belonging to the SKOT cohort. High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed and the bacterial community composition of each sample was determined. Information on prevalence...... done on the effect of these factors on the developing gut microbiota in infants. Thus, we aimed to elucidate associations between older siblings, pets and early life infections, the microbial gut communities at 9 and 18 months of age and the prevalence of allergies in three year old children. Methods...... (p = 0.044), while having siblings tended to decrease the risk of developing eczema (p = 0.105) before the age of three years. Having siblings correlated positively with the relative abundance of several gut microbial genera at both ages. At 18 months of age, microbial alpha diversity (p = 0...

  12. Maternal consumption of coffee during pregnancy and stillbirth and infant death in first year of life: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the association between coffee consumption during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth and infant death in the first year of life. Design Prospective follow up study. Setting Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, 1989-96. Participants 18 478 singleton pregnancies in women...... with valid information about coffee consumption during pregnancy. Main outcome measures Stillbirth (delivery of a dead fetus at >28 weeks’ gestation) and infant death (death of a liveborn infant during the first year of life). Results Pregnant women who drank eight or more cups of coffee per day during...... pregnancy had an increased risk of stillbirth compared with women who did not drink coffee (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.9). After adjustment for smoking habits and alcohol intake during pregnancy, the relative risk of stillbirth decreased slightly. Adjustment for parity, maternal age...

  13. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  14. Maternal consumption of coffee during pregnancy and stillbirth and infant death in first year of life: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2003-01-01

    pregnancy had an increased risk of stillbirth compared with women who did not drink coffee (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.9). After adjustment for smoking habits and alcohol intake during pregnancy, the relative risk of stillbirth decreased slightly. Adjustment for parity, maternal age......Objective To study the association between coffee consumption during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth and infant death in the first year of life. Design Prospective follow up study. Setting Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, 1989-96. Participants 18 478 singleton pregnancies in women...... with valid information about coffee consumption during pregnancy. Main outcome measures Stillbirth (delivery of a dead fetus at >28 weeks’ gestation) and infant death (death of a liveborn infant during the first year of life). Results Pregnant women who drank eight or more cups of coffee per day during...

  15. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  16. One-year effect of a supervised exercise programme on functional capacity and quality of life in peripheral arterial disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidon, Marie; McGee, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic, progressive disease with a significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk burden and a considerable impact on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL). Exercise programmes result in significant improvements in walking distances but long-term effects are uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the one-year effects of participation in a 12-week supervised exercise programme on functional capacity and QoL for PAD patients....

  17. Neural measures of social attention across the first years of life: Characterizing typical development and markers of autism risk

    OpenAIRE

    Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Christine Powell; Helen Tager-Flusberg; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies employing event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine infant perception/cognition have systematically characterized age-related changes over the first few years of life. Establishing a ‘normative’ template of development is important in its own right, and doing so may also better highlight points of divergence for high-risk populations of infants, such as those at elevated genetic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present investigation explores the developmental progress...

  18. How Satisfied Are Patients with Arthroscopic Bankart Repair? A 2-Year Follow-up on Quality-of-Life Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saier, Tim; Plath, Johannes E; Waibel, Sabrina; Minzlaff, Philipp; Feucht, Matthias J; Herschbach, Peter; Imhoff, Andreas B; Braun, Sepp

    2017-06-29

    To report general life and health satisfaction after arthroscopic Bankart repair in patients with post-traumatic recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability and to investigate postoperative time lost to return to work at 2-year follow-up. Between 2011 and 2013 patients treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair in the beach chair position for acute shoulder instability were included in this study. Questions on Life Satisfaction Modules (FLZ(M)) and the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were used as quality-of-life outcome scales. Oxford Instability Score (OIS), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH), and self-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder index were used as functional outcome scales. Return to work (months) was monitored and analyzed depending on physical workload. Data were assessed the day before surgery and prospectively monitored until 24 months postoperatively. Quality-of-life outcome was correlated with functional shoulder outcome and compared with normative age-adjusted data. Paired t-test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U-Test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Fifty-three patients were prospectively included. The mean age at surgery was 29.4 years. Satisfaction with general life and satisfaction with health (FLZ(M)) as well as physical component scale (SF-12) improved significantly to values above normative data within 6 to 12 months after surgery (each P return to work was 2 months (range, 0-10; standard deviation, 1.9), with significantly longer time intervals observed in patients with heavy physical workload (3.1 months; range, 0 to 10; standard deviation, 2.4; P = .002). Following arthroscopic Bankart repair, quality of life was impaired during early course after surgery and increased significantly above preoperative levels within 6 to 12 months after the procedure. A steady state of excellent quality-of-life and functional outcomes was noted after 12

  19. Years of Life Lost (YLL in Colombia 1998-2011: Overall and Avoidable Causes of Death Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Castillo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimate the Years of Life Lost (YLL for overall and avoidable causes of death (CoD in Colombia for the period 1998-2011.From the reported deaths to the Colombian mortality database during 1998-2011, we classified deaths from avoidable causes. With the reference life table of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2010 study, we estimated the overall YLL and YLL due to avoidable causes. Calculations were performed with the difference between life expectancy and the age of death. Results are reported by group of cause of death, events, sex, year and department. Comparative analysis between number of deaths and YLL was carried out.A total of 83,856,080 YLL were calculated in Colombia during period 1998-2011, 75.9% of them due to avoidable CoD. The year 2000 reported the highest number of missed YLL by both overall and avoidable CoD. The departments with the highest YLL rates were Caquetá, Guaviare, Arauca, Meta, and Risaralda. In men, intentional injuries and cardiovascular and circulatory diseases had the higher losses, while in women YLL were mainly due to cardiovascular and circulatory diseases.The public health priorities should focus on preventing the loss of YLL due to premature death and differentiated interventions by sex.

  20. [A study about oral health-related quality of Life among 11-14 years old children in Shanghai municipality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-ting; Zhu, Ce; Xu, Wei; Lu, Hai-xia; Ye, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among 11-14 years old children in Shanghai municipality and investigate the influential factors, in order to provide theoretical evidence for pointed oral health education and public health strategies formulation. Systematic sampling method was used to extract 11-14 years old children in Shanghai municipality. The decay missing filling tooth (DMFT) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were examined and recorded. Child oral-health-related quality of life questionnaires (CPQ11-14) was adopted to assess the OHRQoL. Other enquiry included sociodemographic background and oral health-related behaviors, knowledge and attitudes. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 software package. This study examined 1050 children of 11-14 years old, among which 955 children (urban 482,suburb 473) were enrolled. The response rate was 91%. The mean CPQ11-14 score was (6.0±5.6). Statistical analysis showed that children with higher DMFT index and bleeding on probing had higher CPQ11-14 average score and poorer oral health related quality of life (PMunicipality (12ZR1446100).

  1. Examining executive function in the second year of life: coherence, stability, and relations to joint attention and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie E; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Several theories of executive function (EF) propose that EF development corresponds to children's ability to form representations and reflect on represented stimuli in the environment. However, research on early EF is primarily conducted with preschoolers, despite the fact that important developments in representation (e.g., language, gesture, shared joint attention) occur within the 1st years of life. In the present study, EF performance and the relationship between EF and early representation (i.e., joint attention, language) were longitudinally examined in 47 children at 14 and 18 months of age. Results suggest that the 2nd year of life is a distinct period of EF development in which children exhibit very little coherence or stability across a battery of EF tasks. However, by 18 months, a subset of child participants consistently passed the majority of EF tasks, and superior EF performance was predicted by 14-month representational abilities (i.e., language comprehension and some episodes of initiating joint attention). This research suggests that the transition from foundational behavioral control in infancy to the more complex EF observed in preschool is supported by representational abilities in the 2nd year of life.

  2. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  3. The Defense Life-Cycle Logistics Journey: A 10-Year Retrospective of Product Support Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    future-Air Force Gen. George Babbitt reviewed the previous 20 years of DoD policy and guidance. He identified “two basic objectives of [what was...consistent for nearly 60 years. Indeed, then-Maj. Babbitt went on, … the concept of ILS was formulated by the Services and indus- try during the late

  4. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report.

  5. Do burnout and work engagement predict depressive symptoms and life satisfaction? A three-wave seven-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-12-10

    Burnout and work engagement have been viewed as opposite, yet distinct states of employee well-being. We investigated whether work-related indicators of well-being (i.e. burnout and work engagement) spill-over and generalize to context-free well-being (i.e. depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). More specifically, we examined the causal direction: does burnout/work engagement lead to depressive symptoms/life satisfaction, or the other way around? Three surveys were conducted. In 2003, 71% of all Finnish dentists were surveyed (n=3255), and the response rate of the 3-year follow-up was 84% (n=2555). The second follow-up was conducted four years later with a response rate of 86% (n=1964). Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the cross-lagged associations between the study variables across time. Burnout predicted depressive symptoms and life dissatisfaction from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3. Conversely, work engagement had a negative effect on depressive symptoms and a positive effect on life satisfaction, both from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3, even after adjusting for the impact of burnout at every occasion. The study was conducted among one occupational group, which limits its generalizability. Work-related well-being predicts general wellbeing in the long-term. For example, burnout predicts depressive symptoms and not vice versa. In addition, burnout and work engagement are not direct opposites. Instead, both have unique, incremental impacts on life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, Allen P.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Friend, Clark R. L.; van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Chivas, Allan R.

    2016-09-01

    Biological activity is a major factor in Earth’s chemical cycles, including facilitating CO2 sequestration and providing climate feedbacks. Thus a key question in Earth’s evolution is when did life arise and impact hydrosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere chemical cycles? Until now, evidence for the oldest life on Earth focused on debated stable isotopic signatures of 3,800-3,700 million year (Myr)-old metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and minerals from the Isua supracrustal belt (ISB), southwest Greenland. Here we report evidence for ancient life from a newly exposed outcrop of 3,700-Myr-old metacarbonate rocks in the ISB that contain 1-4-cm-high stromatolites—macroscopically layered structures produced by microbial communities. The ISB stromatolites grew in a shallow marine environment, as indicated by seawater-like rare-earth element plus yttrium trace element signatures of the metacarbonates, and by interlayered detrital sedimentary rocks with cross-lamination and storm-wave generated breccias. The ISB stromatolites predate by 220 Myr the previous most convincing and generally accepted multidisciplinary evidence for oldest life remains in the 3,480-Myr-old Dresser Formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The presence of the ISB stromatolites demonstrates the establishment of shallow marine carbonate production with biotic CO2 sequestration by 3,700 million years ago (Ma), near the start of Earth’s sedimentary record. A sophistication of life by 3,700 Ma is in accord with genetic molecular clock studies placing life’s origin in the Hadean eon (>4,000 Ma).

  7. Associations of Linear Growth and Relative Weight Gain in Early Life with Human Capital at 30 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Victora, Cesar G; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the associations of birthweight, nutritional status and growth in childhood with IQ, years of schooling, and monthly income at 30 years of age. In 1982, the 5 maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and 5914 live births were identified. At 30 years of age, 3701 subjects were interviewed. IQ, years of schooling, and income were measured. On average, their IQ was 98 points, they had 11.4 years of schooling, and the mean income was 1593 reais. After controlling for several confounders, birthweight and attained weight and length/height for age at 2 and 4 years of age were associated positively with IQ, years of years of schooling, and income, except for the association between length at 2 years of age and income. Conditional growth analyses were used to disentangle linear growth from relative weight gain. Conditional length at 2 years of age ≥1 SD score above the expected value, compared with ≥1 SD below the expected, was associated with an increase in IQ (4.28 points; 95% CI, 2.66-5.90), years of schooling (1.58 years; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08), and monthly income (303 Brazilian reais; 95% CI, 44-563). Relative weight gain, above what would be expected from linear growth, was not associated with the outcomes. In a middle-income setting, promotion of linear growth in the first 1000 days of life is likely to increase adult IQ, years of schooling, and income. Weight gain in excess of what is expected from linear growth does not seem to improve human capital. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Upper Limb Functionality and Quality of Life in Women with Five-Year Survival after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Thaís Lunardi; Prim, Amably Cristiny; Luz, Clarissa Medeiros da

    2017-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between upper limb functionality and quality of life in women with five-year survival following breast cancer surgical treatment. The secondary objective was to evaluate the function of the ipsilateral upper limb and the quality of life in relation to the type of surgery and the presence of pain. Methods The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast plus Arm Morbidity (FACTB + 4) questionnaires were used to evaluate upper limb function and quality of life respectively. Data distribution was verified by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for the parametric variables, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for the distribution of non-parametric variables. The statistical significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results The study included 30 patients, with a mean age of 51.23 (±8.72) years. The most common complications were: pain (50%), adherence (33.3%), and nerve lesion (20.0%). There was a moderate negative correlation between the instruments DASH and FACTB + 4 (total score), r = -0.634, and a strong negative correlation between the DASH and the FACTB + 4 arm subscale, r = -0.829. The scores of both questionnaires showed significant difference on the manifestation of pain. However, there was no significant difference found when comparing the scores considering the type of surgery performed. Conclusions Five years after surgery, the patients showed regular functionality levels on the ipsilateral upper limb and decreased quality of life, especially in the group manifesting pain. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  9. Iron intake and iron status in breastfed infants during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Katharina; Schwartz, Jana; Mueller, Manfred J; Kalhoff, Hermann; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-12-01

    Breastfed infants may be at particular risk for iron deficiency because breast milk is low in iron. In a secondary analysis of data from a complementary feeding trial, indicators of iron status were examined, with particular focus on the development of iron status in those infants who were fully breastfed during the first 4 months of life. In this retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial infants were stratified according to their predominant milk diet during the first 4 months of life, a subgroup of breastfed infants (group BM, n=53) were compared with a subgroup of infants fed (iron-fortified) formula (group F, n=23). Dietary iron intake and indicators of iron status were analysed at 4 months of age (during the full milk feeding period), and during the complementary feeding period at 7 and 10 months of age. Iron intake was low in the BM group, ranging below the Dietary Reference Intakes throughout the complementary feeding period, with the (estimated) bioavailable iron intake only just achieving the reference requirements. At 4 months, iron deficiency (ID, Ferritin deficiency anaemia (IDA, ID and Hb complementary foods should be started early (4-6 months of age) in order to prevent iron deficiency during infancy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of foot arch height on quality of life in 6-12 year olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To determine whether arch height has an effect on the health-related quality of life of schoolchildren.Methods:One hundred and thirteen schoolchildren attended an out-patient centre where self-reported data were recorded, their feet were classified into one of three groups according to their arch index (high, normal or low and the scores obtained from the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ - Spanish version were compared.Results:The groups with high, low and normal arch recorded lower scores in Section One for the general foot health and footwear domains and higher scores in foot pain and foot function. In Section Two they obtained lower scores in general health and higher scores in physical activity, social capacity and vigour.Conclusions:Comparison of the scores obtained reveals that arch height has a negative impact on quality of life. Given the limited extent of available evidence in respect of the aetiology and treatment of foot diseases and deformities, these findings reveal the need to implement programmes to promote foot health and carry out further research into this commonly occurring disabling condition.

  11. Quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with anti-estrogens, 2 years after acupuncture treatment: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Hervik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jill Hervik1, Odd Mjåland21Pain Clinic, Vestfold Hospital, Tønsberg, Norway; 2Department of Abdominal Surgery, Sørlandet Sykehus, Kristiansand, NorwayObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with estrogen antagonists, 2 years after having acupuncture treatment for hot flashes.Methods and materials: Our sample was taken from women who had recently participated in a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of acupuncture on hot flashes, a side effect of estrogen-antagonist treatment. Forty-one women from the true acupuncture treatment group and 41 women from the control group (sham acupuncture, who had 2 years previously received a course of 15 acupuncture treatments over a period of 10 weeks, were asked to answer an open question. The question, “Would you like to share your thoughts and experiences related to your breast cancer diagnosis, treatments or anything else?” was by being open, broad, and nonspecific, intended to stimulate subjective information, which was not included in the original, or future quantitative studies. Qualitative data were analyzed using systematic text condensation.Results: Most women were troubled by two or more side effects due to anti-estrogen medication, negatively affecting their life quality. Symptoms included hot flashes, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain, arm edema, fatigue, weight gain, depression, and lack of sexual desire. Women previously treated with sham acupuncture complained that hot flashes were still problematic, whilst those previously treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture found them less of a problem and generally had a more positive outlook on life. These results compare favorably with the findings from our original study that measured quantitatively health related quality of life.Conclusion: Side effects due to anti-estrogen treatment seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer operated patients

  12. New Hope for Life:Acupuncture Relieves 10 years Frozen Hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ Introduction This report reviews how Electric Acupuncture (EA) has relieved frozen hands in a severe brain damaged individual after ten years.Electric Acupuncture has been effective in reducing spasms and improving motor function.

  13. Living with thalidomide: health status and quality of life at 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, N; Tennant, A; Neumann, V; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-06-01

    Thalidomide was first synthesized in 1953 and was subsequently marketed as a mild hypnotic and sedative in more than 20 countries. By 2001 it was estimated that there were 5,000 survivors from the 10,000 - 12,000 babies who were, as a result, born with severe abnormalities. For these survivors, recent concerns have emerged about their physical state, in particular their levels of pain and their ability to maintain independence. It was therefore wished to ascertain health status and current concerns amongst a sample of survivors living in the UK. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies was employed. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with a sample drawn from the population affected by thalidomide known to the Thalidomide Trust. Selection of participants was based upon a theoretical sample frame. Postal questionnaires to examine health status and various psychosocial aspects concerned with living with the consequences of thalidomide were sent subsequently to these same participants and to a random sample of those not originally drawn for the qualitative interviews. For the qualitative interviews, 28 agreed to take part; two refused and the remainder did not respond. Those agreeing to interview were representative of the original compensation bands (Chi-Square = 3.929; p = 0.416). Several themes emerged from these interviews, including the effects on work and career; coping in terms of attitude to life, self-image, confidence, self-esteem, stress and emotion; relationships, independent living issues and emergent problems such as pain, quality of life, and anxiety about the future. A postal questionnaire was then sent to those who had agreed to interview (28), plus a random sample of the remaining group who were not initially chosen for the qualitative interviews. In total 82 people were sent the questionnaire, of whom 41 (50%) responded. Two-thirds of responders were female. Seven out of ten lived with a partner, and over half (56%) had

  14. One-year sobriety improves satisfaction with life, executive functions and psychological distress among patients with polysubstance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Egon; Erga, Aleksander H; Hagen, Katrin P; Nesvåg, Sverre M; McKay, James R; Lundervold, Astri J; Walderhaug, Espen

    2017-05-01

    Polysubstance use disorder is prevalent in treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorder (SUD), with a higher risk of developing comorbid psychiatric symptoms, more pervasive deficits in cognitive functions, and inferior treatment results. The present study investigates if individuals with polysubstance use disorder who achieve at least one year of abstinence show greater improvements in satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress, compared to relapsers and controls. The prospective recovery from polysubstance use disorder assessed with broad output indicators remains understudied. A better understanding of the pattern of recovery of the chosen output indicators could shed light on the recovery process for this group of patients. We investigated changes in satisfaction with life, executive functions and psychological distress over a period of 12months in patients who remained abstinent and in those who relapsed. Subjects with polysubstance use disorder (N=115) were recruited from outpatient and residential treatment facilities; healthy controls (N=34) were recruited by posters exhibited at social welfare and GP offices. Executive functions were assessed by the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult self-report version (BRIEF-A), psychological distress by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and satisfaction with life by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Participants were categorized as "relapsers" if they had AUDIT score ≥8, or DUDIT score ≥2 for women and ≥6 for men. Results indicated that the abstinent group had the greatest improvement on all the indicators compared with relapsers and controls. Participants who successfully quit substance use for one year showed improved satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress

  15. Real life cost and quality of life associated with continuous intraduodenal levodopa infusion compared with oral treatment in Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Christofer; Beiske, Antonie Giæver; Reiertsen, Ola; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-12-01

    Advanced-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) strongly affects quality of life (QoL). Continuous intraduodenal administration of levodopa (IDL) is efficacious, but entails high costs. This study aims to estimate these costs in routine care. 10 patients with advanced-PD who switched from oral medication to IDL were assessed at baseline, and subsequently at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up. We used the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) for function and 15D for Quality of Life (QoL). Costs were assessed using quarterly structured patient questionnaires and hospital registries. Costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) were estimated for conventional treatment prior to switch and for 1-year treatment with IDL. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was based on bootstrapping. IDL significantly improved functional scores and was safe to use. One-year conventional oral treatment entailed 0.63 QALY while IDL entailed 0.68 (p > 0.05). The estimated total 1-year treatment cost was NOK419,160 on conventional treatment and NOK890,920 on IDL, representing a cost of NOK9.2 million (€1.18 mill) per additional QALY. The incremental cost per unit UPDRS improvement was NOK25,000 (€3,250). Medication was the dominant cost during IDL (45% of total costs), it represented only 6.4% of the total for conventional treatment. IDL improves function but is not cost effective using recommended thresholds for cost/QALY in Norway.

  16. "I Don't Even Know What Blogging Is": The Role of Digital Media in a Five-Year-Old Girl's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Laura; Anderson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Using a qualitative lens, this study investigated the role of digital media in the life of a five-year-old girl. The study focused on determining what this five-year-old knew about technology, what digital tools was she currently using and how important were these tools in her everyday life. Data collection included semi-structured interviews…

  17. "I Don't Even Know What Blogging Is": The Role of Digital Media in a Five-Year-Old Girl's Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Laura; Anderson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Using a qualitative lens, this study investigated the role of digital media in the life of a five-year-old girl. The study focused on determining what this five-year-old knew about technology, what digital tools was she currently using and how important were these tools in her everyday life. Data collection included semi-structured interviews…

  18. Mapping disability-adjusted life years: a Bayesian hierarchical model framework for burden of disease and injury assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, Ying C

    2007-11-20

    This paper presents a Bayesian disability-adjusted life year (DALY) methodology for spatial and spatiotemporal analyses of disease and/or injury burden. A Bayesian disease mapping model framework, which blends together spatial modelling, shared-component modelling (SCM), temporal modelling, ecological modelling, and non-linear modelling, is developed for small-area DALY estimation and inference. In particular, we develop a model framework that enables SCM as well as multivariate CAR modelling of non-fatal and fatal disease or injury rates and facilitates spline smoothing for non-linear modelling of temporal rate and risk trends. Using British Columbia (Canada) hospital admission-separation data and vital statistics mortality data on non-fatal and fatal road traffic injuries to male population age 20-39 for year 1991-2000 and for 84 local health areas and 16 health service delivery areas, spatial and spatiotemporal estimation and inference on years of life lost due to premature death, years lived with disability, and DALYs are presented. Fully Bayesian estimation and inference, with Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation, are illustrated. We present a methodological framework within which the DALY and the Bayesian disease mapping methodologies interface and intersect. Its development brings the relative importance of premature mortality and disability into the assessment of community health and health needs in order to provide reliable information and evidence for community-based public health surveillance and evaluation, disease and injury prevention, and resource provision.

  19. Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent offending in adolescence. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, undercontrolled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26 years, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most elevated on psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 years were less extreme but elevated on impulsive personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offenses. A third group of men who had been aggressive as children but not very delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offenders who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings support the theory of life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.

  20. Possible Niches For Extant Life On Titan In Light Of The First Six Years Of Cassini/Huygens Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2010-10-01

    At the 2005 DPS meeting we presented an assessment of the possibility of extant life on Titan after the first year of the Cassini mission at Saturn. We suggested then that hydrogenation of photochemically produced acetylene could provide metabolic energy for near-surface organisms and also replenish atmospheric methane (Schulze-Makuch and Grinspoon, 2005). In this talk we will offer a brief reassessment of the possibility of extant life in light of five more years of the Cassini/Huygens results, including the recent reports suggesting a lack of acetylene on the surface (Clark et al., 2010) and a possible sink of H2 at the surface (Strobel, 2010). Both results are consistent with earlier predictions for the existence of an acetylene-powered biosphere on Titan (Schulze-Makuch and Grinspoon, 2005; McKay and Smith, 2005), but can potentially be explained by more prosaic phenomena. D. Schulze-Makuch and D. H. Grinspoon(2005), Biologically Enhanced Energy and Carbon Cycling on Titan? Astrobiology 5, 560-567; Clarke, R.N. et al. (2020), Detection and Mapping of Hydrocarbon Deposits on Titan, JGR-Planets; Strobel, D.F(2010) Molecular hydrogen in Titan's atmosphere: Implications of the measured tropospheric and thermospheric mole fractions. Icarus; McKay, C.P., Smith, H.D.( 2005) Possibilities for methanogenic life in liquid methane on the surface of Titan. Icarus 178, 274-276.

  1. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy: clinical and quality of life outcomes with a minimum 2 year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Seang B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a relatively new technique. Very few studies have reported the clinical outcome of percutaneous endoscopic discectomy in terms of quality of life and return to work. Method 55 patients with percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy done from 2002 to 2006 had their clinical outcomes reviewed in terms of the North American Spine Score (NASS, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 scores (SF-36 and Pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and return to work. Results The mean age was 35.6 years, the mean operative time was 55.8 minutes and the mean length of follow-up was 3.4 years. The mean hospital stay for endoscopic discectomy was 17.3 hours. There was significant reduction in the severity of back pain and lower limb symptoms (NASS and VAS, p Conclusion Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is associated with improvement in back pain and lower limb symptoms postoperation which translates to improvement in quality of life. It has the advantage that it can be performed on a day case basis with short length of hospitalization and early return to work thus improving quality of life earlier.

  2. The quality of life in cochlear implant children after two years from surgery and its impact on the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cochlear implant has been established as effective option in rehabilitation of individuals with profound hearing impairment. As much of the studies about cochlear implants concentrated on aspects of speech perception and production, so we decided to study the quality of life of pre-lingual deaf children after at least 2 years of implantation. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients’ parents in Fars Center were selected that had been implanted for at least 2 years and they filled the quality of life questionnaire. Three months later this questionnaire was filled again and results of two stages were analyzed. Results: In part of assessments p-value shows significant change in parent’s satisfaction. They believe that they can be beneficial for their children and in another part of this study, parents believe that the children communicate better, but still they need special care to do school homework and they have some difficulties in articulation. Conclusion: cochlear implantation is associated with improvement in quality of life. The improvement is significant in aspects of social communications and happiness.   

  3. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glambek, Mats; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large.

  4. Immunological and laboratory features of HIV infection in infants of the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the characteristics of laboratory tests of infants born to HIV-positive women and left without parental care in the dynamics analyzed blood samples using methods of immunological and serological diagnosis of HIV infection, the qualitative and quantitative determination of HIV, as well as clinical blood analysis and screening for prenatal infection. There are informative PCR diagnostics of perinatal HIV infection in the first months of life, ELISA and western blot from the age of 9 months. Identified difference performance of a specific red blood cell and leukocyte parts of blood of hemogram in infants with perinatal HIV infection compared with those in not infected infants. Improvement in laboratory parameters is the result of appointment of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  5. [Breastfeeding prevalence during the first year of life in Aragon. CALINA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrón Andrés, L; Samper Villagrasa, M P; Álvarez Sauras, M L; Lasarte Velillas, J J; Rodríguez Martínez, G

    2013-11-01

    To study the current prevalence of breastfeeding (BF) in Aragon (Spain) during the first 12 months of life, and analyse its demographic, perinatal and social influential factors. Obstetric, perinatal and feeding aspects were evaluated in a longitudinal and observational study, in a representative cohort of infant population from Aragon born between March 2009 to March 2010, controlled until 12 months of age (N=1.602). Exclusive or predominant BF was more frequent than the rest of feeding modalities during the first 4 months of life. Maintenance prevalence of any BF modality was 82.5% at 1(st) month of age, 71.8% at 3(rd), 54.3% at 6(th), and 27.8% at 12 months of age. Maternal variables that were significantly associated with BF maintenance both at 1 and 6 months of age were: delivery modality (higher probability in case of vaginal delivery), academic level (higher probability if university studies), origin (higher probability in mothers from Africa), adiposity (higher probability of normal weight or overweight mothers compared with obese ones), and not to smoke during gestation. BF prevalence in Aragon (Spain) during the first 12 months of age is high and has increased compared with previous data. BF continues in more than half of infants at six months and in a quarter of infants at 12 months of age. Maternal factors that significantly influence BF initiation and maintenance are, delivery modality, academic level, origin (immigration), adiposity and smoking habit. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 5: Years of life lost due to premature death in traffic accidents in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian-Reyes, Hoover; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Gómez, Maria Juliana; Naranjo, Salome; Heredia, Patricia; Villegas, John

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify the number of years of life lost in traffic accidents in Bogota, Colombia. The years of life lost were calculated using the 'age-standardized expected years of life lost' method, the table of Japanese adjusted life expectancy and the database of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science between September 2012 and August 2013. During a period of 1 year, 430 people died and 10,056.3 years of life were lost in Bogota due to traffic accidents. The mortality burden of traffic accidents in Bogota is high. Further studies are required in order to characterize the accidents and develop effective policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Outcome of very preterm small for gestational age infants: the first nine years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J H; den Ouden, A L; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Brand, R

    1998-02-01

    To determine the influence of intrauterine growth retardation of preterm infants on mortality and cognitive development. A nationwide study cohort of very preterm and/or small for gestational age infants (parental questionnaire on school performance at nine years. Cognitive outcome is defined as handicap for mental and speech-language development, and need for special education. 134 small for gestational age infants (< 10th centile) and 410 appropriate for gestational age infants (between 25th and 75th centile) of all infants between 25 and 32 weeks of gestational age were identified; infants with congenital malformations and not of caucasian race were excluded. Neonatal mortality, in-hospital and five years mortality; Cognitive outcome at five years; School performance at nine years. The mortality risk for small for gestational age compared with appropriate for gestational age infants was significantly higher, after adjustment for gestational age, sex, multiple pregnancy and mode of delivery (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.26-5.26). Small for gestational age infants showed more often gross motor and minor neurological dysfunction, but less cerebral palsy than appropriate for gestational age infants. Cognitive outcome at five years in small for gestational age infants was significantly worse than appropriate for gestational age infants stratified for mode of delivery OR 2.44 (95% CI 1.05-5.55). At nine years of age significantly more small for gestational age infants (16.4%) needed special education than appropriate for gestational age infants (11.9%). Intrauterine growth retardation increases the risk of mortality and of cognitive disorders.

  8. Phenix reactor: a review of 35 year long operating life; Le reacteur Phenix: bilan de 35 ans de fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.; Dall' Ava, D.; Rochwerger, D.; Goux, D. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Guidez, J.; Martin, Ph.; Seran, J.L. [CEA Saclay 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Sauvage, J.F.; Prele, G.; Guihard, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bernardin, B.; Vanier, M.; Zaetta, A.; Latge, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Fontaine, B.; Jolly, J.A.; Gros, J.; Pepe, D. [CEA Marcoule, Centrale Phenix, 30 (France); Pelletier, M.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escaravage, C.; Gelineau, O.; Dupraz, R.; Dirat, J.F.; Giraud, M. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Michaille, P. [CEA Dam, DP2I, Mar (France)

    2009-01-15

    Phenix reactor that was commissioned in 1973, had its final shutdown during the beginning of 2009. This series of articles presents the main contributions of Phenix over its 35 years of operating life in material sciences, the handling of sodium, the design of fast reactors, core physics and reactor safety. Other articles recall the feedback experience on particular components like sodium pumps, steam generators or intermediate heat exchangers and about reactor maintenance. This power plant was first an experimental reactor that, with its hot cells, has performed important irradiation programs concerning mainly fast reactor technology and transmutation as a tool for burning actinides. One article reviews the environmental impact of this reactor over its operating life in terms of waste production and dosimetry. (A.C.)

  9. Health-related quality-of-life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Hansen, Emil Jesper; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1962 to the mid eighties the Harrington Rod instrumentation was the Golden standard for surgical treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). The Boston braces were introduced in the 1970´s and are still used as a conservative treatment, for curves less than 40°. Very few...... long-term studies exists, focusing on the health related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term health related outcome, in a cohort of AIS patients, treated 25 years ago. METHOD: 219 consecutive patients treated with Boston brace (Brace) or posterior spinal fusion (PSF...... patients (83 %), and the average follow up was 24.5 years (22-30 years). SRS22R domain scores were within the range described as normal for the general population with no statistical difference between the groups except in the Satisfaction domain, where the PSF group had better scores than the braced group...

  10. Improved sperm count and motility in young men surgically treated for cryptorchidism in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyles, Francesca; Peiretti, Valentina; Mussa, Alessandro; Manenti, Marco; Canavese, Ferdinando; Cortese, Maria Grazia; Lala, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The timing of surgery in cryptorchidism has been debated for a long time. Reports on histology suggest better fertility outcomes with early surgery, whereas evidence of long-term improved fertility still lacks sound data. The aim of this study is to analyze sperm count and motility in a cohort of young men operated on during the first 2 years of life for cryptorchidism. A total of 78 young men (age, 18-26 years) surgically treated for cryptorchidism in the second year of life were recalled to evaluate testicular volume and sperm count and motility. Of the 78 young men, 51 accepted to participate to clinical and sperm evaluation. Relationship between total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility (SM), and age at surgery was investigated by Student t-test and Fisher test. Patients were divided into two groups: those patients who were submitted to surgery in their first year of life (Group A) and those patients who were submitted to surgery in their first and the second year of life (Group B). We investigated the ratio of those patients with normal sperm count to those patients with abnormal sperm count (we defined as normal TSC > 15 million and SM > 15%) and compared the mean TSC and SM in the two groups. TSC were slightly but not significantly higher in the first group (45.5 ± 15.5 million/mL vs. 36.5 ± 23.6 million/mL, p = 0.107) and SM (30.5% ± 11.3% vs. 26.5% ± 15.4%, p = 0.341). The percentage of patients with normal sperm count and motility were significantly higher in the first group: normal TSC was found in 26 of 27 patients (96.3%) in Group A versus 18 of 24 patients (75.0%) in Group B (p = 0.042), normal SM was found in 26 of 27 patients (96.3%) versus 16 of 24 patients (66.7%), respectively (p = 0.008). In the two groups, no statistically significant difference was found neither in the proportion of patients with bilateral cryptorchidism, in the position of the testes, nor in the ratio of subjects treated with hormonal

  11. Antibiotic use in infants in the first year of life in five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Grueber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess in infants the number of illness episodes treated with antibiotics and prescription rates in five European countries. Methods: This study was embedded in a multicenter nutritional intervention study and was conducted in five European countries. Infants were followed until 1 year of ag

  12. Longitudinal Growth during the First Years of Life : What Is Normal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touwslager, R. N. H.; Gerver, W. J. M.; Mulder, A. L. M.; Jansen, A. J. G. M. Gerver; de Bruin, R.

    2008-01-01

    The anthropometric data of a longitudinal growth study on healthy infants, followed from birth until the age of 4 years and performed during 1995-1999 in The Netherlands, were used to analyze the general growth patterns in terms of height, weight and head circumference, based on z-scores, during the

  13. Children's Understanding of Communicative Intentions in the Middle of the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Tiziana; Perucchini, Paola; Genco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Two tasks were administered to 40 children aged from 16 to 20 months (mean age = 18;1), to evaluate children's understanding of declarative and informative intention [Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. "Developmental Science", 8, 492-499;…

  14. Excess mortality from breast cancer 20 years after diagnosis when life expectancy is normal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); W.J. Klokman (Willem); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn a population-based study, causes of death were traced of 418 deceased breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1960-1979 who survived at least 10 years after diagnosis. The pattern of causes of death in these patients was compared with the general female population using standardized morta

  15. Perinatal risk factors for wheezing phenotypes in the first 8 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, D.; Savenije, O. E. M.; Smit, H. A.; Postma, D. S.; Koppelman, G. H.; Wijga, A. H.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A novel data-driven approach was used to identify wheezing phenotypes in pre-schoolchildren aged 0-8 years, in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort. Five phenotypes were identified: never/infrequent wheeze, transient early wheeze, intermediate onset

  16. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  17. Excess mortality from breast cancer 20 years after diagnosis when life expectancy is normal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); W.J. Klokman (Willem); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn a population-based study, causes of death were traced of 418 deceased breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1960-1979 who survived at least 10 years after diagnosis. The pattern of causes of death in these patients was compared with the general female population using standardized morta

  18. Perinatal risk factors for wheezing phenotypes in the first 8 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, D.; Savenije, O. E. M.; Smit, H. A.; Postma, D. S.; Koppelman, G. H.; Wijga, A. H.; Kerkhof, M.; Gehring, U.; Hoekstra, M. O.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A novel data-driven approach was used to identify wheezing phenotypes in pre-schoolchildren aged 0-8 years, in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort. Five phenotypes were identified: never/infrequent wheeze, transient early wheeze, intermediate onset

  19. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  20. Antibiotic use in infants in the first year of life in five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Grueber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Aim: To assess in infants the number of illness episodes treated with antibiotics and prescription rates in five European countries. Methods: This study was embedded in a multicenter nutritional intervention study and was conducted in five European countries. Infants were followed until 1 year of

  1. Life satisfaction in spouses of stroke survivors and control subjects: A 7-year follow-up of participants in the Sahlgrenska Academy study on ischaemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Abzhandadze

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate life satisfaction in spouses of middle-aged stroke survivors from the long-term perspective and to identify factors that explain their life satisfaction. Design: Cross-sectional, case-control study. Subjects: Cohabitant spouses of survivors of ischaemic stroke aged < 70 years at stroke onset (n = 248 and spouses of controls (n = 246. Methods: Assessments were made 7 years after inclusion to the study. Spouses’ life satisfaction was assessed with the Fugl-Meyer’s Life Satisfaction Check-List (LiSAT 11. Stroke-related factors were examined with the National Institutes of Health stroke scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale. Results: Spouses of stroke survivors had significantly lower satisfaction with general life, leisure, sexual life, partner relationship, family life, and poorer somatic and psychological health than spouses of controls. Caregiving spouses had significantly lower scores on all life domains except vocation and own activities of daily living than non-caregiving spouses. Spouses’ satisfaction on different life domains was explained mainly by their age, sex, support given to the partner, and the survivor’s level of global disability, to which both physical and cognitive impairments contributed. Conclusion: Seven years after stroke, spouses of stroke survivors reported lower life satisfaction compared with spouses of controls. Life satisfaction in stroke survivors’ spouses was associated with spouses’ age, sex, giving support, and the stroke survivors’ level of global disability.

  2. Professional quality of life and organizational changes: a five-year observational study in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortes-Rubio Jose

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The satisfaction and the quality of life perceived by professionals have implications for the performance of health organizations. We have assessed the variations in professional quality of life (PQL and their explanatory factors during a services management decentralization process. Methods It was designed as a longitudinal analytical observational study in a Health Area in Madrid, Spain. Three surveys were sent out during an ongoing management decentralization process between 2001 and 2005. The professionals surveyed were divided into three groups: Group I (97.3% physicians, group II (92.5% nurses and group III (auxiliary personnel. Analysis of the tendency and elaboration of an explanatory multivariate model was made. The PQL -35 questionnaire, based on Karasek's demand-control theory, was used to measure PQL. This questionnaire recognizes three PQL dimensions: management support (MS, workload (WL and intrinsic motivation (IM. Results 1444 responses were analyzed. PQL increased 0.16 (CI 95% 0.04 – 0.28 points in each survey. Group II presents over time a higher PQL score than group I of 0.38 (IC 95% 0.18 – 0.59 points. There is no difference between groups I and III. For each point that MS increases, PQL increases between 0.44 and 0.59 points. PQL decreases an average of between 0.35 and 0.49 point, for each point that WL increases. Age appears to have a marginal association with PQL (CI 95% 0.00 – 0.02, as it occurs with being single or not having a stable relationship (CI 95% 0.01 – 0.41. Performing management tasks currently or in the past is related to poorer PQL perception (CI 95% -0.45 – -0.06, and the same occurs with working other than morning shifts (CI 95% -0.03 – -0.40 points. PQL is not related to sex, location of the centre (rural/urban, time spent working in the organization or contractual situation. Conclusion With the improvement in work control and avoiding increases in workloads, PQL

  3. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and develop......Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research...... (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age......·4–3·7) for women, while HALE at age 65 years improved by 0·85 years (0·78–0·92) and 1·2 years (1·1–1·3), respectively. Rising SDI was associated with consistently higher HALE and a somewhat smaller proportion of life spent with functional health loss; however, rising SDI was related to increases in total...

  4. Exposure to vehicular traffic is associated to a higher risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Marcello; Vandini, Silvia; Prinelli, Federica; Adorni, Fulvio; DI Santo, Simona; Silvestri, Michela; Musicco, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    The most common cause of hospitalization for children younger than age one is bronchiolitis. Several prenatal and environmental risk factors may affect the incidence of hospitalization for bronchiolitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to vehicular traffic and the incidence of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in children during their first year of life in Italy. A multicenter prospective birth cohort study, where equal numbers of newborns of 33-34, 35-37 and ≥38 wGA were recruited at birth (1814 children) in 30 Italian neonatology units. Two interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The first interview was carried out at the end of the Italian epidemic season. The second interview was carried out when the child was one year old. Data on possible prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal/environmental risk factors and on vehicular traffic density in the zone of residence were collected. On each interview, parents were also asked about any hospitalizations of the child. The outcome measure was the hospitalization for bronchiolitis (International Health Service ICD-9 code 466). Univariate analysis demonstrated that exposure to air pollution due to vehicular traffic, was significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis. The adjusted risk from logistic regression model confirmed that children exposed to air pollution due to vehicular traffic were at increased risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Exposure to air pollution due to vehicular traffic may increase the risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first year of life.

  5. Iron Stores of Breastfed Infants during the First Year of Life

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    Ekhard E. Ziegler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF and transferrin receptor (TfR were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

  6. Work satisfaction and quality of life in cancer survivors in the first year after oncological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Anja; Koch, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Since a growing number of patients are likely to return to work (RTW) after cancer diagnosis and treatment, there is an increasing recognition of the work situation, and the physical as well as psychosocial functioning among those survivors who returned to work. To prospectively examine Health Related quality of Life (HRQoL) and different aspects of work satisfaction in cancer survivors. N=702 employed cancer patients (85% women) were recruited on average 11 months post diagnosis and assessed at the beginning (t_1), the end (t_2) and 12 months after cancer rehabilitation program (t_3). Participants completed validated measures assessing work satisfaction, working conditions, job strain and HRQoL. Participants showed a high work satisfaction and were most satisfied with job related activities and least satisfied with work organization and leadership. Total work satisfaction was significantly associated with older age, higher monthly income, higher school education, and HRQoL, but not with any cancer- or treatment related characteristics. No significant changes in work satisfaction over time were observed except for a significant deterioration in satisfaction with job related activities (p=0.002; η ^2 =0.019), professional acknowledgement (p=0.036; η ^2 =0.009), and overall work satisfaction (p ^2 =0.087) with small to moderate effect sizes. Our findings emphasize the need for comprehensive cancer rehabilitation programs and specific vocational interventions.

  7. Fluctuations of CD34 cells number in blood of cancer patients during final year of life

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    Alexey Shoutko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was the comparative study of dynamic relations between the fluctuation of survival rate and presence of hematopoietic progenitor cells in circulating blood of oncologic patients in the final months of their life. The registered associativity turbulence in the content of CD34 cells in a blood of the advanced oncologic patients and turbulence of probability of their death leads to the assumption that the reason for life’s cessation may be the abnormal morphogenic activity of young cells produced in the bone marrow toward the tumor tissues of the host, as well as a lack of such activity toward the critical normal tissues. Thus, the cytotoxic, especially long-term, therapy of patients with advanced cancer may be timely even harmful for them and compromise the ultimate result of treatment.The regimes of cytotoxic therapy of patients in cases of premature exhaustion of haematopoietic resource should be optimized based on individual periodicity of blood saturation with progenitor cells. The development of reliable and simple methods for clinical monitoring of quickly changing prognosis of patients status seems to become important aim of coming investigation. The data might be useful for optimization of regimes of cytotoxic therapy of individual patients in emergency.

  8. Physical growth of cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, J G; Samonds, K W

    1975-03-01

    Infannt cebus monkeys, removed from their mothers shortly after birth, were reared in a primate nursery on diets of controlled nutritional quality. At regular intervals between birth and one year of age, each monkey was anesthetized, measured, and radiographed. Measurements were fitted to functions of the animal's age in days; a linear function for the first 6 to 8 weeks and a logarithmic function for the remainder of the first year. Mean constant curves have been calculated for each measure and estimates of animal variability have been obtained by interpolating sizes at given ages from regression lines fitted to the data for each animal. The maximum rate of growth was attained soon after birth. Cranial-caudal and distal-proximal maturity gradients in size attainment were observed.

  9. Impact of Hearing Loss on Daily Life Style and Schooling among Children between 5 and 15 Years Age-Group

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    Hiteshree C Patel, Mohua Moitra, Anjali Modi, Jaymin Contractor, S L Kantharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Hearing”- one of the five special senses with which a human is gifted. At times, due to variety of reasons, this sense is impaired. Hearing impairment of any degree has a profound effect on children. It delays development of speech, slows educational progress and leads to being stigmatized. Objectives: To document the impact of hearing loss in daily life style and schooling of children between 5 and 15 years age-group. Materials & methods: This was cross- sectional study done in Children between 5 and 15 years age-group with hearing loss, coming to an ENT OPD, New Civil Hospital, Surat during the period of 1st August 2011 to 31 July 2012. Results: A total of 246 children were studied. Mean age of the study population was 9±3.46 years. Most common impactin life of children with hearing loss was that “they were not admitted to school by their parents” (31.3%. Among them, 84.4% had congenital deafness and 15.6% had acquired deafness. This difference was statistically significant. (p= 0.002, x2= 8.63. As per parents’ perception, academic performance of the children was significantly associated with type of school (normal Vs deaf & mute school” (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Most common impact was that “children being not admitted to school” and “children were lagging behind in studies”. Among the congenitally deaf children, the quality of life was significantly better in those who attended these special schools (p<0.001.

  10. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  11. Treating retinoblastoma in the first year of life in a national tertiary paediatric hospital in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio-López, Laura; Torres-Ojeda, Alan A; Isaac-Otero, Gabriela; Leal-Leal, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in childhood, but little has been documented on the clinical and biological differences in children diagnosed before one year of age. We observed patients in this age group and followed them for up to 19 years. This retrospective, descriptive, observational study reviewed the medical records of Mexican patients, who were diagnosed with retinoblastoma before one year of age at a national paediatric hospital from 1995 to 2014. The variables analysed were age at diagnosis, weight, presenting signs, the time from first symptoms to diagnosis, family history, laterality, ocular rescue and survival rate. The 108 patients had a mean age of 7.65 months and 15.7% had a family history of retinoblastoma. The majority (55.5%) had bilateral retinoblastoma, the most common presenting sign was leukocoria (86.1%), and the most common stage of diagnosis was Group V (84.1%). More than half were underweight for their age. The overall survival rate was 92% and the disease-free survival rate was 84%. Retinoblastoma is a malignancy that can be present at birth, especially if it is a bilateral hereditary form of the disease. Leukocoria was the main presenting sign. Early diagnosis dramatically improved the prognosis for ocular rescue. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. PECULIAR FEATURES CONCERNING 1-ST-YEAR STUDENT ADAPTATION TO LIFE-ACTIVITY AT ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Klimenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of peculiar features concerning a 1-st-year student adaptation to new conditions of life-activity  on the basis of self-evaluation made by 212 persons.  In order to obtain the data a methodology for diagnostics of social and psychological adaptation developed by K.Rodgers and R.Diamond has been applied with the purpose to study such integral indices as adaptivity, emotional comfort, friendly attitude, internality, tolerance and domination symptom.

  13. Subjective Well-Being In Later Life: 20 years after the Butterworths monograph series on individual and population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Michael; Kozma, Albert; McNeil, Kevin; Worobetz, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses developments in theory and research on happiness two decades after publication of Psychological Well-Being in Later Life (Butterworths, 1991) by Albert Kozma, Michael Stones, and Kevin McNeil. Major empirical advances include new knowledge about contributions to happiness resulting from genetically related effects and personality. Personality traits have stronger relationships with happiness than was apparent 20 years ago and contribute to covariance between happiness and some of its predictors. Evolving emphases in research include the ways in which genetically related effects influence how people shape, and react to, their environment.

  14. Sequence imitation and reaching measures of executive control: a longitudinal examination in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Lukowski, Angela F; Bauer, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the early development of executive control, few assessment tools are available for use in the second year of life. At 15 and 20 months, children completed a task battery that included reaching and sequence imitation tasks expected to require executive control. With age, children showed reduced perseveration and increased ability to resist interference across trials and from distractors. At each age, A-not-B with invisible displacement was correlated with one of the sequence imitation tasks modified to increase executive control demands. Correlations between child performance on individual tasks at 15 and 20 months were generally low.

  15. Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Mental and Substance Use Disorders in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dohee; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the national burden of mental substance disorders on medical care utilization in Korea using National Health Insurance System (NHIS) data and updated disability weight, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). For each of the 24 disorders, the incident years lived with disability (YLDs) was calculated, using NHIS data to estimate prevalence and incidence rates. The DisMod-II software program was used to model duration and remission. The years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death were calculated from causes of death statistics. DALYs were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs, and time discounting and age weighting were applied. The year examined was 2012, and the subjects were divided into 9 groups according to age. In 2012, the Korean burden of mental and substance use disorders was 945,391 DALYs. More than 98% of DALYs were from YLDs, and the burden in females was greater than that in males, though the burden in males aged less than 19 years old was greater than that in females. Unipolar depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders were found to be major diseases that accounted for more than 70% of the burden, and most DALYs occurred in their 30-59. Mental and substance use disorders accounted for 6.2% of the total burden of disease and were found to be the 7th greatest burden of disease. Therefore, mental and substance use disorders need to be embraced by mainstream health care with resources commensurate with the burden.

  16. A two-year evaluation of the 'real life' impact of COPD on patients in Germany: The DACCORD observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Peter; Vogelmeier, Claus; Worth, Heinrich; Buhl, Roland; Lossi, Nadine S; Mailänder, Claudia; Criée, Carl-Peter

    2017-03-01

    DACCORD is an observational, non-interventional study being conducted in German primary and secondary care centres. The study aims to describe the impact of disease (including exacerbations) and treatments over 2 years on 'real-life' patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients had a clinical and spirometry diagnosis of COPD, were aged ≥40 years and, on recruitment, were initiating or changing COPD maintenance medication. The only exclusion criteria were asthma and randomised clinical trial participation. Exacerbations data were collected every 3 months. COPD medication, COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. A total of 6122 patients were recruited, 3137 (51.2%) of whom completed the 2-year visit. The mean age of these patients was 65.6 years, 59% were male, 69% had mild or moderate airflow limitation, and their mean COPD Assessment Test (CAT) total score was 20.3. Overall, there was a trend towards decreasing COPD exacerbation rates over the 2-year follow-up period, with rates of 0.390 during Year 1 and 0.347 during Year 2. Rates were lower in patients with no exacerbation during the 6 months prior to entry (0.263 and 0.251 during Years 1 and 2, respectively), with 51.6% of patients having no exacerbation during the 6 months prior to entry and over the 2-year follow-up. Approximately 50% of the overall population experienced a clinically relevant improvement from baseline in CAT total score at Year 1 and 2. When assessed by treatment class (or classes), persistence to medication was high (77.8% in Year 1 and 71.4% in Year 2). Overall, the 2-year follow-up data from DACCORD suggest that for most patients with COPD exacerbations are a rare event. For the majority of patients, the focus should be on managing symptoms, and the impact that these symptoms have on their daily lives. Even for those patients who do exacerbate, although prevention of exacerbations is

  17. Dental caries and fluorosis experience of 8-12-year-old children by early-life exposure to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Miller, Jenifer; Phelan, Claire; Sivaneswaran, Shanti; Spencer, A John; Wright, Clive

    2014-12-01

    It is important to evaluate concurrently the benefit for dental caries and the risk for dental fluorosis from early exposure to fluoride among children. To evaluate associations of different levels of exposure to fluoride in early childhood with dental caries and dental fluorosis experience in school children. A Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) was conducted among school children in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) in 2007. Trained and calibrated examination teams conducted oral epidemiologic examinations to assess caries experience as decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces of the primary and permanent dentitions (dmfs/DMFS) and fluorosis using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov (TF) index on the maxillary central incisors only. A parental questionnaire collected information on residential histories and tap water usage to enable calculation of percentage of 3-year lifetime exposure to fluoride in water. Use of dietary fluoride supplements was also collected. Dental caries and fluorosis experience were compared among groups by levels of exposure to fluoride from water and fluoride supplements in bivariate and multivariable analysis, controlling for socioeconomic factors. Exposure to different fluoride sources varied in the group of 2611 children aged 8-12 years. Lower household income was significantly associated in both bivariate and multivariable analyses with the greater prevalence and severity of primary tooth caries among 8-10-year-old children and permanent tooth caries among 8-12 year old. Exposure to fluoride in water during the first 3 years of life was associated with both caries and fluorosis experience observed at age 8-12 years. Having higher percentage of 3-year lifetime exposure to fluoride in water was associated with higher prevalence of mostly mild fluorosis, but significantly lower prevalence and severity of caries in the primary and permanent dentitions. There were significant associations of dental caries and fluorosis experience with

  18. Epidemiological aspects of and risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life

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    Hamilton Rosendo Fogaça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a sample of infants, the prevalence of and risk factors for occasional wheezing (OW and recurrent wheezing-wheezy baby syndrome (WBS. METHODS: Parents of infants (12-15 months of age completed the International Study of Wheezing in Infants questionnaire. RESULTS: We included 1,269 infants residing in the city of Blumenau, Brazil. Of those, 715 (56.34% had a history of wheezing, which was more common among boys. The prevalences of OW and WBS were 27.03% (n = 343 and 29.31% (n = 372, respectively. On average, the first wheezing episode occurred at 5.55 ± 2.87 months of age. Among the 715 infants with a history of wheezing, the first episode occurred within the first six months of life in 479 (66.99%, and 372 (52.03% had had three or more episodes. Factors associated with wheezing in general were pneumonia; oral corticosteroid use; a cold; attending daycare; having a parent with asthma or allergies; mother working outside the home; male gender; no breastfeeding; and mold. Factors associated with WBS were a cold; physician-diagnosed asthma; ER visits; corticosteroid use; pneumonia; bronchitis; dyspnea; attending daycare; bronchodilator use; having a parent with asthma; no breastfeeding; mother working outside the home; and a dog in the household. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the studied population was high (56.34%. The etiology was multifactorial, and the risk factors were intrinsic and extrinsic (respiratory tract infections, allergies, attending daycare, and early wheezing. The high prevalence and the intrinsic risk factors indicate the need and the opportunity for epidemiological and genetic studies in this population. In addition, mothers should be encouraged to prolong breastfeeding and to keep infants under six months of age out of daycare.

  19. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; McLoughlin, Nicola; Banerjee, Neil R.; Connell, Laurie B.; Templeton, Alexis

    2008-08-01

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  20. THREE MISSING YEARS IN THE LIFE OF DEMETRIUS THE BESIEGER:310-308 B.C.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pat; Wheatley

    2001-01-01

    The activities of Demetrius Poliorcetes ('The Besieger of Cities') during the years 310 to 308 B.C. receive scant attention from the classical sources.1 As far as Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch, our chief authorities, are concerned, Demetrius is last seen conducting a lightning raid on Babylon in 311, and appears next as commander of the Antigonid expedition to Greece in mid-307.2 However, flagrant lacunae in the historical narrative cannot be used as evidence to argue that there was nothing of importance to...

  1. Years of life lost (Yll) attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Eduardo; Cruz-López, Leonardo; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Camacho-Solís, Rafael Edgardo; Mendoza-Meléndez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 - 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to different age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD-10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attributable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consumption is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the decline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012.

  2. Motor vehicle road crashes during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, D J; Langley, J D; Chalmers, D

    1992-04-22

    From a sample of 848 teenagers, 50 individuals reported a total of 52 motor vehicle road crash events: 42 involved a car, six a motorcycle, and four a bus, over a two year period. Males and females were equally represented in each type of crash. Twenty-one of the car crashes, four of the motorcycle crashes and three of the bus crashes involved injury. The injuries sustained in the motorcycle crashes were predominantly to the extremities and in the other crashes they were mainly to the head or face. On average drivers less than 25 years of age had more passengers in their cars and were involved in more nighttime crashes. A seat belt was worn in only 18 (44%) of the car crashes. A motorcycle helmet was worn in four of the six motorcycle crashes. Six (15%) crashes were reported to have involved alcohol. The main areas of risk associated with motor vehicle road crashes involving teenagers and young adults have been addressed by legislation or the graduated drivers' licensing system. An evaluation of these measures is required to establish whether they are effective.

  3. Episodic Heavy Drinking and 20-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analyses of moderate drinking have focused overwhelmingly on average consumption, which masks diverse underlying drinking patterns. This study examined the association between episodic heavy drinking and total mortality among moderate-drinking older adults. Methods At baseline, the sample was comprised of 446 adults aged 55 to 65: 74 moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking and 372 regular moderate drinkers. The database at baseline also included a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Death across a 20-year follow-up period was confirmed primarily by death certificate. Results In multiple logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for all covariates, as well as overall alcohol consumption, moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking had more than two times higher odds of 20-year mortality in comparison to regular moderate drinkers. Conclusions Among older moderate drinkers, those who engage in episodic heavy drinking show significantly increased total mortality risk compared to regular moderate drinkers. Episodic heavy drinking—even when average consumption remains moderate—is a significant public health concern. PMID:24588326

  4. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account.

  5. End-of-life care bonus promoting end-of-life care in nursing homes: An 11-year retrospective longitudinal prefecture-wide study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Sho; Sugaya, Nagisa; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Mizushima, Shunsaku

    2017-03-22

    The end-of-life (EOL) care bonus introduced by the Japanese government works as a financial incentive and framework of quality preservation, including advance care planning, for EOL care among nursing home residents. This study aims to clarify the effects of the EOL care bonus in promoting EOL care in nursing homes. A longitudinal observational study using a questionnaire was conducted. We invited 378 nursing homes in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, a region with a rapidly aging population, to participate in the study. The outcome was the number of residents dying in nursing homes from 2004 to 2014. In a linear mixed model, fixed-effect factors included year established, unit care, regional elderly population rate and hospital beds, adjacent affiliated hospital, full-time physician on site, physician's support during off-time, basic EOL care policy, usage of the EOL care bonus, EOL care conference, and staff experience of EOL care. A total of 237 nursing home facilities responded (62.7%). The linear mixed model showed that the availability of the EOL care bonus (coefficient 3.1, 95 % CI 0.67-5.51, p = 0.012) and years of usage of the EOL care bonus (p homes. Our analysis revealed that the EOL care bonus has the potential to increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes over several years. EOL care conferences, physician support for emergency care during off-time, and the presence of an adjacent affiliated hospital may also increase the number of residents receiving EOL care in nursing homes. These results suggest that a government financial incentive may contribute to effective EOL care among nursing home residents in other developed countries with rapidly aging populations.

  6. Average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer and the association with the marginalization index in Mexico in 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervantes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer in Mexico in 2000 and 2010. Data on mortality in women aged between 20 and 84 years was obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost, which is an estimate of the number of years that a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely, were estimated for both diseases. Data was disaggregated into five-year age groups and socioeconomic status based on the 2010 marginalization index obtained from the National Population Council. A decrease in average years of life lost due to cervical cancer (37.4% and an increase in average years of life lost due breast cancer (8.9% was observed during the period studied. Average years of life lost due to cervical cancer was greater among women living in areas with a high marginalization index, while average years of life lost due to breast cancer was greater in women from areas with a low marginalization index.

  7. Average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer and the association with the marginalization index in Mexico in 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Claudio Alberto Dávila; Botero, Marcela Agudelo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer in Mexico in 2000 and 2010. Data on mortality in women aged between 20 and 84 years was obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost, which is an estimate of the number of years that a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely, were estimated for both diseases. Data was disaggregated into five-year age groups and socioeconomic status based on the 2010 marginalization index obtained from the National Population Council. A decrease in average years of life lost due to cervical cancer (37.4%) and an increase in average years of life lost due breast cancer (8.9%) was observed during the period studied. Average years of life lost due to cervical cancer was greater among women living in areas with a high marginalization index, while average years of life lost due to breast cancer was greater in women from areas with a low marginalization index.

  8. Patient outcomes up to 15 years after stroke: survival, disability, quality of life, cognition and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Siobhan L; Bray, Benjamin D; McKevitt, Christopher; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2016-10-01

    The global epidemiological shift of disease burden towards long-term conditions means understanding long-term outcomes of cardiovascular disease is increasingly important. More people are surviving stroke to experience its long-term consequences, but outcomes in people living more >10 years after stroke have not been described in detail. Data were collected for the population-based South London Stroke Register, with participants followed up annually until death. Outcomes were survival, disability, activity, cognitive impairment, quality of life, depression and anxiety. Of 2625 people having first-ever stroke, 262 (21%) survived to 15 years. By 15 years, 61% (95% CI 55% to 67%) of the survivors were male, with a median age of stroke onset of 58 years (IQR 48-66). 87% of the 15-year survivors were living at home and 33.8% (26.2% to 42.4%) had mild disability, 14.3% (9.2% to 21.4%) moderate disability and 15.0% (9.9% to 22.3%) severe disability. The prevalence of disability increased with time but 1 in 10 of the 15-year survivors had lived with moderate-severe disability since their stroke. At 15 years, the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 30.0% (19.5% to 43.1%), depression 39.1% (30.9% to 47.9%) and anxiety 34.9% (27.0% to 43.8%), and survivors reported greater loss of physical than mental quality of life. One in five people live at least 15 years after a stroke and poor functional, cognitive and psychological outcomes affect a substantial proportion of these long-term survivors. As the global population of individuals with cardiovascular long-term conditions grows, research and health services will need to increasingly focus on preventing and managing the long-term consequences of stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The burden of disease in Zimbabwe in 1997 as measured by disability-adjusted life years lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Glyn; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Jelsma, Jennifer;

    2006-01-01

    for the year 1997 were taken from a nationwide census. The cause of death pattern was determined based on data from the Vital Registration System, which was adjusted for underreporting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reallocation of ill-defined causes. Non-fatal disease figures were estimated based......Objective To rank health problems contributing most to the burden of disease in Zimbabwe using Disability-Adjusted Life Years as the population health measure. Methods Epidemiological information was derived from multiple sources. Population size and total number of deaths by age and sex...... than premature mortality. The share of the disease burden was similar in females and males. Conclusion Using to a large extent local sources of information, it was possible to develop plausible estimates of the size and the relative significance of the major health problems in Zimbabwe. The disease...

  10. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants....... In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  11. Language, motor and cognitive development of extremely preterm children: modeling individual growth trajectories over the first three years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Survival rate of extremely low gestational age (ELGA) newborns has increased over 80% in the last 15 years, but its consequences on the short- and longer-term developmental competencies may be severe. The aim of this study was to describe growth trajectories of linguistic, motor and cognitive skills among ELGA children, compared to full-term (FT) peers, from the first to the third year of life, a crucial period for development. Growth curve analysis was used to examine individual and group differences in terms of initial status at 12 months and rate of growth through the second and the third year of life with five points of assessment. Twenty-eight monolingual Italian children, of whom 17 were ELGA (mean GA 25.7 weeks) and 11 were FT children, were assessed through the BSID-III at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months for language skills and at 12, 24 and 30 months for motor and cognitive skills. ELGA children presented significantly lower scores than FT peers in language, motor and cognitive skills and they did not overcome their disadvantage by 3 years, even if their corrected age was taken into account. Concerning growth curves, in motor development a significant increasing divergence was found showing a Matthew effect with the preterm sample falling further behind the FT sample. In linguistic and cognitive development, instead, a stable gap between the two samples was found. In addition, great inter-individual differences in rate of change were observed for language development in both samples. Our findings highlight the theoretical and clinical relevance of analyzing, through growth curve analyses, the developmental trajectories of ELGA children in language skills taking into account their inter-individual variability also across motor and cognitive domains. After reading this article, the reader will interpret: (a) characteristics and growth trajectories of ELGA children from the first to the third year of life with respect to FT children in language, motor and

  12. Cord blood IgG and the risk of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Linda M; Sondén, Klara; Odera, Dennis; Oduor, Loureen B; Guleid, Fatuma; Nkumama, Irene N; Otiende, Mark; Kangoye, David T; Fegan, Greg; Färnert, Anna; Marsh, Kevin; Osier, Faith H A

    2017-02-01

    Young infants are less susceptible to severe episodes of malaria but the targets and mechanisms of protection are not clear. Cord blood antibodies may play an important role in mediating protection but many studies have examined their association with the outcome of infection or non-severe malaria. Here, we investigated whether cord blood IgG to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens and antibody-mediated effector functions were associated with reduced odds of developing severe malaria at different time points during the first year of life. We conducted a case-control study of well-defined severe falciparum malaria nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of Kenyan children. We measured cord blood total IgG levels against five recombinant merozoite antigens and antibody function in the growth inhibition activity and neutrophil antibody-dependent respiratory burst assays. We also assessed the decay of maternal antibodies during the first 6months of life. The mean antibody half-life range was 2.51months (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.19-2.92) to 4.91months (95% CI: 4.47-6.07). The rate of decline of maternal antibodies was inversely proportional to the starting concentration. The functional assay of antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity predicted significantly reduced odds of developing severe malaria during the first 6months of life (Odds ratio (OR) 0.07, 95% CI: 0.007-0.74, P=0.007). Identification of the targets of antibodies mediating antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity could contribute to the development of malaria vaccines that protect against severe episodes of malaria in early infancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. 法经济学视角下的生命价值评估法律与监管--读凯斯·R.·桑斯坦的《生命、生命年和支付意愿》%Study on Several Core Issues of U.S. Evaluation System---Reading Cass R. Sunstein’s Lives,Life-Years,and Willingness to Pay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乾; 吴秀尧

    2016-01-01

    In the United States,courts and government agencies are the main sectors and the tools they employ are tort law and regulatory policy. Sunstein examined the relationship between the value of statistical life and the value of statistical life-year ,and relationship between willingness to pay,willingness to accept and quality-adjusted life years,then he concluded that the best approach may be using willingness to pay to measure the value of statistical life years,and in the appropriate circumstances to make assignments or other adjustments. The questions he discussed are the core issues of monetary assessment system of value of life and theoretical significance for studying the U.S. Evaluation System of Value of Life and China's judicial and administrative practice.%在美国,法院和政府机构是评估生命价值的主要部门,其使用的工具分别是侵权法和监管政策。桑斯坦考察了统计学上生命的价值与统计学上生命年的价值之间,以及支付意愿、接受意愿和质量调整生命年之间的关系,并得出以下结论,即最好的方法可能是使用支付意愿来衡量统计学上生命年的价值,然后在合适的情形下做出分配或其他调整。他讨论的问题都是货币化评估生命价值的核心问题,对于研究美国生命价值评估体系并对我国司法和行政实践具有主要的理论意义。

  14. 1000 Years of Usage: The Life Story of a Roman Aqueduct Provides Tectonic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, P. M.; Nadeau, M.; Roth, S.; Andersen, N.; Huels, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Sbeinati, R.

    2006-12-01

    The history of the Roman aqueduct of Al Harif, Syria, was reconstructed from information contained in the tufa deposits precipitated on its walls. The aqueduct was placed directly across a branch of the northern extension of the tectonically active Dead Sea Fault System (Missyaf Segment) and its disruption by earth quakes was recorded in its tufa deposits. Today the parts across the fault are offset by 13.5 m. As the aqueduct itself carried the tufa precipitating waters, the tufa precipitating system at the walls is directly dependent on a functioning aqueduct. Any damage to the aqueduct modified the carbonate factory at the walls; destruction of aqueduct sections stopped precipitation completely at those parts, which were cut-off from the water flow. Four tufa cores to bedrock from different sections of the aqueduct were sampled in detail for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis, following core stratigraphy based on computer X-ray tomography and core sedimentology. From the radiocarbon dates and a climate-stratigraphic correlation of the tufa oxygen isotope records with the Greenland ice cores we derived the following conclusions. The aqueduct was built between BC 64, the Roman conquest of Syria and AD 65 and functioned for approx. thousand years. Two earth quake events seriously damaged the structure and stopped water flow across the fault in AD 600+/-50 and AD 975+/- 75. After the AD 600+/-50 earthquake the aqueduct was repaired; the AD 975+/-75 quake tore apart the aqueduct such that it was never rebuilt. A minor event can be inferred between 100 and 350 AD. After ca. AD 1100 water flow to the aqueduct stopped. In combination with stratigraphic information on tectonic movements from nearby trenches the results imply an earthquake recurrence during the lifetime of the aqueduct of approximately every 300 to 400 years.

  15. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  16. Signs of deterioration in infants discharged home following congenital heart surgery in the first year of life: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregay, Jenifer; Brown, Katherine L; Crowe, Sonya; Bull, Catherine; Knowles, Rachel L; Smith, Liz; Wray, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To describe the ways in which parents recognise and make decisions about their child's symptoms following discharge home after congenital heart interventions in the first year of life and their experiences of seeking help. Methods This was a qualitative study involving semistructured interviews with parents. Twenty-one parents were recruited to the study. Parents all had a child who had congenital heart surgery in their first year of life between September 2009 and October 2013 at one of three UK cardiac centres; the children had either died or were readmitted as an emergency following initial discharge. Results Some parents were unable to identify any early warning signs. Others described symptoms of deterioration including changes in feeding and appearance, respiratory distress and subtle behavioural changes that may not be routinely highlighted to parents at discharge. Several barriers to accessing prompt medical assistance were identified including parents feeling that their concerns were not taken seriously, long wait times and lack of protocols at A&E. Conclusions Our study highlights behavioural symptoms as being a potentially underemphasised sign of deterioration and identifies a number of barriers to parents accessing support when they are concerned. It is important that parents are encouraged to seek advice at the earliest opportunity and that those health professionals at the front line have access to the information they need in order to respond in an appropriate and timely way. A role for home monitoring was also noted as potentially useful in identifying at risk children who appear clinically well. PMID:26823534

  17. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Smith, Alison; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Chris; VanderZanden, Amelia; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Zoeckler, Leo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Raghib, Ali; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Anderson, Gregory M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhofff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Borschmann, Rohan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Choudhury, Lincoln; Christensen, Hanne; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Crump, John A.; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Deveber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Ding, Eric L.; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farid, Talha A.; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Foigt, Nataliya; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Ribhi, Randah; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Hassen, Tahir Ahmed; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jin, Ye; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kajungu, Dan K.; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kandel, Amit; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Katibeh, Marzieh; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Cho-il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Larsson, Anders; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mandavi, Mandi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mumford, John Everett; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Nachega, Jean B.; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie; Nolla, Joan M.; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pedro, Joao Mario; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frederic B.; Pillay, Julian David; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Noela M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Dheeraj; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Ram, Usha; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Refaat, Amany H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Reynolds, Alex; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Roy, Ambuj; Sackey, Ben Benasco; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan R.; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shin, Rahman; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Soljak, Michael; Soreide, Kjetil; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Landon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tekle, Dejen Yemane; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J. S.; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Gool, Coen H.; van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; WestermaM, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yan, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and m

  18. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Smith, Alison; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Chris; VanderZanden, Amelia; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Zoeckler, Leo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Raghib, Ali; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Anderson, Gregory M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhofff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Borschmann, Rohan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Choudhury, Lincoln; Christensen, Hanne; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Crump, John A.; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Deveber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Ding, Eric L.; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farid, Talha A.; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Foigt, Nataliya; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Ribhi, Randah; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Hassen, Tahir Ahmed; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jin, Ye; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kajungu, Dan K.; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kandel, Amit; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Katibeh, Marzieh; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Cho-il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Larsson, Anders; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mandavi, Mandi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mumford, John Everett; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Nachega, Jean B.; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie; Nolla, Joan M.; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pedro, Joao Mario; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frederic B.; Pillay, Julian David; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Noela M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Dheeraj; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Ram, Usha; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Refaat, Amany H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Reynolds, Alex; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Roy, Ambuj; Sackey, Ben Benasco; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan R.; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shin, Rahman; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Soljak, Michael; Soreide, Kjetil; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Landon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tekle, Dejen Yemane; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J. S.; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Gool, Coen H.; van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; WestermaM, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yan, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and

  19. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, N.J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, J.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, M.; Coggeshall, M.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development,

  20. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Smith, Alison; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Chris; VanderZanden, Amelia; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Zoeckler, Leo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Raghib, Ali; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Anderson, Gregory M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhofff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Borschmann, Rohan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Choudhury, Lincoln; Christensen, Hanne; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Crump, John A.; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Deveber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Ding, Eric L.; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farid, Talha A.; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Foigt, Nataliya; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Ribhi, Randah; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Hassen, Tahir Ahmed; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jin, Ye; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kajungu, Dan K.; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kandel, Amit; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Katibeh, Marzieh; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Cho-il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Larsson, Anders; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mandavi, Mandi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mesfin, Yonatan Moges; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mumford, John Everett; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Nachega, Jean B.; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie; Nolla, Joan M.; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Pa, Mahesh; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pedro, Joao Mario; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frederic B.; Pillay, Julian David; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Noela M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Dheeraj; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Ram, Usha; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Refaat, Amany H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Reynolds, Alex; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Roy, Ambuj; Sackey, Ben Benasco; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan R.; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shin, Rahman; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Soljak, Michael; Soreide, Kjetil; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Landon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tekle, Dejen Yemane; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, J. S.; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Gool, Coen H.; van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; WestermaM, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yan, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Zeeb, Hajo; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and m

  1. Five years treatment with strontium ranelate reduces vertebral and nonvertebral fractures and increases the number and quality of remaining life-years in women over 80 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Ego; Boonen, Steven; Borgström, Frederik; Vellas, Bruno; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Semler, Jutta; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2010-04-01

    Longevity has resulted in a greater proportion of the population entering a time of life when increasing bone fragility and falls predispose to fractures, particularly nonvertebral fractures. Women over 80 years of age constitute 10% of the population but contribute 30% of all fractures and 60% of all nonvertebral fractures. Despite this, few studies have examined antifracture efficacy of treatments in this high-risk group and none has provided evidence for benefits beyond 3 years. To determine whether strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures during 5 years, we analyzed a subgroup of 1489 female patients over 80 years of age (mean 83.5+/-3.0 years) with osteoporosis from the SOTI (spinal osteoporosis therapeutic intervention) and TROPOS (treatment of peripheral osteoporosis) studies randomized to strontium ranelate 2 g/d or placebo. All received a supplement of calcium plus vitamin D. By intention to treat, vertebral fracture risk was reduced by 31% (relative risk, RR=0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.52-0.92), nonvertebral fracture risk by 27% (RR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57-0.95), major nonvertebral fracture risk by 33% (RR=0.67; 95% CI 0.50-0.89) and hip fracture risk by 24% (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.50-1.15, not significant). Treatment was cost-saving as it decreased cost and increased QALYs and life-years. Strontium ranelate safely produced a significant reduction in vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk during 5 years in postmenopausal women over 80 years of age and was cost saving. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The height of the pituitary in preterm infants during the first 2 years of life: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiortsis, D. [Department of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Xydis, V.; Argyropoulou, P.I.; Efremidis, S.C.; Argyropoulou, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, A.G.; Andronikou, S. [Neonatology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina (Greece)

    2004-03-01

    Pituitary secretory activity is different in premature and full-term infants. The height of the pituitary is a marker of its secretory activity. Our purpose was to use MRI to measure height of the pituitary of premature infants and to compare it with full-term controls. The height was measured on a midline sagittal T1-weighted image in 86 premature infants (gestational age 26-36.9 weeks, mean 32.3{+-}2.85 weeks, corrected age 0.33-2 years, mean 0.76{+-}0.42 years) and in 70 age- and sex-matched full-term controls. The children were was divided into four age groups: A: {>=}0.5 years; B: 0.51-1.0 year; C: 1.01-1.5 years; and D: 1.51-2.00 years. The gland was significantly (P <0.01) higher in the preterm infants than in the controls (3.88{+-}0.61 vs 3.31{+-}0.64 mm). In the preterm group no significant difference was found between children small or appropriate for gestational age or between those with and without periventricular leukomalacia. Pituitary height by age group was: A: 3.71{+-}0.57, B: 3.81{+-}0.56, C: 4.09{+-}0.68; and D:4.45{+-}0.57 mm; statistically significant (P <0.01) differences were found between groups A and D and B and D. The pituitary is thus higher in premature than in full-term controls and shows a trend to increase after the first year of corrected-age life. (orig.)

  3. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    . National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross...

  4. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy: A Register-Based Study of Swedes Aged 65 Years and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastesson, Jonas W.; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. Design Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. Setting Nationwide register-based study. Participants A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1 to September 30, 2008. Measurements Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. Results At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent with polypharmacy after the age of 75 years. Women had a longer life expectancy, but also lived more years with polypharmacy than men. Discussion Older women and men spend a considerable proportion of their lives with polypharmacy. Conclusion Given the negative health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, efforts should be made to reduce the number of years older adults spend with polypharmacy to minimize the risk of unwanted consequences. PMID:26341036

  5. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  6. Marital satisfaction and life circumstances of grown children with autism across 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2012-10-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child's autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent-child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers' marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother-child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers' marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child's departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents' marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Cognitive development in the first year of life: a challenge to Piaget's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to the eighties, the psychological interpretations of early cognitive development had been dominated by Piaget's theory of sensori-motor development, according to which infants' knowledge of the world is constructed through their actions upon the world. Older empirical findings also led to a conclusion that infants' basic concepts of objects and representations of objects develop relatively late during the infancy period. Searching for new answers to the old questions about infants' cognitive competence in the first year after birth, and when and how it is manifested in their behaviours, encouraged researchers to re-examine the existing knowledge about the milestones and the mechanisms of early cognitive development, as well as to use new research techniques, and revealed new empirical evidence. These show that infants are much more cognitively competent and that some of their cognitive capacities develop much earlier than Piaget suggested. In the article, some recent findings in the field of infants' development of knowledge about physical world are presented and discussed. Some fundamental points of Piaget's sensori-motor stage of development which were not supported by the recent empirical evidence are highlightened.

  8. [Quality of life in hemodialyis patients: the effect of educational status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corrado, D; Di Nuovo, S; Iannetti, E; Carpinteri, G; Vitale, M; Squatrito, R; Catalano, D; Trovato, G M

    2000-01-01

    Hemodialysis has a major influence on the quality of life of chronic renal failure patients. Great attention is currently paid to the development of supporting programmes for this patient group. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in maintenance dialysis and to research the influence of various factors related to treatment and ESRD on quality of life, taking into account also the level of school instruction. Reduced functional abilities, as measured by the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and Functional Living Test (FLT), derived by Karnofsky Activity Scale were assessed; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and semistructured interviews, including a clinical grading of symptoms were considered vs. age, duration of dialysis, level of school instruction. The study was performed with 40 hemodialysis patients, aged 57.4 +/- 14.9 years (range 22-79), treated since at least three years. Significant (P higher SIP scores (greater disability) and Functional Living Test were lower educational level, and the score of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). No correlation was found for any of the three scales vs. age and vs. dialytic age; no gender difference was observed. A greater care in considering Quality of Life questionnaires is warranted, especially for the severe interference of instruction level of patients on results. QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Years), used as a tool for decision-making in clinical and political subsets, can include critical bias that invalidate conclusion.

  9. Lost life years attributable to stroke among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a nationwide population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Lars; Andersen, Ljubica; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2007-01-01

    Registry of Patients from calendar year 1980 to 2002, and no previous or concomitant diagnosis of stroke or heart valve disease. All patients were followed in the Danish National Registry of Patients for occurrence of an incident diagnosis of stroke of any type (ischemic and/or hemorrhagic......AIM: We assessed the number of lost life years attributable to stroke among patients with a hospital diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We identified all patients, aged 40-89 years, with an incident hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the Danish National...... lost life years by sex, age, and time to incident stroke after diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, adjusted for conditions of comorbidity and calendar year of diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: The mean loss of life years attributable to incident stroke within 20 years after a first diagnosis...

  10. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  11. Dementia as a determinant of social and health service use in the last two years of life 1996-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raitanen Jani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is one of the most common causes of death among old people in Finland and other countries with high life expectancies. Dementing illnesses are the most important disease group behind the need for long-term care and therefore place a considerable burden on the health and social care system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dementia and year of death (1998-2003 on health and social service use in the last two years of life among old people. Methods The data were derived from multiple national registers in Finland and comprise all those who died in 1998, 2002 or 2003 and 40% of those who died in 1999-2001 at the age of 70 or over (n = 145 944. We studied the use of hospitals, long-term care and home care in the last two years of life. Statistics were performed using binary logistic regression analyses and negative binomial regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender and comorbidity. Results The proportion of study participants with a dementia diagnosis was 23.5%. People with dementia diagnosis used long-term care more often (OR 9.30, 95% CI 8.60, 10.06 but hospital (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.31, 0.35 and home care (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46, 0.54 less often than people without dementia. The likelihood of using university hospital and long-term care increased during the eight-year study period, while the number of days spent in university and general hospital among the users decreased. Differences in service use between people with and without dementia decreased during the study period. Conclusions Old people with dementia used long-term care to a much greater extent and hospital and home care to a lesser extent than those without dementia. This difference persisted even when controlling for age, gender and comorbidity. It is important that greater attention is paid to ensuring that old people with dementia have equitable access to care.

  12. Increasing JAK/STAT Signaling Function of Infant CD4+ T Cells during the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña-Ponce, Myra Grace; Rodriguez-Nieves, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Janice; Tuck, Ryan; Choudhary, Neelima; Mengual, Michael; Mollan, Katie R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Peter-Wohl, Sigal; De Paris, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Most infant deaths occur in the first year of life. Yet, our knowledge of immune development during this period is scarce and derived from cord blood (CB) only. To more effectively combat pediatric diseases, a deeper understanding of the kinetics and the factors that regulate the maturation of immune functions in early life is needed. Increased disease susceptibility of infants is generally attributed to T helper 2-biased immune responses. The differentiation of CD4+ T cells along a specific T helper cell lineage is dependent on the pathogen type, and on costimulatory and cytokine signals provided by antigen-presenting cells. Cytokines also regulate many other aspects of the host immune response. Therefore, toward the goal of increasing our knowledge of early immune development, we defined the temporal development of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling function of CD4+ T cells using cross-sectional blood samples from healthy infants ages 0 (birth) to 14 months. We specifically focused on cytokines important in T cell differentiation (IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-4) or in T cell survival and expansion (IL-2 and IL-7) in infant CD4+ T cells. Independent of the cytokine tested, JAK/STAT signaling in infant compared to adult CD4+ T cells was impaired at birth, but increased during the first year, with the most pronounced changes occurring in the first 6 months. The relative change in JAK/STAT signaling of infant CD4+ T cells with age was distinct for each cytokine tested. Thus, while about 60% of CB CD4+ T cells could efficiently activate STAT6 in response to IL-4, less than 5% of CB CD4+ T cells were able to activate the JAK/STAT pathway in response to IFN-γ, IL-12 or IL-2. By 4–6 months of age, the activation of the cytokine-specific STAT molecules was comparable to adults in response to IL-4 and IFN-γ, while IL-2- and IL-12-induced STAT activation remained below adult levels even at 1 year. These results

  13. Mortality and years of potential life loss in systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerang, K; Gilboe, I-M; Steinar Thelle, D; Gran, J T

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sources were used to identify 325 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients within the city of Oslo during 1999-2009 who met ≥ 4 of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The survival, standard mortality rate (SMR), years of potential life loss before 60 years of age (YPLL60) and causes of death of these patients were examined and compared to a matched control population. Only inception cases (127) were studied in the calculation of survival. The analysis includes underlying, immediate and contributing causes of death. The five- and 10-year survival was 95% and 90%, respectively, which was significantly reduced when compared to the general population. A total of 50 SLE patients died during the study period. Overall SMR was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-3.8) with the highest SMR found for female patients aged 16-39 years old. SLE patients had a 10 times higher rate of YPLL60 compared to the control group. YPLL emphasizes active disease and reduces the importance of cancer as a cause of death in SLE. This study demonstrates that YPLL gives additional and useful information for the prognosis of SLE, supplementing traditional methods of measuring mortality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Ludivine, Chateau-Degat; Papouin, Gérard; Saint-Val, Philippe; Lopez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with a decrease in physical skills, sometimes accompanied by a change in quality of life (QOL). Long-term martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of an adapted karate training program on QOL, depression, and motor skills in 50-year-old men. Methods and design Fifteen 50-year-old men were enrolled in a one-year prospective experiment. Participants practiced adapted karate training for 90 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving completion of the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36) and Beck Depression Inventory, as well as motor and effort evaluation, were done at baseline, and six and 12 months. Results Compared with baseline, participants had better Beck Depression Inventory scores after one year of karate training (P karate practice had favorable effects on mood, perception of physical health confirmed by better postural control, and improved performance on objective physical testing. Adapted karate training would be an interesting option for maintaining physical activity in aging. PMID:24198552

  15. [The age and sex indicators of mortality of population and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the Russian Federation in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    The age-specific mortality coefficients and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality are among important medical demographic characteristics of population health. The study analyzed age and sex indicators of mortality of population in the Russian Federation. The number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality is calculated. The comparison of values of years of life lost in various subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The data of Rosstat concerning population size and number of the deceased in year age groups in the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012 was used. The indicator was calculated on the basis of technique included into "The global burden of diseases report" (2010). The minimal indicators of mortality of males are noted at the age of 11 years (25.4 per 100 000 of population) and females at the age of 10 years (18.2 per 100 000 of population). The maximal differences in indicators of mortality of males and females are marked in the age group 20-29 years (314.5 of males and 92.3 of females per 100 000 of population). The percentage of deceased prior 70 years consists 63.2% among males and 29.9% among females. The total number of years of life lost in the Russian Federation consisted 36 864 309 and out of them 24 321 992 (65.9%) as a result of death of males and 12 542 317 (34.1%) as a result of death of females. The maximum percentage of years of life lost among males is marked in the age group of 51-60 years (24.61%) and among females in the age group of 71-80 years (22.38%). The indicator of years of life lost per 100 000 of population consisted 25769 for total population, 36 753 for male population and 16 314 for female population. The highest rate of indicator of years of life lost is marked in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and the lowest rate in the Republics of the Northern Caucasus and Moscow. However, in all subjects of the Russian Federation indicator of years of life lost is

  16. Estimated disability-adjusted life years averted by free-of-charge provision of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system over a 9-year period in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jessica M; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete; Bahamondes, Maria V; Pitoli, Ana; Bahamondes, Luis

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to analyse the contribution of the provision at no cost to users of the 20 µg/day levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) towards disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted over a 9-year period. We analysed data from 15 030 new users of the LNG-IUS who had the device inserted at 26 Brazilian teaching hospitals between January 2007 and December 2015. The devices came from the International Contraceptive Access Foundation (ICA), a not-for-profit foundation that donates the devices to developing countries for use by low-income women who desire long-term contraception and who freely choose to use this device. Estimation of the DALY averted included live births averted, maternal morbidity and mortality, child mortality and unsafe abortions averted. A total of 15 030 women chose the LNG-IUS as a contraceptive method during the study period. Over the 9 years of evaluation, the estimated cumulative contribution of the Brazilian program in terms of DALY averted consisted of 486 live births, 14 cases of combined maternal mortality and morbidity, 143 cases of child mortality and 410 unsafe abortions. Provision of the LNG-IUS at no cost to low-income Brazilian women reduced unwanted pregnancies and probably averted maternal mortality and morbidity, child mortality and unsafe abortions. Family planning programs, policymakers and stakeholders based in low-resource settings could take advantage of the information that the provision of this contraceptive at no cost, or at affordable cost to a publicly-insured population, is an effective policy to help promote women's health. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Colonization and Succession within the Human Gut Microbiome by Archaea, Bacteria, and Microeukaryotes during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wilmes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations to the colonization process of the human gastrointestinal tract have been suggested to result in adverse health effects later in life. Although much research has been performed on bacterial colonization and succession, much less is known about the other two domains of life, archaea, and eukaryotes. Here we describe colonization and succession by bacteria, archaea and microeukaryotes during the first year of life (samples collected around days 1, 3, 5, 28, 150, and 365 within the gastrointestinal tract of infants delivered either vaginally or by cesarean section and using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR as well as 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Sequences from organisms belonging to all three domains of life were detectable in all of the collected meconium samples. The microeukaryotic community composition fluctuated strongly over time and early diversification was delayed in infants receiving formula milk. Cesarean section-delivered (CSD infants experienced a delay in colonization and succession, which was observed for all three domains of life. Shifts in prokaryotic succession in CSD infants compared to vaginally delivered (VD infants were apparent as early as days 3 and 5, which were characterized by increased relative abundances of the genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, and a decrease in relative abundance for the genera Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides. Generally, a depletion in Bacteroidetes was detected as early as day 5 postpartum in CSD infants, causing a significantly increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between days 5 and 150 when compared to VD infants. Although the delivery mode appeared to have the strongest influence on differences between the infants, other factors such as a younger gestational age or maternal antibiotics intake likely contributed to the observed patterns as well. Our findings complement previous observations of a delay in colonization and succession of CSD infants

  18. Multidimensional construct of life satisfaction in older adults in Korea: a six-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Ja; Min, Dae Kee; Thorpe, Lilian; Lee, Chel Hee

    2016-11-28

    Aging raises wide-ranging issues within social, economic, welfare, and health care systems. Life satisfaction (LS) is regarded as an indicator of quality of life which, in turn, is associated with mortality and morbidity in older adults. The objective of this study was to identify the relevant predictors of life satisfaction and to investigate changes in a multidimensional construct of LS over time. This analysis utilized data from the large-scale, nationally representative Korean Retirement and Income Study (KReIS), a longitudinal survey conducted biennially from 2005 to 2011. Outcome measures were degree of satisfaction with health, economic status, housing, neighbor relationships, and family relationships. GEE models were used to investigate changes in satisfaction within each of the five domains. Of a total 3531 individuals aged 65 or older, 2083 (59%) were women, and the mean age was 72 (s.d = ±6) years. The majority had a spouse (60.8%) and lived in a rural area (58%). Analysis showed that physical and mental health were consistently and significantly associated with satisfaction in each of the domains after adjusting for potential confounders. Living in a rural area and living with a spouse were related to satisfaction with economic, housing, family relationships, and neighbor relationships compared to living in urban areas and living without a spouse; the only outcome that did not show relationship to these predictors was health satisfaction. Female and rural residents reported greater economic satisfaction compared to male and urban residents. Living in an apartment was associated with 1.32 times greater odds of economic satisfaction compared to living in a detached house (95% CI: 1.14-1.53; p satisfaction was also 1.62 times more likely among individuals living with a spouse compared to single households (95% CI: 1.35-1.96; p satisfaction with family relationships. Our study indicates that a single domain of LS or overall LS will miss many

  19. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in the first year of life: the Canadian ATRT registry experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Mary; Li, Haocheng; Afzal, Samina; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Eisenstat, David D; Fleming, Adam; Hukin, Juliette; Hawkins, Cynthia; Jabado, Nada; Johnston, Donna; Brown, Tania; Larouche, Valerie; Scheinemann, Katrin; Strother, Douglas; Wilson, Beverly; Zelcer, Shayna; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie

    2017-01-19

    While 2/3 of patients with ATRT are less than 3 years at diagnosis, the literature suggests younger children present with more aggressive disease and poorer outcome. However, little data exist on characteristics and outcome of patients diagnosed with ATRT in the first year of life. In particular, it is unclear whether they access similar treatments as do older children. We compared the cohort of patients ≤12 months from the Canadian ATRT registry to all cases extracted from the literature reported between 1996 and 2014 to describe their clinical and treatment characteristics, and potential prognostic factors. Twenty-six (33.7%) patients from the Canadian registry were ≤12 months at diagnosis as were 120 cases identified in the literature. Post-operatively, 46% of the registry's patients underwent palliation as opposed to 10.8% in the literature cohort. Palliative patients were significantly younger than those who received active therapy (3.3 vs. 6.6 months). While the use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) was relatively similar in both cohorts (42.9 and 35.5% respectively), radiotherapy (RT) use was significantly lower in the Canadian cohort (14.3 vs 44.9%). Children ≤6 months, who received active therapy, had a worst outcome than older ones. Gross total resection, HDC and adjuvant RT were associated with better outcomes. Eighty percent of the tested patients had evidence of germline mutation of INI1. While 1/3 of ATRT occurs within the first year of life, a large proportion only received palliative therapy. Even when actively treated, children ≤6 months fare worse. Some selected patients benefit from HDC.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization risk in the second year of life by specific congenital heart disease diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah; Fryzek, Jon; Jiang, Xiaohui; Bloomfield, Adam; Ambrose, Christopher S.; Wong, Pierre C.

    2017-01-01

    Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD) are at elevated risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease compared to their healthy peers. Previous studies have demonstrated lower RSV hospitalization risk among all children with CHD at 12–23 months of age versus 0–11 months of age. However, RSV hospitalization risk at 12–23 months of age by specific CHD diagnosis has not been characterized. Both case-control and cohort studies were conducted using data from the US National Inpatient Sample from 1997 to 2013 to characterize relative risk of RSV hospitalization among children 12–23 months of age with CHD. Related CHD diagnoses were combined for analysis. Hospitalizations for RSV and unspecified bronchiolitis were described by length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, mortality, and total charges. Over the 17-year period, 1,168,886 live birth hospitalizations with CHD were identified. Multiple specific CHD conditions had an elevated odds ratio or relative risk of RSV hospitalization. Mean total RSV hospitalization charges were significantly higher among children with CHD relative to those without CHD ($19,650 vs $7,939 in 2015 dollars) for this period. Compared to children without CHD, children with Ebstein’s anomaly, transposition of the great arteries, aortic stenosis, heterotaxia, and aortic arch anomalies had 367-, 344-, 203-, 117- and 47-fold increased risk of inpatient RSV mortality, respectively. Unspecified bronchiolitis hospitalization odds and relative risk across CHD diagnoses were similar to those observed with RSV hospitalization; however, unspecified bronchiolitis hospitalizations were associated with shorter mean days of stay and less frequently associated with mechanical ventilation or mortality. Among children with more severe CHD diagnoses, RSV disease remains an important health risk through the second year of life. These data can help inform decisions regarding

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization risk in the second year of life by specific congenital heart disease diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah; Fryzek, Jon; Jiang, Xiaohui; Bloomfield, Adam; Ambrose, Christopher S; Wong, Pierre C

    2017-01-01

    Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD) are at elevated risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease compared to their healthy peers. Previous studies have demonstrated lower RSV hospitalization risk among all children with CHD at 12-23 months of age versus 0-11 months of age. However, RSV hospitalization risk at 12-23 months of age by specific CHD diagnosis has not been characterized. Both case-control and cohort studies were conducted using data from the US National Inpatient Sample from 1997 to 2013 to characterize relative risk of RSV hospitalization among children 12-23 months of age with CHD. Related CHD diagnoses were combined for analysis. Hospitalizations for RSV and unspecified bronchiolitis were described by length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, mortality, and total charges. Over the 17-year period, 1,168,886 live birth hospitalizations with CHD were identified. Multiple specific CHD conditions had an elevated odds ratio or relative risk of RSV hospitalization. Mean total RSV hospitalization charges were significantly higher among children with CHD relative to those without CHD ($19,650 vs $7,939 in 2015 dollars) for this period. Compared to children without CHD, children with Ebstein's anomaly, transposition of the great arteries, aortic stenosis, heterotaxia, and aortic arch anomalies had 367-, 344-, 203-, 117- and 47-fold increased risk of inpatient RSV mortality, respectively. Unspecified bronchiolitis hospitalization odds and relative risk across CHD diagnoses were similar to those observed with RSV hospitalization; however, unspecified bronchiolitis hospitalizations were associated with shorter mean days of stay and less frequently associated with mechanical ventilation or mortality. Among children with more severe CHD diagnoses, RSV disease remains an important health risk through the second year of life. These data can help inform decisions regarding interventions to

  2. School of Nursing: 65 years in the formation of health-and life-care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Vásquez Truissi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With this special number by the Colombia Médicajournal, we wish to participate in the commemorationof the 65 years since the creation of the School ofNursing at Universidad del Valle. This journal, officialorganism of scientific diffusion at the University, joinsthis celebration to manifest recognition and gratitude tothe founders, directors of the School and to the facultystaff who with their tenacity, vision, and sense ofpertinence have contributed to placing this AcademicUnit at the highest levels. There have been manycontributions during these six and a half decades, butperhaps, one that gives us the most satisfaction is thatof having been able to contribute to the high-levelformation of human talent in nursing, not only at thelocal level but regionally, nationally, and internationally.The graduates from the different undergraduate andgraduate programs can attest, through their outstandingprofessional performance, of this contribution to society.This supplement seeks to gather, besides the history ofover half a century of our raison d’être in nursing, someof the paths that have been marking the perspective ofthe School. For this reason, we are presenting themeslike disciplinary development in nursing, which reflectsthe multiple searches for the construction and projectionof the exercise of the profession noting that the futureraises complex and unavoidable challenges; likewise,the themes of student leadership and counseling makeus encounter the tensions experienced on a daily basisas an institution dedicated to the formation of humantalent in nursing, given that we are urged to reflect andjoin efforts to question ourselves critically on what typeof human beings are being formed at the University andwhat society will be built with them. Finally, anotherpath the School has been developing is the use ofinnovation and communications technologies. This hasbeen one of the bastions that for over two decades haveguided our teaching activities

  3. [Abdominal pain syndrome and quality of life in patients with cholelithiasis after cholecystectomy during a 10-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Yu V; Litvinova, N V; Osipenko, M F; Voloshina, N B

    To estimate the incidence of abdominal pain syndrome (APS) and to assess quality of life (QOL) in patients within 10 years after cholecystectomy (CE). This investigation is part of a long-term prospective follow-up study of patients after CE for cholelithiasis (CL). It enrolled 145 people: 30 (21.5%) patients with baseline asymptomatic CL and 115 (80.7%) with its clinical manifestations. The time course of changes in APS and QOL were analyzed. Over 10 years, all the patients showed a decrease in the incidence of APS from 84.1% (n=95) to 66.4% (n=75; p=0.004). In Group 1 (n=89), APS was at baseline detected in all the patients; 10 years later, its incidence declined to 67.4% (n=60; p < 0.001). Biliary pains were predominant; these had been identified significantly less frequently over the 10-year period in 47 (52.8%) patients; p<0.001). In Group 2 (n=24), pre-CE APS was generally detected in 6 (25%) patients; following 10 years, the incidence rates of pain significantly increased to 62.5% (n=15; p=0.035), among which there were predominant biliary pains (in 54.2%; p<0.001) and dyspepsia from 33.3% (n=8) up to 66.7% (n=16; p=0.039). QOL in the physical and mental health domains was found to decrease in both groups. Ten years after CE, the group with the baseline clinical manifestations of CL and poorer QOL showed a lower incidence of APS mainly due to the reduced incidence of biliary pains and the baseline asymptomatic group exhibited a rise in the incidence of APS due to the appearance of biliary pains and dyspepsia.

  4. Omega-3 supplementation during the first 5 years of life and later academic performance: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, B K; Toelle, B G; Webb, K L; Almqvist, C; Marks, G B

    2015-04-01

    Consumption of oily fish more than once per week has been shown to improve cognitive outcomes in children. However, it is unknown whether similar benefits can be achieved by long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The objective was to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during the first 5 years of life on subsequent academic performance in children by conducting a secondary analysis of the CAPS (Childhood Asthma Prevention Study). A total of 616 infants with a family history of asthma were randomised to receive tuna fish oil (high in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, active) or Sunola oil (low in omega-3 fatty acids, control) from the time breastfeeding ceased or at the age of 6 months until the age of 5 years. Academic performance was measured by a nationally standardised assessment of literacy and numeracy (National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)) in school years 3, 5, 7 and 9. Plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels were measured at regular intervals until 8 years of age. Between-group differences in test scores, adjusted for maternal age, birth weight and maternal education, were estimated using mixed-model regression. Among 239 children, there were no significant differences in NAPLAN scores between active and control groups. However, at 8 years, the proportion of omega-3 fatty acid in plasma was positively associated with the NAPLAN score (0.13 s.d. unit increase in score per 1% absolute increase in plasma omega-3 fatty acid (95% CI 0.03, 0.23)). Our findings do not support the practice of supplementing omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of young children to improve academic outcomes. Further exploration is needed to understand the association between plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels at 8 years and academic performance.

  5. Health-related quality of life after vertebral or hip fracture: a seven-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Göran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative impact of vertebral and hip low-energy fractures on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL has been demonstrated previously, but few prospective long-term follow-up studies have been conducted. This study aims to (i investigate the changes and long-term impact of vertebral or hip fracture and between fracture groups on HRQOL in postmenopausal women prospectively between two and seven years after the inclusion fracture, (ii compare HRQOL results between fracture and reference groups and (iii study the relationship between HRQOL and physical performance, spinal deformity index and bone mineral density at seven-year follow-up. Methods Ninety-one women examined two years after a low-energy vertebral or hip fracture were invited to a new examination seven years after the diagnosis. HRQOL was examined using the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared with an age and sex-matched reference group. Physical function was assessed using tests and questionnaires. Bone mineral density was measured. Radiographs of the spine were evaluated using the visual semiquantitative technique. A longitudinal and cross-sectional design was used in this study. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, ANCOVA, and partial correlation. Results Sixty-seven women participated. In the 42 women (mean age 75.8, SD 4.7 with vertebral fracture as inclusion fracture, bodily pain had deteriorated between two and seven years and might be explained by new fracture. Remaining pronounced reduction of HRQOL was seen in all domains except general health and mental health at seven-year follow-up in women with vertebral fractures compared to the reference group (p Conclusion The long-term reduction of HRQOL in women with vertebral fracture emerged clearly in this study. The relationships between HRQOL and physical performance in women with vertebral and hip fracture raise questions for more research.

  6. Self-reported health-related quality of life predicts 5-year mortality and hospital readmissions in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe; Helmark, Lotte; Hoogwegt, Madelein; Versteeg, Henneke; Höfer, Stefan; Oldridge, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important health outcome with lower HRQL associated with adverse events in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Design Baseline health-related quality of life was investigated as a predictor of 5-year all-cause mortality and

  7. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  8. Self-reported health-related quality of life predicts 5-year mortality and hospital readmissions in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important health outcome with lower HRQL associated with adverse events in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN: Baseline health-related quality of life was investigated as a predictor of 5-year all-cause mortality...

  9. 26 CFR 1.7520-1T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the fair market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including unitrust... value of a single life remainder interest in a pooled income fund as defined in § 1.642(c)-5. See § 1... present value of a remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust as defined in § 1.664-3. See § 1...

  10. Closest to the Heart--The Life of Emerson Hynes: A Biographical Study of Human Goodness with a Focus on the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofell, Jeanne Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined human goodness as lived through the life of Emerson Hynes with a focus on the college years. Emerson Hynes was an ethics and sociology professor at St. John's University during the 1940s and 50s before he became legislative assistant to Senator Eugene McCarthy. He cared deeply about ethics and was a leader in family life,…

  11. Evaluation of a Life Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use in Two European Countries: One-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Weichold, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Life skills programs are effective tools to combat youth substance use. However there is a lack of studies concerning their effectiveness in Europe. Objective: This study investigated the 1 year follow up effects and the program implementation of a life skills school-based intervention (IPSY: Information + Psychosocial…

  12. Does preservation of the sub-valvular apparatus during mitral valve replacement affect long-term survival and quality of life? A Microsimulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtuza Bari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Techniques to preserve the sub-valvular apparatus in order to reduce morbidity and mortality following mitral valve replacement have been frequently reported. However, it is uncertain what impact sub-valvular apparatus preservation techniques have on long-term outcomes following mitral valve replacement. This study investigated the effect of sub-valvular apparatus preservation on long-term survival and quality of life following mitral valve replacement. Methods A microsimulation model was used to compare long-term survival and quality-adjusted life years following mitral valve replacement after conventional valve replacement and sub-valvular apparatus preservation. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and alternative analysis were performed to investigate uncertainty associated with the results. Results Our Analysis suggests that patients survive longer if the sub-valvular apparatus are preserved (65.7% SD 1.5%, compared with 58.1% SD 1.6% at 10 years. The quality adjusted life years gained over a 10 year period where also greater after sub-valvular apparatus preservation. (6.54 QALY SD 0.07 QALY, compared with 5.61 QALY, SD 0.07 QALY. The superiority of preservation techniques was insensitive to patient age, parameter or model uncertainty. Conclusion This study suggests that long-term outcomes may be improved when the sub-valvular apparatus are preserved. Given the lack of empirical data further research is needed to investigate health-related quality of life after mitral valve replacement, and to establish whether outcomes differ between preservation techniques.

  13. Quality of life of elderly ischaemic stroke patients one year after thrombolytic therapy. A comparison between patients with and without thrombolytic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Leonie; Luijckx, Gert-Jan R.; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Background: An observational study to examine whether thrombolytic therapy in stroke patients realizes better quality of life outcomes compared to patients without thrombolytic therapy one year after stroke. We also examined whether daily functioning, mental functioning and activities improved after

  14. Maternal care and attachment security in the first year of life/Cuidado materno y seguridad del apego antes del primer ano de vida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasson, Emilia; Bauer, Maria; Conde, Gabriela; del Prado, Juan Nunez; Noblega, Magaly; de Litvan, Marina Altmann; Carbonell, Olga Alicia; Barrig, Patricia; de Perkal, Alicia Weigensberg; Gonzalez, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, there is lack of studies that have analyzed it in the first year of life. The present study related maternal sensitivity and child secure base behavior in a group of 32 Peruvian mothers of low income families...

  15. Effects of pet exposure in the first year of life on respiratory and allergic symptoms in 7-yr-old children. The SIDRIA-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Enrico; Simoni, Marzia; La Grutta, Stefania; Viegi, Giovanni; Bisanti, Luigi; Chellini, Elisabetta; Dell'Orco, Valerio; Migliore, Enrica; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Pistelli, Riccardo; Rusconi, Franca; Sestini, Piersante; Forastiere, Francesco; Galassi, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    The effects of pet exposure on the development of respiratory symptoms have recently been the matter of vivid discussion. Our objective was to determine the effects of exposure to cat or dog in the first year of life on subsequent respiratory/allergic symptoms in children in a large Italian multicentre study. As part of the SIDRIA-2 Study (Studi Italiani sui Disturbi Respiratori dell'Infanzia e l'Ambiente 2002), the parents of 20016 children (median age 7 yr) provided information on indoor exposures at different times in life and respiratory/allergic symptoms through questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were performed taking into account cat or dog exposure at different times in life and adjusting for the presence of the other pet, mould exposure, gender, age, parental education, maternal smoking during the first year of life, current passive smoking, family history of asthma/rhinitis/eczema and other potential confounders. Neither significant effects of dog exposure in the first year of life nor in other periods were found on respiratory/allergic symptoms after adjusting for the other covariates. Cat exposure in the first year of life was significantly and independently associated with current wheezing [OR (95% CI) 1.88 (1.33-2.68), p dog, exposure in the first year of life is an independent risk factor for current wheezing, current asthma and current rhinoconjunctivitis at the age of 7.

  16. Implications of sperm banking for health-related quality of life up to 1 year after cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, A; Merrick, H; Arden-Close, E; Morris, K; Rowe, R; Stark, D; Eiser, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sperm banking is recommended for all men diagnosed with cancer where treatment is associated with risk of long-term gonadatoxicity, to offer the opportunity of fatherhood and improved quality of life. However, uptake of sperm banking is lower than expected and little is known about why men refuse. Our aims were to determine: (i) demographic and medical variables associated with decisions about banking and (ii) differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers at diagnosis (Time 1 (T1)) and 1 year later (Time 2 (T2)). Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 91 men (response rate=86.67%) at T1 and 78 (85.71% response rate) at T2. Results: In all, 44 (56.41%) banked sperm. They were younger and less likely to have children than non-bankers. In a subset of men who were not sure if they wanted children in the future (n=36), 24 banked sperm. Among this group, those who banked were younger, more satisfied with clinic appointments and less worried about the health of future children. At T2, there were no differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers. Conclusion: For those who are uncertain about future reproductive plans, decisions depend on their health on diagnosis and satisfaction with clinic care. We conclude that extra care should be taken in counselling younger men who may have given little consideration to future parenting. Results support previous findings that the role of the doctor is vital in facilitating decisions, especially for those who are undecided about whether they wanted children in the future or not. PMID:23470465

  17. Sublingual Buprenorphine and Methadone Maintenance Treatment: A Three-Year Follow-Up of Quality of Life Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore M. Giacomuzzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare long-term outcome effects on the quality of life (QOL of oral methadone with sublingual buprenorphine maintenance treatment. The QOL status of opioid-dependent patients was assessed using the German version (“Berlin Quality of Life Profile” of the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. Physical symptoms were measured using the Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OWS. Urine tests were carried out randomly to detect additional consumption. In the first study period, 53 opioid-dependent subjects were enrolled and 25 could be reached after 3 years. The retention rate was 50% for methadone and 45% for buprenorphine (p = 0.786. Baseline values of the total sample (completers and noncompleters QOL and somatic complaints did not show significant differences between the two treatment groups. QOL characteristics at 6 months of treatment of the buprenorphine completer and noncompleter groups differed significantly regarding job (p = 0.013, family, and total score of physical symptoms (p = 0.002, in which the completer group showed the more favorable values. Concerning physical symptoms at 36 months, logistic regression revealed significantly less stomach cramps (p = 0.037 and fatigue and tiredness (p = 0.034 in buprenorphine compared to the methadone. Moreover, the buprenorphine-maintained group showed significantly less additional consumption of benzodiazepines (p = 0.015 compared with methadone participants. It is concluded that opioid addicts improved their QOL and health status when treated with methadone or buprenorphine. In summary, regarding QOL and health status, the present data indicate that buprenorphine is also a useful long-term alternative for maintenance treatment of opioid-dependent patients.

  18. Comparison of the impact of radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy on the quality of life of 1-year survivors with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krikeli M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marianthi Krikeli1, Maria T Ekonomopoulou2, Ioannis Tzitzikas3, Antonios Goutzioulis4, Kyriaki Mystakidou5, Kyriaki Pistevou-Gombaki31Department of Radiation Oncology, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Laboratory of General Biology and Genetics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Radiation-Oncology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 44th Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Pain Relief and Palliative Care Department, Areteion Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Improvement of screening programs and new treatment strategies against cervical cancer (CC have increased survival rates of patients in the last decades. As more women survive this type of cancer, their quality of life (QOL has become a field of great scientific and social importance. Different types of therapy have varying results on the QOL of patients. In this study, we compared the impact of radiotherapy (RAD and radiochemotherapy (RAD/CHEM on CC patients’QOL. Our sample included 105 women who suffered from CC stages IA-IIIA. They were treated either with RAD or RAD/CHEM, and filled in the questionnaires 1 year after treatment completion. We used 4 questionnaires, EORTC QLQ C-30, EORTC QLQ-C24, Questionnaire of Post-traumatic Psychological Disorder, and Greek Symptom Control Questionnaire by M.D. Anderson, in order to assess their QOL. Except for differences in descriptive characteristics of the patients’ (age, number of children, contraceptives and early toxicity in some organs, no statistically significant difference was observed in the main (physical, sexual, emotional aspects of life between the 2 groups of treated patients. Treatment type had no effect on total QOL. In conclusion, the addition of CHEM to RAD in the treatment plan of CC patients had no significant impact on their QOL

  19. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  20. 76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... and life contingencies prescribed in Sec. 20.2031-7 of this chapter (or for periods before May 1, 2009... transferred to a pooled income fund is computed on the basis of-- (i) Life contingencies determined from the... charitable remainder unitrust. (a) * * * (1) Life contingencies determined as to each life involved, from...

  1. Use of PET/CT instead of CT-only when planning for radiation therapy does not notably increase life years lost in children being treated for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornerup, Josefine S.; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [Rigshospitalet, Section of Radiotherapy, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Niels Bohr Institute, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brodin, Patrik [Rigshospitalet, Section of Radiotherapy, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute for Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Birk Christensen, Charlotte; Borgwardt, Lise [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bjoerk-Eriksson, Thomas [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kiil-Berthelsen, Anne [Rigshospitalet, Section of Radiotherapy, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-04-01

    PET/CT may be more helpful than CT alone for radiation therapy planning, but the added risk due to higher doses of ionizing radiation is unknown. To estimate the risk of cancer induction and mortality attributable to the [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET and CT scans used for radiation therapy planning in children with cancer, and compare to the risks attributable to the cancer treatment. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for 40 children (2-18 years old) who had been scanned using PET/CT as part of radiation therapy planning. The risk of inducing secondary cancer was estimated using the models in BEIR VII. The prognosis of an induced cancer was taken into account and the reduction in life expectancy, in terms of life years lost, was estimated for the diagnostics and compared to the life years lost attributable to the therapy. Multivariate linear regression was performed to find predictors for a high contribution to life years lost from the radiation therapy planning diagnostics. The mean contribution from PET to the effective dose from one PET/CT scan was 24% (range: 7-64%). The average proportion of life years lost attributable to the nuclear medicine dose component from one PET/CT scan was 15% (range: 3-41%). The ratio of life years lost from the radiation therapy planning PET/CT scans and that of the cancer treatment was on average 0.02 (range: 0.01-0.09). Female gender was associated with increased life years lost from the scans (P < 0.001). Using FDG-PET/CT instead of CT only when defining the target volumes for radiation therapy of children with cancer does not notably increase the number of life years lost attributable to diagnostic examinations. (orig.)

  2. [Six years of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Germany: the 100th provider course in Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzberg, M; Mahlke, L; Bouillon, B; Paffrath, T; Matthes, G; Wölfl, C G

    2010-07-01

    With over 1 million certified physicians in more than 50 countries worldwide, the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) concept is one of the most successful international education programs. The concept is simple, priority-orientated (ABCDE scheme) and assesses the situation of the trauma patient on the basis of vital signs to treat the life-threatening injuries immediately. With over 100 ATLS provider courses and 10 instruction courses accomplished in less than 6 years, no other land in the world has successfully established this concept in such a short time as Germany. Meanwhile nearly 1,600 colleagues have been trained and certified. Evaluation of the first 100 ATLS courses in Germany supports this concept. The total evaluation of all courses is 1.36 (1.06-1.8, n=100). The individual parts of the course were marked as followed: presentations 1.6 (1.0-2.81, n=100), practical skills stations 1.46 (1.0-2.4, n=100) and surgical skills stations 1.38 (1.0-2.38, n=100). In 2009 a total of 47 ATLS courses were accomplished which will clearly increase in 2010. Other ATLS formats, such as ATCN (Advanced Trauma Care for Nurses) and refresher courses are planned for the beginning of 2010.

  3. Predictors of Poststroke Health-Related Quality of Life in Nigerian Stroke Survivors: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiru Mohammad Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the predictors in the different aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL and to measure the changes of functional status over time in a cohort of Nigerian stroke survivors. A prospective observational study was conducted in three hospitals of Kano state of Nigeria where stroke survivors receive rehabilitation. The linguistic-validated Hausa versions of the stroke impact scale 3.0, modified Rankin scale, Barthel index and Beck depression inventory scales were used. Paired samples t-test was used to calculate the amount of changes that occur over time and the forward stepwise linear regression model was used to identify the predictors. A total of 233 stroke survivors were surveyed at 6 months, and 93% (217/233 were followed at 1 year after stroke. Functional disabilities were significantly reduced during the recovery phase. Motor impairment, disability, and level of depression were independent predictors of HRQoL in the multivariate regression analysis. The involvement of family members as caregivers is the key factor for those survivors with improved functional status. Thus, to enhance the quality of poststroke life, it is proposed that a holistic stroke rehabilitation service and an active involvement of family members are established at every possible level.

  4. Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010−2011 academic year were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35 and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35, while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  5. Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-10

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  6. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  7. Quality of life in children and adolescents one-year after cure of Cushing syndrome: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Margaret F.; Merke, Deborah P.; Gandhi, Roma; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Obunse, Kathy; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is associated with symptoms that may impair health related quality of life (HRQL). There are no prospective reports of HRQL in children with CS. Methods Prospective study of 40 children (mean age 13 ± 3.2 years) with CS evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) was used to assess HRQL; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WASI) was used to assess cognitive function, and patient-reported symptoms were assessed with a CS symptom checklist. Results Active CS was associated with low physical and psychosocial summary scores compared to US population data (p< 0.001). Despite improvement from pre- to one-year post-cure, residual impairment remained in physical summary and function and scores, role-physical, global health, and emotional impact (parent). Incomplete recovery of adrenal function at one-year post-treatment was associated with impaired scores. WASI IQ scores declined and a correlation was noted between age at first evaluation and IQ score changes. Most self-reported CS symptoms showed improvement, but forgetfulness, unclear thinking, and decreased attention span did not improve after cure of CS. Conclusion CS in children and adolescents is associated with impaired HRQL, with residual impairment one-year after cure. Our results also suggest that younger children are more likely to experience negative changes in cognitive function. HRQL is an important outcome measure in children and adolescents with CS and identification of factors that contribute to HRQL may help to diminish the physical and psychological burden of disease in this population of patients. PMID:19170709

  8. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickman Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cigarette smoking during foetal and early postnatal life may have implications for lung health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of such exposure in utero on lower respiratory disease in children up to two years of age. Methods A birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for two years using parental questionnaires. When the infant was two months old the parents completed a questionnaire on various lifestyle factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and after birth. At one and two years of age information was obtained by questionnaire on symptoms of allergic and respiratory diseases as well as on environmental exposures, particularly exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results When the mother had smoked during pregnancy but not after that, there was an increased risk of recurrent wheezing up to two years' age, ORadj = 2.2, (95% CI 1.3 – 3.6. The corresponding OR was 1.6, (95% CI 1.2 – 2.3 for reported exposure to ETS with or without maternal smoking in utero. Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS also increased the risk of doctor's diagnosed asthma up to two years of age, ORadj = 2.1, (95% CI 1.2 – 3.7. Conclusion Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in utero is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing, as well as doctor's diagnosed asthma in children up to two yearsof age.

  9. Burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise - a quantification of healthy life years lost in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bodin, Theo; Selander, Jenny

    2017-06-09

    Objectives National quantifications of the health burden related to traffic noise are still rare. In this study, we use disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure to assess the burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise in Sweden. Methods The number of DALY was assessed for annoyance, sleep disturbance, hypertension, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke using a method previously implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO). Population exposure to noise was obtained from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Transport Administration. Data on disease occurrence were gathered from registers held by the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden. Disability weights (DW) and duration were based on WHO definitions. Finally, we used research-based exposure-response functions or relative risks to estimate disease attributable to noise in each exposure category. Results The number of DALY attributed to traffic noise in Sweden was estimated to be 41 033 years; 36 711 (90%) related to road traffic and 4322 (10%) related to railway traffic. The most important contributor to the disease burden was sleep disturbances, accounting for 22 218 DALY (54%), followed by annoyance, 12 090 DALY (30%), and cardiovascular diseases, 6725 DALY (16%). Conclusions Road traffic and railway noise contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Sweden each year. The total number of DALY should, however, be interpreted with caution due to limitations in data quality.

  10. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving.

  11. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohort. Clinical data on development of allergic sensitization, allergic rhinitis, nasal eosinophilia, blood eosinophilia, eczema, troublesome lung symptoms (significant cough or wheeze or dyspnoea) and asthma were collected prospectively...... was significantly associated with development of allergic sensitization (Odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-1.89), nasal eosinophilia (Odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.8), and eczema (Hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0), but not with allergic rhinitis, asthma or blood eosinophilia. Neither leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 nor 11ß......-prostaglandin-F2a was associated with any of the atopic phenotypes. Conclusion Eosinophil protein-X in urine from asymptomatic neonates is a biomarker significantly associated with later development of allergic sensitization, nasal eosinophilia and eczema during the first 6 years of life. These findings suggest...

  12. Critical period for first language: the crucial role of language input during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Rusou, Dana

    2015-12-01

    The critical period for language acquisition is often explored in the context of second language acquisition. We focus on a crucially different notion of critical period for language, with a crucially different time scale: that of a critical period for first language acquisition. We approach this question by examining the language outcomes of children who missed their critical period for acquiring a first language: children who did not receive the required language input because they grew in isolation or due to hearing impairment and children whose brain has not developed normally because of thiamine deficiency. We find that the acquisition of syntax in a first language has a critical period that ends during the first year of life, and children who missed this window of opportunity later show severe syntactic impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Coverage of the basic immunization schedule in the first year of life in State capitals in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Lorena Lauren Chaves; Monteiro, Silvio Gomes; Mochel, Elba Gomide; Veras, Maria Amélia de Sousa Mascena; Sousa, Francisca Georgina Macêdo de; Bezerra, Márcio Lee de Meneses; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-02-01

    Vaccination coverage in the so-called "developing countries" is still lower than expected. Such coverage is an important indicator of population health and the quality of care provided by the health care system. The current study describes the results of a household survey to estimate coverage of the basic immunization schedule in the first year of life in State capitals in Northeast Brazil, for the 2005 birth cohort. The methodology used was that recommended by the Pan American Health Organization for surveys on vaccination coverage. According to the data, vaccination coverage fell short of the goals set by the National Immunization Program for this age group, at high risk of acquiring vaccine-preventable diseases. The lowest coverage rates were found at the two extremes of socioeconomic strata. Assessment of vaccination coverage indicates whether the infant population is immunized and helps identify weak points in vaccination activities.

  14. A cognitive perspective on object relations, drive development and ego structure in the second and third years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posener, J A

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends a recent line of research by correlating Piaget's theory of cognitive development with several psychoanalytic perspectives on development during the second and third years of life. The concrete, imagistic, unintegrated nature of mental representations associated by Mahler and Kernberg with this period, along with the mental operation of splitting, are related to preconceptual representation, a cognitive mode described by Piaget. Psychoanalytic perspectives on the body ego and object world associated with the anal period are also seen to involve concrete, unintegrated representations which show correspondence with preconceptual cognition. Parallels are explored between cognitive stages and the psychoanalytic understanding of ego and superego development. While psychoanalysis is not a cognitive psychology, aspects of its theory are concerned with cognitive structure and are enriched by a consideration of cognitive development.

  15. Obesity, mortality, and life years lost associated with breast cancer in nonsmoking US Women, National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Pollack, Lisa M; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-11-14

    The relationship between obesity and breast cancer has been extensively investigated. However, how obesity and breast cancer interplay to affect mortality and life expectancy of women in the United States has not been well studied. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2000. Our sample included nonsmoking, nonpregnant women who reported a body mass index of at least 18.5 kg/m(2) and no cancer other than breast cancer at the time of the survey. A survival model with Gamma frailty and Gompertz baseline was used to estimate relative risks of total mortality and project life years lost associated with breast cancer by obesity status and age. Breast cancer increased risk of mortality depending on degree of obesity and decreased life years by 1 to 12 years depending on race, age, and obesity status. Relative risks for death increased with degree of obesity. Obese women under age 50 across all racial groups were predicted to lose the most life years; racial groups other than whites and blacks lost the most life years (11.9 y), followed by whites (9.8 y) and blacks (9.2 y). The number of life years lost associated with breast cancer was more marked for more obese than for less obese women and for women under age 50 and women aged 70 or older than for women aged 50 through 69. Public health initiatives should put more emphasis on the prevention and control of obesity for these target populations.

  16. Trajectories of life satisfaction during one-year period among university students: Relations with measures of achievement strategies and perception of criteria for adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Piumatti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine how university students’ achievement strategies in an academic context and perceptions of criteria for adulthood relate to life satisfaction trajectories across one year. Methods: A convenience sample of 143 young adults 18-28 years (mean age: 20.9±2.7 years; 109 females and 34 males attending the University of Turin in northwest Italy completed questionnaires at three points with a six-month interval between each measurement. Latent Growth Curve Modelling and Latent Class Growth Analysis were used to assess longitudinal changes in life satisfaction and the related heterogeneity within the current sample. Results: Three trajectories of life satisfaction emerged: high stable (37%, moderate decreasing (57%, and low stable (6%. At every time point high success expectations were related to a high stable life satisfaction trajectory. In turn, those adopting achievement avoidance strategies were more likely to have low-stable or moderately decreasing life satisfaction trajectories. The perception of the criteria deemed important to be defined as adults did not change across time points or across life satisfaction trajectories’ groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that self-reported measures of achievement strategies among university students relate longitudinally to life satisfaction levels. Positive and optimistic dimensions of personal striving may be protective factors against the risk of decrease of life satisfaction among university students.

  17. Quality of life after laparoscopic gastric banding: Prospective study (152 cases) with a follow-up of 2 years.

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    Champault, Axèle; Duwat, Olivier; Polliand, Claude; Rizk, Nabil; Champault, Gérard G

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate influence of laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with morbid obesity. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a popular bariatric operation in Europe. The objectives of surgical therapy in patients with morbid obesity are reduction of body weight, and a positive influence on the obesity-related comorbidity as well the concomitant psychologic and social restrictions of these patients. In a prospective clinical trial, development of the individual patient QOL was analyzed, after LGB in patients with morbid obesity. From October 1999 to January 2001, 152 patients [119 women, 33 men, mean age 38.4 y (range 24 to 62), mean body mass index 44.3 (range 38 to 63)] underwent evaluation for LGB according the following protocol: history of obesity; concise counseling of patients and relative on nonsurgical treatment alternatives, risk of surgery, psychologic testing, questionnaire for eating habits, necessity of lifestyle change after surgery; medical evaluation including endocrinologic and nutritionist work-up, upper GI endoscopy, evaluation of QOL using the Gastro Intestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Decision for surgery was a multidisciplinary consensus. This group was follow-up at least 2 years, focusing on weight loss and QOL. Mean operative time was 82 minutes; mean hospital stay was 2.3 days and the mean follow-up period was 34 months. The BMI dropped from 44.3 to 29.6 kg/m and all comorbid conditions improved markedly: diabetes melitus resolved in 71% of the patients, hypertension in 33%, and sleep apnea in 90%. However, 26 patients (17%) had late complications requiring reoperation. Preoperative global GIQLI score was 95 (range 56 to 140), significant different of the healthy volunteers score (120) (70 to 140) P < 0.001. Correlated with weight loss (percentage loss of overweight and BMI), the global score of the group increased to 100 at 3 months, 104 at 6, 111 at 1 year to reach 119 at 2 years which is no

  18. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later.

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    Rugema, Lawrence; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gunilla, Krantz

    2013-12-28

    participants in this population-based study witnessed or experienced serious traumatic episodes during the genocide, which influenced their life circumstances 17 years later. Such traumatic episodes are however still taking place. The reasons for this need further investigation.

  19. Changes in health-related quality of life from 6 months to 2 years after discharge from intensive care

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    Flaatten Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensive care patients have, both before and after the ICU stay, a health-related quality of life (HRQOL that differs from that of the normal population. Studies have described changes in HRQOL in the period from before the ICU stay and up to 12 months after. The aim of this study was to investigate possible longitudinal changes in HRQOL in adult patients (>18 years from 6 months to 2 years after discharge from a general, mixed intensive care unit (ICU in a university hospital. Methods This is a prospective cohort study. Follow-up patients were found using the ICU database and the Peoples Registry. HRQOL was measured with the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Answers at 6 months and 2 years were compared for all patients, surgical and medical patients, and different admission cohorts. Differences are presented with 95% confidence intervals. The SF-36 data were scored according to designed equations. SPSS 11.0 was used to perform t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests. Results A total of 100 patients (26 medical and 74 surgical answered the SF-36 after 6 months and again after 2 years. There was overall moderate improvement in 6 out of 8 dimensions of the SF-36, and the average increase in score was + 4.0 for all 8 dimensions. The changes for surgical and medical patients were similar. Neurological and respiratory patients reported increased average HRQOL scores, while cardiovascular patients did not. Patients with worsening of scores from 6 months to 2 years were insignificantly older than patients with improved scores (55.3 vs. 49.7 years, and both groups had comparable severity scores (simplified acute physiology score, SAPS II, 37.2 vs. 36.3 and length of ICU stay (2.7 vs. 3.2 days. The statistically significant changes in HRQOL (in the Role Physical and Social Functioning dimensions were, due to sample size, barely clinically relevant. Conclusion In a mixed ICU population we found moderate increases in HRQOL both for medical

  20. Predictors of work status and quality of life 9-13 years after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrahage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkki, Juhani; Juvela, Seppo; Malmivaara, Kirsi; Siironen, Jari; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2012-08-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes long-term psychosocial impairments even in patients who regain functional independence. Little is known about predictors of these impairments. We studied how early clinical data and neuropsychological results predict work status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 9-13 years after SAH. One hundred one patients performed a neuropsychological test battery and returned their self-rating and partner's rating of a psychosocial impairment questionnaire approximately 1 year after SAH. These data were analyzed for association to the patients' work status and self-rated HRQoL approximately 10 years later. Age inversely, lower levels of self-rated impairments, employment and higher levels of education at the first follow-up independently predicted employment at the long-term follow-up. Although most cognitive test results were significantly associated with employment status at the long-term follow-up, they were of limited additional value as predictors of work status. The best predictor combination for long-term high HRQoL was good performance in a face recognition test and lower levels of self-rated impairments at the first follow-up as well as male sex. Problems in usual activities at the long-term follow-up were predicted by poor results in the face recognition and in a word list-learning task. Questionnaire ratings of patients' psychosocial impairments 1 year after SAH give important information for the long-term prediction of their work status and HRQoL. In the long run, patients' unemployment becomes strongly associated with higher age, while their performance of usual activities can be predicted with learning and memory results.

  1. Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men

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    Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat1, Gérard Papouin2, Philippe Saint-Val3, Antonio Lopez21Axe sante des populations et environmentale, CHUQ, Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 2Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Territorial du Taone, 3Fédération Tahitienne de Karaté, Papeete, French PolynesiaBackground: Aging is associated with a decrease in physical skills, sometimes accompanied by a change in quality of life (QOL. Long-term martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of an adapted karate training program on QOL, depression, and motor skills in 50-year-old men.Methods and design: Fifteen 50-year-old men were enrolled in a one-year prospective experiment. Participants practiced adapted karate training for 90 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving completion of the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36 and Beck Depression Inventory, as well as motor and effort evaluation, were done at baseline, and six and 12 months.Results: Compared with baseline, participants had better Beck Depression Inventory scores after one year of karate training (P < 0.01 and better perception of their physical health (P < 0.01, but not on the mental dimension (P < 0.49. They also improved their reaction time scores for the nondominant hand and sway parameters in the eyes-closed position (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Regular long-term karate practice had favorable effects on mood, perception of physical health confirmed by better postural control, and improved performance on objective physical testing. Adapted karate training would be an interesting option for maintaining physical activity in aging.Keywords: karate, balance, training, sport, aging

  2. Quality of life of 5–10 year breast cancer survivors diagnosed between age 40 and 49

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    Taplin Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this report is to examine the correlates of quality of life (QOL of a well-defined group of long-term breast cancer survivors diagnosed between the ages of 40 and 49. Methods Women were eligible if they were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ 5 to 10 years before June 30, 1998 and were enrolled at Group Health Cooperative, a health maintenance organization in western Washington State. A questionnaire was mailed to 290 women; 216 were included in this analysis. The questionnaire included standardized measures of QOL [e.g., the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES-SF and SF-36] as well as general demographic and medical information. ANOVA and logistic regression were used to estimate correlates of self-reported QOL. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 44.4 years, and the average time since diagnosis was 7.3 years. Women reported high levels of functioning across several standardized QOL scales; mild impairment was found on the CARES-SF Sexual Scale. The presence of breast-related symptoms at survey, use of adjuvant therapy, having lower income, and type of breast surgery were significantly associated with lower QOL 5 to 10 years post-diagnosis on one or more of the scales. Conclusions Our results emphasize that younger long-term survivors of breast cancer have a high QOL across several standardized measures. However, the long-term consequences of adjuvant therapy and the management of long-term breast-related symptoms are two areas that may be important for clinicians and women with breast cancer in understanding and optimizing long-term QOL.

  3. Neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants in the first two years of life in a Havana tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Gianny; Gómez, Yahima; Roca, María del Carmen; Domínguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Improved survival rates of neonates with very low birth weight (Havana tertiary care hospital. A case-series study was conducted to assess neurodevelopment outcomes of very low birth weight infants over their first two years of life. The study population comprised 116 surviving neonates with very low birth weight (Havana, Cuba, 2006-2010. A longitudinal, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary follow up of all infants' neurodevelopment was performed, from hospital discharge to age two years, corrected for gestational age at birth. Data on each infant's perinatal variables were collected: birth weight in grams, gestational age at birth, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Patients were classified as having normal neurodevelopment, mild abnormalities and moderate-to-severe abnormalities. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine possible relationships between perinatal variables studied and neurodevelopment, with exact sampling distribution and 95% confidence level. Normal neurodevelopment was observed in 69% of very low birth weight infants, 25.9% had mild abnormalities, and 5.2% displayed moderate-to-severe abnormalities. The results demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between gestational age and neurodevelopmental outcomes; more neurodevelopmental abnormalities were found in infants born at earlier gestational age (<30 weeks). Surviving very low birth weight neonates with lower gestational age at birth face a higher risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  4. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; García-Ceballos, Raúl; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. A cross-sectional study took place (2010-2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF), YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL). Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health.

  5. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; García-Ceballos, Raúl; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P.; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design A cross-sectional study took place (2010–2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF), YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL). Conclusions Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health. PMID:27606969

  6. Developing a Simulation-Based Mastery Learning Curriculum: Lessons From 11 Years of Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Cohen, Elaine R; Wayne, Diane B; Siddall, Viva J; McGaghie, William C

    2016-02-01

    Curriculum development in medical education should follow a planned, systematic approach fitted to the needs and conditions of a local institutional environment and its learners. This article describes the development and maintenance of a simulation-based medical education curriculum on advanced cardiac life support skills and its transformation to a mastery learning program. Curriculum development used the Kern 6-step model involving problem identification and general needs assessment, targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, implementation, and evaluation and feedback. Curriculum maintenance and enhancement and dissemination are also addressed. Transformation of the simulation-based medical education curriculum to a mastery learning program was accomplished after a 2-year phase-in trial. A series of studies spanning 11 years was performed to adjust the curriculum, improve checklist outcome measures, and evaluate curriculum effects as learning outcomes among internal medicine residents and improved patient care practices. We anticipate wide adoption of the mastery learning model for skill and knowledge acquisition and maintenance in medical education settings.

  7. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults

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    Efrén Murillo-Zamora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL, and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design: A cross-sectional study took place (2010–2014 and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF, YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results: The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health.

  8. Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences : a five-wave, 16-year study to test reciprocal causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Riese, Harriette; Sanderman, Robbert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the re

  9. Acquired hemophilia as the cause of life-threatening hemorrhage in a 94-year-old man: a case report

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    Blanchard Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acquired factor VIII deficiency is a rare entity that can lead to severe and life-threatening bleeding. We describe a case of severe bleeding from the tongue secondary to acquired hemophilia and discuss treatment options, including aminocaproic acid and recombinant factor VIII, which have not been widely reported in the literature for the management of such patients. Case presentation A 94-year-old Caucasian man presented to our institution with diffuse bruising and extensive bleeding from the tongue secondary to mechanical trauma. He had no prior history of bleeding and his medical history was unremarkable except for dementia and hypertension. Coagulation studies revealed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and a mixing study was consistent with the presence of an inhibitor. Quantitative assays revealed a reduced level of factor VIII activity (1% and the presence of a factor VIII inhibitor, measured at seven Bethesda units, in the serum. Oral prednisone therapy (60mg/day was given. He also received intravenous aminocaproic acid and human concentrate of factor VIII (Humate-P and topical anti-thrombolytic agents (100 units of topical thrombin cream. His hospital course was prolonged because of persistent bleeding and the development of profuse melena. He required eight units of packed red blood cells for transfusion. Hospitalization was also complicated by bradycardia of unclear etiology, which started after infusion of aminocaproic acid. His activated partial thromboplastin time gradually normalized. He was discharged to a rehabilitation facility three weeks later with improving symptoms, stable hematocrit and resolving bruises. Conclusions Clinicians should suspect a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia in older patients with unexplained persistent and profound bleeding from uncommon soft tissues, including the tongue. Use of factor VIII (Humate-P and aminocaproic acid can be useful in this coagulopathy but

  10. UK Doubles Its "World-Leading" Research in Life Sciences and Medicine in Six Years: Testing the Claim?

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    Steven Wooding

    Full Text Available The UK, like some other countries, carries out a periodic review of research quality in universities and the most recent Research Excellence Framework (REF reported a doubling (103% increase in its "world leading" or so-called "4*" research outputs in the areas of life sciences and medicine between 2008 and 2014. This is a remarkable improvement in six years and if validated internationally could have profound implications for health sciences.We compared the reported changes in 4* quality to bibliometric measures of quality for the 56,639 articles submitted to the RAE 2008 and the 50,044 articles submitted to the REF 2014 to Panel A, which assesses the life sciences, including medicine.UK research submitted to the RAE and REF was of better quality than worldwide research on average. While we found evidence for some increase in the quality of top UK research articles, a 10-25% increase in the top 10%ile papers, depending upon the metrics used, we could not find evidence to support a 103% increase in quality. Instead we found that as compared to the RAE, the REF results implied a lower citation %ile threshold for declaring a 4*.There is a wide discrepancy between bibliometric indices and peer-review panel judgements between the RAE 2008 and REF 2014. It is possible that the changes in the funding regime between 2008 and 2014 that significantly increased the financial premium for 4* articles may have influenced research quality evaluation. For the advancement of science and health, evaluation of research quality requires consistency and validity - the discrepancy noted here calls for a closer examination of mass peer-review methods like the REF.

  11. Separating acoustic deviance from novelty during the first year of life: A review of event related potential evidence

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    Elena V Kushnerenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orienting to salient events in the environment is a first step in the development of attention in young infants. Electrophysiological studies have indicated that in newborns and young infants, sounds with widely distributed spectral energy, such as noise and various environmental sounds, as well as sounds widely deviating from their context elicit an event related potential (ERP similar to the adult P3a response. We discuss how the maturation of event-related potentials parallels the process of the development of passive auditory attention during the first year of life. Behavioural studies have indicated that the neonatal orientation to high energy stimuli gradually changes to attending to genuine novelty and other significant events by approximately 9 months of age. In accordance with these changes, in newborns, the ERP response to large acoustic deviance is dramatically larger than that to small and moderate deviations. This ERP difference, however, rapidly decreases within first months of life and the differentiation of the ERP response to genuine novelty from that to spectrally rich but repeatedly presented sounds commences during the same period. The relative decrease of the response amplitudes elicited by high energy stimuli may reflect development of an inhibitory brain network suppressing the processing of uninformative stimuli. Based on data obtained from healthy full term and pre term infants as well as from infants at risk for various developmental problems, we suggest that the electrophysiological indices of the processing of acoustic and contextual deviance may be indicative of the functioning of auditory attention, a crucial prerequisite of learning and language development.

  12. The Influence of Gestational Diabetes on Neurodevelopment of Children in the First Two Years of Life: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Soh, Shu-E; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Kramer, Michael S.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analyze the relation of gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels to early cognitive functions in the first two years of life. Methods In a prospective Singaporean birth cohort study, pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes at 26–28 weeks gestation using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Four hundred and seventy three children (n = 74 and n = 399 born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes respectively) underwent neurocognitive assessments at 6, 18, and/or 24 month, including electrophysiology during an attentional task and behavioral measures of attention, memory and cognition. Results Gestational diabetes is related to left hemisphere EPmax amplitude differences (oddball versus standard) at both six (P = 0.039) and eighteen months (P = 0.039), with mean amplitudes suggesting offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes exhibit greater neuronal activity to standard stimuli and less to oddball stimuli. Associations between 2-hour maternal glucose levels and the difference in EPmax amplitude were marginal at 6 months [adjusted β = -0.19 (95% CI: -0.42 to +0.04) μV, P = 0.100] and significant at 18 months [adjusted β = -0.27 (95% CI: -0.49 to -0.06) μV, P = 0.014], and the EPmax amplitude difference (oddball-standard) associated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and toddler Development-III cognitive score at 24 months [β = 0.598 (95% CI: 0.158 to 1.038), P = 0.008]. Conclusion Gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels are associated with offspring neuronal activity during an attentional task at both six and eighteen months. Such electrophysiological differences are likely functionally important, having been previously linked to attention problems later in life. PMID:27603522

  13. UK Doubles Its "World-Leading" Research in Life Sciences and Medicine in Six Years: Testing the Claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Steven; Van Leeuwen, Thed N; Parks, Sarah; Kapur, Shitij; Grant, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The UK, like some other countries, carries out a periodic review of research quality in universities and the most recent Research Excellence Framework (REF) reported a doubling (103% increase) in its "world leading" or so-called "4*" research outputs in the areas of life sciences and medicine between 2008 and 2014. This is a remarkable improvement in six years and if validated internationally could have profound implications for health sciences. We compared the reported changes in 4* quality to bibliometric measures of quality for the 56,639 articles submitted to the RAE 2008 and the 50,044 articles submitted to the REF 2014 to Panel A, which assesses the life sciences, including medicine. UK research submitted to the RAE and REF was of better quality than worldwide research on average. While we found evidence for some increase in the quality of top UK research articles, a 10-25% increase in the top 10%ile papers, depending upon the metrics used, we could not find evidence to support a 103% increase in quality. Instead we found that as compared to the RAE, the REF results implied a lower citation %ile threshold for declaring a 4*. There is a wide discrepancy between bibliometric indices and peer-review panel judgements between the RAE 2008 and REF 2014. It is possible that the changes in the funding regime between 2008 and 2014 that significantly increased the financial premium for 4* articles may have influenced research quality evaluation. For the advancement of science and health, evaluation of research quality requires consistency and validity - the discrepancy noted here calls for a closer examination of mass peer-review methods like the REF.

  14. Quality of Life and Toxicity after SBRT for Organ-Confined Prostate Cancer, a Seven Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J